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Upon the desire of the Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports (BPESS) to foster patriotism, nationalism and appreciation of traditional games among the youth, it embarked on a difficult but fruitful task to search and record the traditional games from the different regions of the country.

Their patience, dedication and untiring effort to identify these games based upon their popularity and competetive quality paid off. "Tumbang Preso," "Palo-sebo," "Kadang-Kaang" (bamboo stilt), "Patintero," "Dinoran," "Culliot" (Pushing with bamboo), and "Bati-Cobra" (hitting sticks), are examples of these traditional games.

The successful launching of the first "Palaro ng Lahi" on February 10, 1984 at Laoag, Ilocos Norte through the combined efforts of MECS, Office of the Provincial Governor and Office of the Municipal Mayor, prompted the BPESS to include these "Laro ng Lahi" as an activity for physical education.

These games can be played individually or by teams. They are very convenient to play because of the limited space it requires and the simplicity of its rules.

Traditional Games - a symbol of our national identity and pride.

"Tumbang Preso"

This is a very common game among the youth all over the country, played in backyards, parks or even in streets with less vehicular traffic. The equipment needed are empty milk can, slipper or a piece of flat stone as "pamato."

For the purpose of making the game enjoyable and exciting, the composition of players should not be more than 9. The principle involved is to hit and knock down the milk can with the "pamato," and for the IT to put back the can inside a small circle a few meters away from the toe-line. When a player is tag while re-covering his pamato, he becomes thde IT.

Rules of the Game

1. An IT, the one to guard the milk can is chosen by throwing the "pamato" to the toe line by all the players. Whoever player whose "pamato" is farthest from the toe-line is the IT.
2. The hitters will line up at the back of the toe-line and at the sign of the IT, game is started.

3. The "pamato" must be retrieved immediately once the can is knocked down, otherwise once the IT has placed the can inside the circle, the one tagged becomes the IT.

4. When the can is hit and went off the circle but remains standing, the IT has the right to tag the hitter once the hitter leaves the toe-line.

5. The can maybe kicked or knocked down under situation No. 4.

6. If a hitter is not able to retrieve his "pamato," the others can save him by hitting the can.


The game "Palo-Sebo" is commonly played during "Fiestas." The equipment needed is a 10-meter bamboo pole with a 10.16-centimeter diameter, small bag, a prize and lard or grease.

It is an individual or single game. The pole is painted with lard or grease from top to bottom and a small bag filled with prizes is tied on the top end of the pole before it is set to stand. The objective of the game is to get the bag full of prizes by climbing the bamboo pole. A competitor is given only one chance to climb. The game ends once the prizes are taken.

"Kadang-Kadang" (Bamboo Stilt)

This is a very popular recreational game in the country. Several players may participate in this game. The equipment needed is two pieces of wooden stilt with a stepladder, the height of which is 30.48 centimeter from the ground. The principle of the game is to walk on stilt from a starting line to the finish line. The length to be traveled is 100 meters.

Rules of the Game

1. At the signal "Get Set," the players stand at the starting line with their stilts.

2. At the signal "Go," the players mount their stilt and start walking.

3. The first player that reaches the finish line without getting off the stilts wins.

4. A player losses if he get off the stilts twice before reaching the finish line, or gets off the stilt after two steps.


The most widely known and played game in the country is "Patintero." Due to its popularity a set of official rules was established. The equipment needed is chalk or paint, scoreboard, whistle, stop watch and powder.

A team is composed of 5 players and a coach. The official of the game is the scorer, timekeeper, and 5 linesmen. The objective of a team is to accumulate as many points by passing the lines without being tagged. A defensive team is called line guard while an offensive team is called the passer.

Rules of the Game

1. The game is started with toss of a coin. Whoever wins becomes the passer.

2. A time limit of two minutes is given to each team to score.

3. Once the limit elapses, the line guards assume the positions of the passer, and vice-versa.

4. Passers are suppose to cross the lines from the starting point and back.

5. Four line guards are positioned on the vertical line and one on the horizontal line of the court. Their feet always be on the line.

6. Line guards tag the passer with powered hands.

7. If any of the passer is tagged, the line guard immediately assumes the position of passer even if the 2-minute limit has not elapsed.

System of Scoring

From Entry Point From Exit Point

First line - 1 pt. Fourth line - 2 pt.

Second line - 2 pts. Third line - 3 pts.

Third line - 2 pts. Second line - 3 pts.

Fourth line - 2 pts. First line - 5 pts.
The duration of the game is three innings and each inning is divided into halves.


The game is similar to tug of war in principle. Two or more players can play this. The purpose of a team is to pull the other team over the borderline. The equipment needed is a 15-meter long rope with a diameter of 3.81 centimeters.

Rules of the Game

1. Each team must have equal number of players.

2. The distance between team is five meters.

3. Both ends of the rope should be tied on the waist of the last player while the others hold on to the rope.

4. A piece of ribbon or handkerchief is tied to the rope on the centerline.

5. Upon signal to start, each team pulls each other.

6. The team that pulls the other over the borderline is declared as the winner.


The game is the opposite of Culliot. Instead of pulling, it is played by holding the bamboo pole and pushing the opponent to be able to step on the opponent's borderline. Two or more players can play the game. The equipment needed is a bamboo pole 10 meters long with a diameter of 11.43 centimeters and a whistle.

Rules of the Game

1. The mode of competition is two out of three games.

2. The team that held the thinner end of the bamboo in the first game shall hold the thicker end of the bamboo in the second game.

3. If there is a tie after the second game, a tossing of a coin will determine which team will hold the thicker end of the bamboo.


This game is popular among the kids in the province. The equipment needed are a piece of stick 60.96 centimeters long which serves as the bat and another piece of stick 15.25 centimeters long which serves as the ball.

Two or more players can play the game. Digging a hole on the ground 12.5 centimeters wide and 5 centimeters deep makes a permanent base. To determine the first hitter, the player that strikes the smaller stick farthest from the base will be the first to hit.

Throwing the smaller stick upwards and striking it hard plays the game. The other player from afar tries to catch the stick. Whoever catches it becomes the next hitter. If nobody catches the stick the non-hitter may choose to pick up the stick and strike the longer stick laid down by the hitter beside the base. A player becomes the next hitter if the longer stick is struck, but if not, the first hitter continuos playing.

Points can be score by measuring the distance from the base up to where the smaller stick landed. The longer stick is used to measure the distance. Each length of the stick is equivalent to one point. A layer that gets 100 points or more is the winner.



BACKGROUND: Patintero is played outdoors. The players are divided into two teams equal number, namely the runners and the taggers. The object of the runner is to get through all the lines back and forth without being tagged.

PLAYERS: 4 players per team; 2 opposing teams

PLAY AREA: The ground is marked off in a 5 or 6 meter rectangle divided into 4 equal parts.


1. Each team is composed of 4 players.

2. Winning the toss entitles the players on that team to be runners. The taggers stand 1,2,3, and 4. Number 1 can go anywhere to tag the runners.

3. Taggers 2,3, and 4 tag the runners as they cross the lines or as they get near them.

4. As soon as one of the runners crosses line 4, he returns to line 2 and call out "Tubig!" a point scored in favor of his team.

