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Fordsmender's Dictionary of Proto-Germanic Roots

The Phonology of Proto-Germanic

Vowels

Short

Long

i

u

ī

ū

e

y

o

æ

 

ō

a

ā

Diphthongs:

ai

au

 

 

ei

eu

Those sounds given in white are those that do not occur frequently. There is also an /"/ of very rare occurance; it sounds as IPA [e:].

Consonants

Labial

Dental

Velar

Labiovelar

Plosives

p
b

t
d

k

kw

Fricatives

f
bh

th
ð
s
z

H
γ

Hw
γw

Nasals

m

n

ŋ

 

Liquids

 

 

 

l, r

Semivowels

w

 

j

 

A

a det ainaz.
ability n
duγunthiz.
abound v taumjanan.
above prep ufan, ubhan.
abuse v
stampōjanan.
accustom v wanjanan.
ache n akiz.
acorn n
akrōnan.
add v aukanan.
after adj, prep afteraz.
again adv
γeγ.
against prep anγeγ.
akin adj sebhjō.
ale n aluth-.
all adj alnaz.
altered adj thwerHaz.
always adv
ā, ō.
and conj unðá.
anger n Hatis.
angry n wraithaz.
animal n deuzán.
answer n andswæru-.
ant n ai-.
any det
ainaγás, ainiγás.
apple n aplu-.
apron n
skurtjōn.
arm n armaz.
army n Harjaz.
arrow n
arHwō.
ascend v stīγanan.
ash n az
gōn.
ash tree n askaz.
asking n
bōniz.
aspen n aspō.
at adp-loc at-.
attack n bi-satjanan.
auger n
naibhōγaizaz.
avenge v wrekanan.
avoid v wenkanan.
await v fra-biðjanan.
awe n
aγ-.
axe v Hawwanan. -n akwiz.
axle n
aHsō.

B

back n bakan.
bacon n
bakōn-.
bait v baitjanan.
bake v bakkanan.
ball n
ballōn, bhalnōn.
ban v bananan.
band, strip n
bandōn.
bane n banōn.
bare adj bazás.
bark v berkanan.
bark v
γelpanan.
barley n bariz, baraz.
barrow n
barwōn.
bastard n banstiz.
bath n bathan.
bathe v
bathōn.
be- pref bi-.
be v es-wes-.
beach n setla-.
beacon n bauknan.
bead n beðan.
beak n nabhjan.
beam n balkan-, belkan-.
beam n
sparrōn.
bean n baunō.
bear n beron-. -v beranan.
beat n bautanan.
beautiful adj skauniz.
beaver n bebhrús.
bed n baðja-.
beech n
bōkjōn.
before prep airiz.
befriend v
frijōjanan.
belief n γa-laubhan.
believe v γa-laubhjanan.
belly n Hrefiz.
belt n
γerdu.
bench n rastō.
bend n HanHa.
bend v
biuγanan.
bequeathe v laibhjanan, -leibhanan.
berry n basja-, bazja-.
besom n
besmōn.
better adj bat-.
between prep, adv bi-twiHn, bi-twiska-.
beware v warás.
bide v biðjanan.
bird n
fuγlaz, fluγlaz.
birth n γa-bhurðís.
bitch n
bikkeōn.
bite v bītanan. -n bitiz.
bitter adj bitrás.
black adj blak-.
blacken v smutt-, smutn-.
blade n blaðán.
blame v fijæjanan.
blaze n
blasōn.
bless n blōðisōjanan.
blind adj blindaz.
bliss n
blīthiz.
block n stukkaz, stuknás.
blood n
blōðan.
bloom n
blōmōn.
blow n straikaz.
blue adj blæwaz.
blunt adj dullaz.
blush v bluskjanan.
boar n bairaz.
board n burðan.
boat n baita-.
bode n buðōnan.
bog n muð-.
boil v
būlja-.
boil v seuthanan.
bold adj balthaz.
bold adj Hwataz.
bolt n kulb-.
bone n bainan.
book
n bōks.
boom v bōmanan.
border n γa-mairja-.
both adj, adv bā twā.
bottom n buthm-, buthn-.
bough n
bōγaz.
boundary n
markō.
bow n buγōn.
bower n
būra-.
braid v breγðanan.
brain n
braγnan.
brand n brandaz, branðás.
brave n
duHtīγás.
bread n brauðan.
break v breuthanan.
breast n breustan.
breath n bræthaz.
bride n
brūðiγumōn.
bridge n
bruγjō.
bright adj berHtaz.
bring v breŋanan.
brittle adj brutilo-.
broad adj braiðaz.
brood n
brōð-.
brook n
brōka-.
broom n bræma-z.
broth n bruthan.
brother n
brōthar.
brow n brū-.
brown adj brūnyz.
bruise v brūsjanan.
buck n bukkōn.
build v buthlan.
builder n thaHsuz.
building n temraz.
bull n
bullōn.
bundle n bundilīn.
bundle n skaubhaz.
burial n
burγisli-.
burn n brenwanan.
burst v brestanan.
bury v
burγjanan.
but conj, prep, adv ūtan, bī ūtan.
buxom adj būHsamaz.
buy v buγjanan.

