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The 1840s and 1850s in the United States were characterized by all of the following except




a. heightened literary and artistic output and inventiveness.

b. advances in medical knowledge that lessened the danger and frequency of epidemics.
c. improvements in transportation and increases in productivity that raised the standard of living for the middle class.
d. building of municipal water works in many of the big cities to supply the needs of urban dwellers.

e. a mass-transit system that rivaled both Europe and Asia at the time-period which became a model for future societies.


All of the following were inventions that existed in the antebellum period that were mass-produced and/or widely used in the 1840s and 1850s except

a. Alexander Graham Bell's telephone.
b. Cyrus McCormick's mechanical reaper.
c. Samuel F. B. Morse's telegraph.
d. Elias Howe's sewing machine.

e. inoculations for disease.


Which of the following cities declined in importance as a commercial center because of the railroad building that took place in the 1840s and 1850s?

a. Atlanta
b. Chicago
c. Pittsburgh
d. New Orleans

e. St. Louis


An urban middle-class home in the 1850s would probably not have

a. several stories.
b. indoor faucets supplying hot and cold running water.
c. conspicuously ornamented furniture.
d. a coal-burning stove for cooking and heating.

e. a wooden exterior.


James Gordon Bennett was the

a. founder of the American Museum.
b. inventor of the cylindrical steam-driven press.
c. founder of the penny press.
d. founder of the lyceums.

e. none of these


Which of the following statements about transcendentalism is incorrect?

a. It was an American form of romanticism.
b. It claimed that knowledge of God and truth were born in each individual.
c. It claimed that great literature must conform to universal standards of form and beauty.
d. It claimed that a new democratic republic could produce art and literature as great as the old traditional societies of Europe.



In designing New York's Central Park, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux

a. copied the lay-out of English formal gardens.
b. tried to create the look of the countryside and screen out the surrounding city.
c. celebrated the excitement and vitality of urban America by including museums, sports arenas, and other entertainment facilities.
d. catered to the tastes and interests of the upper class by making the park resemble the grounds of the Palace of Versailles.

e. none of the above answers.


Which of the following writers introduced into fiction the character of the American frontiersman and the theme of conflict between primitive life in the wilderness and the advance of civilization?

a. Herman Melville
b. Edgar Allan Poe
c. James Fenimore Cooper
d. Nathaniel Hawthorne

e. John Grisham


Which of the following writers defended the right to disobey unjust laws, criticized the materialism of American society, and doubted the beneficial effects of technological advances?

a. Walt Whitman
b. Henry David Thoreau
c. Margaret Fuller
d. James Fenimore Cooper

e. Tennessee Williams


Which of the following statements about the Hudson River school of painters is incorrect?

a. Its members painted only landscapes of the Hudson River and its vicinity.
b. Its member subordinated realism to heighten emotional effect through the use of color and composition.
c. It included Thomas Cole, Asher Durand, Frederic Church, and about fifty other painters.
d. Its members sought to capture on canvas the natural grandeur of the American landscape.

e. Its painters only dealt in water color painting on canvas and seldom used brushes.



The two biggest sources of immigration to the United States between 1840 and 1860 were

a. Italy and Eastern Europe.
b. China and Japan.
c. Ireland and the German states.
d. Britain and Scotland.

e. Russia and Greece.


In the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842), the Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled that

a. slavery was unconstitutional in Massachusetts.
b. labor unions were not necessarily illegal combinations or monopolies.
c. Massachusetts tax money could not be used to support an unjust war against Mexico.
d. segregated schools for blacks in Massachusetts did not violate the U.S. Constitution.








Squatter or popular sovereignty meant

a. allowing residents of a territory to decide whether to permit slavery there.
b. extending the right to vote to all male settlers in the Far West.
c. deciding the ownership of a territory by vote of its residents.
d. the right of the native Indian peoples to keep the lands they were already cultivating.

14. The fate of the Donner party best illustrates

a. the hazards faced by pioneers traveling west on the Overland Trail.
b. the lack of appeal of abolitionism to the majority of immigrants.
c. the widespread lack of interest among Americans in Henry Clay's American system by the 1840s.
d. the vicious attacks on Catholics and immigrants that took place in the 1830s and 1840s.

e. the mess one can get into over money, religion, and politics when disagreements occur.


The expansionist phrase manifest destiny was first coined by

a. George Henry Evans.
b. Horace Greeley.
c. John C. Fremont.
d. John L. O'Sullivan.

e. John Tyler


All of the following people or groups were nativist and anti-Catholic except

a. the Know-Nothings.
b. Martin Van Buren.
c. Samuel F. B. Morse.
d. Lyman Beecher.

e. The Whigs.



Even non-slaveholders in the Old South supported the institution of slavery for all the following reasons except

a. there was fear that emancipation might lead to race war.
b. they hoped to use slaves in an industrial economy.
c.  racism.
d. they hoped that they could become slaveholders as well.

e. financially, it was a way of making profit because few whites would work at cotton harvesting.


Southern churches supported slavery by arguing that

a. Christians ought to own slaves.
b. missionary work benefited from the profits that slavery made possible.
c. the Bible justified slavery.
d. northerners just didn't understand the institution.

e. slaves had no soul and could not go to heaven, anyway.


