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Abraham is a man featured in the Book of Genesis and an important figure in several monotheistic religions. Jewish, Christian and Muslim traditions regard him as the founding patriarch of the Israelites, Ishmaelites and Edomite peoples. He is widely regarded as the patriarch of Judaism and monotheism. Abraham means "Father of Nations" - "Av" is Hebrew for "Father", and "Raham" is the Arabic for "Nations or Multitude". Also considered to mean "High Father", coming from the Aramaic words "Aba Rama"
Born: 1 AM - 4223 BC
The first human - the "Father of Humanity". According to the biblical narrative in Genesis 2:7, on the sixth day of Creation Adam's physical form was built by God, and then God "breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being."
The Generations of Adam according to Genesis 5 is the line of descent going through Seth. A second line of descent starting with Cain is listed in Genesis 4. Both lines end in the name Lamech. The Lamech who is at the end of Cain's line is described as the father of Yaval and Yuval (from his first wife Ada) and Tuval Kayin and Na'ama (from his second wife, Tzelah). The Lamech at the end of Seth's line is described as the father of Noah.
Adam was the first man to have surgery performed on him - and it was by God. It is described in the latter part of Genesis 2 how God removed a rib from Adam and "closed up the place with flesh". Somehow, God then formed a woman (Eve) using this rib. It is then explained that it is because of this fact that a man and woman are to be united as husband and wife (see verse 24).
Genesis 3 describes the Fall of Humanity.
Genesis 4 describes the first biblical record of murder - the story of Cain and Abel.
Adam (Hebrew: "dust;
man; mankind"; Arabic: 'Adam;)
Adam and Eve appear in many books besides Genesis, such as the Quran, the Life of Adam and Eve, the Talmud, and Gnostic texts. Jewish tradition sometimes includes reference to other wives of Adam's. Paul of Tarsus presents Jesus Christ as a "new Adam" who brings life instead of death. The serpent of the Garden of Eden in Christian theology represents Satan, and the Fall (the eating of the forbidden fruit) establishes original sin. Muslims regard Adam as the first prophet.
Since pronouncing YHWH is avoided out of reverence for the holiness of the name, Jews use Adonai instead in prayers, and colloquially would use Hashem ("the Name"). When the Masoretes added vowel pointings to the text of the Hebrew Bible around the eighth century CE, they gave the word YHWH the vowels of Adonai, to remind the reader to say Adonai instead. Later Biblical scholars mistook this vowel substitution for the actual spelling of YHWH and interpreted the name of God as Jehovah.
The Sephardi translators of the Ferrara Bible go further and substitute Adonai with A.
Adoniram appears in Masonic rituals. He was in charge of conscripted timber cutters during the building of King Solomon's temple. I Kings 5:13,14
Although the name "Allah" is most commonly associated with Islam, it was also used in pre-Islamic times. It was used by Arab Christians in the pre-Islamic Umm al-Jimal inscription (6th century). The father of Muhammad, Islam's prophet, had the name "Abdullah", which translates "servant of Allah". The Hebrew word for deity, El or Eloh, was used as an Old Testament synonym for Yahweh. The Aramaic word for God is alôh-ô (Syriac dialect), which comes from the same Proto-Semitic word as the Arabic and Hebrew terms; Jesus is described in Mark 15:34 and Matthew 27:46 as having used this word on the cross (in the forms elô-i and êl-i respectively). One of the earliest surviving translations of the word into a foreign language is in a Greek translation of the Shahada, from 86-96 AH (705-715 AD), which translates it as ho theos monos, literally "the one god".
