Write the above two headings in your book and then answer the following:

1. After reading the text, Google image search 'growing rice in Japan'. Then explain how rice is grown and why some farms had to be terraced.

2. What evidence is there in the passage to suggest that the peasants were unfairly and harshly treated by some shogun rulers.
A. Farming and the Forests.

Farmers were the highest of the peasant classes as they produced the food that everyone in the social pyramid needed and consumed.

Their main food crop was rice which they planted in ground that was flooded to a depth of about 3 to 4 centimetres.
As Japan was very mountainous, farmers often had to terrace sloping ground with low dam walls so they could still grow rice. (See below.) The water helps the rice grow tall but also stops weeds growing and pests from eating the young plants.

Rice production was labour intensive as you can see in the picture on the left.

Since there was very little land available for farming in Japan, there were few farms, therefore making food valuable.

Even though the farmers were an honoured class, they still had to pay heavy tax fees.  It got so extreme, that when the third shogun, Tokugawa, ruled, the farmers were to hand over all of their rice to him, and received only a small percent back as ‘charity’!

(From: http://veryasian.weebly.com/feudal-japan.html)

Since the beginning of Japan’s history, wood has been the most sourced material used in the building of: temples, shrines, houses and even castles. Wood was also used as fuel within houses and industries.

Towards the end of the 17th century, cities became more populated meaning a higher demand for timber. Since it was forbidden to import timber from foreign countries, the Japanese people had to cut trees down from their own forests, with permission from the feudal lords (daimyo) of course!

The Tokugawa shoguns realised that they had a problem; they had to cater for the increasing number of people who needed houses, but also ensure that they did not use up all their natural resources.

 To ensure that the forests in Japan were not all cut down, and would survive and remain healthy into the the future, the Tokugawa shoguns introduced the following laws and reforms:

·        Reforms were introduced to protect seedlings and ensure selective cutting of trees.

·       Logging without permission became a serious crime

·       Plantations were created on ‘common’ land near the villages. The local people were responsible for the planting, forestry and selling of their own timber.

Marking the end of Tokugawa rule in 1867 were successive governments right up to the present day, inspired to continue the sustainable forest management started by the previous leaders. With increasing modernisation and western influence, Japanese society has moved away from agriculture and forestry which up until the 19th century made up 80 per cent of the population’s livelihood.
(From:http:// www.tesaustralia.com/teaching-resources)

Name four structures that were built from wood cut from the forests in Medieval Japan during the time of the shoguns.

4. List four measures that were introduced by the Tokugawa shoguns to preserve the health and future of Japans forests.

5. Google and read about 'sustainable forest management'. Then write out a good definition of 'sustainable forest management' or explain what it means. First look at the video on the  following  site to get some ideas:

B. Type the heading: Food and Dining Customs. Then explore this interactive site with sound, where you will dicover what it would be like if you were going to have dinner with the Shogun.

As you play through the quiz, write five sentences. For each of the sentences, use one of the following groups of words: a) '...small portions of food...'.   b) '...eat off the floor...'.    c) '...seaweed and ice...'.    d) '...blackened teeth...'     e)  '...taxes with rice...'.
C. Travelling in Shogun Japan
1. Under the above heading summarise the following informattion into point form notes:

The Edo period or Tokugawa period is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional Daimyo. The Tōkaidō was the most important of the Five Routes of the Edo period, connecting Edo (modern-day Tokyo) to Kyoto in Japan. The Tōkaidō travelled along the sea coast of eastern Honshū.

2. Print off this map of Japan and using this site mark on it:Kyoto, Edo and the Tokaido.

3. Google '53 stations of Tokaido' and open the '53 stations' wikipedia site. At that site look through the slides of the woodcuts showing different scenes along the Tokaido.
      a) List three things that the woodcut scenes tell you about sites you might see in everyday life during the time of the shogun.

       b) Using the above site explain why the five major roads were built across Japan during the Edo or Tokugawa period.

