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Native Hawaiian Racial Entitlement Programs Valued in the Billions of Dollars -- Description and List of Many


(c) Copyright 2003 - 2004, Kenneth R. Conklin, Ph.D. All rights reserved


On February 23, 2000 the U.S. Supreme Court handed down its decision in Rice v. Cayetano.
http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/ricevcayetano.html

The decision directly affected only the right of all eligible voters of the State of Hawai’i to vote, without racial restriction, for trustees of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs. But in making that decision the Supreme Court by a 7-2 vote explicitly declared that “Native Hawaiian” is a racial designation and not a political one. One logical consequence is that all the racial entitlement programs for Native Hawaiians sponsored by the state and federal governments are unconstitutional government-sponsored racial discrimination under the 14th Amendment equal protection clause. There are over 160 such programs (see below for a lengthy but incomplete list of them!) Therefore, defenders of such programs decided it would be necessary to get Congress to declare that Native Hawaiians are an Indian tribe, so that the entitlement programs could continue, and so that Native Hawaiians could continue to hold “tribal” elections restricted to “tribal” voters and “tribal” candidates.

Hawai’i’s Congressional delegation and OHA trustees immediately began writing what would later become known as the Native Hawaiian Recognition bill, or “Akaka bill,” to create a phony Indian tribe. They knew a public relations campaign would be needed to persuade Native Hawaiians, as well as non-Hawaiians, to support the legislation. The most important part of this campaign would be to scare people that without the legislation they would lose all their benefit programs. The Native Hawaiian beneficiaries would lose their benefits, but more importantly, the bloated bureaucracies of the service provider institutions would lose their money and power. Thus it was important to let people know how valuable those programs are for Native Hawaiians and for the economy of the State of Hawai’i.

On March 20, 2000, less than a month after the Rice decision, the Honolulu Star-Bulletin published an article identifying $440 Million in federal grants made to Native Hawaiian racial entitlement programs during the previous few years, as compiled by the Hawai’i Congressional delegation. “Bringing home the bacon” is an important part of what politicians do, and Hawai’i politicians are outstanding performers. Here is the Star-Bulletin article:
http://starbulletin.com/2000/03/20/special/story3.html

Hawaiian funding tops $440 million
By Pat Omandam, Star-Bulletin

THE U.S. Congress in recent years has awarded more than $440 million to native Hawaiians through legislation and grants, according to U.S. Sen. Daniel Inouye's office.

Many Hawaiians, including most on the Star-Bulletin roundtable, fear these programs and services are in jeopardy after the U.S. Supreme Court decision in the Rice vs. Cayetano case. The Feb. 23 ruling struck down the state's Hawaiians-only elections for the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, casting a cloud over other government programs for Hawaiians that are based solely on race.

To see what might be at stake, here's a condensed list of the recent congressional funding to native Hawaiians, the year(s) funded, the total amount awarded, and some of the top programs funded:

Native Hawaiian Education Act (1989-2000): $114.7 million received for seven programs. They include native Hawaiian family-based education centers ($41.4 million); the Native Hawaiian Higher Education Program ($20.8 million); and Na Pua No'eau, Native Hawaiian Gifted and Talented Program ($17.6 million).

Other education programs (1994-2000): $169.9 million for seven programs. They include Native Hawaiian Employment and Training Program ($91.2 million); Native Hawaiian Vocational and Education Program ($34.8 million); and Native Hawaiian Culture and Arts Program ($15.1 million).

Native Hawaiian Health Care Act (1994-2000): $35.5 million for two programs, Papa Ola Lokahi/Native Hawaiian Health Care Systems ($27.9 million) and the Native Hawaiian Health Professions Scholarship Program ($7.6 million).

Other health programs (1994-2000): $36.2 million for eight programs. They include the Native Hawaiian Elders Program ($15.4 million); Native Hawaiian Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Program ($10 million); and the Native Hawaiian Health Research and Multi-Ethnic Health Research Project ($3.2 million).

Other congressional legislation related to native Hawaiians, their culture and the environment (year 2000 only): $66.8 million for 25 programs. They include Kahoolawe Island cleanup ($35 million); Bishop Museum Youth Training ($12.5 million); Hawaii Hansen's Disease ($2 million); and Kaloko-Honokohau National Historic Park ($1.1 million).

Native Hawaiian Education grants (1999): $2 million for six programs, including Maui Community College Halau Ao project ($199,640); Alu Like Inc. ($445,047); Aha Punana Leo ($564,759); Edith Kanakaole Foundation ($540,596); and Hawaiian Language College at the University of Hawaii-Hilo ($246,968).

Native Hawaiian Revolving Loan Fund (1999): $10 million.

Administration for Native American grants (1999): $5.5 million for 12 programs. They include Native Hawaiian Advisory Council ($3.2 million); Ha Hawaii ($320,751); Pacific American Foundation to preserve Hawaiian moon calendar ($316,856); and Anahola Homesteaders Council, Project Faith ($229,331).

Native Hawaiian Health Care Grants (1999): $109,936 for two programs, Health Resources and Services Administration ($9,936) and Hawaii Youth Services Network ($100,000).

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Bear in mind that these figures are only for a period of a few years or, in the case of some programs, for only one year. Furthermore, there are enormous figures left out. For example, the $35 Million mentioned for the cleanup of Kaho’olawe Island was only for the single year 2000; but the entire multi-year cleanup programs was authorized by Congress for $400 Million. It might be argued that this environmental cleanup is for an entire island of the State of Hawai’i and would therefore benefit all Hawai’i’s people; however, it is generally assumed in Hawai’i, and believed adamantly by Hawaiian activists, that the entire island of Kaho’olawe belongs to Native Hawaiians exclusively as a racial entitlement under terms written for the transfer of the island from federal to state control. Another figure not included in the article, which dwarfs everything else, is the $600 Million “settlement” which Governor John Waihe’e committed the State to pay to the Department of Hawaiian Homelands at the rate of $30 Million per year for 20 years, for the exclusive benefit of Native Hawaiians. Since the year 2000, there have been many more federal and state racial entitlement programs established at an accelerating rate. For example, there is a multimillion dollar annual appropriation to the Native Hawaiian Leadership Project, under the Native Hawaiian Education Act, providing scholarships for undergraduate, graduate, and even doctoral studies both in Hawai’i and elsewhere. And there have been numerous new medical programs, including establishment of an endowed chair of Native Hawaiian medicine at the University of Hawai’i medical school. The Hawaiian language immersion program in the public schools has been expanding, and an entire consortium of new charter schools has been established to provide Hawaiian culture immersion curriculum at public expense (naturally, nearly all the children in both the language and culture immersion programs are ethnic Hawaiian). For details about these public school programs, see:
http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/edforhawnethnicnationbuilding.html