Many linguists believe that the term Allah is derived from a contraction of the Arabic words al (the) + ilah (male deity). In addition, one of the main pagan goddesses of pre-Islamic Arabia, Allat (al + ilah + at, or 'the female deity'), is cited as being etymologically (though not synchronically) the feminine linguistic counterpart to the grammatically masculine Allah. If so, the word Allah is an abbreviated title, meaning 'the deity', rather than a name. For this reason, both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars often translate Allah directly into English as 'God'; however, some Muslim scholars feel that "Allah" should not be translated, because it expresses the uniqueness of God more accurately than "God", which can take a plural "Gods", whereas "Allah" has no plural. This is a significant issue in translation of the Qur'an. This also explains why Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians freely refer to God as Allah.
From the point of view of traditional Islamic theology, Allah is the most precious name of God because it is not a descriptive name like other Ninety-nine names of Allah, but the name of God's own presence. The Islamic concept of mankind's place in the universe hinges on the notion that Allah, or God, is the only true reality. There is nothing permanent other than Him. Allah is considered eternal and "uncreated", whereas everything else in the universe is "created." The Qur'an describes Him in Sura 112: "Say: He is Allah, Singular. Allah, the Absolute. He begetteth not nor was begotten. And to Him have never been one equal." (see Tawhid for more). The Qur'an condemns and mocks the pre-Islamic Arabs for attributing daughters to Allah (sura 53:19.)
Muslims believe that the name of Allah has existed since the time of Adam, since they believe their deity to be the same one worshipped by Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad and other prophets of Islam. In Islam it is perceived that there is only one God and Muhammed is the last messenger.
The emphasis in Islamic culture on reciting the Qur'an in Arabic has resulted in Allah being used by Muslims world-wide, regardless of their native language (unlike the word "God", which is only used in the English-speaking world, and various Jewish divine appellations such as Adonai which are only used by Hebrew speakers). Out of 114 Suras in the Qur'an, 113 begin with "Bismi 'llah ar-rahman ar-rahim" which means "In the name of Allah, the most kind, the most merciful". Also the cognate Aramaic term appears in the Aramaic version of the New Testament, called the Pshitta (or Peshitta) as one of the words Jesus used to refer to God, e.g., in the sixth Beatitude, "Blessed are the pure in heart for they shall see Alaha." And in the Arabic Bible the same words (Mt 5,8): The Qur'an also uses the related name Allahumma, which may be an Arabic rendering of Elohim, a word for 'God' or 'deity' used in the Hebrew Bible.
Muslims, when referring to the name, often add the words "Subhanahu wa Ta'ala" after it, meaning "Glorified and Exalted is He" as a sign of reverence, or "Az wa Jal". The entire religion of Islam is based on the idea of getting closer to Allah. Although commonly referred to as a "He", Allah is considered genderless, but there is no neuter gender to express this in the Arabic language. When Greek or other polytheistic deities are discussed in Arabic, it is customary to use the expression ilah, a "deity" or lower-case "god."
Allah is considered by Muslims to be omnipotent, omnipresent, and omniscient. He is said to be "in Heaven" (Qur'an 67:16) and "in the heavens and the earth" (Qur'an 66:3), but also said to be "nearer to him [man] than his jugular vein" (Qur'an 50:16); He constantly watches all that goes on in the world, and knows all things.
Muslims do not try to draw or depict Allah in any way, according to Islamic belief it could lead to idol worship. Instead, they focus on His 99 "Attributes" that are stated in the Qur'an, the holy book of the Muslims. Nearly one third of the book is used describing Allah's attributes and actions. Also, "hadith qudsi" are special recorded sayings of Muhammad to Muslims where he quotes what Allah says to him. The ninety-nine "Attributes" are frequently written in calligraphic Arabic as a permissible decoration, which adorns mosques and homes of Muslims.
There are many phrases with Allah's name in it:
"Allah" appears in a stylized form on the flag of Iran, in the phrase "Allahu Akbar" on the flag of Iraq and in the shahadah on the flag of Saudi Arabia
This god Amurru/Martu is sometimes described as a 'shepherd', and as a son of the sky-god Anu. He is sometimes called bêlu adi or bêl adê, 'lord of the mountain'; dúr-hur-sag-gá sikil-a-ke, 'He who dwells on the pure mountain'; and kur-za-gan ti-[la], 'who inhabits the shining mountain'. In Cappadocian Zincirli inscriptions he is called ì-li a-bi-a, 'the god of my father'.
