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A CHRONOLOGY OF GLAMORGAN

The following chronology covers the main elements of the history of Glamorgan mainly for the period up to 1960 with a few later events. It is intended to be of use to people researching their family history in the area, in order to provide a background to their research and maybe some pointers as to why their ancestors lived where they did or moved in or out of the area. It includes the dates of foundation of many of the main organisations in the county, the opening of older churches (but not the original parish churches) & chapels (mainly before 1850), Theatres, Cinemas, Old Inns & Hotels & Industrial Companies. I realise that it is not exhaustive and undoubtedly people who know the county will find that things that they might have included are not in my list. If anyone wants anything added I shall be pleased to consider it if they can give me the details. It is my hope that I will, in any case, be able to make additions in time.

The chronology can be read in conjunction with my Cardiff & Vale Chronology, and some events will be found in both.

A Wales timeline is already available via the Glamorgan Help pages and I have produced a Chronology of British History which is available on my website.

In order to find a specific event without reading through the whole list please use the "find" facility of your browser. In this way you should be able to find any references to a particular year or subject.

THE INDEX - PERIOD 1700 TO 1849

By 1700 = Swansea had replaced Neath as the most important copper smelting area in Wales

1708 = Melin Cwrt Iron Furnace established at Resolven for manufacture of pig iron

1708 = Jane Herbert of the Friars, Cardiff died leaving 600 to found a school in Cardiff. Land at Gurnos, Merthyr Tydfil bought as investment to provide income for the maintenance of the school.

(known as the Gurnos Charity)

1709 = SPCK published the first Book of Common Prayer in Welsh

1710 = Baptist chapel established at Hengoed

1711 = Francis Wyndham of Clearwell, Glos. instrumental in persuading the SPCK to establish a library in Cowbridge for the use of local clergy and school teachers

1717 = Llangyfelach Copper smelting works set up in Tawe Valley by Dr.John Lane of Bristol

1722 = South West tower and roof of Llandaff Cathedral collapsed

1726 = Robert Morris took over Llangyfelach Copper Works, Swansea from Dr.John Lane

Abt 1731 = Circulating schools started in Glamorgan by Griffith Jones, Vicar of Llanddowror, Carms. (By 1761 over 150.000 children had passed through the schools)

1732 = Thomas & Robert Coster of Bristol took over the Copper Works at Melincryddan, Neath from Humphrey Mackworth

1732 = Customs Officer at Cardiff called for assistance to rid the area of smugglers (without success)

1733 = Charlotte Herbert niece of Thomas Herbert, 8th Earl of Pembroke (and daughter of Philip Herbert, 7th Earl of Pembroke) inherited the Lordship of Cardiff which then passed to her husband Thomas, Viscount Windsor.

1737 = Coster Brothers & Joseph Percival of Bristol leased land from Bussy Mansel of Briton Ferry to build a new copper smelting works at White Rock near Swansea harbour.

1737 = Thomas Price of Watford-Fawr, Caerphilly granted lease of land at Watford for the building of Watford Independant Chapel

1737 = Flat Holme Lighthouse built by Bristol businessmen

1738 = David Williams, Waunwaelod born - later founder of the Royal Literary Fund

March 1739 = George Whitefield, leader of the Oxford Methodist Group preached at Cardiff Town Hall

1739 = Watford Chapel, Caerphilly built. David Williams of Pwllypant pastor.

1739 = David Williams of Pwllypant started a free school for local children at Cwm Farmhouse, Caerphilly

1739 = St.Mary's Church, Swansea partially re-built

1739 = Charles Wesley invited to preach at Cardiff

October 1739 = John Wesley visited Wales

1740s = Rees Powell of Llanharan acquired the lease of Melin Griffith (Corn Mill), Whitcurch and converted it for use as an iron works and also set up a forge

1740 = John Wesley preached at Cardiff Shire Hall

1740 = Lliw Forge, near Pontardulais established

1740 = Cardiff Iron Forge established by Thomas Lewis of New House, Llanishen

19 November 1740 = Charles Wesley preached at Newport, Mon & at Cardiff Town Hall

1741 = George Whitefield Methodist evangelist married Elizabeth James at Capel Martin, Caerphilly

1742 = First General Association of English & Welsh Methodists held at Plas Watford, Caerphilly

2 March 1742 = John Wesley preached at Llanishen & at Cardiff

3 March 1742 = John Wesley preached at Llantrisant

1742 = The Cardiff Society (Methodist) formed

1742 = Groeswen Methodist Chapel, Caerphilly opened (inspired by Howel Harris)

