1. a) Use a new page in your book and write the heading: The Black Death
    b) Watch this brief video about the plague:
         As you watch the video jot down 4 or 5 key points under the above heading.
Before looking further at the devastation that the Plague wrecked on the people of Europe, briefly revise the social setting and the structure of Feudal Society in the Middle Ages.

    c) Just study the pictures on the above site and then explain in a about 6 lines what the Feudal system was, and how it worked. (Don't answer any other questions at this time on the above site.)

     d) Study Source A on the above site. It is a painting of a King's coronation, where the Pope or Cardinal is making him King. He does this by placing the golden crown on his head. Click the painting, and read the information on the page that opens up. Record five or six key points using the heading: The Position and Role of the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages.

     e) Make a Google image search with the words: The Feudal System. Select a diagram that you think best explains the structure and workings of the Feudal System. 'Copy and paste' the image to a suitable size and then print and paste it in your book.


2. On a new page use headings and sub-headings as you complete the 4 Activities on the following site:
                                                                                                              (Version for ipad users)
    a) For Activity 1, use the heading: Symptoms of the Illness.
        Then put the list of symptoms given into the order that you think a sufferer
         would have experienced them. 

b) For Activity 2a, use the heading: How People Tried to Cure the Plague.
         Then select and write out four cures you think they would have used.

     c) For Activity 2b, use the heading: How People Tried to Prevent Getting the Plague.
Then select and write out three prevention methods you think the people would have used.

      d) For Activity 3, use the heading: The London Doctor's Letter. Google image search for a 'scroll' on which you could write your letter. Insert a text box and then right mouse click the box and select 'format shape' so you can make the text box over the scroll transparent. Also you could select an old fashioned type of text to write your letter with, such as 'Pristina' or 'Brush Scrip'. Sample Scroll. Paste your letter in your book.
       e) For the last activity on Pupil Worksheet 4, use the heading: Comparison Charts. Working with a partner, print out and cut up the sheet of cards and then sort the cards into 'Causes' and 'Effects of the Plague'. List these in your book in a small chart: have one column for 'Causes' and one for 'Effects'. Following this, sort the cards into 'Long' and 'Short-Term Effects of the Plague'. List these in your book in a small chart: have one column for 'Long-Term Effects' and one for 'Short-Term Effects'.

   f) Using information provided on the above site, explain why people called the plague the Bubonic Plague.
3. a) Watch this second brief video about the plague:
      As you watch the video jot down 4 or 5 key points under the heading: The Different Types of Plague.

    b) The Black Death: Glossary and Terms Activity. Print off and paste this in your book when complete.
4. a) Complete the activity from this site: http://edsitement.neh.gov/sites/edsitement.neh.gov/files/Black_Death.swf  See if you can draw on the interactive map the different coloured lines that show where the plague spread. Also try and find the dotted lines that show the different trade routes. (Don't answer the questions posed on the site.)

    b) Using this blank map label the different countries and main cities. Use one colour to draw on your map where the plague spread. Use a different colour to draw one of the trade routes. Use a key to explain these.
         Also label the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and lightly shade all the water areas of the map with a blue pencil. (When completed, paste the map in your book.)
         Also write the arrival date next to the first European city to get the plague.

     c) What does the mapping exercise tell you about the source, and the direction the plague took when spreading across Europe? (‘source’ = where it first landed and started from in Europe.)

      d) Play this Interactive Map - on the Spread of the Black Plaque. Is there any indication that the spread of the plague quickened as it spread across Europe, or was it constant or did it seem to slow down at any time?
5. Watch this video: http://www.history.com/topics/black-death/videos/black-plague-extinction
          Then use full sentences and quoted words when answering the following questions:
    a) Who disposed of the dead bodies? 
    b) List 3 ways in which they disposed of the bodies.
    c) According to the video, what did many people start to believe when so many people started to die?
 6. Look at the four black and white picture sources across to the right on this page. (Not the rat!)

a) Briefly describe the three illustrations across to the right of this page that are drawn in an old style suggesting that they are copies of original primary sources.
b) Briefly describe the picture that looks to have a modern style suggesting it is a secondary source.
c) Look at the black and white drawing of a street scene. What do you think the two men in the background of the illustration are doing with the cart?
d) In this scene how would you describe the reaction of the people and the dog to the man who has collapsed in the street? Explain why you have that view.
e) Find the ten people in the picture. Are any of the people doing something that suggests there were no organised garbage collections in this Medieval city?
f) What else can you see in the illustration to suggest that medieval city streets were very unhygienic and did not have underground drains to take away dirty water?