Accordingly, it has been suggested by L. R. Bailey (1968) and Jean Ouelette (1969), that this Bêl adê might be the same as the Biblical 'El addai who is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the "Priestly source" of narrative, according to the documentary hypothesis. It is possible that addai means 'He of the mountains' or even 'the breasted God' as early iconography of Yahweh at Kuntilet Arjud shows him to have been hermaphroditic (possessing both breasts and male genitals). Alternately, Bêl adê could have been the fertility-god 'Ba'al', possibly adopted by the Canaanites, a rival and enemy of the Hebrew God YHWH, and famously combatted by the Hebrew prophet Elijah.
Amurru also has storm-god features. Like Adad, Amurru bears the epithet raman 'thunderer', and he is even called bariqu 'hurler of the thunderbolt' and Adad a a-bu-be 'Adad of the deluge'. Yet his iconography is distinct from that of Adad, and he sometimes appears alongside Adad with a baton of power or throwstick, while Adad bears a conventional thunderbolt.
Amurru's wife is sometimes the goddess Aratum (see Asherah) who in northwest Semitic tradition and Hittite tradition appears as wife of the god El which suggests that Amurru may indeed have been a variation of that god. If Amurru was identical with El, it would explain why so few Amorite names are compounded with the name Amurru, but so many are compounded with Il; that is, with El.
Another tradition about Amurru's wife (or one of Amurru's wives) gives her name as Belit-Seri, 'Lady of the Desert'.
A third tradition appears in a Sumerian poem in pastoral style, which relates how the god Martu came to marry Adg~ar-kidug the daughter of the god Numushda of the city of Inab. It contains a speech expressing urbanite Sumerian disgust at uncivilized, nomadic Amurru life which Adg~ar-kidug ignores, responding only: "I will marry Martu!".
He had several consorts, the foremost being Ki (earth), Nammu, and Uras. By Ki he was the father of, among others, the Annuna gods. By Nammu he was the father of, among others, Enki and Ningikuga. By Uras he was the father of Nin'insinna. According to legends, heaven and earth were once inseparable until An and Ki bore Enlil, god of the air, who cleaved heaven and earth in two. An and Ki were, in some texts, identified as brother and sister being the children of Anshar and Kishar. Ki later developed into the Akkadian goddess Antu.
He was one of the oldest gods in the Sumerian pantheon, and part of a triad including Enlil, god of the sky and Enki, god of water. He was also called Anu by the Akkadians, rulers of Mesopotamia after the conquest of Sumer in 2334 BC by King Sargon of Akkad. By virtue of being the first figure in a triad consisting of Anu, Enlil, and Ea, Anu came to be regarded as the father and at first, king of the gods. Anu is so prominently associated with the E-anna temple in the city of Uruk (biblical Erech) in southern Babylonia that there are good reasons for believing this place to have been the original seat of the Anu cult. If this be correct, then the goddess Inanna (or Ishtar) of Uruk may at one time have been his consort.
Anu See An
Augustine was born in the city of Tagaste, the present day Souk Ahras, Algeria, to a Catholic mother named Monica. He was educated in North Africa and resisted his mother's pleas to become Christian. Living as a pagan intellectual, he took a concubine and became a Manichean. Later he converted to the Catholic Church, became a bishop, and opposed heresies, such as the belief that people can have the ability to choose to be good to such a degree as to merit salvation without divine aid (Pelagianism). His works-including The Confessions, which is often called the first Western autobiography-are still read around the world.
In Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion, he is a saint and pre-eminent Doctor of the Church, and the patron of the Augustinian religious order; his memorial is celebrated 28 August. Many Protestants, especially Calvinists, consider him to be one of the theological fathers of Reformation teaching on salvation and divine grace. In the Eastern Orthodox Church he is blessed, and his feast day is celebrated on 15 June, though a minority are of the opinion that he is a heretic, primarily because of his statements concerning what became known as the filioque clause. Among the Orthodox he is called Blessed Augustine, or St. Augustine the Blessed.
Since the first century, devotion to the Virgin Mary has been a major element of the spiritual life of a vast number of Christians. From the Council of Ephesus in 431 to Vatican II and Pope John Paul II's encyclical Redemptoris Mater, the Virgin Mary has come to be seen not only as the Mother of God but also as the Mother of the Church, a Mediatrix who intercedes to Jesus Christ and even a proposed Co-Redemptrix.
The key role of the Virgin Mary in the beliefs of many Christians, her veneration, and the growth of Mariology have not only come about by the Marian writings of the saints or official statements but have often been driven from the ground up, from the masses of believers, and at times via reported Marian apparitions, miracles and healings.
This ecumenical article is about general Christian views on and veneration of the Virgin Mary. For specific views, see Blessed Virgin Mary (Roman Catholic), Mary (mother of Jesus), Anglican Marian theology, Protestant views of Mary and Islamic view of Virgin Mary. For the religious order BVM, see Sisters of Charity of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
Catholic veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary is based on Holy Scripture: In the fullness of time, God sent his son, born of a woman. The mystery of the incarnation of the Son of God through Mary thus signifies her honor as Mother of God. From the Council of Ephesus in 431, which dogmatized this belief, to Vatican II and Pope John Paul II's (Redemptoris Mater) the Virgin Mary has become to be seen, not only as the Mother of God but also as the Mother of the Church.
The key role of the Virgin Mary in Roman Catholic beliefs, her veneration, and the growth of Roman Catholic Mariology have not only come about by official statements made in Rome but have often been driven from the ground up, by the Marian writings of the saints and from the masses of believers, and at times via reported Marian apparitions to young and simple children on remote hilltops, which have then influenced the higher levels of the Holy See via sensus fidei. The Holy See continues to approve of Marian apparitions on remote mountains, the latest approval being as recent as May 2008. Some apparitions such as Fatima have given rise to Marian Movements and Societies with millions of members, and many other Marian societies exist around the world.
He was a rich landowner who noticed Ruth, the widowed Moabite daughter-in-law of Naomi, a relative of his, gleaning grain from his fields. He soon learns of the difficult circumstances her family is in and Ruth's loyalty to Naomi. In response, Boaz invites her to eat with him and his workers regularly as well as deliberately leaving grain for her to claim while keeping a protective eye on her.
Eventually, Boaz and Ruth strike up a friendship which leads to Ruth asking him to marry her. Boaz accepts, but cautions that there is a family member who has a superior right to her hand in marriage. However, he arranges a meeting with the relative and in the presence of ten town leaders convinces him to buy Naomi's husband's land. Once the relative agrees to redeem the land, Boaz informs him they in redeeming the land also requires him to take Ruth as his wife as was customary under the laws and culture of Israel. This was so Ruth could have children who could carry on her late husband's family name and keep the land in the family. At hearing this stipulation, the relative refused to buy the land for fear it would complicate his own inheritance (estate). At that point, he transferred his right to buy the land to Boaz. He did this by removing his sandal and handing it to Boaz. This was a customary symbol in Israel during this for anyone transferring the right to purchase. This was considered a public validation of the transaction. In this, the path was made clear for Boaz and Ruth to be joined in marriage. (Ruth-4.1-10)
Although Boaz is noted to be much older than Ruth in the traditional account and he marries her for Naomi's sake, most dramatic adaptations have Boaz as a handsome young man so as to enhance the romantic nature of the story.
In Genesis, Canaan was cursed by Noah because of his father's transgressions. This is referred to as the Curse of Ham.
