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ARTICLES FROM THE TIMES (NEWSPAPER) RELATING TO CARDIFF, WALES, 1785 TO 1819

(Please note that spellings and punctuation are as published, so may not be correct in modern usage)

21 August 1794
Married
On Saturday last, at Cardiff, Mr. William Richards, of Wyche-street, London
to Miss Richards, of Cardiff

4 April 1788
Sunday, two young men at Whitchurch, near Cardiff, out of a frolic, one laid a 
wager, that the other could not open, by the force of throwing his arm, a dart
knife; which he accepted, and succeeded; but unfortunately struck it in his
thigh, which cutting an artery, he bled to death in about four hours.

10 April 1790
The Zephir, Moss, from London to Cardiff, is carried into Cherbourg with much
damage, after being on shore.

9 September 1790
Friday the Assizes ended at Cardiff, for the county of Glamorgan, at which 
G.Lloyd for stealing a horse, and Thomas John for housebreaking, received
sentences of death. 

29 August 1791
At Hereford Assizes an action was brought by a Mr. Rees, a freeholder of the 
Manor of Sengenith, in Glamorganshire, against the Right Hon. Lord Cardiff
and others, for having made an inclosure on a place called Brincaira, part of
the waste on which had a right of Common. The principal defendant had 
always insisted, that as Lord of the said manor, he had a right to enclose such
part of the waste as he thought fit; but after a full investigation, it appeared so
clearly that no such right existed, that the Jury, under the direction of the 
learned Judge, pronounced a verdict for the Plaintiff, whereby 127 acres of
waste that had been unjustly fenced in, will be restored to the commoners.

26 September 1791
At Cardiff Assizes, on Friday, four prisoners were capitally convicted -  At the
Nisi Prius Bar was tried an action brought by a person at Neath, against 
another of the same place, for biting him by the nose, and also in one of his
thumbs, by which he was disabled for three months. The Plaintiff obtained
five guineas damages, and full costs of suit.

5 December 1794
Letters from Cardiff mention, that the waters were so much out in that
neighbourhood, as to render the roads almost impassable. The mail coach
a few days ago, in order to avoid the flood, took a circuitous route by the way
of Landaff, but was obliged to return, the river there having swollen so high
as to make it dangerous to pass. A guide on horseback was procured, and 
the guard mounting one of the leaders, the coach and passengers were with
great difficulty and fatigue conducted safely across.

22 April 1801
At Cardiff Assizes, which ended on Friday last, and occupied the whole of the
week, three of the rioters at Merthyr, who had committed felonies, were 
capitally convicted, and received sentence of death, viz. Samuel Hill, James
Luke, and Aaron Williams; as were Thomas John, and Gwenllin Watkin, for
sheep stealing. Judgement is suspended on three others of the rioters who
were found guilty of felonies.

26 December 1801
One of the unfeeling villains who plundered the property of the ship-wrecked
mariners cast ashore near Aberthaw, Glamorganshire, is committed to Cardiff
gaol.

31 July 1802
The following persons, an April last, received of Mr. Nicholson, No.16, 
Cornhill, between Twelve and Thirteen Hundred pounds each, for the Shares
of the Ticket No.17,993, drawn a Prize of 20,000, which it is presumed must 
have due weight with every person who wishes to be a candidate for the 
favours of fortune, viz. Mr.Sutton, near Cardiff, Wales ..............

13 January 1804
Falmouth, Jan 9,
The brig Padston, Stevens, from Cardiff, bound to London, with iron, coming
into this harbour, unfortunately missed stays, and got among the breakers of
the Stay Rocks; several boats went to her assistance, and by great exertions
got her off, and carried her into St.Mawes, where, in consequence of the 
damage she has sustained, she will be obliged to take out her cargo.   