5. The runners must score a clean pass within 2 minutes, otherwise, a turnover will be called.

6. In tagging, the taggers must have both feet on the line.

7. If a runner is tagged while crossing a line or while trying to cross, the teams exchange places.

8. The team with the highest point after 3 turnovers wins the game.

9. If after 3 turnovers and nobody has been declared as winner, 2 turnovers will be added to the game for a total of 5..



PROPS - Shuttlecock like flat lead washers with the flyer made of bright strips of cellophane or rooster feathers.


1. Sipa Bilangan is played by two teams.

2. First team to play is determined by toss coin.

3. The flyer is kick up and down, until the ball touches the ground.

4. Point is counted on every kick made.


PLAYER - Two per team (one tosser & one kicker)

PROPS - Same as Sipa Bilangan

1. Sipa Mudansa or by kicking is played by two teams.

2. To determine the first tosser & kicker (players), a toss coin will ensure.

3. Tosser stand facing kicker at a convenient distance.

4. A demarcation line is drawn 1 feet in front of the kicker.

5. Tosser throws a lobe toss to kicker, who will kick the fly at a distance.

6. Points will be made by measuring that distance where the Flyer landed using a measuring tape as measuring device.

7. Three tries for both teams will be allowed, with the farthest distance considered as point score.

8. In to event a kicker fails to hit the flyer, the kicker will forfeit his kick.


For as long as anyone can remember, there has always been a sungka board in the Filipino homes. The sungka board is a small treasure-the older it is, the more precious, it sits on a side table or a top a bench, waiting to be played.


A shallow boat made of solid wood at both ends of, which are large deep bowls carved out of the wood. The whole length of the boat is lined with seven smaller bowls carved in pairs.

PROPS Pebbles, "Sigay" or shells seeds


1. Sungka is always played by two people.

2. Each players fills up his seven smaller bowls with 7 "Sigay" each.
3. Both players start at the same time.

4. The object of the game is to put as many "Sigay" as possible in the large bowl as to cause the opponent to lose one or two of his smaller bowls in the succeeding games which means he losses.

5. If at the end of 15 minutes, nobody has been declared as winner, the game will be called off. Each player counts the number of "Sigay" in the opponent's large bowl.

6. The player with the most number of "Sigay" wins.


BACKGROUND: Torsi is the Ilocano term for finger wrestling. A popular pastime among the Ilocanos, it is basically a test of strength.
Torsi Is played a top a table by two contestants to find out who between them have the
more formidable fingers. However, the other fingers are resorted to whenever a
competitor believes that he has a better chance of prevailing with it because it
happens to be stronger.


1. Each team is composed of 6 players.

2. At a given signal, the first player of each team walk with his bamboo/or wooden stilt towards the goal line.

3. Upon reaching the goal line, he turns around with his stilt and returns to the starting line.

4. The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, up to the 12th player do the same.

5. The first team to finish the race wins.

6. A team whose player walks for more than 2 steps after a fall will be disqualified.

7. A team whose player falls twice is disqualified.

HEIGHT: JUNIOR DIVISION - 1 foot from the ground

SENIOR DIVISION - 1.5 foot from the ground

Relay Distance - 30 meters (15 x 2) for men
20 meters (10 x 2) for women


To keep the Filipino people to the Catholic faith, Spaniards introduced fiesta, a town's gathering in honor of its patron saint or to celebrate the towns funding. Along with this, they means greased pole in Spanish.

Towering at the center of the merry-making is a row of greased poles with the rewards at its top. All boys ages 12-19 are joined to participate. Beyond this qualification, it is open to anyone regardless of his race, color or creed.

The essence of the game is most important thing for the players of the palo-sebo, for it is not merely a test of his prowess in climbing but more importantly, it is to prove his mettle and perseverance.

- 4 bamboo poles aligned at a distance with 3 colored banderas placed at the peak.

- In every game an assigned colored bandera will be picked.

- Picking the wrong colored bandera means that player will repeat his climb until he picks the right one.

- In the event, all players will not be able to reach for the banderas, scoring will be made by how far the players climb the bamboo with a 3 color band placed near the peak as indicator.


To bring one's strength to the force, the game of culliot or rope pulling provides a very effective way. Two players connected by a rope tied on their waists stand on their respective circles and pull each other. The first player of three players to step out of his circle losses.

Collective strength is also proven in this game when two teams of equal number of players divided at a distant line pull each other using a rope.

A Mangyan counterpart of this game makes use of bare hands and arms around the waists of the person in front with a line etched on the ground.

Filipino's endless innovativeness enters the game when they substitute the mudhole as a demarcation line so that whoever gets pulled fall into it and everyone gets the best medicine for all ailments -laughter.
Circle Diameter -2 meters
Distance of Circle 1 to circle 2 - 4 meters from the circle line.


Piko is a game that joins all children of the world together wherever they live, whenever they lived. Piko is unbelievably old. When ancient Roman cities were dug up, drawings of hopscotch lines were found on the stone floors. Everywhere it is played for one aim: to win a place to call one's own. In the Philippines, the game is also known as kipkip, pikuba, laban ang segking.


Stone floor drawn with chalk, charcoal
On the ground-drawn with a sharp stick (in this event, masking tape)
5 rectangles arranged vertically, rectangles 3 and 5 are divided equally (3a
and 3b; 5a and 5b): no.6 is a drawing of a half moon.


Pamato (maybe a flat stone, a brick chip, the bottom piece of a clay pot or a smooth
chunk of window glass)


1. The players stand in front of a rectangle no.1. Each player takes turn in tossing his pamato inside the 4th rectangle's dividing line. The player who tosses his pamato closest to this line gets to play first. This is called manohan.

2. Only hops and skips are allowed using either the left or the right foot. Landing on both feet is only allowed in the area or areas considered as home or "bahay" of a certain player who has earned it after successfully finishing the game. No other player can step on this area.

3. The 1st player tosses his pamato to rectangle no.1. Neither the
player nor the pamato must touch the line otherwise the player losses his turn.

4. The player then tosses his pamato to rectangle no.2, 3a, 3b, 4,5a, 5b and 6.

5. The player then plays the game all over again this time starting from rectangle no. 5.

6. After he has played in the entire rectangle, he tosses the pamato strong enough to pass over rectangle no. 1. Hops passing rectangle no. 5 to 1 then jumps over the pamato.

7. Player picks up the pamato. With his back turned against the rectangular play area, he tosses his pamato towards the direction of the play area. Where the pamato lands, that area becomes his home or bahay.

8. The game starts all over again for the 1st player. The rest continues with the game they have left off.

9. The player with the most number of homes, wins.


Sangkayaw or the coconut shell race is commonly played in the Tagalog and Central
Luzon provinces a coconut shell tied to a string under each foot; the string placed
between the toe and the next one. The hand holds the loose end of the string.