However, according to the Book of Jubilees, both the Israelite conquest of Canaan and the curse, are attributed instead to Canaan's steadfast refusal to join his elder brothers in Ham's allotment beyond the Nile, and instead "squatting" on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, within the inheritance delineated for Shem.
The Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (c. 915) recounts a tradition that the wife of Canaan was named Arsal, a daughter of Batawil son of Tiras, and that she bore him the "Blacks, Nubians, Fezzan, Zanj, Zaghawah, and all the peoples of the Sudan".
a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity (circa 4 BC - AD 29)
According to Genesis, Cush's other sons were Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabtecah, names identified by modern scholars with Arabian tribes.
He is depicted as a righteous king although not without fault as well as an acclaimed warrior, musician and poet, traditionally credited with the authorship of many of the Psalms. As a young shepherd he fought Goliath (a giant Philistine warrior) and killed him by hitting him in the head with a stone flung from a sling; he united Israel with Jerusalem as its capital; many of the Psalms are attributed to David (circa 1000-962 BC)
The biblical chronology places his life c.1037 - 967 BC, his reign over Judah c.1007 - 1000 BC, and over Judah and Israel c.1000 - 967 BC.
There is little archaeological evidence to confirm the picture of David from the Bible, although there is reasonable evidence (the Tel Dan stele) that a king named David was regarded as the founder of the Judean royal dynasty by the 9th century BC. Nevertheless, his story has been of immense importance to later Jewish and Christian culture.
In Jewish tradition, Eber, the great-grandson of Shem, refused to help with the building of the Tower of Babel, so his language was not confused when it fell. He and his family alone retained the original human language, called lingua humana in Latin. After this, the language was called Hebrew, named after Eber. (There are different religious positions on this issue; see also Adamic language.)
The name "Eber" along with the name Hapiru are considered by Biblical scholars to be the roots of the word "Hebrew", with "eber" most often meaning "side" or "beyond", but also region beyond or across, opposite side, or passage.
[Genesis 10:21] Also to Shem, the father of all the Children of Eber, and the older brother of Japheth, children were born. (NASB)
In some translations of the New Testament, he is referred to once as Heber ([Luke 3:35] ...the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Heber, the son of Salah...); however, he should not be confused with the Heber of the Old Testament (different Hebrew spelling ???), grandson of Asher ([Genesis 46:17] The sons of Asher: Imnah and Ishvah and Ishvi and Beriah and their sister Serah. And the sons of Beriah: Heber and Malchiel).
According to tradition, Eber died at the age of 464 when Jacob was 20. The Hebrew Calendar synchronises this date with 1817 BC.
1. an ancient country in southwestern Asia to the east of the Tigris River (in what is modern Iran); was known for its warlike people
2. in the Hebrew Bible (Genesis 10:22, Ezra 4:9;), Elam is said to be the oldest son of Shem, the son of Noah. It is also used (as in Akkadian), for the country of Elam in what is now southern Iran, that the Hebrews believed to be the offspring of Elam, son of Shem. This implies that the Elamites were considered Semites by the Hebrews, although their language was actually unrelated to the Semitic languages family. This does not conflict with Hebrew beliefs because the Hebrews believed that the diversity of human languages originated at the Tower of Babel.
Elam (the nation) is also mentioned in Genesis 14, describing an ancient war involving a king of Elam it calls Chedorlaomer.
The prophecies of Isaiah (11:11, 21:2, 22:6) and Jeremiah (25:25) also mention Elam, and the last part of Jeremiah 49 is an apocalyptic oracle against Elam, self-dated to the first year of Zedekiah (597 BC).
