Dahi : Curd
Dalia: Bamboo wicker shallow containers
Chauth : Fourth Tithi
Dwarka : A city in Gujrat, remains of which are still found in sea
Kansa : Maternal Uncle of Krishna
Tapasya : Penance to get a boon from Gods.
Tola : Nearly 11 grams
another diversion from the rest of India is the worship of Chandrama
on Bhadra Shukla Chauth. In most of the places the day is celebrated as
the birthday of Shiddhi Vinayak Ganesh, and in certain places people throw
stones towards Chandrama to ward of the curse associated with
looking at Chandrama on this day that casts an unfounded stigma.
In Mithilanchal, worshipping Chandrama on this day was started by Hemangad Thakur, the king of Mithila. He was going to Delhi to get back his kingdom taken over by the Moghal Emperor. On his way he found people throwing stones at the Chandrama and prayed to Chandrama to help him in getting back his kingdom. He did get back his kingdom and then onwards saw to it that Chandrama is worshipped on this day.
The pooja of "Rohini sahit Chaturthi Chandra" is performed after day-long fasting by gents/ladies in evening when the Chandrama is visible as well as when Chauth tithi is prevailing. Panch-devata, Vishuna/Gauri are also worshipped.Specialties include Dahi in new earthen pots, cookies including Pedakia, poori and fruits in bamboo dalia. Ashtdal Aripan is used for the pooja which is drawn in the courtyard under open sky and facing west.
After killing Kansa, Krishna got the golden city of Dwarka rebuilt in the sea. The king of the place, Ugra had two sons Satrajit and Prasenjit. Satrajit by pleasing the Sun God by tapasya, got a gem called "Syamantak". The gem shown like the Sun himself, had the quality of delivering 8 tolas of gold every day, but had to be worn only in a very sanctified manner. Satrajit, under the impression that Krishna may ask for the gem, passed it on to Prasen.
One day Prasen went for a hunt with Krishna and casually wore the gem. Due to unsanctified manner of being worn, he got separated from Krishna and it could not protect him from being killed by a Lion. The lion took away the gem but was itself killed by the bear Jamban. Jamban took the gem and gave it to his infant child to play with.
Unaware of these happenings, Krishna returned without Prasen. People started whispering that Krishna must have killed Prasen for the sake of Syamantak. This was soon conveyed to Krishna who returned to Jungle and soon traced the cave of Jamban. He entered the cave alone and found the child playing with the gem. He also found the daughter of Jamban named Jambati. Jambati was attracted by Krishna and advised him to elope with her along with the gem. Krishna did not like the idea of theft and blew his conch. This awoke Jamban. They wrestled for 21 days, but none was defeated. Jamban, being pleased with Krishna, gave his daughter in marriage to Krishna and also the gem as a gift. People of Dwarka after waiting for 7 days thought that Krishna was killed and performed his shraddha karma.
Krishna returned to Dwarka with Jambati and the gem. He handed over the gem to Satrjit and thereafter got rid of the stigma of having killed Prasen. Satrajit, out of admiration, gave his daughter Satyabhama in marrige to Krishna. He also wanted to give Syamantak, but Krishna did not take it.
Once when Krishna and Balram had gone somewhere, Shatdhanwa killed Satrajit and took away the gem. Krishna learnt about this from Satyabhama and he conveyed it to Balram. They chased Shatdhanwa on horseback. Satdhanwa, out of fear, passed the gem to Akrur. Satdhanwa was soon captured and killed by Krishna but no gem was found with him. When Balram learnt about this, he became very angry with Krishna and rebuked him that he has killed Shatdhanwa for the gem. He also left Dwarka for Vidarbha . People again started talking against Krishna that he had driven away his brother for the gem.
Krishna was very sad and once, when he met Narad, asked him the reason for these baseless stigma on his character. Narad informed him that this was the effect of seeing the Chandrama on Bhadra Shukla Chauth. He narrated the following story to Krishna.
Once Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva worshipped Ganesh for the well being of
their consorts. Ganesh was pleased and blessed them. While Ganesh was
returning he came face to face with Chandrama, who was very proud of his
looks. He laughed at Ganesh for his unusual looks. Ganesh got very angry
and cursed Chandrama that he would not be looked at by any one. Hence
Chandrama had to hide inside the Kumudini flower. Devatas, Rishis,
Gandharvas got very sad and requested Ganesh to pardon Chandrama, which he
did but added that on this day of Chauth if Chandrama is seen by any one,
he will suffer to face false accusition. To ward of this effect one has to
look at the Chandrama with fruit in hand reciting the following