In addition tens of millions of dollars are annually given to the Office of Hawaiian Affairs in lieu of ceded land revenues. There are dozens of other government programs too numerous to mention here. For example, OHA has assets once valued at more than $400 Million, before the stock market decline. And Department of Hawaiian Homelands owns about 203,000 acres of land. Then there are private programs, like the racially exclusionary Kamehameha School with assets valued at somewhere between $6-15 Billion (yes, with a B!!). Such private racially exclusionary programs might also be challenged as illegal under civil rights laws, partly because they receive hundreds of millions in tax exemptions as charitable trusts. For information about Kamehameha School, see:
http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/kamschool.html

In Summer 2002 research was done for plaintiffs in the Arakaki2 lawsuit showing astonishing amounts of state government money spent for OHA and DHHL. For details, see:

OHA and DHHL Cost to State of Hawai'i Treasury: $1 Billion to Date. Estimate for Next Ten Years: $2 Billion More at the Current Expenditure Rate. See Spreadsheets On This Webpage for Details.
http://www.angelfire.com/hi5/bigfiles/ohadhhlburdenstatetreasury.html

Each year ethnic Hawaiians and the bloated bureaucracies that “serve” them have a feast at the Hawai’i State Legislature. It is a feast of greedy and power-hungry legislation to provide more and more money for racially exclusionary entitlement programs. New programs are created every year, and budgets for ongoing programs are increased. Here is a snapshot of a portion of such legislation during the first month of a five month regular Legislative session in 2003. The actual bills themselves can be read, along with testimony against the bills by defenders of unity and equality. See:
http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/hawnbillsleg2003.html
As it turns out, both ethnic Hawaiians and the general population of Hawai’i give very low priority to so-called “native Hawaiian” issues, giving ceded land revenues to OHA, building a race-based nation, etc. Two polls recently taken by OHA and by the Honolulu Advertiser confirm that both ethnic Hawaiians and the general population give high priority to education, healthcare, housing, clean environment, and improving traffic congestion; and very low priority to “native Hawaiian issues” and ethnic nation-building. From these surveys it could be inferred that ethnic Hawaiians are like everyone else, and want government to solve real problems for all of Hawai’i’s people rather than setting up racially segregated programs and trying to establish an apartheid government just for ethnic Hawaiians. See:
http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/prioritieshawnonhaw.htm

Defenders of racial entitlement programs argued in the Rice case that Native Hawaiians are just like an Indian tribe. They argued that there is a federal trust relationship with Native Hawaiians. To prove the existence of such a trust relationship, they cited the existence of over 160 racially exclusionary federal entitlement programs for Native Hawaiians. The theory goes something like this: Suppose you give a beggar a dollar on Monday, and again on Tuesday and Wednesday. Then on Thursday you walk past without giving anything. The beggar jumps up and chases after you yelling that you have established a trust relationship with him, he has become dependant on your donation, and you owe him the dollar each day forevermore (plus increases for inflation and rising standard of living).

The Hawai’i Congressional delegation wrote an amicus brief in the Rice case, and cited as many of the racial entitlement programs as they could find, to prove the existence of the alleged federal trust relationship with Native Hawaiians. That list was contained in Appendix A to the amicus brief. The following is that list. It was published in the form of a table with column headings that do not translate easily into html. But the information, although somewhat disorderly in appearance on this webpage, is exactly what was provided. If the reader of this website has difficulty unscrambling the formatting of the entries, just imagine the financial and psychological difficulty the taxpayers of America have in paying for all these programs that most people are excluded from because of race. This should serve as a lesson to all of America: don’t start down a path of “affirmative action” racial preferences, because this is where such a path will lead. For an analysis of how affirmative action leads to racial entitlements followed by balkanization and demands for independent sovereignty, see:
http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/afacracentakaka.html


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APPENDIX A

Table of Federal Acts Affecting Native Hawaiians

FEDERAL ACT NAME SESSION LAW SUMMARY CITE

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Act of June 21, Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 1910 61-266, 36 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 703, research of American Indian and Native 718 (1910) Hawaiians.

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Act of Mar. 4, 1911 Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 62-525, 36 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 1363, research of American Indians and Native 1395 (1911) Hawaiians.

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Act of Aug. 24, Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 1912 63-302, 37 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 417, research of American Indians and Native 436 (1912) Hawaiians.

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Act of June 23, Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 1913 63-3, 38 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 4, 26 research of American Indians and Native (1913) Hawaiians.

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Act of Aug. 1, 1914 Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 63-161, 38 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 609, research of American Indians and Native 625 (1914) Hawaiians.

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Act of Mar. 3, 1915 Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 63-263, 38 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 822, research of American Indians and Native 838 (1915) Hawaiians.

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Act of July 1, 1916 Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 64-132, 39 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 262, research of American Indians and Native 279 (1916) Hawaiians.

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Act of June 12, Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 1917 65-21, 40 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 105, research of American Indians and Native 122 (1917) Hawaiians.

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Act of July 19, Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 1919 66-21, 41 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 163, research of American Indians and Native 181 (1919) Hawaiians.

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Act of July 1, 1918 Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 65-181, 40 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 634, research of American Indians and Native 651 (1918) Hawaiians.

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Act of June 5, 1920 Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 66-246, 41 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 874, research of American Indians and Native 891 (1920) Hawaiians.

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Act of Mar. 4, 1921 Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 66-388, 41 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 1367, research of American Indians and Native 1383 (1921) Hawaiians.