The Book of Jubilees may reflect ancient tradition when it mentions a son (or daughter, in some versions) of 'Elam named "Susan", whose daughter Rasuaya married Arpachshad, progenitor of another branch of Shemites. Shushan (or Susa) was the ancient capital of the Elamite Empire. (Dan. 8:2)
Enoch receives special mention in the genealogical line that is described in Genesis 5. It says that "Enoch walked with God; then he was no more, because God took him away." Most people agree that this means that Enoch was taken to heaven by God. This is because Enoch "walked with God" while he was on Earth - presumably this is saying that Enoch's life was so "holy" that in everything he did he took God into account - i.e. God was walking beside him in whatever he did.
This account of Enoch being given special treatment and going to heaven without seeing death highlights the issue of death itself. There seems to be a prevailing idea among modern Christendom that there is some form of life immediately after death, where a person either goes to heaven or hell. This narrative of Enoch, however, seems to be contradictory to this idea. Why describe special treatment given to Enoch and how he was taken directly heaven if everyone goes to heaven or hell anyway when they die? Clearly, a different view of death is needed in place of the traditional view if the story of Enoch (and others, such as Elijah) are to fit into the overall view of life and death.
Enoch is a name occurring twice in the generations of Adam. In one reference, Enoch is described as a great-grandson of Adam via Cain, and as having had a city named after him. The second mention of the name describes Enoch as Adam's great(x4) grandson, through Seth, not Cain, and also states that Enoch "walked with God, and was not, for God took him," thus avoiding death at the age of 365. Additionally, Enoch is described as the father of Methuselah and great-grandfather of Noah (Genesis 5:22-29).
Despite the brief descriptions of him, Enoch is one of the main two focal points for much of the 1st millennium BC Jewish mysticism, notably in the Book of Enoch.
In Islam, he is usually referred to as Idris, and regarded as a prophet. Additionally, Enoch is important in some Christian denominations: he features in the Latter Day Saint Movement, and is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Catholic Church on July 30.
Saint Exuperius (was Bishop of Toulouse at the beginning of the 5th century.
His place and date of birth is unknown. Upon succeeding St. Silvius as bishop, he completed the Basilique St-Sernin, begun by his predecessor. St. Jerome praises him for his munificence to the monks of Palestine, Egypt, and Libya, and for his charity to the people of his own diocese, who were then suffering from the attacks of the Vandals, Alans, and Suevi. For the sake of the poor in his diocese he even sold the altar vessels and so was compelled to carry the Sacred Offering in an osier basket and the Precious Blood in a vessel of glass. In esteem for his virtues and in gratitude for his gifts, St. Jerome dedicated to him his Commentary on Zacharias.
Exuperius is best known in connection with the Canon of the Sacred Scriptures. He had written to Innocent I for instructions concerning the canon and several points of ecclesiastical discipline. In reply, the pope honoured him with the letter Consulenti tibi, dated February, 405, which contained a list of the canonical scriptures as we have them to-day, including the deuterocanonical books of the Catholic Canon. The assertion of non-Catholic writers that the Canon of Innocent I excluded the Apocrypha is not true, if they mean to extend the term Apocrypha to the deuterocanonical books.
The opinion of Baronius, that the bishop Exuperius was identical with the rector of the same name, is quite generally rejected, as the rector was a teacher of Hannibalianus and Dalmatius, nephews of Constantine the Great, over a half a century before the period of the bishop. From Jerome's letter to the Furia of Rome, in 394, and from the epistle of St. Paulinus to Amandus of Bordeaux, in 397, it seems probable that Exuperius was a priest at Rome, and later at Bordeaux, before he was raised to the episcopate, though it is possible that in both of these letters reference is made to a different person. Just when he became bishop is unknown. That he occupied the See of Toulouse in February, 405, (as is evident from the letter of Innocent I mentioned above) and from a statement of St. Jerome in a letter to Rusticus it is certain that he was still living in 411. It is sometimes said that St. Jerome reproved him, in a letter to Riparius, a priest of Spain, for tolerating the heretic Vigilantius; but as Vigilantius did not belong to the diocese of Toulouse, St. Jerome was probably speaking of another bishop.
