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gag order- one by which a judge bars the press from publishing certain types of information about a pending court case
gerrymander- drawing a district's boundaries to gain advantage in elections
global issue- a major problem that crosses national boundaries and that cannot be solved by any nation action alone
global security- the safety of the entire world
global warming- the prediction that increasing amounts of gases released into the atmosphere from industrial activity will trap heat in the earth's atmosphere
government- the institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that are binding on all people living in the state
government corporation- a business the federal government runs
grandfather clause- a provision that makes an exemption in the law for a certain group based on previous conditions
grand jury- the group that hears charges against a person suspected of having committed a crime and decides whether there is sufficient evidence to bring the person to trial
grant-in-aid- a sum of money given by the federal government to the states for a specific purpose
gross national product (GNP)- the sum of all goods and services produced by a nation's industries in a year


hearing- a session at which a committee listens to testimony from people interested in a bill
heckler's veto- public interference with the free speech and assembly rights of unpopular groups by claiming that demonstrations will result in violence
holocaust- the mass extermination of Jews and other groups by the Nazis during World War II
home rule- the power of cities or local governments to govern themselves
horse-race coverage- a method of reporting elections that focuses on "winners," "losers," and "who's ahead" rather than on issues or policy positions
house arrest- a sentence that requires an offender to stay at home except for certain functions the court permits
human rights- fundamental freedoms
human services- government efforts to maintain basic health and living conditions for those people who have insufficient resources of their own; also called public welfare


ideological party- a political party that focuses on overall change in society rather than on some specific issue
ideology- basic belief
illegal alien- a person who comes to the United States without a legal permit
immunity- freedom from prosecution for witnesses whose testimony ties them to illegal acts
impeach- to accuse a public official of misconduct in office
impeachment- a formal accusation of misconduct in office against a public official
implied powers- powers not specifically listed in the Constitution, which the national government requires to carry out expressed powers
impound- refuse to spend
impoundment- the President's refusal to spend money Congress has voted to fund a program
income tax- one levied on individual and corporate income
incorporation- the process of setting up a legal community
incrementalism- the term political scientists use to explain that the total federal budget changes only a little from one year to the next
incumbent- a government official already in office
independent- a voter who does not support any one party
indictment- a charge by a grand jury that a person committed a particular crime
information- a formal accusation of a crime made by a prosecuting attorney
infrastructure- the basic facilities of a city, such as paved streets and sidewalks, water pipes,
 sewers, bridges, and public buildings
inherent powers- those powers that the national government may exercise simply because it is a  government
initiative- the procedure by which voters may propose a law or a state constitutional amendment
injunction- an order that will stop a particular action or enforce a rule or regulation
inner cabinet- the advisory group consisting of the secretaries of state, defense, treasury, and the Attorney General
intensity- an indication of the strength of people's opinions about a particular issue or topic
interest group- people who share common policy interests or goals and organize to influence the government
intergovernmental revenue- the income distributed by one level of government to another
interlocking directorate- arrangement whereby the same people serve on the boards of directors  of several companies
internationalism- involvement in world affairs
international security- the creation of world stability as a result of the interaction of many nations'  policies
interstate commerce- trade among the states 
interstate compact- a written agreement between two or more states
iron triangle- a relationship formed among government agencies, congressional committees, and client groups who work together
isolationism- the avoidance of involvement in world affairs
item veto-the power to reject a particular section or item in a piece of legislation without vetoing the entire law


joint committee- one made up of members from both the House and the Senate that acts as a study group with responsibility for reporting its findings back to the House and Senate
judicial activism- the belief that the Supreme Court should play a role in shaping national policies
judicial circuit- a region with an appellate court
judiciary- the court system
jurisdiction- the authority of a court to hear certain kinds of cases
jus soli- the principle  that grants citizenship to people born in a country


kitchen cabinet- a group of informal advisers in Andrew Jackson's administration


labor- people who produce goods and services
laissez-faire- the theory that government should keep its hands off the economy
lame duck- official serving out a term after defeat for reelection
law of demand- the economic principle that prices rise as the demand increases and prices fall as demand decreases
law of supply- the economic principle that prices fall as the supply increases and prices rise as supply decreases
leak- to deliberately disclose information
left wing- liberal
legislative court- one created to help Congress exercise its power
legislative veto- the provisions Congress wrote into some laws that allowed it to review and cancel actions of the executive agencies that carried out those laws
libel- written or published statements intended to damage a person's reputation
liberal- someone who believes the national government should be very active in helping individuals and communities promote health, education, justice, and equal opportunity
limited government- one in which the power of the monarch, or government, is limited not absolute
lobbying- making direct contact with lawmakers or other government leaders to try to influence  government policy
lobbyist- representative of an interest group


majority leader- the member of the political party that holds the majority of seats in a legislative body who helps plan the party's legislative program
mandate- a formal order given by a higher authority
market system- one in which buyers and sellers are linked together through the operation of supply and demand
market value- the amount of money an owner may expect to receive if property is sold
martial law- military control
mass media- means of communication, such as television, radio, and newspapers, that influence large audiences
mass transit- the facilities such as subways, commuter railroads, and bus lines that are used to transport large numbers of people
mayor- council form-a type of municipal government in which executive power belongs to an elected mayor and legislative power to an elected council
media event- a visually interesting event designed to reinforce a politician's position on some issue
metropolitan area- a large city and its surrounding suburbs
metropolitan federation- the type of municipal government in which a higher level of government makes overall policy for an entire metropolitan area
militia- an armed force of citizens
ministers- the heads of executive departments in British government
misdemeanor- a minor or less serious crime
mixed economy- one in which the government both supports and regulates free enterprise
moderate- a person whose opinions and beliefs fall somewhere between liberal and conservative and usually include some of both
monarchy- a government in which a king, queen, or emperor exercises supreme powers
monetary policy- control of the supply of money and credit to influence the economy
monopoly- a business that has no competition
muckraking- searching out and reporting news stories that expose major scandals involving 
 prominent people
multilateral treaty- an international agreement signed by several nations
municipal government- a city government
municipality- an urban unit of government
mutual defense alliance- an agreement between nations to support each other in case of an attack
mutually assured destruction (MAD)- the situation that exists between two nations with second-strike capability


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