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Act of July 9, 1921 Pub. L. No. Creates a homesteading program for Native 66-34, 42 Hawaiians. Stat. 108 (1921)

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Act of June 12, Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 1922 67-240, 42 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 635, research of American Indians and Native 643 (1922) Hawaiians.

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Act of Feb. 3, 1923 Pub. L. No. Amends Hawaiian Homes Commission Act by 67-403, 42 increasing dollar limits for Stat. 1221 residential loans and other provisions. (1923)

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Act of Feb. 13, Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 1923 67-409, 42 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 1227, research of American Indians and Native 1235 (1923) Hawaiians.

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Act of June 7, 1924 Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 68-214, 43 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 521, research of American Indians and Native 528 (1924) Hawaiians.

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Act of Mar. 3, 1925 Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 68-586, 43 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 1198, research of American Indians and Native 1206 (1925) Hawaiians.

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Act of Apr. 22, Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 1926 69-141, 44 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 305, research of American Indians and Native 315 (1926) Hawaiians.

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Act of Feb. 11, Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 1927 69-600, 44 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 1069, research of American Indians and Native 1079 (1927) Hawaiians.

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Act of Mar. 7, 1928 Pub. L. No. Amends the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act 70-105, 45 by requiring an annual area disposal Stat. 246 limit and increases the dollar amount (1928) within the Hawaiian Home Loan fund.

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Act of May 16, 1928 Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 70-400, 45 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 573, research of American Indians and Native 583 (1928) Hawaiians, including excavation and preservation of archaeologic remains.

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Act of Feb. 20, Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 1929 70-778, 45 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 1230, research of American Indians and Native 1241 (1929) Hawaiians.

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Act of Apr. 19, Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the 1930 71-158, 46 Smithsonian Institute for ethnological Stat. 229, research of American Indians and Native 241 (1930) Hawaiians.

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Act of July 26, Pub. L. No. Requires three of five Hawaiian Homes 1935 74-223, 49 Commission members to be at least Stat. 504 one-quarter Native Hawaiian. (1935)

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Act of July 10, Pub. L. No. Amends Hawaiian Homes Commission Act by 1937 75-200, 50 establishing age minimum for lessee and Stat. 497, adding more lands under the Act. 503 (1937)

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Act of June 20, Pub. L. No. Authorizes leasing land within the 1938 75-680, § 3, Hawai'i National Park to Native 52 Stat. 784, Hawaiians and recognizes limited Native 784-85 (1938) Hawaiian fishing rights in the area.

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Act of Nov. 26, Pub. L. No. Amends Hawaiian Homes Commission Act by 1941 77-325, § 3, creating a Home Development fund and 55 Stat. 782, allowing investing of loan fund. 782 (1941)

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Act of May 31, 1944 Pub. L. No. Amends Hawaiian Homes Commission Act by 78-320, 58 returning lands under the Commission's Stat. 260, jurisdiction to the Territory of 264 (1944) Hawai'i.

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Act of June 14, Pub. L. No. Amends Hawaiian Homes Commission Act by 1948 80-638, 62 authorizing churches, hospitals, Stat. 390 schools, theaters, and the Federal (1948) government to use the land.

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Act of July 9, 1952 Pub. L. No. Amends Hawaiian Homes Commission Act by 82-481, 66 adding lands to the Commission's Stat. 511, jurisdiction. 514 (1952)

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Act of July 9, 1952 Pub. L. No. Amends Hawaiian Homes Commission Act by 82-482, 66 increasing dollar amounts in the Stat. 514 Hawaiian Homes Land Fund and the (1952) Hawaiian Homes Development Fund.

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Act of June 18, Pub. L. No. Amends Hawaiian Homes Commission Act by 1954 83-417, 68 authorizing leases for irrigated Stat. 263 pastoral lands. (1954)

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Hawai'i Admission Pub. L. No. Admits Hawai'i as a State and establishes Act, Act of Mar. 86-3, § 5(f), a public trust for the betterment of 18, 1959 73 Stat. 4, 6 the conditions of Native Hawaiians, as (1959) defined by the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act.

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Act of Dec. 23, Pub. L. No. Protects the corpus of the public lands 1963 88-233, 77 trust, whose intended beneficiaries are Stat. 472 Native Hawaiians, by revising (1963) procedures under the Hawai'i Statehood Act.

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Act of July 11, Pub. L. No. Designates Honokohau as a National 1972 92-346, 86 Historical Landmark and authorizes Stat. 457 preservation of the site, giving (1972) employment preference to and providing training for Native Hawaiians.

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Native American Pub. L. No. Promotes Native Hawaiian, American Programs Act of 93-644, § Indian, and Alaska Native economic and 1974 801, 88 Stat. social self-sufficiency through 2291, 2324 financial assistance to agencies (1975) serving Native Hawaiians.

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Departments of Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for Native American Labor and Health, 94-206, 90 programs (includes Native Hawaiians). Education, and Stat. 3 Welfare (1975) Appropriation Act, 1976

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Act of Oct. 17, Pub. L. No. Preserves Kalaupapa Settlement and 1976 94-518, § authorizes a preference for former 401-405, 90 patients and Native Hawaiians to manage Stat. 2447, the site. 2447, 2449 (1976)

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Act of Aug. 5, 1977 Pub. L. No. Amends the Comprehensive Employment 95-93, sec. Training Act of 1973 to include 303, § employment training programs for Native 701(a), 91 Hawaiians. Stat. 627, 650 (1977)

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Joint Resolution, Pub. L. No. Recognizes the rights American Indians, American Indian 95-341, 92 Eskimos, Aleuts, and Native Hawaiians Religious Freedom Stat. 469 to practice their traditional (1978) religions.

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Act of Nov. 20, Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for Native Hawaiian 1979 96-123, 93 health and human services programs as Stat. 923 allowed under authorizing legislation, (1979) including assistance to research institutions with Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Hispanic, and Black students.

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Education Pub. L. No. Creates Advisory Council on Native Amendments of 96-374, § Hawaiian Education to study the 1980 1331, 94 effectiveness of State and Federal Stat. 1367, education programs for Native 1499 (1980) Hawaiians.