Exuperius was early venerated as a saint. Even in the time of Gregory of Tours he was held in equal veneration with Saint Saturninus. His feast occurs on 28 September. The first martyrologist to assign it to this date was Usuard, who wrote towards the end of the 9th century.
Eve was, according to the Book of Genesis, the first woman created by God, and an important figure in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Her husband was Adam, from whose rib God created her to be his helpmate. She succumbs to the serpent's temptation to eat the forbidden fruit from the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, and she shares the fruit with Adam. As a result, the first humans are expelled from the Garden of Eden and are cursed.
Although not explicitly mentioned in the Qur'an among the prophets, he is considered as one of the prophets by some Muslim scholars, based on Islamic traditions. On the other hand, Muslim scholars such as Mutahhar al-Maqdisi and Djuwayni and notably Ibn Hazm and al-Samaw'al accused Ezra (or one of his disciples) of falsification of the Scriptures
# The supernatural being conceived as the perfect and omnipotent and omniscient originator and ruler of the universe; the object of worship in ...
# deity: any supernatural being worshipped as controlling some part of the world or some aspect of life or who is the personification of a force
1. the supreme or ultimate
b: Christian Science : the incorporeal divine Principle ruling over all as eternal Spirit : infinite Mind
2: a being or object believed to have more than natural attributes and powers and to require human worship ; specifically : one controlling a particular aspect or part of reality
3: a person or thing of supreme value
4: a powerful ruler
# a man of such superior qualities that he seems like a deity to other people; "he was a god among men"
# idol: a material effigy that is worshipped; "thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image"; "money was his god"
Hagar is the Egyptian slave of Abraham and Sarah, mentioned in Genesis 16. As was the custom, the childless Sarah offered Hagar to her husband Abraham to provide him with an heir. The son born from this union was Ishmael.
The text avoids praise of these actions, and traditional readings often hold that this ignored God's promise to provide Abraham with an heir through Sarah herself. When this promise was fulfilled in the birth of Isaac, Ishmael's behavior was deemed unacceptable, and so Hagar and Ishmael were expelled from the camp of Abraham. This continues a theme of younger sons supplanting older ones that is found through out Torah.
Ishmael is held by tradition to be the father of the Arab people, and a ancestor of Muhammad.
Traditionally, it is held that Ham was one of the sons of Noah who moved southwest into Africa and parts of the near Middle East, and was the forefather of the nations there. The Bible refers to Egypt as "the land of Ham" in (Psalms 78:51; 105:23,27; 106:22; 1Ch 4:40). The Hebrew word for Egypt was Mizraim (probably literally meaning the two lands), and was the name of one of Ham's sons. The Egyptian word for Egypt was Khem, plausibly the origin of the name Ham, or vice versa, according to sound change between languages. The names of Ham's other children correspond to regions within Egyptian influence - Kush, Canaan, and Phut (probably identical with the Pitu, a Libyan tribe, though often associated with Punt, an ancient name for Benadir).
Henry VIII was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of France, from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, Henry VII.
Henry VIII was a significant figure in the history of the English monarchy. Although in the great part of his reign he brutally suppressed the Protestant reformation of the church, a movement having roots with John Wycliffe of the 14th century, he is more popularly known for his political struggles with Rome. These struggles ultimately led to his separating the Anglican church from the Roman hierarchy, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Although some claim he became a Protestant on his death-bed, he advocated Catholic ceremony and doctrine throughout his life. Royal backing of the English Reformation was left to his heirs, the devout Edward VI and the renowned Elizabeth I, whilst daughter Mary I temporarily reinstated papal authority over England. Henry also oversaw the legal union of England and Wales (see Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542). He is noted for his six marriages.