1. Each team is composed of 10 to 12 players.

2. At a given signal, the first player of each team walks with his coconut shell (hush) towards his goal line.

3. Upon reaching the goal line, he turns around with his stilt and returns to the starting line.

4. The 2nd,3rd, 4th up to the last player will do the same.

5. The first team to finish the race wins.

6. A team whose player walks for more than 2 steps after a fall will be disqualified.

7. A team whose player falls twice is disqualified.

Relay distance - 30 meters (15 x 2) for men
20 meters (10 x 2) for women


by Ronnie Pasola


(No other board game has caught the fancy of Filipinos the same way the Game of the Generals did. In a short span since its public introduction in 1973, millions have played this award-winning Philippine invention. No less than 2,500 GG clubs have now been formed and the game has been introduced in 33 other countries. We recall the humble beginnings of the game. )

Conceived and born out of two devastating floods, mistaken as subversive material, frowned upon by the country's chess lords and snubbed by the All-Filipino Sports Awards, the Game of the Generals has quixotically survived.

I invented it August of 1967 in Barrio Palanan, Makati, while Greater Manila was choking through a big flood. Stranded with unprogrammed leisure in my hands, I was deep in the study of chess having just won a tournament the week passed when I thought about the game.

The idea first floated by and then lingered, longing for action. Why not something different from chess? Why not a new game patterned after modern-day combat? Something everybody could identify with? After all, chess is of ancient origin - hardly relevant to battle tactics of today.

My father chanced into my room as I was cutting out cartolina soldiers, marking them with ranks of generals, middle officers and privates and pushing them around on a chessboard.

"I am inventing a game," I said with the proud intonation of one at the verge of discovery. Quizzically, quietly he left.

As I worked onto the third day, I had sadly succeeded in putting together a mere variation of chess.

The fourth day was still one of frustration. With the movements and starting formation I had developed, the pieces may well have been pawns, rooks and bishops.

Two days later was D-day.

Calling on the systems used in mahjong and card games, I tried setting up the pieces so that they were unseen by the enemy. It was a drastic departure from chess, followed still by another - this time taking off from the way generals prefer to fight. This meant allowing a player the free hand at deploying his forces, in contrast to the chess method of forcing a player to start from one single formation.

Then came the tedious process of finalization.

Experimentation . . . tryout games with my father . . . flanking movements . . . guerilla tactics . . . territorial coverage's . . . All these brought in the balance and hierarchy of soldiers, the number of playing squares on the board and the various ways of winning games.

Iwo Jima with its victorious marines provided the heroic angle for ending a game - the symbolic raising of the flag signaling the capture of enemy territory.

James Bond and Mata Hari reminded me to put in a pair of spies, with the introduction of the arbiter between two players securing their cloak-and-dagger maneuvers.

Finally, the movie "Night of the Generals" wrapped it up inspiring the dramatic touch needed for a name.

Thus, the Game of the Generals was born, conceived from a smorgasbord of events, principles and people.

Except for a few games with friends at Philippine Advertising Counselors where I was then employed, the game generally hibernated for five years until another devastating flood, circa 1972, flushed it out.

Actually it was pushed into the public eye by enterprising journalist Iking Gonzales. He insisted on writing the GG story as his contribution to the Times Journal's maiden issue. It was with reluctance that I allowed details of the game to be released for fear of impressions, martial law having just been declared the month before.

Nevertheless, with the birth of the Times Journal on October 21, 1972, the country woke up to the Game of the Generals.

Gonzales wrote: "although the pieces stand for military personages, the game - which is a cross between chess and cards - is as thrilling as it is educational for both young and old.

"In chess you use cold logic. Here in the new game your move sometimes defies logic. Putting in all the details of a battle plan on the board sharpens your memory and psychological insight. The rules of the game can be understood in less time than it takes to learn chess."

"It is safe to say that the Kings and his court will have their hands full against the Generals and his men in the near future."


When preparing for a tournament or a series of games, it is best that you have in handy at least six formations each with a different philosophy. The idea is to constantly keep your opponent off-balance by launching against him a variety of styles.

Note that a right-handed opponent usually has his best flank on his right side and is very fluid when maneuvering with the right flank, Your selection of formation must therefore take this into consideration.

Aside from this you must have an anti-blitz formation. Specially watch out for beginners since they are usually the players who prefer to blitz their way through a game. The other types of formation can include one geared for an aggressive offensive on all flanks or one that is designed for highly defensive days.

It is also advisable to continually play practice games daily even when not preparing for tournaments. By experience, even a one-week lay-off can remove the edge from your game. On the other hand, a daily regimen the edge from your game. On the other hand, a daily regimen upgrades your game immersely to a point where you can predict and "see through" the pieces with uncanny precision.


GGF RULES 1. All games shall be conducted under GGF
competition and playing rules.

WHO CAN COMPETE 2. Only officially registered may compete.

SCHEDULE 3. a.) Games start per time schedule set
or if revised, per time schedule announced by the tournament director. It will be the player's responsibility to note down any changes in schedule.

DELAY b.) The tournament committee shall not
allow any postponements or delays for whatever reason. Entry into a GG tournament means that the player is willing to adjust his time to the play schedule.

GRADE PERIOD 4. Players who are not in their respective
tables by official starting time shall be given a grace period of 30 minutes. Players who are not seated at their assigned tables at the end of the grace period automatically lose by default even if their opponents wish to play or waive the penalty of default.

NO STEPPING OUT 5. Players present at the tournament site are required to enter the official tournament playing area as announced by the tournament director. Unreasonable delay will be penalized with a deduction of one point from the player's score. Once inside the tournament area, no player will be allowed to step out unless with the express permission of the tournament director and the player's opponent.

5-MINUTES FOR PIECES 6. A player shall be given 5 minutes to arrange
his pieces from the time both he and his opponent are present.

COMPLETE 7 a.) A player is said to have made a move upon
release of a piece on an adjoining square.
b.) A player is required to move the piece he has touched. In cases where the player touches several pieces, he must move the first piece he has touched provided it shall not constitute an illegal move.

TIME LIMIT PER MOVE 8. A player is allowed a maximum of 2
minutes per move. A player over-stepping this limit three times, automatically loses the game by technicality. The arbiter is under no obligation to warn the player of the approaching time limit.

EXPOSURE OF FLAG 9. A player may expose his own Flag at his
own risk.

EXPOSURE OF PIECES 10. a) Exposing one's own piece(s) either
intentionally or unintentionally causes the player to lose his next move. (This means that if it is his next move.)

b) A player who causes the exposure of
pieces either intentionally or unintentionally automatically causes the offending player to lose the game.
c) The exposure of piece(s) caused by nature, e.g. wind, falling objects, etc. shall mean the automatic loses the match by technically.

REMOVAL OF PIECES 11. No player is allowed to remove his
opponent's piece(s) from the board. A player who removes his opponent's piece(s), intentionally or unintentionally, automatically loses the match by technically.

30-MOVE RULE 12. If no challenge is made after 30 complete
moves from the start of the game, the player with more pieces past the mid-point of the board wins the match. if no piece has gone beyond the mid-point, or if there is an equal number of pieces beyond the mid-point, the game is automatically declared a draw.

5-MOVE PERPETUAL 13. A 5-move perpetual position results in a
drawn game. This happens when an attacked piece, which faces immediate challenge, move 5 consecutive move by the same attacking piece.

16-MOVE PERPETUAL 14. A player position results in a drawn game.
This happens when an attacked piece, which faces immediate challenge, moves 16 consecutive times through more than 2 squares in order to avoid being challenged on the next, move by the same attacking piece.