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Act of Dec. 22, Pub. L. No. Establishes Kalaupapa National Historic 1980 96-565, § § Park which shall be administered by 101-110, 94 Hansen's Disease patients and Native Stat. 3321, Hawaiians. 3321-23 (1980)

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Urgent Supplemental Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for nursing research Appropriations 97-216, 96 grants and encourages that priority be Act, 1982 Stat. 180 given to Native Hawaiians, other Native (1982) Americans, native American Pacific islanders, and Hispanics.

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Supplemental Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds to promote economic Appropriations 97-257, 96 and social self-sufficiency of Native Act, 1982 Stat. 818 Americans, including Native Hawaiians; (1982) also appropriates funds for Native Hawaiian education and health programs as allowed under authorizing legislation.

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Act of July 30, Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds to address the unique 1983 98-63, 97 health needs of Native Americans, Stat. 301 including Native Hawaiians; also urges (1983) the National Cancer Institute to give greater attention to the Native Hawaiian population.

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Native Hawaiian Pub. L. No. Establishes Native Hawaiian Study Study Commission 96-565, § § Commission to study the culture, needs, Act 301-307, 94 and concerns of Native Hawaiians. Stat. 3321, 3324-27 (1980)

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Department of Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds to the Administration Health and Human 98-139, 97 for Native Americans which promotes Services Stat. 871 social and economic self-sufficiency Appropriation (1983) for Native Americans, including Native Act, 1984 Hawaiians; also appropriates funds to combat alcoholism among Native Hawaiians and declares Native Hawaiian cancer research a priority.

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Department of Labor Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for vocational Appropriation 98-139, 97 training and other labor services for Act, 1984 Stat. 871 Native Hawaiians and other Native (1983) Americans.

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Department of Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for Native Hawaiian Education 98-139, 97 education programs as allowed under Appropriation Stat. 871 authorizing legislation. Act, 1984 (1983)

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Act of Dec. 21, Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds to address alcohol 1982 97-377, 96 abuse among Native Hawaiians. Stat. 1830 (1982)

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Act of Aug. 22, Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for a Native Hawaiian 1984 98-396, 99 health study and report. Stat. 1369 (1984)

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Act of Oct. 12, Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for historic 1984 98-473, 99 preservation of marine resources, Stat. 1837 including the Hawaiian voyaging canoe (1984) Hokule'a.

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Department of Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for Native Hawaiian Health and Human 98-619, 99 programs to promote economic and social Services Stat. 3305 self sufficiency; also appropriates Appropriation (1984) funds for parent-child centers and for Act, 1985 Native Hawaiian cancer research.

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Department of Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for Native Hawaiian Education Act, 98-619, 99 education programs as allowed under 1985 Stat. 3305 authorizing legislation. (1984)

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Act of Dec. 19, Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for education 1985 99-190, 99 assistance to health profession Stat. 1185 students who will serve geographical (1985) concentrations of Native Hawaiians and Indian reservations.

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American Indian, Pub. L. No. Authorizes grants to support a program Alaska Native and 99-498, § § for Native Hawaiian culture and arts Native Hawaiian 1501-1503, development. Culture and Art 1521- 1522, Development Act 100 Stat. 1268, 1600, 1610-11 (1986)

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Anti-Drug Abuse Act Pub. L. No. Authorizes the Health and Human Services of 1986 99-570, § Secretary to contract with 4134, 100 organizations that provide drug abuse Stat. 3207, prevention, education, treatment, and 3207-134 rehabilitation services to Native (1986) Hawaiians.

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Act of July 11, Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for the Native 1987 100-71, 101 Hawaiian Culture and Arts Development Stat. 391 Program. (1987)

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Native American Pub. L. No. Establishes Native Hawaiian Revolving Programs Act 100-175, sec. loan fund for Native Hawaiian Amendments of 506, § 803A, organizations and Native Hawaiians to 1987 101 Stat. promote economic development. 926, 926-75 (1987)

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Department of Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for Native Hawaiian Health and Human 100-202, 101 health programs under authorizing Services Stat. legislation. Appropriations 1329-263 Act, 1988 (1987)

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Jacob K. Javits Pub. L. No. Authorizes grants or contracts with Gifted and 100-297, sec. institutions (including Indian tribes Talented Students 1001, § § and Native Hawaiian organizations) to Education Act of 4101-4108, carry out programs or projects designed 1988 102 Stat. to meet the educational needs of gifted 130, 237 and talented students. (1988)

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Drug-Free Schools Pub. L. No. Authorizes education grants, cooperative and Communities 100-297, sec. agreements, or contracts with Act of 1986 1001, § § organizations that primarily serve and 5112, 5134, represent Native Hawaiians; also 102 Stat. appropriates funds for drug abuse 130, 253, 261 education and prevention programs for (1988) Native Hawaiians.

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Augustus F. Pub. L. No. Recognizes the Federal government's legal Hawkins-Robert T. 100-297, § § responsibility to enforce Hawai'i's Stafford 4001-4009, trust responsibilities to Native Elementary and 102 Stat. Hawaiians and creates new education Secondary School 130, 358 programs targeting a model curriculum, Improvement (1988) family based education centers, gifted Amendments of and talented, and special education 1988 programs.

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Veterans' Benefits Pub. L. No. Adds Native Hawaiians to the Advisory and Services Act 100-322, § Committee on Native American Veterans of 1988 413, 102 which evaluates programs for Native Stat. 487, American veterans. 487 (1988)

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Indian Housing Act Pub. L. No. Requires assessment of the housing and of 1988 100-358, sec. mortgage needs of Native Hawaiians. 2, § 204, 102 Stat. 676, 679 (1988)

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National Science Pub. L. No. Reserves percentage of appropriation for Foundation 100-418, § institutions of higher learning that University 6402, 102 serve Native Americans (including Infrastructure Stat. 1107, Native Hawaiians) and specific ethnic Act of 1988 1543 (1988) groups.