Irenaeus as bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, which is now Lyon, France. His writings were formative in the early development of Christian theology, and he is recognized as a saint by both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church; both consider him a Father of the Church. He was a notable early Christian apologist. He was also a disciple of Polycarp, who was said to be a disciple of John the Evangelist. His feast day is 28 June.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Isaac is the son of Abraham and Sarah, and the father of Jacob and Esau. His story is told in the Book of Genesis. Abraham was 100 years old when Isaac was born. (Genesis 21:1-5) Isaac was the longest-lived of the Patriarchs, and the only biblical patriarch whose name was not changed. Isaac was the only patriarch who did not leave Canaan, although he once tried to leave and God told him not to do so. Compared to other patriarchs in the Bible, his story is less colorful, relating few incidents of his life.
The New Testament contains few references to Isaac. The Christian church views Abraham's willingness to follow God's command to sacrifice Isaac as an example of faith and obedience.
Muslims honour Isaac as a prophet of Islam. A few of the children of Isaac appear in the Qur'an. The Qur'an views Isaac as a righteous man, servant of God and the father of Israelites. The Qur'an states that Isaac and his progeny are blessed as long as they uphold their covenant with God. Some early Muslims believed that Isaac was the son who was supposed to be sacrificed by Abraham. This view however ceased to find support among Muslim scholars in later centuries.
Some academic scholars have described Isaac as "a legendary figure" while others view him "as a figure representing tribal history, though as a historical individual" or "as a seminomadic leader.
In the Qur'an, Ishmael is known as the first-born son of Abraham from Hagar and an appointed Prophet of God (also mentioned in the Bible). Islamic tradition holds that Abraham married Hagar, the mother of Ishmael. As a result Ishmael was the first legitimate son of Abraham. Islam asserts that he was the one nearly sacrificed, not Isaac (or Ishaq in the Qur'an). Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son for God is celebrated in Eid ul-Adha every year by Muslims.
Islamic tradition holds that Ishmael and Hagar were sent to the deserts of Arabia on the orders of God (Allah). He and his mother settled in Mecca (or "Makkah") and were without water. The frantic running of his mother in pursuit of water led to a miraculous spring appearing from the ground (from God) known as the Zamzam Well. Ishmael then helped his father, Abraham, build the House of God, or the Kaaba, in Mecca.
Ishmael is stated to have been buried near the Kaaba on the grounds of the Masjid al Haram.
Ishmael in Judaism and Christianity
In the Old Testament's Book of Genesis (xvi, xvii, xxi, xxv) and later texts, Ishmael or Yishma'el ("God will hear", Standard Hebrew Yima?el, Tiberian Hebrew Yima?êl) is Abraham's eldest son, born by his second wife Hagar. In Genesis 16 Sarai (Abram's wife) gives Abram her maid-servant Hagar to bear him children, since she acknowledged that God had kept her from having children (16:2).
Hagar became pregnant and was despised by Sarai (16:4) who subsequently ill-treated her. As a result she ran away from home into the desert where an angel found her near a spring. Here the prophecy of Ishmael is recorded in Genesis 16:
11 "You are now with child and you will have a son. You shall name him Ishmael (God hears), for the LORD has heard of your misery.
12 "He will be a wild donkey of a man; his hand will be against everyone and everyone's hand against him, and he will live in hostility toward all his brothers.
The well of Hagar in Genesis 16 was named Beer lahai-roi ("Well of the Living One who Sees Me" or as some render it, "Well of the Vision of Life")
Sarah became pregnant (Genesis 21) and bore Isaac. Christian and Jewish traditions hold that on the day of his weaning, Ishmael was mocking and so was driven out. They wandered in the desert of Beersheba (well of the oath) and when the water was gone she put the child under a bush and went a distance (a bowshot) away to die. The Bible does not explicitly mention the child crying but does mention Hagar sobbing. Strangely enough, (Genesis 21:17) it says God heard the boy crying (as opposed to the mother who was explicitly mentioned as crying). A well miraculously appears to save both child and mother.
According to Genesis 21, he became a skilled archer and lived in the desert; his mother obtained a wife for him from Egypt.
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