DRAW FOR RESPECT 15. Games deliberately drawn "out of respect"
will only be allowed between two players of equal rank or title. Should two players agree to draw for respect, both must play at least 10 complete moves and sign the record slip as having both agreed to draw for respect.

COLLUSION 16. Players found guilty of obvious or
surreptitious collusion with each other shall be banned from further participation in the tournament and future tournaments. Collusion includes signals, deliberately losing a game for the purpose of helping the other player move up in standings, or any other similar form of dishonesty.

DECISION IS FINAL 17. As a general rule the arbiter's decision is final and carries a heavier weight protests regarding an arbiter's mistake must be brought immediately to the attention of the tournament director. Confirmation of the arbiter's mistake shall mean the automatic replay of the game. No protest, however, will be entertained if the game concerned has already been concluded.

APPEALS AND FINAL 18. Appeals and protests other than those
regarding an arbiter's mistake must be referred to the Tournament Committee in writing within 24 hours of the questioned incident and submitted to the Tournament Director.

TOURNAMENT 19. The tournament director shall have absolute
DIRECTOR authority over the conduct of the tournament. He may change or modify rules, in consultation with the Tournament Committee, whenever necessary to preserve the integrity of the event. His decision is final.

ADJUDICATION 20. The time limit per game will be 2 ½ hours, 1
½ hours or one hour depending on the Tournament Director's discretion. Games not finished after the period specified may be terminated and decided by adjudication or settled by the Tournament Director accordingly. The arbiter and Tournament Director are under no obligation to warn the players of the approaching time limit.

games indigenous people play

ARM WRESTLING * Arm strength is tested in the sport of arm wrestling where the opponents grip one another's hand with their elbows firmly set on a sturdy table. At the signal of a referee, the competitors try to pull the other's arm flat on the table. The first to do so wins. Arm wrestling shows a person's staying power and strength. Another version of arm wrestling involves only the middle finger. Two persons place their fingers form a tight fist and at the signal of a referee, the competitors try to overturn each other's hands. First to do so wins.

PILLOW FIGHTING * Two opponents saddled at each end of an elevated bamboo pole hit each other with a two-foot pillow. The competitor who falls off the bamboo first loses. This game requires not only strength but timing, body coordination, and good balance as well.

STILTS RACING AND FIGHTING * A form of entertainment than a means of transportation, the stilts are made of a sturdy bamboo-pole with a rigid step attached. Stilt' racing is a favorite game, of children and adults too. In a race, six competitors line up at the racing area and, at the signal, run on stilts on a course of 50 meters and back. The first to arrive at the finish line wins. Experts attain great speeds at tall gallop. Stilts can also be used in a friendly fight. Six competitors (or any pre-agreed member) form a circle while on stilts. At the signal of a referee, the competitors engage in a free-for-all, kicking each other with the stilts. The last person left standing on stilts is declared the winner.

VOLLEYBALL (RATTAN BALL) * Unlike modern volleyball, indigenous volleyball uses a tightly woven rattan ball hit over a vertically suspended pole. Rules are not as rigid as I violations like palming and double touch are usually allowed. Rattan volleyball can be played on a dirt court or concrete one.

GOSING (BIG WOODEN TOP) * The gosing is a big top entirely made of wood which spins just as well as metal-tipped tops. The object of the games is to stop the target, a spinning top, from a distance of about 15 feet with the thrower's own too if the target spins longer than the thrower's the target's owner wins. If the thrower misses he automatically loses. It is not only how well you can bit a spinning top but also how long you can make your own top spin. On the other hand, a common game using the metal-tripped top involves chipping the other top by aiming the throw if the targeted stationary top by within a drawn circle on the ground. If the target is missed or, if the top stopped spinning inside the circle, that top becomes the next target.

COCONUT SMASHING * Two competitors have a husked coconut which he deems hardest attack. They take a position 15 feet from each other and at the signal of an umpire, roll the coconut hand, such that the impact will break or crack the other's coconut. The first coconut to break or crack enders the owner defeated.

SIPA * Sipa a common street game of children involve kicking a metal pod attached to a plastic fly (a half of rubber bands can also be used). The game can be played by two players or by two teams. The object is to kick the pod repeatedly that or a team reaches a pre-agreed number of repetitions.



"Ukbo Bunong Braso" is the generic name for our own homegrown art of arm toppling maneuvers. Specifically, the rootword "Ukbo" is purely Visayan-Hiligaynon in origin and Alibatan in character. It was originally developed and practiced by the aboriginal aetas (Tribo-Ati-Atihan) who were born in the ancient twin-islands of Negros and Panay found in the Central Philippines since time immemorial.


The traditional and modern Ukbo Bunong Braso had been an integral part of our national culture and the arts, which was transmitted to posterity as a lasting ancestral legacy. Ukbo is an enjoyable native sports, which is a reflection of our Great Ancestors' time-honored philosophy in life that connote very significant meaning and purpose, to wit: U-K-B-O stands for ULAY (Indigenous)
KABUHI (Way of Life)
TABUNON ATIS (Brown Aetas)
Oyamut (Meek People).

Techniques and Practices

As the term implies, "UK" means "Arm Toppling" and "BO" means "Maneuvering Tactics." That is why it is called Ukbo in the Visayas, Bunong Braso and Tumbahan in Mindanao. The elbow-forearm bending position and finger-thumb gripping techniques of ukbo was originally derived from the Bangkaw (Spear) and Taming (Shield) carrying postures being practiced in the famous Ati-Atihan War Dance and other Ethnic-Tribal Warriors' Festivals.

Ukbo Bunong Braso, therefore, is an open gesture of a gentleman-friendly sports which is a symbol of true brotherhood, love and understanding wherein winning is only secondary. It is a simple test of one's physical fitness and correct mental aptitude.


To promote our indigenous sports "Ukbo Bunong Braso" or Arm Toppling Maneuvers (ARTIMAR) for brotherhood, enjoyment and social interaction regardless of sex, creed and status among its avid enthusiasts and aficionados in our homeland.


PHASE I - UKBO SA LANSANGAN for Street Children to divert them away Anti-social conducts and other forms of vices to prevent juvenile Delinquency;

PHASE II- UKBO SA KABATAANG BARANGAY for Barangay folkpeople who cannot afford to join glamorous sports to encourage social Participation at the grassroots which is free for all;

PHASE III- UKBO SA BANTAY BAYAN for the Community Neighborhoods to promote better coordination and inter-personal relationships to enhance the Citizens Crime Watch;

PHASE IV- UKBO SA KALUNGSORAN for the City Urban Poor to involve them in a worthwhile ukbo sports fest to spend their leisure time wisely and enjoy for free.

PHASE V- UKBO SA PROVINCIA for the countryside folkpeople to restrenghten the moral fibers of our democratic society by providing a very simple ukbo sports activity at a very minimal cost;

PHASEVI- UKBO SA METRO MANILA for our Pilot Project to be initiated first in Metro Manila Area to put up a core group of ukbokiros / arm Topplers society; and

PHASE VII- UKBO BUNONG BRASO PARA SA BUONG BANSANG PILIPINAS which will cover fourteen (14) regions for countrywide representation to provide a wide membership-base to identify, recruit, select as to train skillful Arm Topplers / ukbokiros; and

PHASE VIII- UKBO BUNONG BRASO SPORTS FOR ALL by conducting a priodic ARTIMAR sports forum, clinics and seminar training for local Organizers, officiating and sports propagation.

(Draft Standard)

1st Draft: Jan. 1995-1997
2nd Draft: July 1998
3rd Draft: Sept. 1998


UKBO BUNONG BRASO is a generic term for Arm Toppling Maneuver, herein referred to as ARTIMAR for brevity, which is an indigenous sport that truly originated in the early Philippine since time immemorial which had been an integral pert of our ancestral legacy.


In accordance with our early tribal practices, customs and oral tradition, UKBO BUNONG BRASO is friendly game of able-bodied men which is more of showmanship and gentlemen sports for enjoyment and relaxation wherein winning is only secondary. Rather it is a display of fine behavior, camaraderie and brotherhood to test one's physical strength and mental alertness. In modern times, UKBO BUNONG BRASO is open to all people from all walks of life regardless of sex, creed and status. It is therefore a cultural sport or simply called in Tagalog as PALARO NG LAHI. UKBO BUNONG BRASO is 100% risk free and 100% safety.


2.1 SIKO-SIKO - It means that elbow to elbow starting position is at
45 degrees angle of two protagonists.
2.2 DUNGAB-DUNGAB - It is the correct and proper thumb-finger gripping
position at vertical angle.
2.3 TUMBA-TUMBA - It means "one direction" arm toppling down
technique to determine the winner and the loser.
2.4 EKIS-BRASO - The two wrist are entangled at "X" position.
2.5 PINTAL-BUNTOL - It means the pressure and counter maneuver to overcome being toppled down (Pintal) on one hand, and in the other side is a judicious use of force resistance to struggle for counter-reversal victory (Buntol).
2.6 TAOB-TIHAYA - It is the terminal deciding point to declare a winner is TAOB and a loser is TIHAYA.
2.7 Time limit is one (1) minute and thirty (30) seconds for minimum active engagement to a maximum of two (2) minutes only.
2.8 In case of stale male, a one (1) minute rest is called for and both and the bout is resumed.
2.9 Any anticipatory move automatically means a restart.


3.1. Game 1. DUNGGAB-KAMAO - Fundamental Gripping
Technique of the (5) Five
Fingers and Fist clenching;

3.2. Game 2. EKIS BRASO - Cross (X) wrists entanglement
position of the two (2) arms; and

3.3 Game 3. PINTAL-BUNTOL - Technically called "LLAVE" among
Ukbokiros, is a deciding game to determine the true winner (Pintal) and the loser (Buntol). A toss coin will decide for the attacker & defender.


4.1. PUWESTO ! : The two Ukbokiros face each other in front of the Official Table

4.2. SIKO-SIKO ! : Elbow Center Engagement Position

4.3. DUNGGAB ! : Standard Gripping Command

4.4. HANDA ! : Preparatory Command

4.5. UKBO ! : Toppling Down Execution

4.6. TOPPED ! : Panalo / Winner (Pula o Asul). A winner is declared either Red or Blue.


5.1. Players shall be identified in Two (2) Separate and Distinct Color Coding:

RED - PULA in the left corner
BLUE - ASUL in the right corner

5.2 The Chief Referee shall have the full command responsibility and complete control of the UKBO matches who will be the "MIDDLE MAN" in between the two players. His dress code is Stripe Polo Shirt (Black & White and Dark Pants).

5.3 UKBO participants or the players shall be categorized into the following: Age; Weight; and Sex. Height does not matter. A Six (6) inch podium shall be provided for underheight player.


6.1 No lifting of elbow from the center point of engagement.
6.2 The left hand is holding the Peg from the start to finish without releasing it until the bout is over and out.
6.3 Two feet is properly planted on the ground. No horsing around.
6.4 Two fouls shall mean a disqualification.
6.5 No head tricks and no fancy play.


7.1 UKBOKIRO : A regular arm-toppling player duly recognized and accredited by the Katipunan.

7.2 HUMALAMPANG : An avid enthusiast and participants in the scheduled arm toppling maneuvers competitive sports activity.

7.3 DUMULUONG : Are observers and guests in the honorary status.

7.4 KAPANSANAN : Refers to the disabled participants either male or female.

7.5 KABATAAN : Refers to the Age Group Participants

7.6 KATILINGBAN : Open sports for all the different sectors of society.


8.1 The Technical Committee shall recruit, select, train and accredit the Referees, Arbiters and Stewards.

8.2 Referees and Arbiters will be classified into the following categories:

CLASS "A" - International
CLASS "B" - National
CLASS "C" - Local

8.3 The Chief Referee shall be assisted by a Chief Arbiter a one Official Timer.

8.4 There shall be three (3) Games Officials for each Ukbo Official Table in a Triangular position. The Chief Referee is at the Center in between Two Players. The Chief Arbiter is standing at the right corner and the Official Timer is in the left corner. See illustrations:


Contest Area A-Chief Referee
B-Chief Arbiter
C-Official Timer
D-Red Player
E-Blue Player


9.1 Height : 41 ½ inches / 106 CMS.
9.2 Length and Width : 38 Inches /97 ½ CMS. - length
: 25 ½ inches / 65 ½ CMS. width
9.3 Four (4) Leg Stand : 1 ½ inc. in diameter, with distance in between is 6 inches from the corner of the square-base and 24 inches parallel. The square -base is 35 inches / 89 ½ CMS. in length and 23 inches / 59 CMS. in width.
9.4 Elbow Engagement Center : 10 inches in diameter and the distance is 4 ½ inches from the center point.
9.5 The Peg distance is edge to edge parallel to each other.
9.6 The Red Cushion and the Blue Cushion distance between is 16 inches / 41 CMS. with an oblong square measuring 8 inches wide and 4 inches thick.


10.1. 60 KGS. BELOW (Men & Women's Division)
10.2. 75 KGS. BELOW (Men & Women's Division)
10.3. 85 KGS. BELOW (Men & Women's Division)
10.4. 95 KGS. BELOW (Men & Women's Division)
10.5. 95 KGS. ABOVE or OVER


11.1 The elimination series is knockout system and the losers automatically eliminated. The winners go to the final and Championships bouts.
11.2 The Final and deciding points is "two out of three" games. The Chief Referee automatically declares a winner two successive wins in games 1&2. And in case of a tie, game 3 is the deciding bout.
11.3 The pairing system shall be drawing of lots. The Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for pairing of players shall be in the following formulas:

11.3-A. For 3 Ukbokiros remaining in the Championship round, the binding decision is "2 out of 3".
11.3-B. For 4 Ukbokiros, always cross out loser until a victorious winner is declared in the end.
11.3-C. For 5 Ukbokiros, there are always Three (3) byes whatsoever round.
11.3-D. For 6 Ukbokiros, there are always two (2) byes whatsoever round.
11.3-E. "BYE" is a player who has no pair and can be paired in the
next round.