1743 = Cymmer Independent Chapel, Rhondda opened

1743 = The Cardiff Methodist Society built its own Meeting Rooms in Church Street, Cardiff

January 1743 = George Whitefield elected Moderator of the General Association of English & Welsh Methodists at Groeswen Chapel

May 1743 = John Wesley received a poor hearing in Cowbridge

May 1743 = John Wesley preached to large congregation at Wenvoe

21 July 1743 = John Wesley preached at Neath to a poor reception

22 July 1743 = John Wesley preached at Margam but the Welsh speaking congregation could not understand him.

26 March 1746 = Grand Jury found David Jones of Llanfihangel y fedw guilty of sedition for declaring himself a supporter of King James.

29 July 1746 = David Morgan of Penygraig, Counsellor to Prince Charles Edward Stuart (the Young Pretender) executed on Kennington Common, London for his Jacobite beliefs.

1747 = Unitarians set up chapel at Hen Dy Cwrdd, Cefn Coed, near Merthyr Tydfil

1749 = The Union Society established (Friendly Society)

1749 = Aberthin Methodist Chapel, near Cowbridge opened (inspired by Howel Harris)

1749 = The Sympathetic Society established in Cardiff (Mutual society for the relief of widows)

1749 = Rees Powell granted a lease on Melin Griffirh Works, Whitchurch to Richard Jordan & Francis Homfray

Abt 1750 = Llanharan House built for Rees Powell

1751 = Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland, Welsh Methodist leaders fell into dispute weakening the Methodist cause in South Wales & Howell Harris stopped his travelling preaching, withdrawing to his home at Trevecka, Mon..

1751 = Trecynon Meeting House opened

1756 = Pontypridd Bridge built by Willam Edwards

1757 = Lease granted to Isaac Wilkinson to establish an ironworks at Hirwaun

1757 = Upper Bank Works, Swansea (zinc & lead smelting) founded by Chauncey Townsend of London

10 April 1758 = John Freeman & Son with others took over White Rock Copper Works, Swansea

21 August 1758 = John Wesley set out on a tour of the Vale of Glamorgan to rekindle support for Methodism which had declined after the schism between Howell Harriis & Daniel Rowland

1759 = Establishment of the Dowlais Iron Works near Merthyr Tydfil by Thomas Lewis of New House, Llanishen & Thomas Price of Watford Fawr, Caerphilly

1760 = Richard Jordan obtained a 200 year lease of Melin Griffith Works, Whitchurch

1762 = Meeting at Swansea to discuss the building of turnpike roads

1762 = Remodelling of Fonmon Castle for Jones Family

1763 = Reconciliation between Howell Harris & Daniel Rowland Itinerant preaching resumed. John Wesley visited Howell Harris at Trevecka

By 1764 = building of the turnpike road between Gloucester, Cardiff and Swansea started

August 1764 = John Wesley in Gower, which he particularly liked because it was an English speaking area and there was thus no language barrier

Bef 1765 = Horse Racing became popular in Glamorgan, particularly at Stalling Down, near Cowbridge and the Great Heath in Cardiff

1765 = Thomas & Walter Jordan in charge of the Melin Griffith Works, Whitchurch. Tinplate works added to the site.

1765 = Henry Knight commenced remodelling of Tythegston Court

1765 = Anthony Bacon took out a lease at Cyfarthfa near Merthyr Tydfil for an ironworks

1766 = Cyfarthfa Iron Works established at Merthyr Tydfil

12 November 1766 = John Stuart, Earl of Bute married Charlotte Jane Windsor daughter of Viscount Windsor, Baron Herbert of Cardiff

1767 = Jordan Brothers of Melin Griffith, Whitchurch became insolvent

1767 = John Guest became manager of the Dowlais Iron Works

September 1767 = John Wesley embarked on a prolonged tour of South Wales

25 September 1767 = birth of John, eldest son of John Stuart, Earl of Bute

1768 to 1788 = many visits to various parts of South Wales by John Wesley

1768 = Sir John Morris decided to build a planned village for the workers at his copperworks. Beginnings of Morriston

1769 = Rhys Thomas of Llandovery set up as a printer in Cowbridge - the first printer in Glamorgan

1770 = James Harford, Richard Partridge and other Bristol Quakers took a lease on Melin Griffith Works, Whitchurch plus other local property at Forest Farm & Velindre, Whitchurch

5 April 1770 = First part of John Walters' English-Welsh Dictionary published by Rhys Thomas of Cowbridge

Bef 1772 = establishment of copperworks at Cardiff

1772 = Landore Quay, Swansea built by John Morris I for shipment of copper & coal

1772 = Iolo Morganwg (Edward Williams of Flemingston), probably the most learned Welshman of his day, and founder of the Gorsedd of the Bards published his first booklet

28 October 1772 = Glamorganshire Agricultural Society founded at a meeting at the Bear Inn, Cowbridge under the chairmanship of Thomas Mansel Talbot of Margam

1773 = Thomas Mansel Talbot inherited Penrice Castle Estate, Gower and commenced the construction of a new Penrice Castle in the groundsof the estate.

1773 = Llantrisant Town Hall built

21 July 1773 = death of Howell Harris at Trevecka from tuberculosis aged 60

1774 = Sir John Morris paid for the building of Morris Castle - workers housing at Landore, Nr. Swansea

1775 = Sir John Morris erected Clasemont, Swansea as his new home

1776 = Charlotte Jane Windsor daughter of Herbert, Viscount Windsor inherited the Lordship of Cardiff which then passed to her husband, John Stuart, Earl of Bute & Lord Mount-Stuart who then became Baron of Cardiff Castle (Lord Cardiff of Cardiff Castle)

1776 = Sir Herbert Mackworth re-built Gnoll House, Neath

1776 = construction of Wenvoe Castle, near Cardiff

Abt 1777 = Bedford Ironworks established at Cefn Cribbwr, near Bridgend

1777 = Anthony Bacon leased the Plymouth Iron Works, Methyr Tydfil

1777 = Very severe snow and ice in Glamorgan

1777 = Upper Bank Works, Swansea converted from zinc & lead smelting to copper smelting

1778 = Beginning of reconstruction of Cardiff Castle

1782 = John Guest became a partner in the Dowlais Iron Works

1782 = Anthony Bacon leased the Cyfarthfa Iron Works to Samuel Homfrey

1783 = Death of Thomas Price of Watford Fawr, Caerphilly

1783 = canal built by John Smith to serve his Llansamlet Colliery

1784 = Penydarren Iron Works established near Merthyr Tydfil by Jeremiah, Samuel & Thomas Homfray

1784 = Clydach Upper Forge opened by Richard Parsons

1784 = Edward King of Swansea built Marino Villa, Swansea (later the basis for Singleton Abbey)

1784 = Baptists started meeting at Tonyfelin, Caerphilly

1784 = Bacon leased his interests in the Cyfarthfa Works to Richard Crawshay & Cocksutt

1784 = Thomas Knight active as a smuggler at Barry Island

1785 = John Wood became Senior Treasurer of Glamorgan

1785 = Ruperra Castle burned down. Rebuilding started.

1786 = Anthony Bacon died and his interests disposed of

1786 = John Guest retired as partner in Dowlais Iron Company and was succeeded by his son Josiah John Guest.

1786 = Formation of the Melingriffith Benefit Club by workers with support of management to provide relief for workers in times of distress

1786 = Richard Crawshay came to Merthyr Tydfil to take control of the Cyfarthfa Iron Works

1786 = Richard Hill (previously agent to Anthony Bacon) obtained Bacon's Plymouth Works

1786 = Bacon's Hirwaun Works obtained by Mr.Glover of Abercarn, Mon.

1786 = Richard Forman joined the Homfreys as a partner in the Penydarren Iron Works

1787 = Stouthall, Reynoldston built for John Lucas.

1787 = Margam Orangery constructed for Thomas Mansel Talbot

1788 = death of Charles Wesley in London

1788 = Penclawdd Copper Works built & operated by John Vivian

1789 = first Wesley Chapel in Swansea founded

6 March 1789 = John Wood, Attorney at Law, sworn in as Town Clerk of Cardiff

2 November 1789 = Public meeting held in Swansea to promote additional turnpike roads

By 1790 = Glamorganshire Races established

1790 = John Stuart, Earl of Bute elected MP for Cardiff

1790 = Glamorganshire Canal Navigation Company formed under a private Act of Parliament

1790s = Establishment of Caerphilly Market by William Price of Watford Fawr, Caerphilly

1790s = Jacobins (Radicals) of Merhyr Tydfil active

1791 = Swansea Harbour Act promoted by Sir Watkin Lewes

2 March 1791 = death of John Wesley aged 89, in London

1792 = Fox family of Falmouth, Cornwall took over the Neath Abbey Iron Works

1793 = Mumbles Head Lighthouse, Gower built

1793 = Friendly Societies Act established a firm footing for Friendly Societies which provided some measure of assurance in sickness or old age. eg Order of Oddfellows, Ancient Order of Foresters, Hibernian Liberal Society, Total Abstinence Society.

1793 = completion of the Glamorganshire Canal between Abercynon and Cardiff

10 August 1793 = birth of John Stuart, son of John Stuart (d.1794) and grandson of the Earl of Bute

1793 to 1795 = 9000 tons of iron and considerable quantities of cannon sent from Cardiff to Woolwich Arsenal for use in the war

1794 = Corn riots in Swansea

1794 = Swansea Canal Bill promoted by Sir Watkin Lewes

1794 = Glamorganshire Canal opened

22 January 1794 = John Stuart, eldest son & heir of John Stuart, Earl of Bute died as a result of a fall from his horse

By 1795 = Daily mail coaches operating between London and Cardiff and Milford Haven and Cardiff

June & July 1795 = Tour of Glamorgan by JMW Turner, Artist.

1796 = John Stuart, eldest son of the Earl of Bute created Marquis of Bute

1797 = Threats of French invasion resulted in hasty raising of Militia forces

1797 = Rose Copper Co. of Birmingham founded the Crown Copper Works, Skewen

February 1797 = French landing in Pembrokeshire repulsed by local Yeomanry & country people

24 February 1798 = Ballots held to raise the Glamorgan Militia

1799 = start of the Penydarren Tramway from Penydarren Iron Works, Merthyr Tydfil to Abercynon to join the Glamorganshire Canal

1799 = Quaker Meeting House established at Neath

1800 = Troubles in Ireland result in the despatch of troops from Cardiff to that country

1800 = major unrest in Glamorgan over low wages, scarcity of provisions and the activities of the Press Gangs

1800 = Swansea was the largest town in Wales

28 January 1800 = death of Charlotte Jane, wife of 1st Marquis of Bute.

April 1800 = riots at Merthyr Tydfil

1801 = First Iron Works in Rhymney Valley built by Union Iron Co. at Llechryd

20 April 1801 = Demonstrations at Swansea by women & children regarding the price of food. Cardigan Militia, stationed at Swansea, called out to quell the disturbance. Supposed threat of riot by colliers in Swansea resulted in the Inniskilling Dragoons (stationed at Cardiff) being called in. The threatened riots did not occur.but there were some minor disturbances.

1802 = Dunraven Castle, Southerndown built

1802 = Union Iron Co. built Butetown in the Rhymney Valley as the start of a "model" village for their workers

7 April 1803 = John Stuart, grandson of 1st Marquis of Bute inherited from his maternal grandfather the title of Earl of Dumfries

1803 = Cefn Rhigos Tramroad built from Aberdare to join the Neath Canal - operated by a Trevithick engine

1804 = John Wood (snr) resigned as Town Clerk of Cardiff

1804 = John Wood (jnr) appointed Town Clerk of Cardiff

21 February 1804 = Richard Trevithick's steam engine ran on the Penydarren Tramway

1805 = Pentyrch Iron Works taken over by Harford & Partridge and linked with Melin Griffith Works

1806 = Cyfarthfa Philosophical Society set up by the Jacobins of Merthyr Tydfil

1806 = Merthyr Mawr House built for Sir John Nicholl

1806 = Swansea & Mumbles Railway (first ever paying passenger carrying railway) opened. (closed 1960)

Abt 1808 = Swansea tried to develop itself as a seaside resort

1809 = Walter Coffin commenced prospecting for coal in the Lower Rhondda Valley

1809 = Coal mines opened at Dinas, Rhondda by Walter Coffin

1809 = Jeremiah Homfrey leased land at Hafod, Rhondda for coalmining

1809 = setting up of the Court of Requests in Merthyr Tydfil to allow Bailiffs to seize goods of debtors

1809 = Tramroad opened from Hafod, Rhondda to the Glamorganshire Canal at Treforest by Dr.Richard Griffiths

1810 = Cyfarthfa Iron Works, Merthyr Tydfil was the largest ironworks in the world employing around 1500

1810 = Melin Griffith Works, Whitchurch under management of Richard Blakemore, nephew of Partridge

1810 = Morris family move out of Clasemont, Swansea to a new home at Sketty Park House

1810 = strike by workers at Dowlais Iron Works

1810 = Hafod Copper Works, Swansea founded by John Vivian

1810 = The Union Jubilee Society established (Friendly Society)

1811 = Bethesda Chapel. Merthyr Tydfil built (rebuilt 1829 & 1880)

1811 = Ebenezer Independent Chapel, Aberdare opened

1812 = The Friendly Society established

1812 = Walter Coffin opened Dinas Lower Colliery, Dinas Uchaf, Rhondda

1812 = Initial steps taken for a canal from Abercynon to Aberdare to open up the coal industry in the Cynon Valley and the addition of a tramway from Aberdare to Hirwaun Iron Works

1812 = Walter Coffin moved from Bridgend to live at Llandaff Court, Cardiff

By 1813 = Classical & Commercial Academy (Mr.John Morgan) established in Cardiff - one of the first schools to provide a Classical education in Cardiff

1813 = Philadelphia Baptist Chapel, Barry opened

1813 = formation of the Cardiff Welsh Baptist cause

1813 = Nantgarw Pottery established near Treforest by William Weston Young & William Billingsley

1813 = Methodist Chapel, Castle Street, Neath opened

1814 = The Women's Club (Friendly Society) established

1814 = John Stuart, Earl of Dumfries, grandson of 1st Marquis of Bute & Lord Cardiff inherited the titles and estates of his paternal grandfather and became 2nd Marquis of Bute & Lord Cardiff

1815 = twice weekly boat service from Cardiff to Bristol

1815 = Sion Calvanitic Methodist chapel, Cadoxton-juxta-Barry opened on land obtained from Thomas French of Wenvoe

9 October 1815 = opening of a boys school as The Cardiff School for Promoting the Education of the Poor, under the Presidency of the Marquis of Bute and supported by the Town Council

1816 = strike by iron workers in various parts of South Wales

1817 = Joseph Tregelles Price took over the Neath Abbey Iron Works

1817 = opening of a girls school under the same arrangements as the boys school opened in 1815

27 April 1817 - death of John Wood, late Town Clerk of Cardiff & Treasurer of the County of Glamorgan

1817 = John Bird appointed Town Clerk of Cardiff

1817 = John Henry Vivian bought Marino Villa, Swansea and used it as the basis for his new home

1818 = Nicholl Wood appointed Town Clerk of Cardiff

1818 = W.H.Forman, son of Richard Forman, took over the Penydarren Works, Merthyr Tydfil from the Homfray family

1818 = Samuel Brown ( ex Lieutenant in the Royal Navy) came to Pontypridd and took over a nail works previously oprated by William Crawshay Brown and his cousin Samuel Lennox set up the Brown Lennox Company as the Newbridge Chain & Anchor Works (Pontypridd)

1819 = Iolo Morganwg managed to get the Gorsedd of the Bards (his invention) associated with the eisteddfod held at Carmarthen, thus starting the now traditional link between the Eisteddfod and Bardic Culture

2 October 1819 = establishment of a public savings bank in Cardiff with help from the Marquis of Bute

1820 = Daily mail coach started operating between Cardiff and Merthyr Tydfil

1820 = regular boat service between Bristol and Newport with connecting coach to Cardiff

1820 = Tabernacle Chapel, Cardiff built

1820s = Richard Blakemore adopted his nephew, Thomas William Booker and trained him to manage the Melin Griffith & Pentyrch Iron Works

1820 = Tennant Canal built from junction with the Neath Canal at Aberdulais to Port Tennant, Swansea

1820s = Establishment of Wesleyan Methodist Society in Melingriffith, Whitchurch

1821 = Tabernacle Welsh Baptist Chapel, The Hayes, Cardiff opened

1821 = Bethany English Baptist Chapel, St.Mary Street, Cardiff opened

1821 = The Assembly Rooms, Swansea opened

1822 = Nantgarw Pottery ceased production

1824 = Robert & Lucy Thomas at Waun Wyllt, near Merhyr Tydfil first to mine steam coal

1824 = Port Tennant tidal harbour, Swansea built

1824 = Ararat Baptist Chapel, Whitchurch founded

1825 = William Crawshay had Cyfarthfa Castle built at Merthyr Tydfil as his new home

1825 = Commencement of building of new Swansea Guildhall, Somerset Place, Swansea (completed 1829)

1825 = Theatre Group formed in Cardiff

1825 = Porthcawl Harbour Bill to permit the building of a harbour at Porthcawl and the construction of the Duffryn Llynvi & Portcawl Railway to coonect the coal & iron mines of Maesteg to the harbour at Porthcawl

1826 = 40000 tons of coal exported from Cardiff

1826 = Penuel & Tyrinity Presbyterian Church, Llantrisant built

13 March 1826 = Formation of the Mechanics Institute in Cardiff

12 September 1826 = First Theatre opened in Cardiff at Crockerton as the Theatre Royal with a

performance of Macbeth with Mr W.C.Macready in the principal role

1826/7 = Guest & Co Glass Works established in Cardiff

1827 = Zion Welsh Methodist Chapel, Trinity Street, Cardiff opened

1827 = Gadlys Iron Works, Aberdare opened by Matthew Wayne

1827 = Work started on construction of Singleton Abbey, Swansea for John Henry Vivian

1827 = George Insole entered into partnership with Richard Biddle as a timber merchant in Cardiff

1828 = Ebenezer Welsh Congregational Chapel , Cardiff opened

1828 = Colliery opened at Cwm Nant Llwyd, near Pontardawe by George Crane

1828 = Cilybebyll Colliery opened by George Crane

1828 = Morfa Copper Rolling Mill, Hafod, Swansea opened by Williams, Foster & Co.

Bef 1829 = Richard Tredwin established as a prominent shipbuilder in Cardiff, opened the first Cardiff Dry Dock

1829 = Thomas Powell sank two coal shafts at Gelligaer and connected them by tramroad to the Glamorganshire Canal

1829 = Players Foundry, Clydach opened by John Strick

1829 = fall in demand for iron caused a depression in the iron industry

1829 = Ebenezer Welsh Baptist Chapel, Plymouth St., Merthyr Tydfil built (completed 1831)

1829 = Walter Coffin opened Dinas Works School for children of his workers at Dinas Colliery

1830 = Aberdulais Falls Tinplate Works established

1830 = Ebenezer Methodist Chapel, Rhondda opened

1830 = George Insole acquired a wharf at Cardiff on the Glamorganshire Canal and set up in business as a coal shipper

1830 = Radicals in Merthyr Tydfil organised a Political Union to lead a campaign for political reform

1830 = National Association of the Protection of Labour (NAPL) formed in the North of England

1830 = York Place English Baptist Chapel, Swansea built

1830 = Cardiff Assizes replaced Court of Great Sessions

1830 = Second daily coach service between Cardiff and Merthyr Tydfil

1830 = 66000 tns of iron exported from Cardiff

1830 = A new Margam Abbey House built for the Talbot family (completed 1835)

1830 = Parlimentary Bill obtained for the building of the Bute West Dock by 2nd Marquis of Bute.

November 1830 = demonstrations for political reform in Merhyr Tydfil gained support for reform by William Crawshay of Cyfarthfa and Josiah John Guest of Dowlais

By 1830 = The Cardiff & Bristol Company conveying goods by sea on a regular service from London to Bristol and Cardiff and The Cardiff & London Shipping Company also established for conveyance of goods

1831 = NAPL set up Colliers Union and sent organisers to North & South Wales to set up branches

1831 = Soar Baptist Chapel, Penygraig, Rhondda opened

23 May 1831 = Crawshay made 84 workers redundant at Cyfarthfa and cut wages of his workers

30 May 1831 = Mass meeting of ironworkers from Merhyr Tydfil & Monmouthshire at Waun Common, Dowlais

2 June 1831 = Severe rioting in Merthyr Tydfil and attack on the Court of Requests

3 June 1831 = Rioters attacked the soldiers (93rd Highland Regiment) brought in to keep the peace at the Castle Inn, Merthyr Tydfil. After a hand to hand fight the soldiers opened fire and up to 24 rioters were killed and 16 soldiers wounded Rioters dispersed but regrouped to attack again the nex day

4 June 1831 = Swansea Yeomanry on their way to Merthyr Tydfil ambushed at Hirwaun & ammunition supplies ambushed at Cefn Coed.

4 June 1831 = Deputations of rioters meet the ironmasters at Penydarren House. Just on the point of attacking the mob met with the last deputation and broke up.

5 June 1831 = delegations sent by the Merthyr rioters to recruit support in Monmouthshire

6 June 1831 = 12000 to 20000 rioters from Monmouthshire marched to Merthyr to meet the Merthyr men at the Waun. The authorities decided to attack the rioters, but they gave way and many returned home. The riot was over.

13 July 1831 = start of the trials of the ringleaders of the riots at Merthyr at Cardiff Assizes

14 July 1831 = Dic Penderyn (Richard Lewis) and Lewis Lewis sentenced to death

30 July 1831 = Lewis Lewis reprieved of the death sentence and condemned to transportation for life

3 August 1831 = Lewis Lewis transported to Australia

13 August 1831 = Dic Penderyn (Richard Lewis) executed on the gallows near St.Mary Street, Cardiff September 1831 = Lock out of Dowlais ironworkers who refused to give up membership of the Colliers Union. Other workers went out on strike in support.

November 1831 = Strike of Merthyr iron workers broken. Workers renounced the union and returned to work

1832 = George Insole acquired the Maesmawr Colliery, Llantwit Fardre from J.Bennet Grover

1832 = Nash Point Lighthouses erected in response to request from 440 ship owners of Bristol Channel ports

1832 = Reform Bill

1832 = first gas works built at Bridgend

1832/3 = new County gaol built in the Spital Field, Cardiff (the present site of Cardiff Gaol)

1833 = First steam boat service between Cardiff & Bristol

1833 = Nantgarw Pottery site used by the Pardoe family for manufacture of earthenware.

1834 = Eisteddfod held in Cardiff

1834 = William Crawshay commenced Treforest Tinplate Works

1834 = Aberavon Harbour Co. formed to build a floating dock for use of the iron & copper industries

1834 = Anthony Alsop, Iron Master, leased the Old Boring Mill in Cardiff for the boring of cannon

1835 = Rolling Mill built at Treforest Tinplate Works

1835 = First export of Cynon Valley coal from Cardiff

1835 = Glyncorrwg Coal Co.opened Glyncorrwg Colliery

7 September 1835 = Municipal Corporations Act ended the control of towns by their herditary lords,

replacing this with control by elected representatives of the people

1836 = First Cardiff Police Force organised. John Stockdale, ex London Police Force appointed first Superintendent of Police for Cardiff

1836 = Private Act of Parliament obtained by Sir John Josiah Guest for the construction of a single track railway from the Merthyr Tydfil & Dowlais ironworks to the dock proposed for construction at Cardiff (Taff Vale Railway)

1836 = Founding of Glamorgan & Monmouthshire Infirmary and Dispensary (Cardiff Royal Infirmary)

By 1837 = Batchelor Bros set up timber importing business in Cardiff

By 1837 = Daniel Thomas and Watson & Co. had set up saw-mills on the wharf at Cardiff

At 1837 = Clyne Wood Arsenic & Copper Works built near Blackpill, Gower

1837 = Sir Robert Price leased Bettws Colliery & formed the Glamorgan Iron & Coal Co.

1837 = Abernant Colliery, Cynon Valley opened

1837 = Llynfi Iron Works, Maesteg founded

By 1838 = Formation of the Glamorganshire Literary and Scientific Institution

1838 = Carmarthen lawyer Hugh Williams helped set up the first Chartist branch in Wales in Carmarthen

1838 = Union Street Welsh Methodist Chapel , Cardiff opened

1838 = Sir Robert Price & Sir Francis Knowles took a lease on land at Tondu for the construction of an ironworks

1838 = Ystalyfera Iron & Tinplate Works built

1838 = Muntz's Yellow Metal (alloy of zinc & copper used for ship's bottoms first made at Upper Bank Copperworks, near Swansea

1838 = Dr.William Price erected two roundhouses at Glyntaff as part of a projected Druidic Museum

1839 = Opening of Aberavon Harbour as Port Talbot (after the Talbot Family of Margam)

1839 = Venallt Iron Works, Cwmgwrach opened

13 May 1839 = Rebecca Riots started in Pembrokeshire/Cardiganshire/Carmarthenshire led by men dressed as women and known as Rebecca. The object of the riots was the removal of the toll gate system.

9 October 1839 - opening of Bute West Dock, Cardiff - the first of the Cardiff docks

1839 = Royal Institution of South Wales, Cambrian Place, Swansea built (now Swansea Museum)

1839 = Publication of The People's Charter

1839 = 133000 tons of iron exported from Cardiff

4 November 1839 = Monmouthshire Chartists led by John Frost, William Jones & Zephaniah Williams "attacked" Newport, Mon.but a volley of shots from the army killing or injuring some 20 people broke up the riots and the leaders were eventually arrested and tried. John Frost & William Jones condemned to death but the sntence was commuted and they were transported to Van Diemenslad.

1840 to 1874 = Cynon Valley was the leading area for mining of steam coal

1840 = attempt by Cardiff to get permission to set up its own Ship Pilotage Authority defeated

1840 = Cadoxton Iron Works, Neath opened

8 October 1840 = first sector of the Taff Vale Railway opened from Cardiff to Abercynon

1841 = Zoar-Ynysgau Welsh Congrgational Chapel, High St., Merthyr Tydfil built

1841 = High Street Baptist Church, Merthyr Tydfil built

1841 = Zion (Seion) Welsh Baptist Church, Twynyrodyn Rd., Merthyr Tydfil built

1841 = First Cardiff Police Station opened in St.Mary Street, Cardiff

5 April 1841 = extension of Taff Vale Railway to Merthyr Tydfil

June 1841 = Taff Vale Railway branch to Dinas, Rhondda opened

1842 = St.Davids Catholic Church built in Bute Terrace, Cardiff

1842 = Outbreak of Cholera in Cardiff

1842 = recurrence of the Rebecca riots in West Wales

1842 = Mines Act passed by Parliament banning women and boys under 10 from working underground in mines

1842 = Start of digging of the New Cut to straighten the river at Swansea (completed 1845)

1842 = John Nixon took the first cargo of Glamorgan coal to France

By 1843 = South Wales supplying iron rails to Russia, Germany and USA for the railway expansion, all being exported via Cardiff. William Crawshay of Cyfarthfa supplied rails for every rail line in the USA and Guest for many rail lines in Russia

1843 = John Batchelor set up his shipbuilding yard in Cardiff (having moved from Newport, Mon)

1843 = Primrose Forge & Tinplate Works, Pontardawe founded by William Parsons

1843 = Restoration of Llandaff Cathedral commenced by Dean Knight

19 June 1843 = Crowd led by "Rebecca" destroyed the Carmarthen Workhouse. 4th Light Dragoons arrived from Cardiff and the crowd ran away

June 1843 = 73rd Regiment of Foot sent to Carmarthen to join the 4th Light Dragioons

July 1843 = first "Rebecca" incidents in Glamorgan at Pontarddulais & Llangyfelach. Leaders of the Glamorgan rioters were Shoni Sgubor Fawr (John Jones) from Penderyn, Merthyr Tydfil & Dai'r Cantwr (David Davies) from Llancarfan.

6 September 1843 = Serious attack on the Toll gate in Pontarddulais. Soldiers and police brought in to quell the disturbances. 7 peole arrested.

8 September 1843 = Attack on the tollgate at Hendy. Toll keeper (Sarah Davies) killed

September 1843 = Violence of the Rebeccaites led by Shon Sgubor Fawr & Dai'r Cantwr turned many away from suporting the movement

September 1843 = Metroploitan Police and Royal Marines brought in to West Glamorgan area to prevent riots.

September 1843 = Shoni Sgubor Fawr & Dai'r Cantwr informed upon and arrested

26 October 1843 = Trial of the Pontarddulais Rebecca rioters. Leaders sentenced to transportation

14 December 1843 = opening of new St,Mary's Church, Cardiff

27 December 1843 = Trial of Shoni Sgubor Fawr & Dai'r Cantwr at Carmarthen Assizes. Both transported to Australia

1844 = George Insole acquired the South Cymmer Coal Level, Rhondda

1844 = John Williams ironmongery business set up in Cardiff (later John Williams Iron Foundry)

1844 = George Gethin & Lewis Edwards opened Nythbran Colliery

1845 = The South Wales Railway incorporated to run from Chepstow to Swansea via Newport & Cardiff (with Isambard Kingdom Brunel as engineer)

By 1845 = Swansea produced 55% of the world's copper. Swansea became Wales' second largest town. Only Merthyr Tydfil being bigger

1845 = Unitarian Church built on the site of the old Baptist Chapel, High Street, Swansea

1845 = Gellifaelog Colliery, Rhondda opened by Walter Coffin

1846 = St.David's Church, Merthyr Tydfil built (completed 1847)

1847 = Cymmer No.1 Colliery, Rhondda opened by George Insole

1847 = St.David's Priory Curch (Catholic), Swansea built

1847 = opening of College Street Wesley Chapel, Swansea

1847 = Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry into the State of Education in Wales (the Blue Books)

12 September 1847 = birth of John Stuart, son and heir of the 2nd Marquis of Bute by Sophia (Hastings)

1848 = First Public Cemetery in Cardiff opened in Adamsdown, Cardiff

1848 = an old smithy in Rhiwbina rented as a meeting house by the Congregationalists and called Beulah Chapel

1848 = Tymawr Colliery, Hopkinstown sunk

1849 = Further outbreak of Cholera in Cardiff

1849 = Disaster at Llety Shenkin Colliery, Mountain Ash killed 52 men

1849 = Rebuilding of Cowbridge Grammar School started (completed 1852)

1849 = extension of the Taff Vale Railway to Dowlais

1849 = start of the diversion of the River Taff in Cardiff to allow for the construction of the railway