10 April 1806
(Summary)
Morgan William was tried at Cardiff Assizes for the wilful murder of Margaret 
William, his servant, in October 1805. On that day, Morgan William, arrived 
home and told the servant get him some bread and butter. He then
complained about the quality of the food, and an argument ensued, in which 
Margaret William said she had seen the ghost of Morgan William's brother, 
which angered him so much that he struck her and threw her to the ground.
Whilst she was down she cried out for help from another servant, but William
Morgan, the son of Moran William, told him not to help, as Margaret William
had caused much mischief in the family. When Margaret William appeared 
to be dead, they lifted her into a chair, and Morgan William was full of
remorse. They tried to revive her with some spirits but she died.
The Jury returned a verdict of Manslaughter, which led the Judge to tell them
that their decision was a stain on the County to allow such guilt to escape.
Morgan William was fined 50 and imprisoned for 12 months.

31 January 1807
The Centurion, Richards, the Union, Evans, and the Lucy, Edwards, from Youghall 
to Southampton, were taken 23rd inst., by a French schooner Privateer, of six guns 
and 65 men. The two former burnt, the latter given up to the crews, and arrived at
Solva, near Milford, 26th - The privateer had taken the Hebe, of Cardiff, previous 
to the 23rd.

25 October 1809
The subscription proposed for the liberation of prisoners in the gaol at Cardiff 
in Wales, on occasion of the Jubilee, was filled almost as soon as opened. On
the Saturday morning last, the High Sheriff of the County visited the prison 
and gave to the Debtors there the consoling assurance that they should all be
liberated on the Wednesday evening, but that they should be previously 
enabled to spend the day convivially together, with a plentiful dinner of roast
beef and plum pudding.

22 October 1816
Disturbances in Glamorganshire
The following letter on the subject of the riot of the miners was received
Yesterday morning:-
Swansea, Oct 19
"it is with great concern that I inform you that we are all in Swansea in a very
anxious state of alarm the whole of this day, and I am quite apprehensive 
that consequences will end very bad. Yesterday dispatches came from 
Merthyr by express, signed by the High Sheriff of the county, and other 
Principal Magistrates, urging the immediate assistance of three troops of
The Swansea cavalry, at Merthyr, stating that the rioters had assumed a 
Most alarming appearance; consequently the troops marched from Swansea
At a very early hour this morning, and also the Cardiff troop from that town; 
Since which there has been such a variety of alarming reports that it would
Be endless to repeat. I must only say that the discontented are in great force,
And determined to oppose everything sent against them. The Magistrates are
Now waiting the arrival of the first messenger. I hope things will be much
Better indeed than the reports, - otherwise it is dreadful. I am much afraid
Distress will be severely felt this winter."