11.4. Chief Referees's decision is final.


(A brief history)

Traditional wrestling commonly known as "DUMOG" in the Antiqueno dialect, is an indigenous sport, which truly originated in early Pan-ay Island (now Panay) in Central Philippines since time immemorial. The ancient art of "DUMOG" has been an old Hiligaynon word "DUMO" which literally means to immerse oneself in search for metaphysical powers called "Kina-adman" which was originally extracted from the ancient teachings of "ALIBATA" otherwise known as the ancient language and writings of the early Filipino Natives. Dumog therefore has been an ancient form of Kina-adman originally practiced and developed by the aboriginal Aetas of Panay and Negros Islands documented in Maragtas.
As early as the First Century A.D., the early Visayan Island was originally comprised of SUGBU, LEYTE, BOHOL and PANILOGA. The islands of Sugbu, Panay and Paniloga were later known as the early Cebu, Panay and Negros, which became the bastion of traditional wrestling in the Philippines. The aboriginal of Aetas of Negros and Panay were the original practitioner of Dumog, in it's antiquated from of hand-to-hand combat used in "DUCOT-DUCOT" or close quarter fighting. The hand techniques are called "PANGAMOT", PANGLAWAS, for the body mechanics in the leg techniques or footwork as PANIL. The beauty grandeur and gracefulness of wrestling techniques were derived from the ancient word KUNTAO and SILAT. Before the arrival of the 10 Bornean Datus in 1212, the native Aetas were already dexterous and tenacious in the use of prototype weapons like blades, knives, wooden sticks, darts, bow and arrows to aim an opponent or wild animals and as means of self-protection against the sea bandits (tulisanis). The Filipino arts of combat fighting were weapon-oriented which has been retranslated into empty hand fighting techniques, which constituted the homegrown art of Dumog.
Our natives art have varied aspects and relationships especially DUMOG which connotes significant meaning of life. Dumog close quarter techniques have been applied and effectively used in the so-called mano-mano fighting found in the indigenous art of blade-stick weaponry called Kali(s) Eskrima-Arnis. The Filipino Martial Arts is unprecedented in the history of world fighting arts when Rajah Lapu-lapu felled Magellan in Matoan (Mactan) island, in Cebu on April 21, 1521. Historians have claimed that Rajah Lapu-lapu and his men were experts in unarmed combat by pinning down Magellan's men with the use of Dumog ground fighting techniques to finish the standing battle. This we cannot de-emphasize or over emphasize the historical significance and implication of traditional wrestling or Dumog which is not only a fighting art but it is a reflection of our National Culture and Arts in Borne-talents, customs and folk tradition.



A sport without either a homeland or a founder. Wrestling, throughout the history of mankind, has always proved to be a basis and decisive condition required for the safeguard and evolution of the human being in his struggle for life. Gradually, it changed into a way of expression, a social and personal value closely connected with legends, cultures and religions, and finally a sports competition. In its historical process common to all people, is an aboriginal, polycentric and multi-linear activity, which cannot be separated from any civilizations or people at any stage of their evolution or development. For this reason, wrestling is a sport without either a homeland or a founder.


Wrestling was the major sport at the ancient Olympic Games. Wrestling was included in three Olympic sports: WRESTLING, PANCRACE and PENTHATLON.


After the prohibition from organizing the Olympic Games decided by Emperor Theodose, wrestling survived and continued to be practiced, not only by the ordinary man, but by soldiers and aristocrats.

During this period and even earlier, competitions of hundred of different types of traditional wrestling were organized. Many of them, at least 200, are still practiced today as an integral part of cultural and competitions are very successful.


GRECO-ROMAN WRESTLING was included in the first Olympic Games held in 1896 in Athens.

FREE STYLE WRESTLING was included in the 3rd Olympic Games held in Saint Louis.

Wrestling is a living link between Ancient and Modern Olympic Games as it has never ceased to be practiced and to evolve to the present day.


The International Amateur Wrestling Federation (FILA) was founded during the Olympic Games held in 1912 in Stockholm.

1992 in Barcelona 36th Congress of FILA are:
Greco-Roman Wrestling, Free Style Wrestling, Traditional Wrestling


Wrestling has developed throughout all 5 continents. The FILA has 130 member National Federations, spread as follows through all the 5 continents:

- in Africa, 29 Federations
- in Asia, 30 Federations
- in America, 24 Federations
- in Europe, 41 Federations
- in Oceania, 6 Federations
Total: 130 member Federations


Since the reaction of the Olympic and up to the present day, wrestling has always been included in the program, except in 1990.

At the 1988 Olympic Games held in Seoul, there were 487 participating wrestlers in both styles from all 5 continents. 650 wrestlers took part in the qualification rounds on all 5 continents for the 1992 Olympic Games.

Greco-Roman wrestlers from 42 countries and free style wrestlers from 45 countries, from all 5 continents, are qualified.


So far, the following Championships have been organized:

a) World Championships
- 30 Greco-Roman World Championships
- 28 Free style World Championships

b) Continental Championships
Continental Championships are regularly organized on all continents (Europe, Africa, Asia, America and Oceania).


Like other sports, wrestling is regularly included in the program of all Continental and Regional Games:

- Mediterranean Games
- Caribbean Games
- Central America Games
- Bolivarian Games
- South Asia Games, etc.


a.) Spectators

- At the Olympic Games, the competition area is always full.
- Asian games in India: 30,000 spectators per session total number if spectators over 100,00)
- World Championships in Sofia (BUL), in an open stadium, 30,000 spectators per session (total number of spectators 150,000)
- Championships in Turkey: in an open stadium, 30,000 spectators per session (total number of spectators 150,000), in the competition arena, 12,000 spectators per session (total number of spectators 50,000)
- 1991 European Championships in Stuttgart: 3 competition days, over 25, 000 spectators
- Asia Championship in Teheran 1992, in closed arena 12,000 spectators per session

b.) Television

If we consider the total duration of television broadcasting of the Seoul Olympic Games and the interest shown by the public, wrestling is placed 7th.

Eurovision in 1990, wrestling is included in the first half of the sports, which have been covered by television.

The FILA has contracts with European, Asian and American television companies.


With its physiological, functional and educative values, wrestling is highly appreciated as an Olympic Sport. Already in ancient times, the wrestler's beautiful body was used as a model for sculptures or other works, which can be seen today in our museums.

Many philosophers, scientists, statesmen and Nobel prize holders etc., have practiced wrestling.

Nowadays, more than 90% of those wrestlers who win medals at the Olympic and at World event have been to university or completed higher education.



Sepak Takraw is a traditional game played by the Malays of the Malayan Peninsula. In the 14th to the 15th century it was a very popular sport among the royal courts of Malacca. At the time, the game was played by a group of people standing inside a circle. The players try to keep the ball in the air by hitting it with the head and feet. After World War II, a net called Jaring, a court and a set of rules were introduced, hence, the game was called Sepak Raga Jaring. Since then, the rules were revised several times. Today, a standard set of rules is implemented for competitions. Many countries participate in Sepak Takraw competitions like Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Ceylon, Laos, Burma, Thailand and the Philippines.

The Asian Sepak Takraw Federation (ASTAP) was formed in 1965 paving the way for the sport to become popular in Asia.

