The ablative case is the case of averbial relations showing where, whence, and wherewith. When governed by a preposition, the ablative is limited to a literal since, while it conveys a figurative sense when used without a preposition.
     It is helpful to remember that the numerous categories of the ablative are scholarly inventions designed to facillitate understanding of the ablative's sundry uses; these categories did not exist as such for the classical Roman, and so the line of separation between some them can be blurry at times, especially when one use is derived from another. These categories are only useful in so far as they aid in the understanding of the true meaning of the ablative.

Ablative Case Endings
1st Fem. 2nd Masc. 2nd Neut. 3rd M. & F. 3rd Neut. 4th Masc. 4th Neut. 5th Fem.
Sing. a (long) o (long) o (long) e (short) e (short) u (long) u (long) e (long)
Plur. is (long) is (long) is (long) ibus (short) ibus (short) ibus (short) ibus (short) ebus (long e)

Uses of the Ablative
governed by prepositions no prepositions
Abl. of place where
Abl. of place from where/separation
Abl. of attendance
Abl. of material
Abl. of manner
Abl. of (personal) agent
Abl. of period/character of time

Abl. of time when
Abl. of time within when
Abl. of origin
Abl. of respect/specification
Abl. of manner
Abl. of comparison
Abl. of quality/description
Abl. of means/instrument
Abl. of measure/standard
Abl. of degree of difference
Abl. of price
Abl. with verbs of plenty/want
Abl. with special verbs
Abl. with opus and usus
Abl. of cause
Abl. of attendant circumstances
Abl. of route
Abl. of association
Abl. of penalty
Ablative Absolute

Prepositions That Take The Ablative
a/ab, (away) from, by de, (down) from, concerning pro, in front of, for
absque, without e/ex, from, out of sine, without
coram, in the presence of in, in, on sub, under(neath)
cum, with prae, before tenus, up to

     NOTA BENE: in and sub can take the accusative and indicate motion towards; tenus can take the genitive and regularly follows its object; cum is addended as a suffix to first and second person reflexive pronouns (mecum, etc.) and to the relative and interrogative pronouns (quocum, etc.); subter (beneath) and super (over) sometimes take the ablative.

renovata antediem quattuor Kalendis Juliis MMDCCLV A.U.C. (ab urbe condita)

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