C

cake n kōk.
calf n kalbhan.
call v
kallōjanan.
called, named adj Haitanan.
camp n kampaz.
can aux kunanan.
can v kúnthyz.
care n karó. -v
karōjanan.
carve v γrabhanan.
catch v lakkjanan.
ceiling n rasnan.
chain n teuðrán.
charity n dailaz.
chase v
jaγōjanan.
chest n
bōsm-.
chew v keuwjanan.
chick n
daγwō.
chicken n
kiukīnan.
child n barnan.
choice n kuzís.
choke v
us-keukōjanan.
choose v keusanan.
chore n karzjan.
churn v
kernjōnanan.
cinder n sindran.
circle n Hreŋaz.
city n
burγs.
clam n klamb-, klamm-.
clasp n
spanγō.
claw n
klawō.
clay n klaijaz.
clean adj klainiz.
clearing n
swathaz, swathō.
cliff n brenkōn.
climb v klimbanan.
cloth n klaithaz.
clove n
klubhō.
club n klumbōn.
clue n kleuwīn.
clutch v klukja-.
coal n kulan.
coarse adj
γrutja-.
cold adj kalðás.
collide v stenkwanan.
colt n kultaz.
comb n kambaz. -v kambjanan.
come v kwemanan.
comfortable adj samthijaz.
command n bi-Haissiz.
commoner n folkan.
complete adj fullaz, fulnaz.
consider v ræðanan.
costliness n deuríthō.
cottage n kutan.
cover v
Hūðjanan.
cradle n kraðulás.
cramp n krampaz.
creep v kreupanan.
cripple n krupilaz.
crooked adj skank-.
crow n kraH-. -v
Hrōk-.
crowd n threnγán.
cultivate v
plaiγanan.
curdle v rannjanan.
curve v swaipanan.
cut v sweranan.

D

dam n dammaz.
damp adj dampaz.
danger n
pleγ-.
dare v ders-, dars-, durs-.
day n
daγaz.
dead adj dauðás.
deaf adj daubhaz.
dear adj deurijaz.
death n dauthuz.
deed n dæðís.
deep adj deupaz.
delve v bi-deltabhanan.
dense adj theku-, thekwia-.
depth n deupíthō.
descendent n streun-.
desire v lustús.
dew n dawwaz.
dig v
γrubhjanan.
dim adj dimbaz.
dimple n dumpilaz.
dip v dupjanan.
dirty adj salwa-.
disturb v sturjanan, staurjanan.
ditch n
slōHaz, sklōHaz.
dive v dūbhijanan.
divide v kleubhanan.
dock n
dokkō.
doe n Hindō.
dog n Hunðaz.
doom n
dōmaz.
door n duran.
dough n
daiγaz.
dove n dūbhōn.
draft n draHtiz.
drake n anidís.
dream n draumaz, ðrauγmas.
dreary adj dapraz.
drill v threljanan.
drink v drinkanan.
drive v dribhanan.
drone n dran-.
drop n
drupōn.
dross n drōHs.
drought n drūγōthuz.
drum n trōmilaz.
dumb adj dumbaz.
dust n dustu-z.
dwarf n
dwerγaz.
dwell v dwaljanan.
dye n
dauγō.