24 October 1816
Disturbances in Wales
(Extract of a letter)
Merthyr, Sunday, Oct. 20th, 1816
On Wednesday last about 400 men rose from their work at Tredegar
Iron-works; they came on to Rumney works, and put the blast out from
The furnaces, and pressed several men to go along to the Dowlais works;
There they did the same; also at Penydarren, they stopped all the furnaces
On the hills (their plea was an increase in wages); the mob passed by 
Pontmorlais to Cyfarther iron-works, and stopped all the blast-furnaces and
Most of the works: they pressed many of the workmen to go along with them.
On Wednesday evening their numbers were increasing to many hundreds, if
Not thousands. They got to the Plymouth works, and stopped them all. In the
Evening (after stopping all the works in the neighbourhood) the men came 
Into the town of Merthyr an a large body, perhaps many thousands, some with
Sticks, and others with pikes, and other weapons in their hands. There was a
Very large crowd, and several of the men knocked at my door about 10
o'clock on Wednesday evening; your mother, myself, and several were in my
house: all the lights (except a little fire) were put out, but we had prepared for
the worst: we had plenty of candles, etc. in readiness: however, the men
knocked furiously at my front door. I opened it, and asked them what they
wanted; their answer was "bread and cheese". I told them to behave
peaceable, I would give them all the bread and cheese I had in the house
among them. One fellow, with a large hay-fork in his hand, stepped up to
my door, and swore they would not injure any thing: so they had all my 
bread and cheese, as they wanted victuals. Very fortunately we had been
baking that day (partly on purpose), as I had seen their manoeuvres in
several places about. However, your mother and all in my house lent a
hand to cut and serve out the bread and cheese as fast as we could, while
myself and others were reasoning with the men, and making use of the
best and most persuasive means we could. In the course of half an hour
they all gave an huzza ! and went away to other parts of the town where
they could get victuals. The mob has not done any more injury than
stopping all the works. I gave away, perhaps, about 2 worth of bread
and cheese. Dispatches were sent to different parts for military. Mr.Forrest
travelled all Wednesday night for Bristol, others to Cardiff , Swansea etc.
Three stage-coaches were pressed at Cardiff, which were loaded full in
and outside with soldiers. They reached Merthyr on Friday morning. Also
the Cardiff and Swansea cavalry came in on Friday. Yesterday the infantry
came in from Bristol. The mob had left Merthyr on Friday. They went over
the hills to Nanty-Gloe, Lanelly, Blane-avon, and every works on the hills 
they stopped. They were to return to Merthyr yesterday (Saturday), about
2 o'clock. They arrived in a body supposed to be at least 10,000 men. About
half an hour before the mob, the Bristol soldiers (part of the 55th regiment) 
came in; they had scarcely had time to have a sup of beer and a little bread
in their hands, at the Castle inn (head-quarters), before the mob came in in
thousands. Mr.Hill (the sheriff for Glamorgan), Mr.Crawshay, and all the
gentlemen, mounted their horses with the cavalry. The riot act was read by
Mr.Hill, the sheriff. After great bustle and noise the mob were all dispersed
Last evening, without firing or injuring any one by the military. Last evening,
After they dispersed, near 40 of the ringleaders were made prisoners;
Tomorrow they will be sent to Cardiff gaol. Had not the mob dispersed when
They did, the order to fire would have been given in a few more minutes: had
That been the case the slaughter would have been dreadful, for many of the
Innocent, who were spectators, would have fallen dead with others. 
PS. Every thing at Merthyr is quiet this morning: all military etc. are gone to
Church.
 
6 November 1816
The contract for supplying the pipes for the Paris Waterworks has been made
With the iron-merchants at Cardiff and Newport, in Wales. A brig from the
Former port, with 120 tons of pipes, recently put into Southampton, on her
Passage to Rouen. She was conveying the first cargo.

9 November 1818
Mr. Richardson moved for a rule to show cause why a criminal information 
Should not be filed against Pritchard and Woolcott, churchwardens, and 
Wheeler, and others, of the town of Cardiff, for conspiring to prevent the 
Collection of a poor rate. The affidavit stated, that in consequence of 
Objections made, as the deponent thought, on grounds wholly insufficient,
And supported by one Richards, an attorney, the poor were delayed in their
Regular payments, by which two disturbances were occasioned, and serious
Alarm excited. It seemed that the churchwardens refused to sign the rate, 
Unless some exceptions were made in favour of their own property: but we
Could not hear the affidavit very distinctly. The Court seemed to think the 
Objections to the rate were reasonable enough, and if we mistake not, 
Refused the rule.