How the Game is Played

Sepak Takraw is played with a rattan ball (bola takraw). It is played on a rectangular court divided by a net. Each team is allowed three touches in propelling the ball to the other side of the court with any part of the body except the arms from shoulder to hands.

Basic Skills

Inside of the Foot Kick

This is done with either foot. The ball is hit just below the protruding inner anklebone.

Outside of the Foot Kick

The ball is hit with the outside part of the foot just below the anklebone.

Instep Kick

Front part of the foot or laced portion of the shoe hits the ball. This broader part of the foot allows for better control of the ball.

High Overhead Kick

This style of kicking the ball is similar with the bicycle kick in football. This kick is done when the ball is set higher than the net and in front of it. The instep of the foot is used in this kind of kick.

Punta Kick

The toe of the foot is used in kicking the ball. This kind of kick has less control and accuracy on the direction of the kicked ball, but very little force is needed to drive the ball for a good distance.


This method of propelling the ball needs good timing and control of the body. The ball is propelled by using the broader portion of the head which is the forehead by attacking the ball instead of waiting for it.

Thighs (Control or Pass)

The thigh is used to trap and set the ball for a good kick.


The chest is also used to trap and set the ball for a good kick.


1. The Playing area shall be rectangular in shape 44 feet in length and 20 feet in width divided into two halves by a centerline. Two half circles with a radii of 3 feet shall be drawn from the points where the centerline meet with the sidelines. There shall be one "tekong" circle for each half of the court for service area, with a radius of 1 foot. It shall be 8 feet from the middle baseline towards the centerline. The width of all lines shall be 1 inch.
2. Two upright posts shall be erected on both sides of the court at least one foot away from the sidelines, with a height of 5 feet and one inch. The net shall be 22 ½ feet across with a depth of 28 inches and with a height of 5 feet at the center of the court.

3. The ball shall be made of cane or rattan and plaited in layers. Its circumference shall be from 16 to 17 inches with a weight of 1/3 lb.
4. The players must wear short pants or jogging pants, a T-shirts and a pair of rubber shoes with thick pair of socks.
5. Each team shall have three players, one of whom shall be the "tekong" to serve while the other two shall place themselves in the two-quarter circles in their half of the court during the service. One of them shall throw the ball to the tekong to kick it over the net as service.
6. The officials of the game are the Referee of Umpire and two linesmen.
7. The play is started with the umpire's toss of a coin. The Winner has the choice of either ends or service. A game is usually 3 sets of 15 points. whoever wins the 2nd set serves first in the final set.
8. The tekong shall keep one foot inside the tekong circle and the inside players must not step on the lines in order for the serve to be legal. The inside players may place themselves anywhere in the court once the serve is completed. The receiving team may position themselves anywhere in the court during the service. Two re-service shall be given when the ball touches the net and falls over the opponent's court. If a serving team hits the ball and the ball touches the opponent's court, the team wins a point. If a receiving team commits infractions of the rules, the serving team gets a point. When the serving team commits a fault service-over is ruled.
9. Offenses by the serving team:

a) Tekong does not kick the ball thrown to him during service.
b) Tekong does not have one foot inside the tekong circle during the service.
c) Inside player throwing the ball to the tekong is not within the quarter circle or is stepping on the line.
d) Served ball touches the net and drops on own portion of the court.
e) Served ball touches net and drops beyond the opponent's court outside the court of play.
f) Served ball touches net and lands in the opponent's court. Two additional services is given, but if a fourth reservice occurs it is considered a fault.
g) If one or both inside players are not inside the quarter circles during the tekong's service.
h) Served ball touches a serving team's player before passing over the net.

10. When the Ball is in Play

a) Receiving team distracts the serving team.
b) Player steps on the centerline during play.
c) When ball drops outside or inside the court.
d) Handling the ball.
e) Touching the net or net posts with the clothing or any part of the body.
f) The ball is played more than three times successively by a team.
g) Any player's outfit falls into the opponent's court.
h) The ball does not pass between the boundary line of the set.
i) The ball does not pass between the boundary line of the net.
j) Player's body or either part crosses over the center line beneath the net into the opponent's court except when following through after hitting the ball.

11. Scoring. Each set is 15 points. The game shall be won by two out of three sets. If there is a tie after two sets, the third set shall be the tiebreaker. On the 8th point in the third set, the games change sides. Once the game is tied at 13 all, the first team to reach 13 points has the option to set the game to 5 points. Once the game sets tied at 14, the first team that reaches 14 points has the option to set the game to 3 points. When a team refuses the option of setting the game to either 3 or 5 points during the initial opportunity they shall be barred from setting it if another opportunity arises.
12. In case of injuries, an injured player cannot continue playing, a substitute maybe used for replacement. A 10 minutes suspension of play is allowed but players may not be given any refreshments.
13. The following offenses are to be penalised:
a) Use of bad words when talking with any official.
b) Aggressively confronting an official on decision made.
c) Kicks the ball aggressively when giving to the opponent.
d) Intimidating actions that might influence the official's decision.
e) Leaving the court without permission from the umpire except on occasions allowed by the rules.
f) Other unsportsmanlike conducts.



1.1 Area of 13.4m x 6.1 m free from all obstacles up to the height of 8 measured from the floor surface (sand, grass court not advisable).

1.2 The width of lines bounding the court should not be more than 0.04 m measured and drawn inwards from the edge of the court measurements. All lines should be drawn at least 3.0 m away from all obstacles.

1.3 The Centre Line
The centre line of 0.02 m should be drawn equally dividing the court into two halves.

1.4 The Quarter Line
At the intersection of the centre line with each sideline, the quarter circle shall be drawn from the side line to the center line with a radius of 0.9 m measured and drawn outward from the edge of the 0.9 m radius.

1.5 The Service Circle
The service circle of 0.3 m radius shall be drawn on the left and on the right court, the center of which is 2.45 m from the base line of the court, 4.25 m from center line and 3.05 m from the side lines, the 0.04 m line shall be measured and drawn outward from the edge of the 0.3m radius.


2.1 The posts shall be 1.55 m [1.45 m for women] in height from the floor and shall be sufficiently firm to keep the net strain. It should be made from very strong materials and shall not be more than 0.04 m in radius.

The posts shall be erected or placed 0.3 m away from the sideline and in line with the center line.


3.1 The net shall be made of fine ordinary cord or nylon with 0.06 m to 0.08 m mesh. The net shall be 0.7 m width and not shorter than 6.10 m in length and taped at both ends with 0.05 m tape from top to bottom to be in line with court sidelines, called boundary tapes.

3.2 The net shall be edged with 0.05 m tape both at the top and bottom of the net supported by a fine ordinary cord or nylon cord that runs through the tape and strains over and flushes with the top of the posts. The top of the net shall be 1.52 m (1.42 m for women) in height from the centre and 1.55 m (1.45 m for women) at the post.


The Sepaktakraw ball shall be a sphere of one woven layer having 12 holes with 20 intersections. It shall be made of natural rattan or synthetic fibers. If it is made of rattan, it shall consist of 9-11 strands. The circumference shall not be less than 0.42 m and not more than 0.44 m (0.43 m to 0.45 m for women). The weight before play shall not be less than 170 gm and not more than 180 gm (150 gm to 160 gm for women).