E

ear n aúzōn.
earn v
aznōjanan.
earth n erthō.
east adv austa-.
eat n etanan.
eaves n ubhaswa-, ubhiswa-.
ebb n
abhjōn.
-ed suf -ðaz.
eel n ælaz.
egg n ajjaz.
elk n
elH, alγús.
end n
endijōn.
-er1 (comp) suf -īro, -īzo.
-er2 (one who does) suf -árijaz.
-est suf -istaz.
etch v
wrītanan.
evil adj ubhilaz.
exhale v blǽ-anan.
expect v wænjanan.
extend v strakjanan.

F

faded adj falwaz.
fair adj
faγrás.
fall v fallanan.
family n kunján.
far adj
ferrō-, fersō-.
fare v faranan.
fast adj, adv
Hiγ-.
fasten v fastinōjanan.
fat n talγa-.
fate n wurðís.
father n fað
"r.
fathom n fathmaz.
faucet n
tappōn.
feather n fethrō.
fee n feHu.
feed v
fōðijanan.
fell v fallijanan.
fern n farnan.
ferry v farjanan.
fetch v
fatōjanan.
feud n faiHíthō.
few adj
lūti.
field n felthuz.
fight v feuHtanan.
fill v fullijanan.
find v finthanan.
finger n
finγraz.
fir n furHjōn.
firm adj starkaz.
fish n
fiskōjanan.
fist n fūHstiz, fūnHstiz.
five n fimfy.
flag n
fanōn.
flash v γlent-.
flavor n smak-.
flax n flaHsan.
flay v flaHanan.
flea n flauH-.
fledgeling n
fluγγja-.
flee v fleuHanan.
flight n fluHtiz.
float v
flutōjanan.
flood n flōðús.
floor n
flōruz.
fly v fleuγanan.
foam n faima-.
foe n faiHaz.
fold v falthanan.
follow v
fulγ-.
food n foðrán.
foot n
fōt-.
for prep fura.
for(e)- pref fra-.
forbid v fra-biðjanan.
force n dutniz.
ford n furðús.
forth adv furtha-.
foul adj
fūlaz.
foundation n
γrunðús.
four adj
fidwōr.
fowl n Hraiγrán-.
fragment n
bitōn.
frame n Hurðís.
free adj frijaz.
freeze v freusanan.
fright n furHtaz.
frog n fruska-z.
frost n
Hrīma-, Hrī-p-an-.
fur n fōðran.
furrow n furH-.
furze n
γurst-, γerst-.

G

gable n γabhlō.
gall n
γallōn-.
gallows n
γalγ-.
gargle v sweljanan.
garment n
γawæðjan.
gather v
γōð-.
gentle adj
γaðaftjaz.
get v
γaitan.
give v γabh-.
glass n γlása-n.
gleam v
γlent-.
glide v γlīdan.
glove n
γa-labhjō-.
glow v
γlō-.
gnat n
γnattaz.
go v γai-, γæ-.
goat n Háfraz.
goat n
γaitaz.
god n γuðán.
gold n
γulth-.
good adj γōðaz.
goose n
γanat-, γans-.
grab v
γrabhjanan.
grass n γrasan.
grave n γrabh.
gravel n γiutan.
gray adj γræwjaz, γræwyz.
greed n
γræðaγaz.
green adj
γrō-.
grind v
γrindanan.
groan v γrain-.
groove n γrōbhō.
ground n γrunthuz.
group n γaŋaz.
grow v waHsanan.
grow v
γrōnja-.
guest n
γastiz.

H

hail n Haγlaz.
half n Halbhás.
hall n
Hallō-.
hammer n Hamur.
hand n Handuz.
handle n Haftjan.
hang v HanH-.
happy adj
γlaðaz.
hard adj Harðús.
harm n Harmuz.
harpoon n skutilaz.
harvest n Harbhi-s.
hate n & v
Hatōjanan.
have v Haf-, Habhjanan.
haven n Hafnaz.
hawk n Habhukaz.
hay n Haujan.
head n Haubhaðan.
heal v Hailaz.
hear v Hauzjanan, Haurjanan.
heart n Hertan.
hearth n Herthaz.
heat n
Haitīn. -v Hitjō.
heath n Haithjō.
heave n Hafjanan.
heaven n Hemina-.
heavy adj
Habhīγás.
heavy adj sw
"raz.
hedge n
Haγjō.
heed v
rōkijanan.
help v Helpanan.
hem n Hamjanan.
herd n Herðō.
here adv Hin.
hide v Halja-. -n
Hūðís.
high adj HauHaz.
hill n Hulnís.
hilt n Heltiz.
hip n Hupiz.
hive n
Hūfiz.
hold v Halðanan.
hole n Hulaz.
holly n Huli-.
holy adj
Hailaγás.
home n Haim.
hood n
Hōðaz.
-hood suf Haiðús.
hoof n
Hōfaz.
hop v Hupnōjanan. -n Hup-nán.
hornet n Hurz-.
horse n Húsa-.
hot adj Haitaz.
house n
Hūsan.
how adv Hwō-.
human n manniskōn, γuman-.
hunger n
Hunγrás.
hunt v Hantjanan.
husk n kaf-, kef-.
hut n
bōthō.

I

I pron ekan.
ice n
īsa-.
in prep in.
injure v skath-.
inn n salaz, saliz.
insect n
muγjōn.
intoxicated adj sæ
līγás.
iron n isarnan.
-ish suf -iskaz.
island n
aujō, aγwjō.
it pron Hi-.

J

jaw n kaukōn.
join v jukjanan.
juice n
wōsan.

K

keel n keluz.
kick v spurnanan.
kidney n
neγwHran.
kind adj γa-kundjaz. -n γa-kunðís.
king n kuniŋaz.
kiss v kussjan.
knee n knewan.
knife n knibhaz.
knot n knuttán.
know v knæanan.

L

lack n laka-.
lack v skurtá-.
lake n
laγás.
lamb n lambaz.
land n landan.
lap n lapn-.
laugh v HlaHjanan.
law n
laγan.
lawn n γarðaz.
lay v
laγjanan.
lead v laiðjanan, leithanan. -n laudan.
leaf n laubhan.
leak v lekanan.
lean v Hlinanan.
leap v Hlaupanan.
learn v
liznōjanan.
least adj laististaz.
leather n lethran.
leave n
laubhō. -v laibhjanan, -leibhanan.
left adj lubhtan.
less adj laisiz.
-less suf lausaz.
let v lætanan.
lie horizontally v
leγjanan.
lie, speak falsely v leuγanan.
life n lībha.
lift v luftjanan.
light (not heavy) adj linHtaz.
light v leuHtjanan. -n leuHtan.
like adj
γalīkaz. -v līkójanan.
limb n limu.
lime n leimaz.
linden n linðō.
link n Hlankijaz.
list n
līstōn.
listen v Hlusinōjanan.
live v lībhæ-.
liver n
libhrō.
load v laiðō.
loaf n Hlaibhaz.
loan n laiHwniz.
lock n
lūkanan.
lock of hair n lukkás.
loins n
landwīn-.
long v laŋōjanan. -adj laŋa.
loose adj slakás.
lose v fra-leusanan.
loss n lusan.
lot n
Hlūtan.
loud adj Hlūðás.
louse n
Hnitō.
love v leubha-.
low adj læ
γaz.
lower adj nitheraz.
lump n klutty-.
lung n luŋw-.
lye n
lauγō.

M

magic n magikós.
maiden n
maγiðīnan.
make n makōjanan.
man n manwaz.
marrow n mazga-, marga-.
match, fit n fitja-.
mate n
γamakjōn.
may v
maγanan.
meadow n mædwōn.
meal n mætha-.
mean v mainijanan. -adj
γa-mainiz.
meat n matiz.
meek adj meukaz.
meet n
tijanan.
melt v
thawōjanan.
melt v γa-maltjanan.
merry adj murγijaz.
middle adj meðjaz.
milk n meluk-.
mind n
γa-menthijan.
mine pron mīnaz.
miss v missijanan.
mist n raukiz.
mix v maiH-skan.
moment n stikiz.
money n skattás.
month n mæ
nōth-.
mood n mōðá-.
moon n mæ
nōn.
mop v thwaHanan.
morning n
murγinaz, murγanaz, marγanaz.
mother n mōðér.
mouth n munthaz.
move v Hrap-.
mow down v mæwanan.
much adj, adv, n mekilaz.
mucus n snuttán, snutnán.
mud n fanja-.
muscle n thawaz.
must v
mōtanan.
mutter v momanan.

N

nail n naγlaz.
naked adj nakwaðaz.
name n
namōn.
narrow adj narwaz.
narrow adj thunnuz.
navel n nabhalan.
neck n
Hnekkōn, kneknōn.
need n nauðís.
needle n næ
thlō.
nest n nistaz.
net n natjan.
nettle n
natilōn.
new adj newjaz.
nibble v
Hnaskwōjanan.
nimble adj raskuz, rathskuz.
nine adj niwun.
nipple n titta-.
no adv ne.
nod v Hnuðōjanan.
north adv nurthra-.
notch n Hnukk-.
now adv
nō.
numb v sterbhanan.
nurse n
daiγjōn.
nut n Hnut-.

O

oak n aiks.
oar n
airō.
oath n aithaz.
observe v
kōp-.
odd adj uzdaz.
off adv abha.
one adj, pron ainaz.
one num & pron ainaz.
open adj upana-, upina-.
or conj aiththau.
orphan n arbhijan.
other adj, pron antheraz.
otter n utraz.
our adj
ōs.
oven n úHwnaz.
over prep, adv ubheri.
owe v
aiγanan.
ox n uHsōn.

P

paddock n parrukaz.
pale adj Hairaz.
park n
parrakōn.
part n dailiz.
path n patha-.
payment n
Hūrja.
peace n frithuz.
peak v
kīkanan.
penis n mastaz.
penny n
penaγa-.
person n weHtiz.
pierce n
burōnan.
pig n farHaz.
pile n Haupaz.
pinch v
γrīpanan.
place v
stōwijanan.
play n laikanan.
pleasant adj linthijaz.
pluck v
taisilōjanan.
plum n slaiHwōn.
pod n Hulis.
pointed adj
Handaγás.
poke v
pukōn.
pool n ternō.
possession n aiHtiz.
post n stabhaz.
pot n
krōgu-.
prank n prunH-.
prepare v taujanan.
press v threnHanan.
prey n
warthō.
prick v prikōjanan.
profit n bōtō.
protect v berγan.
proverb n saγwú.
pull v
draγanan.
punish v stræf-.

Q

queen n kwæniz.
quick n kwikwaz.

R

rabbit n Hazán-.
race n ræs-.
rag n
klūtaz.
rain v reγna-, reγaná-.
raise v raizjanan.
rake v rak-.
rank adj rankaz.
rather adv Hrathaz.
raven n Hrabhanás.
raw adj Hrawaz.
reach v raikjanan.
ready adj
γa-raiðijaz.
rear adj Hinðerán.
reckon v
γa-rekenōjanan.
recoil v skrenkanan.
red adj rauðaz.
reel n HreHulaz.
reindeer n Hrainaz.
reservoir n sumpaz.
restless adj wæbhraz.
reward n
mizdō.
rib n rebhja-.
ribbon n
snōðó.
rich adj
rīkjaz.
ride v rīaðanan.
ridge n
Hruγjás.
right adj reHtaz.
rind n
rendō.
ripe adj rīpijaz.
rise v us-rīsanan.
roast v bræðanan.
roasting spit n spituz.
rob v
raubhōjanan.
robe n raubhó.
rod n
ðó.
roe deer n
raiHōn.
roe n Hruγná-, Hruγán-.
roof n
Hrōfaz.
room n rūman, rūmaz.
root n wartō.
root v wrōtanan.
rope n raipaz.
rot v
rūt-.
rough adj rūHaz.
round adj HwéHwlan, Hwéγwlan, Hweγwlán.
row v rūwanan.
rub v wrībhanan.
rudder n rōthru-.
rude adj kerlaz, karlaz.
rue v Hrewanan.
run v renwanan.
rye n
wrauγō.

S

sack n balγiz.
sadden v Hruwjanan.
saddle n saðulaz.
sail n
seγlan.
sake n sakō.
sale n salō.
salmon n laHs.
salt n saltan.
same adj
samōn.
sand n sanda-, sámaða-.
sap n sapan.
satisfied adj saðás.
satisfy v saðōjanan.
saw n
saγú.
say v
saγjanan, saγwjanan.
scab n Hreufaz, Hrufaz.
scare v
thraγjanan.
scatter v straujanan.
scoop n skap-.
scorch n saŋjanan.
scrape v skerf-, skarf-.
scratch v kerbhanan.
scum n
skūm-.
scurvy n skurf-.
scythe n
seγúthō.
sea n áHwō, saiwaz.
seal n selHaz.
seam n saumaz.
seat n sæt-.
secret n
rūnō.
section n skīzó.
see v seHwanan.
seed n sæðís, sæðá.
seek v
sōkjanan.
seem v sōm-.
seep v sip-.
seize v Hantjanan.
seldom adv selda-.
self pron salbha-.
sell v saljanan.
send v sanðjanan.
servant n
theγnás.
set v satjanan.
seven adj sebhún.
sew v siwjanan.
shade n skadwó, skadwás.
shaft n skaftaz.
shake v skuð-.
shall v skal-, skul-.
shallow adj skala-.
shame n
skamō.
shape v knuðanan. -n Hauw-.
shard n skarðás.
share v
skarō.
sharp v skarpaz.
shave v skabhanan.
shear n skær-.
sheath n
skaithjō.
shed v skaithanan, skaiðanan.
sheep n skæpan.
sheet n skauta-.
shelf n skelf-, skalf-.
shell n
skaljō.
shield n skelðús.
shift v skiftanan.
shimmer v
γlīm-, γlaim-, γlim-.
shin n skinō.
shine n skīnanan.
shining adj blank-.
ship n skipan.
-ship suf -skapaz.
shirt n Hamíthjan.
shoe n
skōHaz.
shoot n skeutanan.
shop n skuppa-.
shore n stranðás.
shot n skutan.
shoulder n skluðrō.
shove v skubh-.
shovel n skub
hlō.
show v skauwōjanan.
shower n skūrō, skūraz.
shred n skrauðás.
shrimp n skrempan.
shrink n blankjanan.
shroud n
skrūðán.
shut v skutjanan.
sick adj seukaz.
sickle n Hæ
bhjō.
side n ðás.
sieve n
Hrīðran.
sign n taiknan.
silver n silubhra-.
sin n sunðjō.
sing v seŋwanan.
sink v senkwanan.
sip v
sūpanan.
sister n swestr-.
sit v setjanan.
six adj seHs.
skip v skupanan.
slant v slintanan, slintjanan.
slaughter n sluHtís.
sled n sliðō
, slaγj-.
sleep v slæpanan.
sleeve n slupan.
slice n sleit-, slit-, split-.
slide v
slīðanan.
slide v
γlið-.
slight adj slembaz.
sling v
slenγanan.
slough, shedded skin n slūk-.
slow adj slæwaz.
slut n slauthaz.
sly adj
slōγís.
small adj smalaz.
smart adj Hántheraz.
smart v smertanan.
smear v smerwan.
smell n stankwiz.
smite v sm
ītanan.
smith n smithaz.
smoke n reukan.
smoke v smeukanan.
smolder v
smel-, smul-, smōl-.
smooth adj slīkas.
smuggle v smūγanan
snail n
snaγilás.
snake n
snakōn.
snare n snarHō.
sneak v sneikanan.
sneeze v fneusanan.
snore v snark-.
snow n snaiwaz.
soak v staupjanan.
soap n
saipō.
soft adj slīmaz.
song n sanγwaz.
songbird n finkíz, finkjōn.
soon adv sæ
nō.
soot n sōtan.
soothe v salbhōjanan.
sore adj sairaz.
sore n
blajinōn.
sorrow n surγō.
soul n
saiwalō.
sound n sunðás, swinthaz.
sour adj
sūraz.
south adv sunthrōnjaz.
sow v sæjanan. -n suγú.
space n kluftís.
spade n spaðōn.
spare n sparaz.
spark n spark-.
sparkle v
γleitmunjan.
sparrow n sparwaz.
spasm v
thrawōjanan.
speak v sprekanan.
spear n speri.
spear n
γaiðō-.
speech n sprækjō.
speed n spōðís.
spell n spellan.
spew v
spīwanan.
spider n spenthrō, spīnthrō.
spike n γazðaz.
spill v spelthjanan.
spin v spenwanan.
spinning wheel n rukka-.
spire n
spīraz.
spit v spætlanan.
splinter n
spīkaz.
split v randijanan.
spoke n
spaikōn.
sponge n swampuz.
spool n spelðō.
spoon n spænuz.
spray v spræwjanan.
spread v
sprīðanan, spraiðjanan.
spring v
sprenγanan.
sprout v spreutanan.
spy n speH-.
stab v stik-.
staff n
Hruŋō.
stain n flekk-.
stair n
staiγrī.
stalk v
stalkōjanan.
stall n stallaz, stalnaz.
stand v sta-n-ð
-, stōð-.
star n
stersōn, sternō.
starch v starkjanan.
stare n star-.
starling n
starōn, staraz.
stave n laththō.
steadfast adj fastuz.
steal v stelanan.
steel adj staHlijaz.
steep adj staupaz.
steer v steurijanan.
stem n
stalō.
stick n stakōn.
stick, cling v klibhōjanan.
stiff adj stīfaz.
still adj steljaz.
sting v
stenγanan.
stone n stainaz.
stool n
stōlaz.
stop v Haltaz.
stork n sturkaz.
storm n sturmaz.
straw n Hraukaz.
stream n straumaz.
strength n
stranγúthō.
stretch v rakjanan.
strife n Haifstiz.
strike v slaHanan.
string n
stranγiz.
strip v straupjanan.
stripe n
strīpan.
stroke n strikōn.
stroke v straikōjanan.
strong adj stranγaz.
strut v strūt-.
stud n stōðō.
stump n stumpaz.
stutter v staut-.
sty n stijan.
subdue v kwaljanan.
such adj
swalīkaz.
sulk v selkanan.
summer n sumur-.
sun n
sunnōn.
surge n bulγ-.
swallow v swelγ-. -n swalwōn.
swamp n mōra-.
swan n swanaz.
swarm n swarmaz.
sweep v
swīpanan.
sweet adj swōtjaz.
swell v swelnanan.
swelling n knw-.
swim v swemjanan.
swine n
swīnan.
swing v
swenγanan.
sword n swerðan.

T

tail n taγlá-.
take v tækanan.
tale n
talō.
tame v tamjanan.
tar n terwa-.
target n
tarγa-.
teach v taikjanan.
team n
taumaz, tauγmaz.
tear v rīfanan. -n taHr-, taγr-.
tease v taisjanan.
tell v taljanan.
tell v taljanan.
ten adj
teγán-.
testicle n
kūdilaz.
thanks n thankaz.
thatch v thakjanan.
theft n theubhíthō.
thick adj
γa-Hrus.
thief n theubhaz.
thigh n theuHaz.
thin adj
skīraz.
thing n thenγán, thénγaz.
think v thankjanan.
thirst n thurs-.
thong n
thwanγaz.
thorn n thurnuz.
though conj thauH.
thread n thræðús.
threaten v threutanan.
three adj thrijaz.
thresh v threskanan.
throat n thrut-.
through prep thurH-.
thrush n thraud-sk-.
thrust v
thrūstjanan.
thud v thudjanan.
thumb n
thūman.
thunder n thunraz.
tie v
tauγōwjanan.
tight adj thenHtuz.
till v
tilōjanan.
tiller n Helman, Halman.
tilt v Helthjanan.
time n
ðís.
tin n tinan.
tithe n
teγánthōn, teHánthōn.
toad n skabh-, kabh-.
toe n
taiHwō.
together adj γað-.
tomcat n
staγ-.
tongs n tanγó.
tongue n tunγōn.
tooth n tanth-, tunth-.
total adj
ūtizōn.
tough adj tanHuz.
tow v
tuγōjanan.
towel n thwaHlijan.
tower n stapulaz.
town n
tūnaz.
tread v treðanan, truðanan.
tree n trewan.
trough n
truγá-.
trunk of a tree n bulás.
truth n santhaz, sunðjás.
turf n swarðu-.
turn v terbhanan.
twig n
twiγán.
twin n twinjaz.
twine n twizna-.
twist n
werbhilōn.
two adj twai.

U

ulcer n aitra-.
uncle n awunHaimaz.
under prep, adv unðer-.
undergarment n
smukkaz, smuγnás.
unsteady adj taltaz.
up adv upp-.
urinate v miHstilaz.
utter n kwethanan.

V

vagina n slitan, sklitan.
vegetable n
krūðán.
vomit v Hrækjanan. -n Hræ
kōn.

W

wade v wadjanan.
wag v
waγōjanan.
wail v jæmeraz.
wake v wak-.
wallow v waltjanan.
war n
wersō.
ward n warðō.
-ward suf -warð.
ware n
warō.
warm adj warmaz, γwarmaz.
warn v warnōjanan.
warp v werpanan.
warrior n
wrakjōn.
wash v wat-sk-anan.
wasp n Hwefsa-.
waste v
wōstjan.
water n watar.
wax n waHsan.
way n
weγaz.
we pron wīz.
weak adj waikaz.
weapon n wæpnan.
wear v wazjanan.
weasel n
wisulōn.
weather n weðrán.
weave v webhanan.
wed v waðjanan.
wedge n
waγjaz.
weed n weuð-.
week n
wīkon.
weep v wōpjanan.
weigh v weγanan.
weight n γaweHtiz.
well-being n welōn.
wench n thewernō.
west adv wes-t-.
wet adj wætaz.
whale n Hwalaz.
wharf n Hwarfaz.
what pron, adj, adv Hwat.
wheat n Hwaitijaz.
wheel n ratha-.
when adv, conj, pron Hwa-.
where adv Hwi-.
whether conj Hwatharaz.
which adj, pron
Hwi-līkaz.
white adj Hwītaz.
who pron Hwaz-.
whole adj Hailaz.
whore n
Hōrōn.
why adv Hwī.
wide adj ðás.
widow n wiðewō.
wife n
wībhan.
wild adj wilthijaz.
will v weljanan. -n
weljōn.
win v wenwanan.
wind n wenðás. -v wenðanan.
wipe v
wīpanan.
wire n wīraz.
wise adj wīsaz, wītsas.
wish v wunskjanan.
wit n witjan.
withered adj sauzás.
woo v wanHanan.
wood n wiðuz.
wool n
skaγján.
word n wurðan.
work n werkan.
worm n wurmiz.
worry v
wurγjanan.
worth adj werthaz.
wound n
banjō.
wrath n wraithíthō.
wreath n
writhōn.
wrench v wrenkjanan.
wring v
wrenγanan.
wrist n wristiz.
wrong adj
wranγaz.

Y

yard n γazðijō.
yawn v γin-.
year n jæran.
yearn v
γer-.
yellow adj γelwaz.
yes adv jā.
yesterday adv γestra-.
yew n īwa-, īwō.
yield v γelðanan.
yoke n & v spanwanan.
yon adv, pron jainaz.
you pron iuwiz.
young adj
juγúnthaz.
yours pron
thīnaz.
youth n juwúnthiz, juwunðōjíthō.

     This text is the work of an amateur. In no way do I claim to represent any part of the formal linguistic community. I present this piece only to give those who are new to Germanic linguistics a starting place. Of course, suggestions and criticisms are always welcome.