28 November 1818
Court of King's Bench
The King v Woods and another
Mr.Goulburn showed cause why a criminal information should not be filed
Against the above defendant, for having used insulting language towards
Peter Walker, constable of Cardiff castle. Mr. Walker had called himself a
Magistrate, but he was not a Magistrate for the county of Glamorgan; and
His situation in the castle was of so little dignity, that the duties of it were
Performed by the porter of the castle-gate. Mr. Walker was assistant clerk
in the Tontine office; so that though he was a very respectable man, his
situation in life and his dignity were not so overwhelming as to entitle him
to this special interference; and he had passed four other opportunities of
procuring ordinary redress. The substance Mr.Walker's affidavit showed 
that the language used by the defendants, however unjustifiable, was only
the heat of election squabble; and Mr. Goulburn contended that there was no
intention whatever to provoke Mr.Walker to fight a duel. A private place was
chosen for the attack, and not the county meeting, which would have been the
case if premeditated insult had been intended. The defendants' affidavits
stated that Mr. Walker had constantly acted towards them with marked
malignity; and these affidavits were supported by those of several aldermen
of the borough; Mr.Walker's constant object being to promote dissention in the
borough, and expel Mr.Woods from the office of Town-clerk. Mr.Woods denied 
ever having insulted Mr. Walker, in his capacity of Constable of the Castle, or 
having offered to abandon his party and go to the Marquis of Bute's
Party, for a pecuniary consideration, as was asserted in Mr.Walker's affidavits.
The proceeding by information was only allowed on gross and outrageous
Occasions, it was therefore necessary to go into the merits of the applicant.
He was in a subordinate situation of life, and had caused every dispute and 
dissension in the borough of Cardiff. Five months had elapsed, and why had 
he not gone before the Grand Jury ? The Court asked whether the defendants
had received any immediate provocation at the time they had insulted
Mr.Walker, and in answer to the objection, from the time that had elapsed,
Said the prosecutor could not have come to this Court before, and would have
Been to blame if he had instituted proceedings in Glamorganshire. Rule
Absolute against the defendants. The prosecutor is agent of the Marquis of
Bute.

21 August 1819
Herefordshire Assizes
The King v Wood
(this long report is the follow-up case from the preceding report, and too
long to transcribe, so I have summarised the main points which amplify the above
report) 
 
"This was a criminal information against the defendants for using insulting
language to the prosecutor, Mr. Peter Walker, constable of the borough of
Cardiff, in order to provoke him to fight a duel. It appeared that, in that
Borough, dissensions had prevailed, which led to considerable heat and
animosity. On the 25th of June 1818, a meeting was about to be held in 
Glamorganshire, to consider of a proper person to represent that county
in parliament. On that occasion Mr.Walker was accosted by the defendants
in the language stated in his evidence; and in order to protect himself 
against any further insult or violence on their part, he had found it necessary
to apply to the Court of King's Bench, for a criminal information, which was
granted."
"Mr.Peter Walker said he lived in Great Portland-street, London. He was 
constable of Cardiff Castle. He also held a situation in the Tontine-office, in
the Exchequer, and had succeeded Lord Torrington as barrack-master to 
the foot guards. He was at Cardiff in the month of June last year. On the 25th
of June he left Cardiff to go to Pyle, in Glamorganshire, to attend a county
meeting for the nomination of a member for that county. Pyle was about 21
miles from Cardiff. He passed through Cowbridge in his way. He travelled in
his own carriage with a dicky box. The Rev. Mr.Jones was in the carriage with
him, and Capt, Roberts on the box. They left Cardiff between 7 and 8 in the
morning. When they arrived at Cowbridge, his carriage stopped within 20
yards of the inn. The Rev. Mr. Williams, and Mr. Richards, of Cardiff, were
standing near the carriage when it arrived. He did not observe where Capt. 
Roberts went. Mr.Richards was his solicitor at Cardiff. Mr. Williams was
Magistrate for the county. When he observed these 2 gentlemen he went
towards them. Frederick Wood, one of the defendants, came and stood before
him in a most threatening and insulting manner, and said "You are a
blackguard; my name is Frederick Wood. I live here" Immediately after this
Mr. Nicholas(sic) Wood stepped forward in the same insulting and threatening
manner, and said "You scamp, you ought to be horsewhipped; plain language
is best for such fellows as you are, Peter Taylor Walker, of the Tontine-office."
Mr. Walker then said to Mr. Williams and Mr. Richards, "This is evidently
meant to provoke me to fight a duel, or to challenge them". On this Frederick 
Wood said "I mean it so, you are a scamp, and ought to be horsewhipped out
of every town you come to; I mean to horsewhip you myself hereafter; I would
do so now but for the respect I have for my own character." Mr. Nicholas (sic)
Wood then came up again and said "How dare you show your face in this town? 
You ought to be horsewhipped out of this town particularly, and out of
every town you come into., Peter Taylor Walker of the Tontine-office." Nothing 
could be more insulting than their manner; it was like that of maniacs. Mr.
Nicholas (sic) Wood was a solicitor, and Town-clerk of Cardiff. Mr. Frederick
Wood was a Lieutenant in the army. He had no personal acquaintance with
either of them, and had never used any insulting language to them."
When cross-examined Walker agreed that he had possibly had some
correspondence with Nicholas (Nicholl) Wood or his brother John when he
wrote to express his condolences on the death of their father. He had also
corresponded with Mr. John Wood, as the solicitor to the Marquis of Bute, 
whose confidential friend Walker was. He was not the Marquis' agent in 
political matters but did give advice to the Marquis' agents. Walker was 
attending the meeting at Pyle to support the candidacy of Sir Christopher
Cole for Glamorganshire. However, in the event, Mr. Edwards was selected and 
Sir Christopher was not nominated. Lord James Stuart, brother of the
Marquis had been elected for Cardiff. Mr. Fredk. Wood had been a candidate
against Lord Stuart. Since the events in question Walker had seen the Woods
in Cardiff in corporation meetings and Mr. Nicholl Wood had frequently made
use of Insulting expressions and gestures against him but had not molested 
him. Walker was not a member of the corporation but attended at the request
of some of the members. Nicholl Wood and others had protested against his
presence but Walker protested his right to attend as constable of the castle.
however, he had left the room when requested to do so. A vote was taken 
and the majority was for the constable to be allowed to attend.
Walker's statement was supported by the Rev. Henry Williams, who said he
was a Magistrate for Glamorganshire, but had no connection with the borough 
of Cardiff. On cross-examination he said he had no ecclesiastical
living or cure and lived in Cardiff. He had supported Lord Stuart's candidature
for Cardiff and was going to Pyle to support Sir Christopher Cole for
Glamorgan. Sir Christopher was a supporter of the Marquis of Bute, and was
opposed by Mr. Edwards, who was supported by the defendants. He said that
he had not written down the words of the defendants but that Mr. Richards
had. He had seen the words written by Mr. Richards and had discussed them. 
he had not previously heard Walker repeat them.
The defence did not dispute the words spoken, only that they were not meant 
to provoke a duel. Mr Walker had said that the words had been spoken like 
maniacs and if that were true then it should show that they were spoken in 
the heat of the moment. There had not been any previous differences
between the defendants and the prosecutor, but there were some disputes 
in the borough between different groups. He did not defend the words spoken
but hoped the jury would understand that they were not spoken with malicious
intent, nor to provoke a breach of the peace.
The jury immediately found a verdict of Guilty. Defendants to receive
Judgement in the course of the next Term.

14 September 1819
The iron trade at Cardiff has for some months past been particularly brisk; and
such is the multiplicity of orders regularly transmitted, that the iron-masters 
are erecting new new furnaces, to enable them to meet the demand. It is
supposed that no less a quantity than 500 tons is shipped weekly from that
port. The tin trade is equally flourishing. - Bath Journal

30 November 1819
The King v Nichol Wood, Gent., and Frederick Wood, Esq.
(This refers back again to the case reported above - I have summarised the details)  
The two Woods had put in affidavits accusing Walker of being the author of a
gross and defamatory libel published in the Cardigan paper, reflecting on their
father, and on other members of their family. They claimed that this was the 
source of their anger with Walker, but that the words used were uttered on the 
spur of the moment seeing this man who had vilified themselves and their 
family. They had done nothing since their prosecution to aggravate their
previous conduct. Mr. Scarlett, for the prosecutor, said that Walker had
requested time to answer the affidavits. The Lord Chief Justice granted time,
but said that there would be no need for the defendants to attend Court again
to hear sentence against them. 
     


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