Which of the following statements is false?

a. Slaves brought to the Western hemisphere were more likely to be sold in Virginia than in Brazil.
b. African-Americans possessed some natural immunity to both malaria and yellow fever.
c. Slaves in the Old South generally had adequate food..
d. Infant mortality rates for slaves were much higher than those for whites.


Which of the following was a method that slaves might use to protest their lot?

a. Slaves often held protest meetings.
b. Slaves petitioned white legislatures to end slavery.
c. Slaves wrote pamphlets urging their fellow slaves to rebel.
d. Slaves might poison their owners.

e. sing sons that often told of escape routes to the north.


21. The South developed a unique cast system. At the top of this was

a. the planter aristocracy.

b. the priests and ministers.

c. the poor whites.

d. the farmers.

e. the slaves.


22. He was an American financier who backed the first telegraph cable across the Atlantic. After four failed attempts in 1857, 1858 and 1865, he successfully laid a submarine cable between Newfoundland and Ireland in July, 1866.

a. Robert Fulton

b. Cyrus Field

c. Samuel F.B. Morse

d. Martin Van Buren

e. none of these


23. He was a famous inventor, designer and builder of America’s first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the Nautilus, the first practical submarine.

a. Robert Fulton

b. Cyrus Field

c. Samuel F.B. Morse

d. Martin Van Buren

e. none of these


24. He developed a working telegraph which improved communications.

a. Robert Fulton

b. Cyrus Field

c. Samuel F.B. Morse

d. Martin Van Buren

e. none of these


25.  It was sponsored by Polk's Secretary of Treasury, Robert J. Walker. It introduced the warehouse system of storing goods until duty is paid.

The Tariff of Abomination

Walker Tariff of1846

The Great Compromise


26., Van Buren and Polk used this to keep government out of banking. Vaults were to be constructed in various cities to collect and expand government funds in gold and silver. It was proposed after the National Bank was destroyed as a method for maintaining government funds with minimum risk. It was the

a. Second National Bank

b. The Trade Commission

c. The Treasury Department

d. Secretary of State's Office

e. Independent Treasury System

50. American Colonization Society
Formed in 1817, it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa.


28. In McCullough v. Maryland, John Marshall ruled that

a. Federal courts can only decide cases dealing with federal matters.

b. Congress has power to incorporate a bank for the United States.

c. McCullough sued for his federal pension form the Treasury Department.

d. Maryland over paid their taxes


29. Which of the following expresses the findings in Dartmouth College v. Woodward ?

a. It can require no argument to prove that the circumstances of this case constitute a contract.

b. Contracts are legally binding if both parties are right thinking and know the laws of the land.

c. Steamboat operators cannot maintain a monopoly on the Hudson River throughway.

d. It is illegal to tax a government agency or office unless they consent to be taxed.

e. Shipping is a private enterprise and no college or university can interfere with such commerce.


30. The appellant contends that this decree is erroneous because the laws which purport to give the exclusive privilege it sustains are repugnant to the Constitution and laws of the United States. ...  Which Supreme Court case is spoken of here?

a. Core v. Rotten.

b. Wade v. Roe.

c. McCullough v. Maryland

d. Dartmouth College v. Woodward

a. Gibbons v. Ogden


31. The Hudson River school of art is best typified by which of the following painters?

a. Thomas Cole

b. Thomas Moran.

c. John Quidor.

d. John Quincy Adams.

e. Ralph Waldo Emerson.


32. Architecture in the early 1800's often resembled

a. Greek and Roman columns.

b. Greek and Roman rotundas.

c. Greek and Roman capitals.

d. all of the above.

e. none of the above.


33. Two examples of Jefferson's architecture would be

i. Monticello.

ii. The University of Virginia.

iii. The White House.

iv. The reflecting pool.

v. The streets of Washington, D. C.


a. i and ii

b. i and iii.

c. ii and iv.

d. iii and v.

e. ii and v.


34. The War with Mexico ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo.  Which of the following was a result of that?

a. The nation lost all interest in the Western United States.

b. Over 1 in 10 American moved to the West.

c. The U. S. paid Mexico 15 million to Mexico.

d. all of these.

e. none of these.


35. Texas was founded under a land grant to

a. Stephen Douglas.

b. James K. Polk.

c. Stephen F. Austin.

d. Romero V. LaSalle.

e.  Jane Austin.


36. Abolitionism
The militant effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830's to the Civil War.


52. Sectionalism
Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South and West). This can lead to conflict.


53. William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879)
A militant abolitionist, he came editor of the Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national fame and notoriety due to his quotable and inflammatory language, attacking everything from slave holders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession.


54. The Liberator
A militantly abolitionist weekly, edited by William Garrison from 1831 to 1865. Despite having a relatively small circulation, it achieved national notoriety due to Garrison's strong arguments.


55. Brigham Young, Great Salt Lake, Utah
1847 - Brigham Young let the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah, where they founded the Mormon republic of Deseret. Believed in polygamy and strong social order. Others feared that the Mormons would act as a block, politically and economically.