g) Research Challenge: Google ‘the first toilets and sewage systems’. (I) Find out when approximately after the start of the Middle Ages, were the ‘first organised human waste removal services’ introduced into European cities. (II) How did the human waste removal system operate? (III)When did sewerage systems with flushing toilets and underground pipes start to be used in Europe? (IV) Find and paste in your book an illustration or picture related to any early efforts made by Town or City officials to try and improve the sanitation system for better public health and hygiene.
7. Explain how the following article argues a new theory about how the plague spread.
     Quote from the article in your answer.
     Remember to write the name of the author of the article, and when it was written.
8. Using the following site, make a list of the different beliefs people had at the time, for what was
causing the Plague. Use the heading: What People Thought was Causing the Plague.
9. From this site: http://history.howstuffworks.com/historical-events/black-death2.htm
     a) List the various methods people used to avoid getting the plague.
     b) Explain what the Flagellants believed and describe how they acted.
     c) What group of people were blamed for causing the plague and were often killed with fire?
10. Old Cures for the Plague. Using the information from the following site design a coloured mind map on a new page that shows the different cures people used during the Middle Ages and Renaissance period to try and cure the plague: http://www.enkivillage.com/cures-for-the-black-death.html                 
11. Study the map below. Look at the dates of the different outbreaks of the Plague.
According to this map which country had the first outbreak of the Plague?

12. Does the information on the following site corroborate (agree with) the information given on the map about where the plague originated in the 1300s. Quote from the website in your answer.
http://goo.gl/cVEfe4 ( http://www.livescience.com/2497-black-death-changed-world.html)

13. a) Research and then write in your book a description of the strange costumes the Plague Doctors wore in the Middle Ages.  b) Explain why they wore the large, leather bird-like beaks with red glass beads for their eyes.  c) List the medical procedures and medicines they used.  d) Print and paste a small picture of a Plague Doctor into you book.

14.  a) Draw in your book the flow chart diagram with the red arrows that explains how humans were infected.
       b) How does the following site explain the cause of the plague? :
       (‘regurgitate’ = to vomit back up food that has been chewed and swallowed.)

15.  Draw up a new page in your book with the heading: ‘Black Death Video Quiz’.

As you watch the following video, write out 5 questions based on the video. On your page leave three line spaces between your questions for the answers.
After you have watched the video and written out your questions, swap books with the student next to and then answer each other’s questions.

When the questions have been answered, swap books back, the mark your partner’s answers giving each answer a value of 2. Then record their total mark out of 10.

 16. Pied Piper of Hamelin

(German: Rattenfänger von Hameln also known as the Rat-Catcher of Hamelin) is the subject of a legend from the town of Hamelin, which had been attacked by plague. The events took place in Hamelin which is in Lower Saxony, Germany, in the Middle Ages. The earliest references describe a piper, dressed in multi coloured ("pied") clothing, who was hired by the town ….

          The first record of this story is from the town of Hamelin itself, depicted in a stained glass window created for the church of Hamelin, which dates to around AD 1300. Although it was destroyed in 1660, several written accounts have survived.

(From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pied_Piper_of_Hamelin)

a) At the following site, just click through and look at the different illustrations of scenes from the story of ‘The Pied Piper of Hamelin’.
b) At the following site read the story of ‘The Pied Piper’ and then complete the quiz activity.
c) Record in your book the score you gained at the end.
d) Why do you think this legend of the piper, originally had something to do with the Black Death which was sweeping through Germany at the time?

e) Imagine you are talking to a person who has never heard the story of the Pied Piper. Write in just four or five lines a ‘potted version’ or brief account of what the story is about and what happens in the story.


17. More than just a Nursery Rhyme.

Have you ever heard the nursery rhyme called ‘ring around the rosie’?
"Ring around the Rosie. Pocket full of poesy. Ashes, Ashes, we all fall down."
This nursery rhyme is actually about a disease from the 14th century that the people called the plague or Black Death. This disease was highly contagious. It spread across Europe. It was so widespread and so deadly that it is estimated to have killed one fourth of all the people in Europe.

If you break down the poem you can actually understand the effects a bit more.

"Ring around the Rosie": Infected people broke out in a rash on their arms and neck that had red ring shaped marks with a dark center spot that looked like a rose. They would then get a high fever, become unconscious, and finally die.

"Pocket full of posey": People carried flowers, often posies, to cover the smell of the dead and dying.

"Ashes, Ashes": People would burn the houses of people with the disease in order to try and stop it. Whole villages were burned down. The sky was dark with the ashes of the burnt buildings.

"We all fall down": The plague filled villages and cities alike with dead and dying victims. People would collapse in the streets and be left lying there. People were afraid to touch them or go near them.   (http://medievaleurope.mrdonn.org/plague.html)

a) What are ‘posies’? Google image search 'posies of flowers'?  Select one you could imagine a person carrying in their hand. Print a small image of this to paste in your book or draw, colour and label a small image of it in your book.

  b) Write a mini half page article for a magazine.
                                                        Topic: How children’s stories and legends from the past may have some original basis in historical facts.                  

    Make up your own interesting title for your article.
In your article you could briefly mention writing for children or legends from the past such as: The story of the wooden horse in the battle of the ancient Greeks against Troy - Was there really a great battle at an ancient city called Troy? (Search for the finds of the archaeologist Schliemann); The myth of Theseus, who in a giant maze battled the minotaur beast with the head of a bull  - Could this legend have its origins on the island of Crete, in the giant Minoan palace at Knossos that could have seemed to some like a  giant maze? The Minoan priests also worshipped bulls and some believe their priests wore bulls heads in their religious rituals. (Search for the finds of the archaeologist Arthur Evans); The lost City of Atlantis - Could this legend have its origins in the massive volcanic eruption and destruction of the civilisation on the island of Thera? ; and finally the story of the Pied Piper; and the nursery rhyme of Ring Around the Rosie.

18.   In The Countryside

Study the above picture of a Lord's domain before the plague ravaged the land during the Middle Ages.
        If you were a farm worker in this scene what building would you visit if you needed a repair made to an iron plough?

      b)  A Villein (villain) or Serf was a term used in the feudal era to denote or refer to a worker (tenant farmer) who was legally tied to a Lord of the manor.

Peasants were above Serf or Villeins in the social structure because peasants owned their own land or rented land off the Local Lord. A peasant was free to leave at any time. The Serf of Villeins were legally tied or bound to the Lords domain or lands.

In the Middle Ages, Serfs or Villeins who occupied a plot of land were also required to work for the lord of the manor who owned that land, and in return were entitled to protection, justice and the right to exploit certain fields within the manor to grow their own food.

The Lords manor formed the basic unit of feudal society, and the lord of the manor and his serfs were bound legally, economically, and socially. Serfs formed the lowest social class of feudal society.
       (From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serfdom)

Using the information above explain in your own words what the differences were between the Villein or Serfs and the Peasants?

19. The Social, Economic and Political Results or Effects of the Plague.

The Black Death claimed anywhere from one third to half of the population in Europe. Some experts think that one fifth of the world population at the time were killed, while some argue that it was actually one third of the population. The massive death toll meant that the way society was organised had to change if life was to go on.

After the Black Death, social structures weakened and changed — partly because as time went on the peasants became more valuable to the nobles for the work they needed to do such as planting or harvesting the crops, tending the animals and all the other crafts that needed to be done.

The huge death toll meant a smaller work force, and the peasants who had survived could demand higher wages or they would leave and go to another Lords domain or to one of the towns. Wages for peasant labourers doubled in the 11 years after the plague.

Matteo Villani, who lived in Florence (Italy) during the time of the plague, describes what life was like during and after the Black Death. After reading the source, respond to the following question.

“Men dreamed of wealth and abundance in garments and in all other things … beyond meat and drink; yet, in fact, things turned out widely different; for most [luxury] commodities were more costly, by twice or more, than before the plague.

And the price of labour, and the work of all trades and crafts, rose in disorderly fashion beyond the double.”    
a) According to Villani how did the Plague affect the price of luxury goods and the wages for workers? In your answer quote two or three words from Villani and blend his words into your own sentences.
In 1351 King Edward III made a new law, called the Statute of Laborers.
It stated that peasants could not receive wages that were more than they had been paid before the “pestilence” (plague). The nobles had complained to him that peasants were demanding to be paid more and were leaving their villages to travel to new jobs where they were getting higher wages:

“Because a great part of the people and especially of the workmen and servants has now died in that pestilence, some, seeing the straights [problems] of the masters and the scarcity of servants, are now not willing to serve unless they receive excessive wages …

Every man and woman of our kingdom of England, of whatever condition … shall take only the [old]wages liveries, meed or salary which, in the places where he sought to serve, were accustomed to be paid in the [past]twentieth year of our reign of England.”

b) What reason did King Edward III give for making the law called the Statute of Laborers? Use some of the Kings words in your answer.
Henry Knighton, a man who lived through the Black Death described its immediate effects in his book 'History of England from the 14th Century':

“Sheep and cattle went wandering … and there was no one to go and drive or gather them … many crops perished in the fields for want of someone to gather them.
But the peasants were so lifted up and obstinate that they would not listen to the king's command, but if anyone wished to have them he had to give them what they wanted, and either lose his fruit and crops, or satisfy the wishes of the workmen.

After the pestilence, many buildings, great and small, fell into ruins in every city for lack of inhabitants, likewise many villages and hamlets became desolate … it was probable that many such villages would never be inhabited.”

c) What evidence is provided in the above source that the English King's new law was not very effective? Start your answer with the words:
'According to Knighton....'

20. Plague, War and Taxes....More Problems for the Peasants

Read the following brief description by the contemporary French writer Froissart. He is describing a strange movement he saw in 1349:

In the Year of Grace 1349, the penitents went about, coming first out of Germany. They were men who did public penance and scourged themselves with whips of hard knotted leather with little iron spikes. Some made themselves bleed very badly between the shoulders..." (http://www.historyguide.org/ancient/flagellant.html)

a) What were these groups of men called and why were they whipping themselves?

 The discontent of the French peasants had been growing for many years:

The land owning Nobility had been increasing the peasant's taxes. Also those with villein status were still expected to do unpaid work on the Nobles estates even though their Nobles did not protect them from violent English and German mercenaries that were plundering the countryside.
In the following account Froissart describes what happened when the local peasants rebelled, and using farm tools as weapons, led an angry march into a French town in 1358. (The rebellious peasants were given the name Jacquerie.)

“Men-at-arms [Knights or soldiers]of every kind burst out of the castle gates and ran into the square to attack those evil men [the peasants]. They mowed them down in heaps and slaughtered them like cattle; and they drove all the rest out of the town, for none of the villeins attempted to take up any sort of fighting order …

Never did men commit such vile deeds (as those Jacquerie); I could never bring myself to write down what [the peasants] did … God by His grace provided a remedy … The nobles wiped them out wherever they found them, without mercy or pity.”

b) List three reasons why the French peasants were rebelling.

There were reports that the peasants had badly abused and then killed some of the Nobility. What evidence is there in the above passage that these reports might have been true? In your answer quote two or three words from Froissart and blend his words into your own sentences.


d) According to the painting in Froissart's chronicle how did the Noble's men-at-arms dispose of the bodies of the peasants they killed?

This image: ‘Defeat at Meaux’ is an illustration from Froissart’s chronicle of what happened when peasants rebelled in a French town called Meaux.
(From: https://www.qcaa.qld.edu.au/downloads/p_10/ac_sa_hist_yr8_black_death.pdf)

The following is a passage from a speech by John Ball in 1381. Ball was a priest who protested against the way the peasants were treated by the nobles. He travelled throughout England speaking to peasants about the injustices in society:

“Good people, things cannot go right in England and never will, until goods are held in common, and there are no more villeins and gentlefolk, but we are all one and united. In what way are those we call lords, greater masters than ourselves?

If we all spring from a single father and mother, Adam and Eve, how can they claim or prove they are more lords than us?”
(From: https://www.qcaa.qld.edu.au/downloads/p_10/ac_sa_hist_yr8_black_death.pdf)
e) Discuss with a partner what you think John Ball saw as the injustices in English feudal society. Based on the above sources, do you think King Edward III or Froissart would have agreed with the views expressed by the priest John Ball?
Start your answer with the words: 'There is evidence in the sources to suggest that....'

At about this time there were so many battles and small wars between England and France that Historians refer to them as 'The Hundred Years War'. As the Kings needed to raise money to pay for soldiers and war supplies, they had been raising taxes from their subjects and Lords across the land. The Lords in turn had been taxing the peasants. It was worse in France as the French Nobility themselves never had to pay taxes. It was often while the Lords Knights and men-at-arms were away at war that the peasants turned their years of resentment and suffering into open revolt and rebellion.

f ) Find out and record the start and end date of the Hundred Years War.

g ) What were the circumstances that led some peasants to think they could stage a successful rebellion against their local Lord and land owners?
21. Class Presentation!
Use the above information and the following web sites to answer this question: 
What were the social, economic and political results or effects of the Plague on Europe?

You can present your findings (your opinion or argument) as: a speech or an essay that you can read from as you talk to the class. ( 2 x A4 pages hand written or one typed page.); a role play, where you dress up and pretend to be a person from the time of the Plague; a Prezi Presentation; a Glogster; a website; a Photo Story Presentation; etc.
                        (If any links do not open, copy the URL address and paste it into your browser.)

At the next site read the section with the heading: Consequences (Results)
             Plus you can do your own research.

a) Work your way through this animation about what people at the time thought about the plague.
      b) Go through the animation again and this time jot down the correct facts we are told in the animated presentation.
          Use the heading: The Black death - Science Museum.

Optional Extras: 1. See how well you score in this fun trivia quiz about the Black Death.