5.1 The game is played between two "Regus" consisting of three players on each side.

5.2 One of the three players shall be at the back, and he/she is called "Back".

5.3 The other two players shall be in front, one on the left and the other on the right. The player on the left is called "Left Inside" and the player on the right is called "Right Inside."


6.1 The man players must wear jerseys/T-shirt and shorts (round neck T-shirts with sleeves, shorts length at knee level for woman players), and sports shoes with rubber soles. It is forbidden for players to wear anything that will endanger the opponents during the game. In case of cold weather, the players are permitted to use track suits.

6.2 The entire apparel of a player is regarded as a part of his/her body. All jerseys/T-shirt should be tucked in.

6.3 Anything that helps to speed the ball or that helps the movement
of a player is not allowed.
6.4 Captain of each "Regu" shall wear an arm band on the left arm.

6.5 All jerseys/T-shirt must be numbered at the back. A player must
be assigned with a permanent number throughout the tournament. Only numbers 1-15 are allowed to be used by each participating team. The size of the number shall not be less than 19 cm in height.


7.1 Substitution of a player is allowed at anytime on request made by the Team Managers or the Official Coach to the official Referee when the ball is not in play.

7.2 Each "Regu" is allowed to make one substitution only.

7.3 Player, who is sent off by umpire during the game, may be allowed to be substituted, provided the substitution has not been made.

7.4 Any player having played in any "Regu" whether in the starting line-up or as a substitute will not be allowed to play in another "Regu" for that team in the current game.

7.5 Any "Regu" having less than 3 players will not be allowed to continue the game and will be considered as having lost.


The game shall be managed by the following officials :

i.) 1 officials referee
ii.) 2 umpires
iii.) 6 linemen (4 sidelines and 2 baselines)


Before commencing the game, the umpire will toss disc and the side winning the toss shall have the option of "First Serving" or of "Choosing Side". The "First Serving" shall "warm up" first two minutes followed by the other "Regu". Only 5 persons are allowed to move freely in the court with the official ball.


10.1 At the start of play, the players of both "Regu" must be in their respective courts in ready position.

10.2 Serving "Back" players shall have one of his/her feet inside the serving circle. The other foot, must be outside the circle to kick the service ball.

10.3 Both of the "Inside" players of the serving side, must be in their respective quarter circle.

10.4 The opponent is free to be anywhere within court.


11.1 The side that chooses to start the game, shall start the first set. After the first set both regu shall change side and the winner starts the second set.

11.2 The throw must be executed as soon as the umpire calls the score. If any of the "inside" player throws the ball before the umpire call the score, it must be re-throw and warning will be given to the thrower. During the service, as soon as the ball is kicked by the server, all the players are allowed to move about in their respective court.

11.3 The service is valid if the ball passes over the net, whether it touches the net or not, within the boundary of two boundary tapes and falls inside the opponent court.

11.4 The execution of the serving by the "Back" player can be kicked in any manner, provided one of his/her feet must always touch the ground in the service circle.


12.1 The Serving Side During Service

12.1.1 The "Inside" player who is making the service throw, plays, about with the ball (throwing up the ball, bumping, giving to other "Inside" player, etc.) after all the call of score has been made by the umpire.

12.1.2 The "inside player lifts his/her foot or steps on the line or crosses over to touches the net while throwing the ball.

12.1.3 The "Back" player while kicking the service ball, the other foot does not touch the ground or steps on the service circle line.

12.1.4 The "Back" player does not kick the ball on the service throw.

12.1.5 The ball touches his/her own player before crossing to the opponent court.

12.1.6 The ball goes over the net but falls outside the court.

12.1.7 The ball does not cross to the opponent side.

12.2 Receiving Side During Service

To create distracting manner or noise or shouting at his/her opponent.

12.3 For Both Sides During the Game

12.3.1. Stepping on the center line.

12.3.2. Any player who touches the ball on the opponent side.

12.3.3. Any part of players' body crossing over the opponent's court whether above or under the net except during the follow through ball.

12.3.4. Playing the ball more than 3 times in succession.

12.3.5. The ball touches the arm.

12.3.6. The ball rolls over the body.

12.3.7. Stopping or holding the ball under the arm, between the legs or body.

12.3.8. Any part of the body or players' outfit e.g. shoes, head band, etc., touches the net or the post or the umpire chairs or falls into the opponent's side.

12.3.9. The ball touches the ceiling roof of the wall (any objects).

12.3.10. Any player who delays the game unnecessarily.


Change of service is given when any fault is made by the serving side or the receiving side kills the return.


Each "Regu" can request for one time out of one-minute rest by Team Manager or Official Coach per set when the ball is not in play. Only five (5) persons are allowed outside of the base lines.


Any point is given to serving "Regu" when its opponents have made any fault according to rule (12).


16.1 The winning point for a set is a maximum of 15 points.

16.2 To allow for 2 minutes rest at the end of the first and second set respectively.

16.3 If each "regu" wins a set, the game shall be decided in the tie break.


16.4.1 Before the tie-break begins, the regu shall change side, then the umpire shall announce the score followed by the toss of disc. The winner in the toss shall have the option of choosing the courtside or of serving first.

16.4.2. The change of side will occur when one "Regu" reaches three (3) points.

16.4.3 The manager or official coach of each "Regu" can request one time out of one minute during tie-break.


17.1 The Umpire can suspend play temporarily in the event of obstructions, disturbance or any injury to player, which need immediate treatment, for not more than 5 minutes.

17.2 An injured player is allowed up to 5 minutes injury time-out. If after 5 minutes, the player unable to continue, a substitution must be made. If the injured player's team has already made a substitution, the match will be declared a forfeit in favor of the opposing team.

17.3 In the course of such suspension, all players are not allowed to leave the court to received drinks or any form of assistance.


18.1 Every player must abide by the rules of the game.

18.2 Only the Captain of the "Regu" is allowed to approach the umpire during the game.


The following offenses will be penalized:

19.1 Showing dissent by words or action towards any officials, with regards to any decisions and to any players or spectators.

19.2 Using foul or abusive language to any officials, players or spectators.

19.3 To take any improper step or action in order to influence any decision made by the officials.

19.4 To leave the court without the permission of the umpire.

19.5 To give the ball to his/her opponent with his/her foot.

19.6 To commit ungentlemanly conduct.

19.7 To disobey orders and rules of play.

Players disobeying rules (19) will be penalized by the umpire.

The umpire will use one of the following cards.

Yellow Card - Caution
Red Card - Expulsion

Red Card should be given to the following offenses committed "INTENTIONALLY".
i.) Persist in misconduct after receiving a caution,
ii.) Violent conduct (e.g. striking, kicking, spitting, etc.)
iii.) Using foul or abusive language.
Note: Any player who is shown a Red card will be sent off the court and disciplinary action will be taken against him/her. The player concerned will not be allowed to play in any game until sanction has been made.


Disciplinary action will be taken against Team Officials or his/her team for any misconduct or disturbances committed by the official or team during a tournament whether in or outside the court.


In the event of any question or any matter arising out of any point which is not expressly provided for in any of the rules of the game, the decision of the Official Referee shall be final.