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Department of Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for Native Hawaiian Health and Human 100-436, 102 health programs under authorizing Services Stat. 1688 legislation. Appropriations (1988) Act, 1989

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Native Hawaiian Pub. L. No. Authorizes programs to improve the health Health Care Act 100-579, 102 status of Native Hawaiians; authorizes of (1988) Stat. 2916 grants or contracts with Papa Ola (1988); Pub. Lokahi to develop comprehensive heath L. No. care master plan to improve Native 100-690, § Hawaiian health. 2301-2312, 102 Stat. 4181, 4223 (1988)

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Health Professions Pub. L. No. Provides health professionals with Reauthorization 100-607, sec. incentives to staff health centers Act of 1988 604, § 751, serving Native Hawaiians, Indians, and 102 Stat. rural areas. 3048, 3126 (1988)

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Nursing Shortage Pub. L. No. Authorizes grants to nursing schools, Reduction and 100-607, sec. loan repayment incentives to encourage Education 714-715, § work with Native Hawaiians, Indians, or Extension Act of 836(h), 102 in rural areas, and scholarship grants 1988 Stat. 3048, to nursing schools whose students serve 3161 (1988) two years at an Indian Heath Service facility or a Native Hawaiian health center.

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Handicapped Pub. L. No. Amends the Education of the Handicapped Programs 100-630, sec. Act which provides handicapped Native Technical 102, § 616, Hawaiian (and other native Pacific Amendments Act of 102 Stat. basin) children with a free appropriate 1988 3289, 3296 public education. (1988)

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Business Pub. L. No. Amends the Small Business Act by Opportunity 100-656, sec. including economically-disadvantaged Development 207, § 8(a), Native Hawaiian organizations as Reform Act of 102 Stat. socially and economically disadvantaged 1988 Small 3853, 3861 small business concerns. Business (1988)

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Comprehensive Pub. L. No. Amends the Public Health Service Act by Alcohol Abuse, 100-690, sec. establishing the formula to fund Drug Abuse, and 2022, § comprehensive substance abuse and Mental Health 1912A, 102 treatment programs for Native Amendments Act of Stat. 4181, Hawaiians. 1988 4194 (1988)

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Indian Health Care Pub. L. No. Amends the Public Health Service Act by Amendments of 100-713, sec. creating a Native Hawaiian Health 1988 106, § 338J, Professions Scholarship program. 102 Stat. 4784, 4787 (1988)

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Department of Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for Native Hawaiian Health and Human 101-166, 103 health programs under authorizing Services Stat. 1166 legislation. Appropriations (1989) Act, 1990

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Department of Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for Native Hawaiian Education 101-166, 103 education programs under authorizing Appropriations Stat. 1179 legislation. Act, 1990 (1989)

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National Museum of Pub. L. No. Establishes the National Museum of the the American 101-185, 103 American Indian which will study Native Indian Act Stat. 1336 Americans, collect, preserve, and (1989) exhibit Native American objects, provide a Native American research and study program, and authorizes the return of Smithsonian-held Native American human remains and funerary objects; Native Americans includes Native Hawaiians.

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Department of Pub. L. No. Establishes commission to study and Housing and Urban 101-235, § § propose solutions to Indian, Alaska Development 601-605, 103 Native, and Native Hawaiian housing Reform Act of Stat. 1987, problems. 1989 2052 (1989)

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Veterans' Benefits Pub. L. No. Authorizes the study of Native Hawaiian Amendments of 101-237, sec. veterans' and other Native American 1989 312, § 3102, veterans' participation in Veterans 103 Stat. Affairs' home loan guaranty program. 2062 (1989)

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Dire Emergency Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the Supplemental 101-302, 104 National Commission on American Indian, Appropriation for Stat. 213, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Disaster 239 (1990) housing and provides grant money to Assistance, Food Indian and Hawaiian Native youth for Stamps, the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Unemployment Act. Compensation Administration, and Other Urgent Needs, and Transfers, and Reducing Funds Budgeted for Military Spending Act of 1990

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Native American Pub. L. No. Adopts the policy to preserve, protect, Languages Act 101-477, § § and promote the rights and freedom of 101-104, 104 Native Americans to use, practice, and Stat. 1152, develop Native American languages; 1154 (1990) Native Americans include Native Hawaiians.

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Department of Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the Native Health and Human 101-517, 104 Hawaiian Health Care Act of 1988. Services Stat. 2190 Appropriations (1990) Act, 1991

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Department of Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for Native Education 101-517, 104 Hawaiian education programs under Appropriations Stat. 2190 authorizing legislation. Act, 1991 (1990)

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Disadvantaged Pub. L. No. Authorizes grants to health profession Minority Health 101-527, sec. schools to assist programs of Improvement Act 4, § 782, 104 excellence for Native Hawaiians, other of 1990 Stat. 2311, Native Americans, and specified ethnic 2321 (1990) groups.

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Native American Pub. L. No. Provides for the protection of Native Graves Protection 101-601, 104 American graves and repatriation of and Repatriation Stat. 3048 funerary objects, human remains, and Act (1990) objects of cultural patrimony; Native Americans include Native Hawaiians.

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Cranston-Gonzalez Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the National 101-625, sec. Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation Affordable 917, § 109, which serves rural communities, Native Housing Act 104 Stat. Americans, Native Hawaiians, and other 4079, 4398 communities in need. (1990)

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Act of Nov. 29, Pub. L. No. Amends the Public Health Service Act by 1990 101-644, sec. providing scholarship assistance to 401, § Native Hawaiian students. 338J(a), 104 Stat. 4662, 4668 (1990)

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Act of Nov. 29, Pub. L. No. Amends the American Indian, Alaska 1990 101-644, sec. Native, and Native Hawaiian Culture and 501-502, § § Art Development Act by allowing 1507, 1510, interest and earnings to be used to 104 Stat. carry out the Institute's 4662, 4668 responsibilities. (1990)

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National Dropout Pub. L. No. Amends the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Prevention Act of 102-103, sec. Applied Technology Education Act by 1991 311, § providing stipends to Native Hawaiian 103(b), 105 vocational students. Stat. 497, 505 (1991)

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Departments of Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the Veterans Affairs 102-139, 105 National Commission on American Indian, and Housing and Stat. 736 Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Urban (1991) Housing. Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1992

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Department of Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for Native Hawaiian Health and Human 102-170, 105 health programs under authorizing Services Stat. 1107 legislation. Appropriations (1991) Act, 1992

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Department of Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for Native Hawaiian Education 102-170, 105 education programs under authorizing Appropriations Stat. 1107 legislation. Act 1992 (1991)

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Department of Pub. L. No. Amends the National Defense Authorization Defense 102-172, 105 Act so that a disadvantaged small Appropriations Stat. 1150 business concern includes a small Act 1992 (1991) business concern owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals, an Indian tribe, a Native Hawaiian organization, or an organization employing the severely disabled.

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Act of Dec. 11, Pub. L. No. Amends title 38 (Veterans' Benefits) to 1991 102-218, sec. designate the Chief Minority Affairs 1, § 317, 105 Officer as an adviser on the effect of Stat. 1671 policies, regulations, and programs on (1991) Native Hawaiians, other Native Americans, women, and minority groups.

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ADAMHA Pub. L. No. Amends the Public Health Services Act by Reorganization 102-321, sec. requiring the State of Hawai'i to Act 203, § 1953, contract with organizations which plan, 106 Stat. conduct, and administer comprehensive 323, 409 substance abuse and treatment programs (1992) for Native Hawaiians. (Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration)

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Higher Education Pub. L. No. Amends the Higher Education Amendments of Amendments of 102-325, sec. 1965 by authorizing Federal repayment 1992 305, § § of loan for nurses working in a Native 357(b)(7), Hawaiian Health Center (also in Indian 1406, 106 Health Service); gives preference to Stat. 448, Teacher Corps applicants intending to 479, 818 teach on Indian reservations or in (1992) Alaska Native villages or in areas with high concentrations of Native Hawaiians; also, authorizes biennial education survey on Native Hawaiians, other Native Americans, and other groups including the disabled, disadvantaged, and minority students.

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Higher Education Pub. L. No. Amends the Higher Education Act of 1965 Facilities Act of 102-325, sec. by authorizing grants and fellowships 1992 422, § to promote higher education of Indians, 428J(a), 106 Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians, Stat. 448, along with specified ethnic groups. 541 (1992)

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Job Training Reform Pub. L. No. Authorizes employment and recruitment Amendments of 102-367, sec. preference for Native Hawaiians, 1992 401, § 401, Indians, and Alaska Natives for a new 106 Stat. office that will administer Native 1021, 1074 American programs; also creates a (1992) Native American Employment and Training Council with membership of Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians that will solicit views on issues program operation and administration.

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Older Americans Act Pub. L. No. Amends the Older Americans Act Amendment Amendment of 1992 102-375, sec. of 1965 by creating an advocate for 201, § older Indians, Alaskan Natives, and 201(c)(3), Native Hawaiians to promote enhanced 106 Stat. delivery of services and grants, and 1195, 1203 authorizes appropriations for these (1992) activities.

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Native American Pub. L. No. Amends Native American Programs Act by Programs Act 102-375, sec. requiring the filing of annual report Amendments of 811, 822, § § on the social and economic conditions 1992 803A, 811A, of American Indians, Native Hawaiians, 106 Stat. other Native American Pacific Islanders 1195, 1295, (including American Samoan Natives), 1296 (1992) and Alaska Natives, and authorizes appropriations for the Native American programs.

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Department of the Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the Alaska Interior and 102-381, 106 Native Culture and Arts Development Act Related Agencies Stat. 1374 which also provides funds for Native Appropriations (1993) Hawaiians. Act, 1993

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Departments of Pub. L. No. Provides for appropriations for the Veterans Affairs 102-389, 106 National Commission on American Indian, and Housing and Stat. 1571 Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Urban (1992) Housing in carrying out functions under Development, and the Department of Housing and Urban Independent Development Reform Act of 1989. Agencies Appropriations Act, 1993

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Department of Pub. L. No. Specifies funding guidelines for the Health and Human 102-394, 106 Native Hawaiian Health Care Act of Services Stat. 1792 1988. Appropriations (1992) Act, 1993

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Department of Pub. L. No. Appropriates funds for Native Hawaiian Education 102-394, 106 education programs under authorizing Appropriations Stat. 1792 legislation. Act, 1993 (1992)

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Department of Pub. L. No. Amends the Native Hawaiian Health Care Defense 102-396, 106 Act of 1988 by establishing health Appropriations Stat. 1876 goals for Native Hawaiians and Act, 1993 (1993) scholarships for Native Hawaiian health students.

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Joint Resolution to Pub. L. No. Agrees to the adoption of amendments consent to 102-398, 106 enacted by the State of Hawai'i to the certain Stat. 1953 Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1920. amendments (1992) enacted by the legislature of the State of Hawai'i to the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act, 1920.

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Veterans' Medical Pub. L. No. Requires development of a plan to treat Programs 102-405, § veterans' post-traumatic stress Amendments of 123, 106 disorder, especially the needs of 1992 Stat. 1972, Native Hawaiians, other Native 1982 (1992) Americans, women, and ethnic minorities.

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Health Professions Pub. L. No. Amends the Public Health Services Act by Education 102-408, sec. authorizing grants to health Extension 102, § 739, professions schools to support programs Amendments of 106 Stat. of excellence in health professions 1992 1992, 2055 education for Native Hawaiians, other (1992) Native Americans, and minority individuals.

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Nurse Education and Pub. L. No. Amends the Public Health Service Act by Practice 102-408, sec. authorizing the repayment of school Improvement 102, § 846, loans for nurses who work two years in Amendments of 106 Stat. an Indian Health Service health center, 1992. 1992, 2031 in a Native Hawaiian health center, in (1992) a public hospital, in a migrant health center, in a community health center, in a rural health clinic, or in a public or nonprofit private health facility.

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Veterans' Home Loan Pub. L. No. Amends Title 38 by providing direct Program 102-547, sec. housing loans to Native American Amendments of 8, § § veterans (including Native Hawaiians) 1992 3761-3764, and includes the Department of Hawaiian 106 Stat. Homelands in the definition of "tribal 3633, 3639 organization." (1992)

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Housing and Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for National Community 102-550, sec. Commission on American Indians, Alaska Development Act 128, § 605, Natives, and Native Hawaiian housing. of 1992 106 Stat. 3672 (1992)

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Hawai'i Tropical Pub. L. No. Establishes the Hawai'i Tropical Forest Forest Recovery 102-574, § 4, Recovery Task Force which will make Act. 106 Stat. recommendations for rejuvenating 4593, 4597 Hawaii's tropical forests, including (1992) the traditional practices, uses, and needs of Native Hawaiians in tropical forests.

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National Historic Pub. L. No. Amends the National Historic Preservation Preservation Act 102-575, sec. Act to protect Native Hawaiian, Indian, Amendments of 4002, 4006, and Alaska Native religious and 1992 § § 2, 101, cultural sites, including authorizing 106 Stat. direct grants to Indian tribes and 4600, 4753 Native Hawaiian organizations to (1992) preserve, stabilize, restore, or rehabilitate religious properties.

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Veterans Health Pub. L. No. Authorizes Native Hawaiian Health centers Care Act of 1992 102-585, sec. to purchase pharmaceuticals at the 602, § 340B, Federal government-negotiated price. 106 Stat. 4943, 4967 (1992)

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Department of Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the Native Health and Human 103-112, Hawaiian Health Care Act of 1988. Services Stat. 1082 Appropriations (1993) Act, 1994

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Department of Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for Native Education 103-112, Hawaiian education programs under Appropriations Stat. 1082 authorizing legislation. Act, 1994 (1993)

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100th Anniversary Pub. L. No. Acknowledges and apologizes for the of the Overthrow 103-150, 107 United States' role in the overthrow of of the Hawaiian Stat. 1510 the Kingdom of Hawai'i. Kingdom (1993)

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Goals 2000: Educate Pub. L. No. Establishes National Education Goals for America Act 103-227, sec. schools and students from diverse 2-3, 108 backgrounds, including Indians, Alaska Stat. 125, Natives, and Native Hawaiians, the 129 (1994) disabled, and limited English-speakers.

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School-to-Work Pub. L. No. Establishes school-to-work activities to Opportunities Act 103-239, sec. improve the knowledge and skills of of 1994 3-4, 108 youths from various backgrounds and Stat. 568, circumstances, including disadvantaged 572 (1994) students, students with diverse racial, ethnic, or cultural backgrounds, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, students with disabilities, students with limited-English proficiency, migrant children, school dropouts, and academically talented students.

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Alaska Native Pub. L. No. Amends the Higher Education Act of 1986 Culture and Arts 103-239, sec. by authorizing grants to organizations Development Act 721, § 1521, that primarily serve and represent 108 Stat. Native Hawaiians or Alaska Natives to 568, 572 support Native culture and art (1994) programs.

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Department of Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for Native Health and Human 103-333,108 Hawaiian health. Services Stat. 2539 Appropriations (1994) Act, 1995

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Department of Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for Native Education 103-333, 108 Hawaiian education. Appropriations Stat. 2539 Act, 1995 (1994)

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Department of Pub. L. No. Authorizes preference to Native Hawaiian Defense 103-335, 108 contractors restoring Kaho'olawe's Appropriations Stat. 2599 environment. Act, 1995 (1994)

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Safe and Drug-Free Pub. L. No. Authorizes grants for Native Schools and 103-382, sec. Hawaiian-serving institutions to plan, Communities Act 101, § § 4004, conduct, and administer violence and of 1994 4011, 4118, drug prevention programs. 108 Stat. 3518, 3674, 3674, 3685 (1994)

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Native Hawaiian Pub. L. No. Recognizes that Native Hawaiians are Education Act 103-382, sec. indigenous people and authorizes, among 101, § other things, grants to assist Native 9201-9212, Hawaiians in achieving national 108 Stat. education goals. 3518, 3794 (1994)

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Jacob K. Javits Pub. L. No. Authorizes grants and/or contracts to Gifted and 103-382, sec. Native Hawaiian organizations and Talented Students 101, § 10201, Indian tribes to assist in carrying out Education Act of 108 Stat. programs or projects for 1994 3518, 3820 gifted/talented students. (1994)

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Improving America's Pub. L. No. Provides support, training, assistance to Schools Act of 103-382, sec. grant recipients to improve the quality 1994 101, § 13102, of education for immigrants, migrants, 108 Stat. the poor, American Indians, Alaska 3518, 3878 Natives, and Native Hawaiians. (1994)

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Bilingual Education Pub. L. No. Authorizes grants to implement new Act 103-382, sec. comprehensive bilingual education 101, § § 7101, programs for Native American and Native 7104, 7136, Hawaiian languages. 108 Stat. 3518, 3716, 3718, 3732 (1994)

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Improving America's Pub. L. No. Authorizes subgrants from State and local Schools Act of 103-382, sec. governments to implement a bilingual 1994 (Part E) 101, § 7501, education program for the ancestral 108 Stat. languages of American Indians, Alaska 3518, 3745 Natives, and Native Hawaiians. (1994)

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Native American Pub. L. No. Establishes memorial to recognize Veterans' 103-384, § 2, contributions of Native American Memorial 108 Stat. Veterans (American Indians, Native Establishment Act 4067, 4067 Alaskans, and Native Hawaiians). of 1994 (1994)

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Veterans' Benefits Pub. L. No. Authorizes creation of a Center for Improvements Act 103-446, sec. Minority Veterans and Advisory of 1994 510, § 544, Committee on Minority Veterans to be 108 stat. more responsive to the needs of Native 4645, 4669 Hawaiian, American Indian, Alaska (1994) Native, and ethnic minority veterans.

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Hawaiian Home Lands Pub. L. No. Settles Department of Hawaiian Home Lands Recovery Act 104-42, § § claims against the Federal government 201-06, 109 for the value of the lost use of lands Stat. 353, by Native Hawaiians. 357 (1995)

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The Balanced Budget Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations to cover Down payment Act 104-99, § termination of Native Hawaiian and 115, 110 Alaska Native Cultural Arts Stat. 26, 29 (1996)

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National Defense Pub. L. No. Authorizes upgrading the Distinguished Authorization Act 104-106, § Service Cross to the Medal of Honor for for FY 1996 524, 110 World War II Native American Pacific Stat. 186 Islander veterans (including Native (1996) Hawaiians).

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Department of Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the Native Health and Human 104-134, 110 Hawaiian Health Care Act of 1988. Services Stat. 1321 Appropriations (1996) Act, 1996

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Department of Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for Native Education 104-134, 110 Hawaiian education programs under Appropriations Stat. 1321 authorizing legislation. Act, 1996 (1996)

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Child Care and Pub. L. No. Amends the Child Care and Develpment Development Block 104-193, sec. Block Grant Act of 1990 by authorizing Grand Amendment 614, § 658P, Native Hawaiian organizations to apply of 1996 110 Stat. for grants or enter into contracts with 2105, 2287 the Health and Human Services Secretary (1196) to improve child care, increase the availability of early childhood development, and increase before and after school care services.

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Departments of Pub. L. No. Authorizes the Housing Secretary to waive Veterans Affairs 104-204, sec. anti-discrimination provisions of the and Housing and 213, § 282, Cranston-Gonzales National Affordable Urban 110 Stat. Housing Act for lands set aside under Development, and 2874, 2904 the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act, Independent (1996) 1920. Agencies Appropriations Act, 1997

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Department of Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the Native Health and Human 104-208, 110 Hawaiian Health Care Act of 1988 and Services Stat. (3009) Older Americans Act of 1965. Appropriations (1996) Act, 1997

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Department of Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for Native Education 104-208, 110 Hawaiian education programs under Appropriations Stat. 3009 authorizing legislation. Act, 1997 (1996)

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National Museum of Pub. L. No. Amends National Museum of the American the American 104-278, sec. Indian Act by authorizing repatriation Indian Act 4, § 11A, 110 of Indian and Native Hawaiian sacred or Amendments of Stat. 3355, funerary objects and cultural patrimony 1996 3356 (1996) objects.

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Joint Resolution to Pub. L. No. Agrees to the adoption of amendments consent to 105-21, 111 enacted by the State of Hawai'i to the certain Stat. 235 Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1920. amendments (1997) enacted by the legislature of the State of Hawai'i to the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act, 1920.

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Department of Pub. L. No. Waives repayment of airport funds that Transportation 105-66, 111 were diverted for the betterment of and Related Stat. 1425 American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Agencies (1997) Native Hawaiians. Appropriations Act, 1998

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Department of Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for the Native Health and Human 105-78, 111 Hawaiian Health Care Act and Older Services Stat. 1467 Americans Act of 1965. Appropriations (1997) Act, 1998

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Department of Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for Native Education 105-78, 111 Hawaiian education programs under Appropriations Stat. 1467 authorizing legislation. Act, 1998 (1997)

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Museum and Library Pub. L. No. Amends Museum and Library Services Act by Services 105-128, sec. authorizing Hawaiian organizations Technical and 6, § 262, 111 eligible to receive grants (along with Conforming Stat. 2548, American Indian tribes) to Amendments of 2549 (1997) electronically link libraries with 1997 education, social, or information services.

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Workforce Pub. L. No. Authorizes grants to Indian Tribes, Investment Act of 105-220, § tribal organizations, Alaska Native 1998 166, 112 entities, Indian-controlled Stat. 936, organizations, and Native Hawaiian 1021 (1998) organizations for employment and training activities.

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Rehabilitation Act Pub. L. No. Amends the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 by Amendments of 105-220, sec. requiring State agencies to consult 1998 404, § 101 with Indian Tribes, tribal 112 Stat. organizations, and Native Hawaiian 936, 1163 organizations before adopting any (1998) policies for vocational rehabilitation services.

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Higher Education Pub. L. No. Amends the Higher Education Act of 1965 Amendments of 105-244, sec. by authorizing grants to improve 1998 303, § 1001, education institutions' ability to 112 Stat. serve Alaska Natives and Native 1581, 1638 Hawaiians. (1998)

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Act of October 14, Pub. L. No. Amends the Native Hawaiian Health Care 1998 105-256, sec. Improvement Act by requiring recipients 12, § of the Native Hawaiian Health 10(b)(1), 112 Scholarship Program to work in the Stat. 1896, Native Hawaiian Health Care System. 1899 (1998)

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Department of Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations to carry out Health and Human 105-277, 112 the Native Hawaiian Heath Care Act of Services Stat. 2681 1988 and the Older Americans Act. Appropriations (1998) Act, 1999

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Department of Pub. L. No. Authorizes appropriations for Native Education 105-277, 112 Hawaiian education programs under Appropriations Stat. 2681 authorizing legislation. Act, 1999 (1998)

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Head Start Pub. L. No. Amends the Head Start Act by requiring Amendments of 105-285, sec. the Secretary of Health and Human 1998 117, § 650, Services to prepare and submit a report 112 Stat. concerning the condition, location, and 2702, 2727 ownership of facilities used, or (1998) available to be used, by Native Hawaiian Head Start agencies.

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Assets for Pub. L. No. Authorizes Native Hawaiian organizations Independence Act 105-285, § § (and State, local, and tribal 401-416, 112 governments) to conduct demonstration Stat. 2702, projects to evaluate the effects of 2759 (1998) savings, microenterprise, and home ownership on families and the community

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Carl D. Perkins Pub. L. No. Authorizes grants to plan, conduct, and Vocational and 105-332, sec. administer vocational programs for Technical 1, § 116, 112 Native Hawaiians and other Native Education Act of Stat. 3076, Americans. 1998 3095 (1998)

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Native American Pub. L. No. Amends the Native Hawaiian Revolving Loan Programs Act 105-361, sec. fund to include a loan guarantee. Amendments of 3, § 803A, 1997 112 Stat. 3278, 3278 (1998)

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National Park Pub. L. No. Promotes the sale of authentic American Service 105-391, § Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Concessions 416, 112 Hawaiian handicrafts and makes those Management Stat. 3497, revenues exempt from franchise fees. Improvement Act 3516 (1998) of 1998

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Health Professions Pub. L. No. Authorizes grants to assist schools with Education 105-392, sec. health professions education programs Partnerships Act 101, § 736, for Native Hawaiians, American Indians, of 1998 112 Stat. Alaska Natives, and under-represented 3524, 3525 minorities. (1998)


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