4. Open this site and then enter Edo:http://www.us-japan.org/edomatsu/
Then click the castle and then the icon for 'next'. Explain what the Seki were and what happened at a Seki.

D. The Tokugawa Period of Peace and Prosperity

Tokugawa Ieyasu moved to Edo as the Bakufu, or Military leader of the Japan in 1603. He established the shogunate and changed Edo from a remote fishing village to being the center of political and cultural life. 

For the first time in centuries, Japan was relatively peaceful. The strict political and social policies of Ieyasu and subsequent shoguns ushered in a golden age of economic and cultural prosperity.

To maintain this so-called Pax Tokugawa, the bakufu instituted its sakoku (closed-country) policy in an attempt to keep foreign powers out of Japan.

The Spanish, the English, and the Portuguese were expelled as subversive influences. Christianity was banned, and Japanese Christians were hunted down and persecuted.

But sakoku was far from pure isolationism. Japan still conducted frequent but strictly regulated trade with Korea and China.

And not all Europeans were driven out: the Dutch were allowed to maintain a small trading post on an artificial island in Nagasaki harbor.
(From: http://www.ushistory.org/civ/10e.asp)

1. Under the heading provided, summarise the top two paragraphs into point form notes.

2. Explain the policy of 'sakoko' that was followed by the Tokugawa samurai.

3. Using this website: http://www.ushistory.org/civ/10e.asp or your own research, list the cultural and entertainment activities the Samurai engaged in during this period of about 200 years of relative peace.

4. Look at the nine traditional Japanese games the many children played during this period: http://web-japan.org/nipponia/nipponia26/en/topic/topic01.html   

Select one that you think might be fun to try and briefly explain how it was played.

Dejima, in Nagasaki harbor
Dutch traders were the only Europeans allowed to remain in Japan under the Tokugawa shogunate's sakoku policy, but even they were restricted to Dejima, an artificial island constructed in Nagasaki harbor.
E. Scan your eyes down this web page about the history of the Kimono: http://webjapan.org/kidsweb/virtual/kimono/kimono01.html

Write the heading 'Traditional Japanese Clothing' and then briefly answer these questions using complete sentences - Use the main words in the questions when writing your answers.

1. Why during the Kamakura and Muromachi periods in Japan did the Samurai start wearing particular coloured kimonos on the battlefield?

2. Use the information on the above website to label the first diagram on this page. Print this page and paste it in your book, or keep the copy in your folder.

3. Use the information found on this page about traditional clothing to label the second diagram of the Japanese children wearing traditional dress.

4. Read this web page about the Shogun peasants and then list three materials used by the medieval Japanese pesants to make their clothes.

Design a mid map about The Ninja in Feudal Japan.
It can be Hand Drawn (Google image search 'mind maps' for some examples.)
   or using one of these Mind Map Makers.

Include small illustrations in your mind map.
Google image search "feudal japan ninja'.

In your mind map include such aspects as :when they existed in the Japanese society; tools and weapons; tactics; clothing; their role: spying; assassination and fighting as an elite fighting force.
(Optional extra- 'female Ninja'.)

Some sites you could use: Skwirk, Kidsweb, Wikipedia, Neatorama...

G.(Optional Research activity):The Siege of Osaka

The Siege of Osaka was a series of battles undertaken by the Tokugawa shogunate against the Toyotomi clan, and ending in that clan's destruction. Divided into two stages (Winter Campaign and Summer Campaign), and lasting from 1614 to 1615, the siege put an end to the last major armed opposition to the shogunate's establishment. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Osaka)

Following your own research, briefly relate the events of the Siege of Osaka - Background causes, key events and fighting tactics, and finally the results of the siege.

Present your research findings in the form of a comic, or a Prezi, or Photo Story, or a historical fiction account by one of the Samurai warriors.

While youe are waiting for the rest of your class to finish this unit try your hand with this game set in feudal Japan: