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Historical Issues Related to Hawaiian Sovereignty -- Revolution (Overthrow of monarchy), Annexation, Statehood, Indigenous Status, Hawaiian Language Ban, Ceded Lands, Etc.


(c) Copyright 2000 - 2014 Kenneth R. Conklin, Ph.D. All rights reserved

There are about 950 webpages in the website "Hawaiian Sovereignty: Thinking Carefully About It." Each of those webpages has anywhere from just a few printed pages to perhaps as many as 300 printed pages. It can be hard to find things! That's why an internal search engine is provided.

This particular "Historical Issues" webpage is a compilation of links to the items in this website that are especially focused on history. A list of history books that can be found in libraries is available at
http://www.angelfire.com/hi2/hawaiiansovereignty/references.html
But the purpose of this webpage is to provide links to other internet webpages, not to books available only offline in libraries.

Here are the main sections in the order listed below.

Internal search engine

Major items featured: Books by Ken Conklin (2007, text partly online) and Thurston Twigg-Smith (1998, text and photos entirely online); Morgan Report (Official U.S. Senate report,1894, text and summaries entirely online); Native Hawaiians Study Commission official Congressional report, 1983, text entirely online).

Revolution of 1893 (overthrow), Republic of Hawaii, and Annexation of 1898

Statehood (1959) and today's secessionist challenges to it

Broader historical topics such as: The role of religion in Hawaiian history and sovereignty; alleged indigenous status of ethnic Hawaiians; alleged banning of Hawaiian language; ownership of the ceded lands, whether Hawaii citizens of Asian ancestry have a duty to subordinate themselves to ethnic Hawaiians and help throw off the yoke of American colonialism.

Other compilations of webpages: Introductory topics of interest to novices; Reparations (Does the U.S. Owe Anything to Ethnic Hawaiians?); Land Issues; Federal recognition (Akaka bill); Legal issues; Impact of Hawaiian sovereignty on businesses and communities; Conklin's candidacy for OHA trustee in Fall 2000.


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Here is an internal search engine allowing you to find all pages on this website which discuss the topic you're interested in.


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Major items featured: Books by Ken Conklin (2007, text partly online) and Thurston Twigg-Smith (1998, text and photos entirely online); Morgan Report (Official U.S. Senate report,1894, text and summaries entirely online); Native Hawaiians Study Commission official Congressional report, 1983, text entirely online); Hawaii Statehood -- straightening out the history-twisters.


Kenneth R. Conklin, Ph.D. "HAWAIIAN APARTHEID -- RACIAL SEPARATISM AND ETHNIC NATIONALISM IN THE ALOHA STATE" (paperback, 302 pages, March 2007). This book is not available in bookstores. It is available direct from the publisher's internet bookstore or from other internet bookstores such as Amazon, or Barnes and Noble. It is print-on-demand: when you order a book, they print one and mail it to you. This book includes a discussion of the history of racial separatism in Hawai'i, beginning in the Kalakaua/Lili'uokalani regime, continuing with the Home Rule Party during the Territorial period, and then the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1921, Alu Like, the founding of OHA in 1978, the Akaka bill, etc. See COVER, DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS, AND ENTIRE CHAPTER 1, FREE OF CHARGE, plus information on how to order the book; at
http://www.angelfire.com/planet/bigfiles40/BookPromo.html


Thurston Twigg-Smith, "HAWAIIAN SOVEREIGNTY: DO THE FACTS MATTER?" (Honolulu, HI: Goodale Publishing, 1998). This book focuses on the revolution of 1893 that overthrew the monarchy, and the annexation of Hawai'i to the United States (1898). But other topics are also covered, including the role of the missionaries. Mr Twigg-Smith is grandson of Lorrin A. Thurston, a leader of the revolution; and his great-great grandparents were Asa and Lucy Thurston who were in the first company of missionaries to arrive in Hawai'i in 1820. Mr. Twigg-Smith's entire book, including historical photos, can be downloaded free of charge in pdf format by clicking the following link (might take about 7 minutes with a 56 K modem):
http://bigfiles90.angelfire.com/HawnSovDoFactsMatterTTS.pdf


THE MORGAN REPORT -- OFFICIAL U.S. SENATE REPORT OF 1894 REGARDING THE 1893 REVOLUTION THAT OVERTHREW THE HAWAIIAN MONARCHY. 808 PAGES of historical documents and testimony under oath in open hearings under cross-examination. BLOWS A BIG HOLE IN THE TWISTED HISTORY IN THE APOLOGY RESOLUTION OF 1993 AND THE AKAKA BILL. Morgan Report website released to the public on January 17, 2006 in honor of the 113th anniversary of the Hawaiian revolution. The website includes all 808 pages of the official report; plus a detailed outline of topics; both short and long summaries of major testimonies; plus commentaries and highlighted portions of testimony on topics of special interest to historians. Morgan report includes the full text of a treaty of annexation offered by Kauikeaouli Kamehameha III; lengthy descriptions of the geography and economy of Hawaii including the school system and the sugar plantations, etc. Please visit
http://morganreport.org


The Native Hawaiians Study Commission was created by the Congress of the United States on December 22, 1980 (Title III of Public Law 96-565). The purpose of the Commission was to "conduct a study of the culture, needs and concerns of the Native Hawaiians." The report includes lengthy sections written by scholars about the history of Hawaii. The Commission published and released to the public a Draft Report of Findings on September 23, 1982. Following a 120-day period of public comment, a final report was written and submitted on June 23, 1983 to the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources and to the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.
http://wiki.grassrootinstitute.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Native_Hawaiians_Study_Commission_Report


Hawaii Statehood -- straightening out the history-twisters. A historical narrative defending the legitimacy of the revolution of 1893, the annexation of 1898, and the statehood vote of 1959.
http://www.angelfire.com/big09a/StatehoodHistUntwisted.html


The politics of digitizing Hawaiian language newspapers (from 1834-1948). A project to digitize Hawaiian language newspapers from the 19th Century appears superficially to be for scholarly research and revitalization of the language, but is actually being done primarily for political purposes in service to the sovereignty independence movement. The project is likely to engage in history-twisting by selecting royalist newspapers while ignoring Hawaiian language newspapers that were anti-monarchy or pro-annexation, thereby creating the impression that native Hawaiians were entirely pro-monarchy. The project might also twist history by allowing insertions or deletions of individual words or paragraphs, in the absence of providing photos of the scanned pages that would enable neutral scholars to verify the accuracy of transcription. An army of sovereignty activists are being recruited to do the transcribing by manually retyping thousands of pages from looking at photos of them, rather than using an optical character reader; thereby using the project to foster solidarity among the activists and to recruit new ones. The beginning and ending dates of this project were intentionally selected to be the dates of the two Hawaiian kingdom holidays of greatest political significance: Ka La Ku'oko'a (November 28, Independence Day) and Ka La Ho'iho'i Ea (July 31, Sovereignty Restoration Day). The organizers of the project are independence activists; and the sponsoring institutions and financial supporters are OHA, Bishop Estate, etc.
http://www.angelfire.com/big09/HawLangNewspapersPoliticsDigitize.html


What Does the United States Owe to Native Hawaiians? Two reports commissioned by Congress (Morgan 1894 and NHSC 1983) contain the answers, which are directly applicable to the Akaka bill.
http://www.angelfire.com/hi5/bigfiles3/USOwesNatHawns.html


OHA published a 67-page document suddenly on November 13, 2007 which tried to smear the Hawaii Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights just two days before a scheduled public meeting. The document also tried to twist history to support the Akaka bill and tried to discredit earlier testimony opposing the bill. Civil rights activists rushed to produce a rebuttal to the OHA document one day later. The rebuttal explains that conflicting historical narratives battle to influence public opinion on issues in the political arena, and cites the Morgan Report and Native Hawaiians Study Commission report to straighten out OHA's twisted history.
http://www.angelfire.com/planet/big60/AkakaOHAcivrtscomshisttwistrebut111307.html


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Revolution of 1893 (overthrow), Republic of Hawaii, and Annexation of 1898

Book Review of William M. Morgan Ph.D., PACIFIC GIBRALTAR: U.S. - JAPANESE RIVALRY OVER THE ANNEXATION OF HAWAII, 1885-1898 (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2011). Historian analyzes the Hawaiian revolution and annexation, and Grover Cleveland's attempt to overthrow President Dole and restore the Hawaiian monarchy. Special attention to Japanese immigration, Japanese diplomatic and military involvement in opposing annexation, and the normalcy of using joint resolution as the method of annexation.

Was the 1893 revolution illegal? Was it a theft of a nation owned by ethnic Hawaiians and stolen by non-ethic-Hawaiians?

U.S. apology resolution 20th anniversary -- A resolution was introduced in the Hawaii legislature to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the U.S. apology resolution; and testimony was offered to the Hawaii legislature in the form of a substitute resolution explaining that the apology resolution is filled with falsehoods, has produced bad consequences, and should be repealed. Detailed footnotes provide extensive documentation proving that statements about history in the apology resolution are false, and proving that bad consequences predicted by opponents of the resolution have actually happened.

Lies told on the U.S. Senate Floor by Senators Inouye and Dorgan regarding the revolution of 1893, while pushing the Akaka Bill.

Book review of Kim Hunter (author) and Patti Carol (illustrator), "Ka Pu'uwai Hamama -- Volunteer Spirit" (Wai'anae, HI: One Voice Publications, May 2010). Numerous historical falsehoods are quoted and disproved. The author/publisher is urged to recall the book as a defective product poisonous to the souls of innocent readers.

So-called executive agreements between Hawaii Queen Liliuokalani and U.S. President Grover Cleveland -- the new Hawaiian history scam by Keanu Sai

Ken Conklin Ph.D. vs. Keanu Sai Ph.D. -- Dialog regarding a theory that Hawaii Queen Liliuokalani and U.S. President Grover Cleveland had executive agreements, still binding today, which would require the U.S. to disgorge Hawaii and recognize its continuing sovereign independence

Was the 1898 annexation illegal?

The Republic of Hawaii was created on July 4, 1894, with the publication of its Constitution. At least five native Hawaiians were delegates to the Constitutional Convention; and the Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Republic was native Hawaiian John Kaulukou. The full text of the Constitution, and information about the Constitutional Convention that produced it, are available at:
http://www.angelfire.com/planet/big60/RepubHawConst1894.html

The Lili'uokalani Cult -- A scary but true Halloween story (October 31, 2013). Hawaiian secessionists try to inspire winners for 21st Century battles by conjuring the ghosts of 19th Century losers. Five major propaganda events associated with Lili'uokalani's 175th birthday were sponsored by overthrow-deniers and annexation-deniers. Detailed reports and analyses of those events.

New York Times article of July 22, 1894 repeats a news report that arrived in San Francisco by ship from Honolulu; about the creation of the Republic of Hawaii on July 4, the huge multiracial crowd celebrating it, and the immediate informal recognition given to the Republic by U.S. Minister Willis and various local consuls from other nations. This pdf file was downloaded from the New York Times website at
http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9C05E1DF143EEF33A25751C2A9619C94659ED7CF
http://www.angelfire.com/big09a/RepublicNYT1894July22.pdf

Ian Lind vs. Mark Umi Perkins regarding whether it is proper to poke fun at pretenders to the non-existent Hawaiian throne, whether Hawaii remains an independent nation, and other arcane topics such as whether the Treaty of Annexation was properly ratified by joint resolution, whether Keanu Sai's Hague arbitration was a scam.

INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION OF THE REPUBLIC OF HAWAII -- Emperors, Kings, Queens, Princes, and Presidents of at least 19 foreign nations personally signed formal letters of diplomatic recognition de jure, received by the Republic of Hawaii between July 1894 and January 1895. Those letters are available in the state Archives. Photographs of them have been placed on a webpage at
http://tinyurl.com/4wtwdz
Historical significance and implications for statehood, Akaka bill, and ceded lands; are explained at
http://tinyurl.com/2pxqgz
along with a detailed example of the Hawaiian sovereignty lie that such letters do not exist.

Treaty of Annexation between the Republic of Hawaii and the United States of America (1898). Full text of the treaty, and of the resolutions whereby the Republic of Hawaii legislature and the U.S. Congress ratified it. The politics surrounding the treaty, then and now.

Thurston Twigg-Smith, "Hawaiian Sovereignty: Do the Facts Matter?" (Honolulu, HI: Goodale Publishing, 1998). Mr. Twigg-Smith's entire book, including historical photos, can be downloaded free of charge at:
http://bigfiles90.angelfire.com/HawnSovDoFactsMatterTTS.pdf

July 4 is a triple holiday for Hawaii -- 1776, 1894, 1960 (including some internet links to important documents of the Republic of Hawaii, and district-by-district official results of the statehood vote of 1959 where 94.3% of voters said yes to statehood)

HCR107 in the Hawaii legislature of 2011 -- A resolution establishing a joint legislative investigating committee to investigate the status of two executive agreements entered into in 1893 between United States President Grover Cleveland and Queen Liliuokalani of the Hawaiian Kingdom, called the Liliuokalani assignment and the agreement of restoration.

So-called executive agreements between Hawaii Queen Liliuokalani and U.S. President Grover Cleveland -- the new Hawaiian history scam by Keanu Sai

Ken Conklin Ph.D. vs. Keanu Sai Ph.D. -- Dialog regarding a theory that Hawaii Queen Liliuokalani and U.S. President Grover Cleveland had executive agreements, still binding today, which would require the U.S. to disgorge Hawaii and recognize its continuing sovereign independence

Keanu Sai's Hawaiian history fantasies underlying his adventures with the International Criminal Court, the community of diplomats, and the Hawaii mortgage market. Disproving the alleged Liliuokalani Assignment, and the alleged Executive Agreement of Restoration

Helping foreign diplomats understand the history of U.S. sovereignty in Hawaii and the legitimacy of the relationship between their nations and Hawaii. [Lawsuit against U.S. by a Hawaiian independence activist seeks to add foreign nations as defendants]

Keanu Sai got started in the Hawaiian sovereignty scam biz by proclaiming himself Regent pro-tem of the Kingdom of Hawai'i. He claimed land titles in Hawai'i are junk because the overthrow, annexation, and statehood were all illegal. He collected hundreds of thousands of dollars from hundreds of clients for bogus title searches and warranty deeds. He caused grief to property owners, messing up the real estate industry and mortgage banking for more than a year by filing bogus land title warranty deeds at the Bureau of Conveyances. On this page are a description of the process Mr. Sai followed to get himself established as Regent pro-tem, and a lengthy series of newspaper articles reporting the rise and fall of his "Perfect Title" company.

"Hawaii Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand" Major monograph by constitutional law scholar Bruce Fein opposing the Akaka bill, including a lengthy point-by-point rebuttal of the apology resolution. The essay can be downloaded in pdf format from this webpage, and can also be seen here as it appeared in three installments in the Congressional Record; along with three other major essays about the Akaka bill by Fein that were also published in the Congressional record.

Who Owns The Crown Lands of Hawaii? -- Book by Professor Jon Van Dyke, book review by attorney Paul M. Sullivan, and links to some related materials available on the internet.

Sanford Ballard Dole -- Elected Legislator and Appointed Supreme Court Justice of the Kingdom of Hawai'i; President of the Provisional Government and of the Republic of Hawai'i; Governor of the Territory of Hawai'i, and Presiding Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Territory of Hawai'i
Note that President (then Governor) Dole was "ruling chief" of Hawaii at Iolani Palace for almost eleven continuous years (January 17, 1893 to November 23, 1903) -- a longer time ruling from the Palace than any other King, Queen, President, or Governor. So where is his statue (or even portrait painting)?

Unconquerable Rebel: Robert W. Wilcox and Hawaiian Politics, 1880-1903 by Ernest Andrade, Jr. -- notes taken by Ken Conklin on topics of importance regarding current Hawaiian sovereignty issues

Dr. Sun Yat-sen and his views about Hawaiian sovereignty. Details about his adolescent years at Iolani and Punahou schools in Honolulu (1879 - 1883), factors in the formation of his character, and his five additional extended visits to Hawaii to found revolutionary societies, raise money, and recruit followers, ending in 1910. In 1911 the revolution he led was successful in toppling the 2000 year monarchy in China. Sun became President of the Provisional Government and then the first President of the Republic of China. In doing so he followed the same revolutionary career path as another Punahou student had followed 18 years previously. Sanford B. Dole, a native-born subject of the Hawaiian Kingdom, was a member of the Kingdom legislature and a Justice of the Kingdom's Supreme Court, but resigned before the Hawaiian revolution in order to become President of the Provisional Government and of the Republic of Hawaii. Sun was present in Hawaii, founding revolutionary societies, raising money, and gathering recruits, at the same time Dole was leading the Hawaiian revolution. It seems reasonable to guess that Sun was inspired by Dole.

Book Review of: Noenoe Silva, "Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance to American Colonialism"

Was Hawaiian language ever illegal in Hawai'i? Was Hawaiian language illegal in the schools? The truth about this malicious claim.

Are kanaka maoli entitled to reparations? (a lengthy legal argument by attorney Patrick Hanifin)

Does the U.S. Owe Hawaiians Anything? (informal short essay from 2000)

What Does the United States Owe to Native Hawaiians? Two reports commissioned by Congress (Morgan 1894 and NHSC 1983) contain the answers, which are directly applicable to the Akaka bill.
http://www.angelfire.com/hi5/bigfiles3/USOwesNatHawns.html

Twisting History -- Reverend Kaleo Patterson Cites 112 Year Old Joke as Fact And Launches Media Blitz -- National Day of Prayer set for April 30, 2006 (and again 2007 and 2008) to support ethnic Hawaiian economic and political causes, based on fake 1894 proclamation attributed to President Grover Cleveland
In anticipation of Kaleo Patterson once again seeking publicity in 2008 for this bogus holiday based on a historical falsehood, the following April Fools flyer was circulated in Hawaii, New Jersey, and elsewhere:
http://bigfiles90.angelfire.com/AprilFoolsGroverClevelandHawResoFlyer.pdf

The Goebbels Award For Outstanding Use of Media for Propaganda Disguised As Fact -- Honolulu Star-Bulletin Wednesday April 23 2008, page 2 (The newspaper falsely stated that President Grover Cleveland signed a proclamation in 1894 that set April 30th as a day of prayer and remembrance for Queen Liliuokalani and the overthrown monarchy of Hawaii; and the newspaper refused to publish a correction despite being given proof of falsehood).

Official report of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights opposing the Akaka bill, May 5, 2006. Written testimony of four expert panelists includes discussion of important issues regarding the history of Hawai'i.

S.66, the Native Hawaiian Health Care Improvement bill in the 112th Congress -- Reauthorizing an ineffective but socially dangerous pork-barrel waste of taxpayer dollars. S.66 contains virtually the same false and twisted historical and legal claims as in S1929 from ten years previously! But the refutations have now been expanded, with more footnotes.

HCR107 in the Hawaii legislature of 2011 -- A resolution establishing a joint legislative investigating committee to investigate the status of two executive agreements entered into in 1893 between United States President Grover Cleveland and Queen Liliuokalani of the Hawaiian Kingdom, called the Liliuokalani assignment and the agreement of restoration. The resolution itself describes the alleged executive agreements and authorizes the commission to subpoena witnesses and documents. Testimony against the resolution refutes some of the historical and legal claims, and explains why this resolution is both ridiculous and dangerous.

HR258 and HCR293 in the Hawaii legislature of 2011 -- A resolution to rip the Treaty of Annexation out of the hand of President McKinley in his statue in front of McKinley High School

Lili'uokalani v. United States, 45 Ct Cl. 418, 1910. In 1909 ex-queen Lili'uokalani filed a lawsuit against the United States demanding payment for the lands of the Kingdom of Hawaii which had been ceded to the United States at the time of annexation. The court ruled against her in 1910. Her claim is interesting partly because she did not challenge the legitimacy of the revolution or annexation; and indeed the court's ruling specifically included the full text of the treaty of annexation offered by the Republic of Hawaii and accepted in a joint resolution by the U.S. Congress. Her claim is also interesting because she never asserted that the ceded lands belonged communally to ethnic Hawaiians; rather she claimed the lands belonged to her personally.

Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole -- Just how princely was he? (Kuhio was absent from his nation for many years on an adventure trip during the crucial period in the late 1890s leading to annexation; and he filed a lawsuit in 1915 to have Liliuokalani declared mentally incompetent so he could steal her Waikiki lands she had set aside for her Childrens Trust)

Correcting some of the errors in Niklaus Schweizer's history of Prince Kuhio and the Royal Hawaiian Band. He portrayed Kuhio as 'a gallant Hawaiian prince' but did not mention that Kuhio fought in a war on the side of British colonialists in Africa, and tried to have Liliuokalani declared mentally incompetent so he could steal her land. Schweizer asserted that there was an executive agreement between U.S. President Cleveland and Queen Liliuokalani to restore the Hawaiian monarchy -- a gratuitous assertion that is false and also irrelevant to the history of Kuhio or the band.

A series of Hawaiian sovereignty public forums in 2014 -- A small group of independence activists uses deceptive advertising to make a one-sided propaganda circus seem to be an open and honest discussion, tells falsehoods about Hawaii history as though they are true, and allows no rebuttal.

JONAH KUHIO KALANIANAOLE v. LILIUOKALANI, Supreme Court of Hawaii, 23 Haw. 457; 1916. (Court-approved syllabus and complete text of ruling)

Was Hawaiian language ever illegal in Hawai'i? Was Hawaiian language illegal in the schools? (Claim is based on a law passed by the Republic of Hawaii in 1896 clarifying the requirements a "school" must meet to be certified as satisfying the compulsory attendance law) The truth about this malicious claim.


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Statehood (1959) and today's secessionist challenges to it

HAWAI'I STATEHOOD: The History of the Struggle to Achieve Statehood, and Current Challenges. Large webpage has subpages including: a statehood day celebration resolution from 2002 and 2003 which contained a list of the milestones in the 110 year history of efforts to achieve statehood from 1849 to 1959; Governor Cayetano's outstanding Statehood Day message of 2002 and Governor Lingle's ineffective one from 2003; and a blatantly secessionist resolution passed by the state Senate in 2001 and thereafter delivered to the United Nations.

"I have a dream" -- for Hawaii, 50 years later (Recalling Martin Luther King's speech, and how his dream applies to Hawaii in 2013)

Hawai'i's Great Statehood Petition of February 1954 had 120,000 signatures gathered in 2 weeks on a petition for statehood for Hawai'i. A huge roll of newsprint was unrolled for a block in downtown Honolulu for people to sign the petition. Two weeks later a sendoff celebration was held at ‘Iolani Palace including chants, hula, kahili, and torch bearers before sending the 250 pound petition to Congress. Quotes are provided from 1954 newspaper articles, and photo captions, describing the events of those two weeks. Information is provided about what has happened to the petition and where it is stored today. The contents of one signature page are provided including 32 names and addresses.

STATEHOOD VOTE OF 1959: There were 132,773 votes "yes" and 7971 votes "no" for an astonishing 94.3% "yes" vote. For those who like to say ethnic Hawaiians were opposed to Statehood: Do the math. If 20% of the voters were ethnic Hawaiians, that would mean there were 28,149 votes cast by ethnic Hawaiians = 20% out of the total 140,744. Supposing ALL the 7971 "no" votes had been cast by ethnic Hawaiians; then there were still 20,178 "yes" votes from ethnic Hawaiians, representing 72% of the 28,149 ethnic Hawaiian votes. The vote count was also broken down by individual representative district. The district with the highest percentage of ethnic Hawaiians -- sparsely-populated Moloka'i -- had 1904 "yes" and 75 "no" for a 96.2% "yes" vote -- the highest percentage among all the 17 districts. A 3-page pdf file (unfortunately 5.4 Megabytes!) shows the statistics as certified by Hawaii Chief Elections Officer Dwayne Yoshina in his letter dated January 7, 2000:
http://www.angelfire.com/planet/big60/HawaiiStateHoodVote.pdf

Dialog: Was there widespread, significant, organized opposition to Hawaii statehood by ethnic Hawaiians during the 1950s?
During August 2009 the Honolulu Advertiser published a series of articles by staff reporter Michael Tsai regarding the 50th anniversary of Hawaii statehood. One of those articles, on August 9, 2009, described Native Hawaiian opposition to statehood during the 1950s, including the question whether opposition was widespread, significant, or organized. This article reinforced the attitudes of the Hawaiian sovereignty activists who like to call Hawaii a "fake state." They like to say that in the 1950s there was strong opposition to statehood among ethnic Hawaiians, despite oppression which caused all of them except the powerful or affluent (like Alice Campbell) to remain silent.
In response, blogger Andrew Walden, editor of Hawaii Free Press, published a rebuttal on August 21, 2009 showing that the Advertiser article had misunderstood or actually twisted the facts about the testimony of Alice Campbell and other so-called opposition by Native Hawaiians.
Both articles are copied here:
http://www.angelfire.com/big09/DialogHawnOpposStatehood1950s.html

Here is Governor Cayetano's excellent 2002 Statehood Day message to the people of Hawaii, proclaimed near the end of his final year in office. He expresses great pride in Hawaii's diversity, unity, and equality; and the fact that we are Americans.

Hawaii Statehood Day 2005 -- No celebration on any island, but an anti-statehood rally was attempted on Maui, led by Charles Kauluwehi Maxwell, who was at that time Chair of the Hawaii Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights and also a strong advocate for the Akaka bill.

Celebration of Statehood Day 2006 in Hawai'i turned ugly. The 47th anniversary celebration of Hawai'i statehood, at the Capitol of the former Territory, was disrupted by Hawaiian sovereignty activists using a sound-system, bullhorns, and direct in-your-face yelling as the celebration was about to get underway. First to be targeted by the terrorists were the high school students who are members of the band invited to perform -- as they sat seated with their instruments, ready to play patriotic songs, numerous protesters walked right up to them, shouting and cursing, while the bullhorn warned there would be trouble and they should leave. Needless to say, their parent-chaperones escorted them to the bus. Then the goon-squad turned attention to the legitimate participants in the celebration, standing nose-to-nose while yelling loudly and continuously; cursing, spitting, coming between celebrants, and surrounding individuals while telling them to leave and to take their American flags with them because this is not America. For details, see:
http://www.angelfire.com/planet/bigfiles40/statehoodday2006.html

Statehood Day and Queen's Birthday, 2006 -- Which Is More Appropriate To Celebrate At Iolani Palace (Or At All)? [Essay includes information about Wilcox rebellion of 1889 and Wilcox attempted counter-revolution of 1895, and documented statements by Liliuokalani acknowledging that annexation was the best thing that could have happened for her people.]

Hawaii Statehood Day August 17, 2007 -- Holiday hijacked by Hawaiian sovereignty activists, with cooperation of state government officials, for celebration of 125th anniversary of Iolani Palace; Zero celebration of Statehood

BOOK REVIEW OF Aran Alton Ardaiz, Hawaii -- The Fake State (A Manifesto and Expose of a Nation in Captivity). Hawaiian Islands, Truth Of God Ministry, 2008. [review includes a well-documented narrative of major events leading to statehood, to rebut the book's claims that the state is illegitimate]

Proposed new rules for Iolani Palace and grounds -- testimony to DLNR offered by Ken Conklin in honor of Statehood Day, August 15, 2008

Hawaii King Akahi Nui -- His coronation at Iolani Palace in 1998 and how he fits in with others claiming power

Iolani Palace and the Golden Jubilee of Hawaii Statehood. The Palace was the Capitol of the Republic of Hawaii (1894-1898), Territory of Hawaii (1898-1959), and State of Hawaii (1959-1968), where the transition to Statehood took place in 1959. But the state government is now prohibiting use of the Palace for jubilee celebration due to threats from secessionists and concerns for political correctness.

The Hawaii Annexation Resolution (1898) and the Hawaii Apology Resolution (1993) -- Do they have the force of law?

Hawaii begins to create a state-recognized tribe. SB1520 passed the legislature on May 3, 2011, and was signed by Governor Abercrombie on July 6, 2011 to become Act 195. Why did they do it? What happens now?

The Office of Hawaiian Affairs is a state government agency, despite its claims to the contrary. The status of OHA has important implications for the illegality of the proposed federally recognized Akaka tribe and the Act 195 state recognized tribe.

History of modern Hawaii as taught in Hawaii schools

The Lili'uokalani Cult -- A scary but true Halloween story (October 31, 2013). Hawaiian secessionists try to inspire winners for 21st Century battles by conjuring the ghosts of 19th Century losers. Five major propaganda events associated with Lili'uokalani's 175th birthday were sponsored by overthrow-deniers and annexation-deniers. Detailed reports and analyses of those events.


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Broader historical topics such as: alleged indigenous status of ethnic Hawaiians; the growth of citizenship and voting rights in Hawaii; full partnership for Caucasians and Asians; Kingdom holidays then and now; alleged banning of Hawaiian language; ownership of the ceded lands; whether Hawaii citizens of Asian ancestry have a duty to subordinate themselves to ethnic Hawaiians and help throw off the yoke of American colonialism; History of the political and legal battle between Rice v. Cayetano and the Akaka bill during the period from 1996 to 2010.

Tenth anniversary of U.S. Supreme Court decision in Rice v. Cayetano. The February 23, 2000 decision in Hawaii's most important civil rights lawsuit spurred a decade of additional civil rights lawsuits against government and private race-based programs, and prompted racial separatists to seek protection for those programs through the Hawaiian Government Reorganization bill (Akaka bill) now pending in Congress.

Corboy: Hawaii lawsuit against racial discrimination in property tax rates. [This lawsuit cites language in the Rice v. Cayetano decision which ruled that "native Hawaiian" is a racial category; and therefore Corboy argues it is contrary to the 14th Amendment Equal Protection clause for Hawaii counties to give property tax exemptions or huge reductions to all leaseholders on the lands of the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1921, where federal and state law requires all those leaseholders to have a minimum Hawaiian native blood quantum.]

The role of religion in Hawaiian history and sovereignty. How the ancient native Hawaiian religion is being revived to serve the political goal of establishing race-based sovereignty. How the native religion and Christian religion shaped culture and politics in the Kingdom of Hawaii. Compilation of selected webpages and books.

Are ethnic Hawaiians indigenous to Hawai'i? Would the status of being indigenous give them special rights?

Are ethnic Hawaiians an Indian Tribe? Open letter to State legislators. Federal Criteria for Recognition of Tribal Status.

Native(?) Hawaiian Gathering Rights(?) Attorney Paul M. Sullivan's extensive legal analysis of the underlying issues in the PASH case, with 371 hot-linked footnotes.

Indigenous Intellectual Property Rights -- The General Theory, and Why It Does Not Apply in Hawai'i

Kamehameha vs. Akaka -- Kamehameha unified Hawai'i 200 years ago; Akaka bill's main purpose is to divide Hawai'i (includes history of Kamehameha Day holiday; lack of certainty about Kamehameha's birthdate within a range of 25 years; Battle of Nu'uanu Pali and Herb Kane's painting of it and Adair's political cartoon based on it; newspaper advertisement comparing Kamehameha's unification of a multiracial Hawai'i against divisiveness of Akaka bill)

June 11, 2009 (Kamehameha Day): What Kamehameha hath joined together, let not Akaka rip asunder

Updated June 11, 2010: Kamehameha Day 2010 -- What Kamehameha hath joined together, let not Akaka rip asunder

Honolulu City Council resolution proposed in April 2010 to support the Akaka bill, and detailed testimony against it, and a proposed substitute resolution opposing the Akaka bill

The role of Alaska Native Corporations in pushing the Akaka bill -- Ken Conklin's short review of this topic as a followup to investigative reporter Jim Dooley's lengthy and detailed analysis of the recent history of federal contract preferences for ethnic Hawaiian companies and the role of Alaska Native Corporations in Hawaii's economy. Webpage includes both Dooley's entire report and Conklin's extension of it.

Henry Opukaha'ia (Obookiah) -- Native Hawaiian Travels to New England in 1809, Converts to Christianity, and Persuades Yale Divinity Students to Come to Hawai'i as Missionaries in 1820 to Rescue His People From Their Heathen Beliefs and Lifestyle

"NATIVE OF OWHYHEE" FEATURE FILM ON 'OLELO TV. It's available now "on demand" to anyone throughout the world, and will be broadcast at least 4 times on TV in Honolulu during October and November 2011. The film describes how Hawaiian natives at Yale invited the missionaries who came in 1820, and the cooperative blending of cultures which resulted. This webpage provides details about the film, the broadcast schedule, and how to view it "on demand."

Saint Damien, the Leprosy Colony on Molokai, Hawaiian Sovereignty, and the Akaka Bill. Sovereign monarchs of the Hawaiian Kingdom badly abused the victims of leprosy. Today Damien, the patron saint of Native Hawaiians, would not be allowed to join the Akaka tribe.

Caucasians and Asians were historically full partners in Hawai'i, not merely second-class guests.

St. Patrick's Day was chosen by King Kauikeaouli Kamehameha III to be his "official birthday." But why was it that neither he nor anybody else knew his actual biological birthdate?

St. Patricks Day 2010: Honouring a Hawaiian King who declared it as his official birthday, and also honouring modern Irishmen who are leaders in the sport of surfing. Criticism of a resolution passed by the State of Hawaii House of Reprenentatives in March 2010 which is racially exclusionary in honoring only "Polynesian tribal surfers."

Charles Reed Bishop, philanthropist who donated far more money to found Kamehameha School than the value of the land donated by his wife (Bernice Pauahi Bishop)

A Brief History of Citizenship and Voting Rights in Hawai'i (Kingdom, Republic, Territory, and State) by attorney Patrick W. Hanifin.

Essay length book review of "Kahana: How the Land was Lost" by Robert Stauffer. This astonishing book examines the history of land title transfers in Kahana Valley (O'ahu). Stauffer treats Mary Foster (25% native blood) as being "haole" and therefore land acquired by her was "lost" to ethnic Hawaiians; he says there should have been a law prohibiting sales of native land to non-natives (but then there could have been no mortgages to provide capital for irrigation and farming); and he claims haoles controlled the Legislature (although only about 25% were haoles) which passed an allegedly anti-native law in 1874, signed by Kalakaua, allowing non-judicial foreclosures of mortgages.

Did kanaka maoli exercise self-determination?

Hawaiian Sovereignty: A Brief Overview (1993 Essay by Robert Midkiff, outlining the history of Hawai'i and his views on the sovereignty movement)

Haole Collective Guilt for Hawaiian Grievances and Pain -- Major essay book review of "Then There Were None" by Martha H. Noyes (based on Elizabeth Lindsey Buyers TV docudrama). The book is a tear-jerker, tracing the constant decline in the number of "pure Hawaiians" and blaming it on Euro-Americans.

The population of "Native Hawaiians" has multiplied tenfold during the first century of American sovereignty, going from fewer than 40,000 in Census 1900 to more than 401,000 in Census 2000. A spreadsheet of Census 2000 data showing state-by-state population of Native Hawaiians: 400,000 nationwide including 240,000 in Hawai'i, 60,000 in California, and 100,000 in the other 48 states.

Census 2010 Native Hawaiian data -- some political implications for the Akaka bill, Act 195 state recognized tribe, and the Hawaiian grievance industry racial victimhood allegations

What Does the United States Owe to Native Hawaiians? Two reports commissioned by Congress contain the answers, which are directly applicable to the Akaka bill. The Morgan Report (U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs, 1894, 808 pages) concluded the U.S. did not conspire with the revolutionists to overthrow the Hawaiian monarchy, and did not help them while it was underway. The Native Hawaiians Study Commission was delivered to Senate and House committees in 1983, and concluded there is no historical, legal, or moral obligation for the United States to provide race-based benefits, group rights, or political sovereignty to ethnic Hawaiians.

A very brief history of education in Hawai'i, and why it is centralized.

A detailed look at the history and current purposes of Hawaiian language immersion schools, the charter school movement, and Hawaiian culture immersion charter schools

Hawaiian history as seen by Professor Haunani-Kay Trask

Core Attitudes in Common to Both Theories of Hawaiian Sovereignty: Racial Separatism and Ethnic Nationalism

"Forced assimilation may hurt Hawaiians" -- A typical combination of junk history and junk science fueling the Hawaiian grievance industry. An in-depth analysis of a short newspaper report which claimed that today's ethnic Hawaiians have the worst statistics for lifespan and tobacco smoking, and the blame goes to "cultural trauma syndrome" stemming from the forced assimilation of ethnic Hawaiians to Western ways.

What kind of sovereignty might be historically and morally justifiable, as well as politically possible? An essay by Ken Conklin written in 2000 which envisioned and rejected the racially exclusionary plan for Kanakaland put forward by OHA in 2006 now known as "Plan B." A proposal for total independence would be plausible if it allowed long-term Hawaii residents of all races to participate on a basis of full equality (but no such proposal has ever been put forward).

Voting Rights, Property Rights, and Hawaiian Sovereignty: The Outrageously Racist Demands of the Hawaiian Supremacists

Aren't we all sovereign now? (an informal essay by attorney Patrick Hanifin)

Ka La Ho'iho'i Ea: Sovereignty Restoration Day. The Rev. Dr. Gerrit Judd was a patriot of the Hawaiian Kingdom and a hero in restoring sovereignty to the Kingdom on July 31, 1843. But today's sovereignty activists ignore him when they commemorate this holiday, because he was not kanaka maoli.

Hawaiian sovereignty activists have also engaged in ethnic cleansing of other historical holidays from the multiracial Hawaiian Kingdom, and sometimes try to hijack American holidays for ethnic purposes.

How Thanksgiving Came to Hawaii

How Christmas Came to Hawaii

Twisting History -- Reverend Kaleo Patterson Cites 112 Year Old Joke as Fact And Launches Media Blitz -- National Day of Prayer set for April 30, 2006 to support ethnic Hawaiian economic and political causes, based on fake 1894 proclamation attributed to President Grover Cleveland. Patterson's scam was repeated in 2007 and fooled even the Legislature.

Using Hawaiian language as a political weapon by demanding that the names of places and streets must be Hawaiian -- DETAILED HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ABOUT HAWAII PLACE-NAMES IN GENERAL, AND HISTORICAL INFORMATION ABOUT FOUR CASE-STUDIES IN PARTICULAR: Thurston Ave.(Kamakaeha), Barbers Point (Kalaeloa), Dillingham Military Reservation (Kawaihapai), Fort Barrette Road (Kualakai).

Dr. Martin Luther King and Queen Lili'uokalani: Hawaiian sovereignty activists like to compare them, but such comparisons are bogus.

Update January 17, 2007: Was Liliuokalani Really Like Martin Luther King and Mahatma Gandhi? What really happened in the 1893 overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy?

Violence and threats of violence to push demands for Hawaiian sovereignty -- past, present, and future

We Need A Second Dialog on Sovereignty Where All Can Participate Without Predetermined Conclusions.

Local Pride -- How It Is Different in Hawai'i From Elsewhere; How "Local People" Get to be "American Idols"; The Role of the Aloha Spirit in Local Pride. (this essay has a historical aspect in describing why Asians and whites came to Hawai'i and how Asians have achieved parity with whites today)

Hawaiian Bones -- Rites For the Dead vs. Rights Of the Living (A philosophical inquiry into the conflict between respecting ancient burials vs. respecting the needs of living people for construction projects, and suggestions for how such conflicts should be resolved)

Were the lands stolen? Do the ceded lands rightfully belong to kanaka maoli alone?

Ceded Lands Belong to All the People of Hawai'i; There Should Be No Racial Allocation of Ceded Lands or Their Revenues. Extensive analysis of the origins of the ceded lands in the government and crown lands of the Mahele (1848), Annexation (1898), and Statehood Act (1959). Detailed explanation why there is no historical, legal, or moral basis for racial claims to ceded lands or their revenues. A shorter, simplified version is provided in an open letter to the Legislature (see above).

Bellows Air Force Station -- 1995 Environmental Impact Statement considers and rejects typical sovereignty activists' claims that ethnic Hawaiians have a racial right to own the ceded lands or to determine public policy for the use of ceded lands.

Native(?) Hawaiian Gathering Rights(?) Attorney Paul M. Sullivan's extensive legal analysis of the underlying issues in the PASH case, with 371 hot-linked footnotes.

Indigenous Intellectual Property Rights -- The General Theory, and Why It Does Not Apply in Hawai'i

How Hawaiian racial entitlements take away rights from private and government landowners in ways unique among the 50 states. Includes some discussion of the public trust doctrine for water, appurtenant water rights for taro, the PASH decision as a license for ethnic Hawaiians to trespass, NAGPRA and local law regarding ancient burials, regulatory takings and inverse condemnation, collective racial ownership of Kaho'olawe and several valleys, failed legislation on bioprospecting that would have established ethnic Hawaiian collective right to regulate research on biota and to extract racial royalties on any discoveries in the name of indigenous intellectual property rights.

Supreme Court Prohibits Racially Segregated Voting in OHA Elections: The Rice v. Cayetano Decision

Breaking the color barrier at OHA: Ken Conklin, the first candidate without Hawaiian blood to run for OHA trustee, Fall 2000, made possible by the Arakaki #1 decision.

ARAKAKI V. CAYETANO -- also known informally as ARAKAKI #2 -- A multiethnic group of 16 Hawai'i citizens file suit March 4, 2002 challenging the Constitutionality of both the Office of Hawaiian Affairs and the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act. This large webpage includes a press release, timeline of the ceded lands dispute, and ALL major legal documents filed in the Arakaki #2 lawsuit at all levels including U.S. District Court in Honolulu, 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco, and U.S. Supreme Court. The legal documents contain extensive material about Hawaiian history.

Analogy of the Stolen House and its mutation, Analogy of the Stolen Car. Around the turn of the century (2000, not 1900!) an analogy became popular among some Hawaiian sovereignty activists. They said Hawaiian history was like the history of a house that got overwhelmed by guests. A few guests were welcomed but then moved in permanently. The guests then invited more guests of their own. All the guests then began making new house rules. Soon the original (and still rightful) homeowners were forced to live in a small rear bedroom, and perhaps even forced to live in a tent in the backyard. The original homeowners finally got angry and are trying to reassert their rights. They might even call the cops to help them take back what is rightfully theirs.

"Polynesian" Voyaging -- Political Agenda, Ethnic Dominance, Cultural Authenticity, and Blood Nationalism. An extended book review of Ben Finney, "Sailing in the Wake of the Ancestors: Reviving Polynesian Voyaging." Is "Polynesian" voyaging really Polynesian? How does ancestral knowledge get transmitted to today's Hawaiians after centuries of being forgotten? Theories of racial memory, or deep culture. The importance of having ethnic Hawaiians as leaders and as a majority of crew members for perceptions of cultural authenticity. The role of Hokule'a as a logo or icon for an ethnic Hawaiian tribe or nation.

Asian Settler Colonialism [Hawaii] -- book review. [whether Hawaii citizens of Asian ancestry have a duty to subordinate themselves to ethnic Hawaiians and help throw off the yoke of American colonialism.]

According to an article in Honolulu Magazine, the word "'ohana" is only about 50 years old. The cultural concept it names has been cobbled together from ancient customs that varied widely from place to place. Today's concept was invented for political purposes. "'Ohana" is a buzzword, neither historically authentic nor descriptive of current practices.

A partial bibliography of books and other websites which support the concept that ethnic Hawaiians are not entitled to race-based sovereignty.


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Other compilations of webpages: Introductory topics of interest to novices; Reparations (Does the U.S. Owe Anything to Ethnic Hawaiians?); Land Issues; Federal recognition (Akaka bill); Legal issues; Impact of Hawaiian sovereignty on businesses and communities; Conklin's candidacy for OHA trustee in Fall 2000.

General Introduction to Sovereignty Issues for Newcomers

Reparations: Does the U.S. Owe Anything to Ethnic Hawaiians?

Point by point rebuttal to maiden Senate speech by U.S. Senator Brian Schatz (D,HI) on June 11, 2013 pleading for federal recognition for a phony Akaka tribe. Includes citations to sources proving the main points in the rebuttal.

Land Issues: "Stolen Lands," Ceded Lands, Gathering Rights

Federal Recognition: The Native Hawaiian Recognition bill (The Akaka Bill), Indian Tribe Recognition, etc.

For Lawyers and Law Students: Formal, lengthy, heavily-footnoted essays including articles from law journals; legal briefs and court decisions; and some less formal discussions of legal issues. All items included here are used for other topics above; but they are gathered here because they have a legal focus.

The Business Community in Relation to Hawaiian Sovereignty -- What Effects Has the Sovereignty Movement Already Had on Hawai'i Businesses? What Effect Would The Akaka Bill Have On Business? How Hawaiians-Only Programs Are Big Business and How They Lobby for the Akaka Bill. What Marketing Strategies is OHA Using to Sell the Bill?

A partial bibliography of books and other websites which support the concept that ethnic Hawaiians are not entitled to race-based sovereignty.

Breaking the color barrier at OHA: Ken Conklin, the first candidate without Hawaiian blood to run for OHA trustee, Fall 2000, made possible by the Arakaki #1 decision.

RECENT ESSAYS BY KEN CONKLIN ABOUT TOPICS NOT PRIMARILY FOCUSED ON HAWAIIAN SOVEREIGNTY

SCHOLARLY ESSAYS BY KEN CONKLIN PUBLISHED IN ACADEMIC JOURNALS BEFORE HE CAME PERMANENTLY TO HAWAII


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