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A GLAMORGAN CHRONOLOGY

The following chronology covers the main elements of the history of Glamorgan mainly for the period up to 1960 with a few later events. It is intended to be of use to people researching their family history in the area, in order to provide a background to their research and maybe some pointers as to why their ancestors lived where they did or moved in or out of the area. It includes the dates of foundation of many of the main organisations in the county, the opening of older churches (but not the original parish churches) & chapels (mainly before 1850), Theatres, Cinemas, Old Inns & Hotels & Industrial Companies. I realise that it is not exhaustive and undoubtedly people who know the county will find that things that they might have included are not in my list. If anyone wants anything added I shall be pleased to consider it if they can give me the details. It is my hope that I will, in any case, be able to make additions in time.

The chronology can be read in conjunction with my Cardiff & Vale Chronology, and some events will be found in both.

A Wales timeline is already available via the Glamorgan Help pages and I have produced a Chronology of British History which is available on my website.

In order to find a specific event without reading through the whole list please use the "find" facility of your browser. In this way you should be able to find any references to a particular year or subject.

THE INDEX - PERIOD UP TO 1699

Abt 75 = Roman fort established at Cardiff during the conquest of the Silures of South East Wales as one of the frontier posts linked to the Roman Legionary base at Caerleon, Mon. Followed by the establishment of a Roman civil community.

Abt 75 = Roman Auxiliary Fort established at Neath (Nidum)

Abt 78 = Roman Fort established at Lougher (Leucarum)

Abt 78 = Roman Auxiliary Fort built at Coelbren

Abt 110 = Roman Auxiliary Fort built at Gelligaer

Abt 120 = Roman Fort at Neath re-built in stone (Abandoned c.150)

Abt 300 = The original Roman fortress replaced by a more substantial stone-built fort at Cardiff to meet the menace of Irish raiders

Abt 380s = Romans abandoned Cardiff as part of their recall of troops to the Continent to defend the Empire against the Germanic tribes

Abt 500 = Kingdom of Glywyseg (Glamorgan) established by "Glywys, a descendant of Maxen Wledig/Roman Emperor Maximus"

Abt 500 = St.Illtyd founded a monastic church at Llantwit Major

10th century = Viking raids on Bristol Channel coasts. Establishment of Norse trading posts.

974 = death of Morgan Mwynfawr, King of Glywyseg. Kingdom became known as Morgannwg after King Morgan

1081 = William I of England led an army through South Wales and probably erected temporary defences at Cardiff on the site of the Roman fort.

1091 = Robert FitzHamon, Lord of Gloucester led an army into South Wales and built a new "motte" or mound 40 feet high to serve as the Keep of a new castle at Cardiff. Iestyn ap Gwrgan, last King of Morgannwg defeated.

1091 = Establishment of the Norman Lordship of Cardiff by Robert FitzHamon by right of conquest as a Marcher Lord ie FitzHamon assumed the Kingly rights of Iestyn ap Gwrgan and did not hold Glamorgan as a fief of the English King. FitzHamon granted various fiefs to his knights mainly in the Vale of Glamorgan. (eg Dinas Powis; Wenvoe & Sully; St.Fagans; Cogan; Wrinston & St.Nicholas; Penmark; St.Athan, Talyfan )

1091 = Welsh lords continued to hold the upland areas of Glamorgan, semi- autonomously, as a continuation of the Kingdom of Morgannwg, paying fealty to the Norman Lord of Glamorgan

Abt 1100 = Ogmore Castle built by de Londres family

Abt 1100 = Fonmon Castle built

1106 = Swansea Castle built by Henry de Newburgh (Beaumont), Earl of Warwick & first Norman Lord of Gower

1106 = Founding of Newcastle (Castle near Bridgend)

1106 = Founding of Talybont Castle, near Pontardulais by Henry de Villers

1107 = Death of Robert FitzHamon (Buried Tewksbury Abbey)

1107 = Mabel FitzHamon inherited Glamorgan

By 1116 = Oystermouth Castle, Gower chief residence of the Lords of Gower

1116 = William de Londres built a church at Ewenny and gave it to St.Peter's Abbey, Gloucester thus commencing Ewenny Priory

Abt 1120 = Neath Castle built by Robert of Gloucester, Lord of Glamorgan

1121 = Robert the Consul, Earl of Gloucester, illigitimate son of King Henry I, became Lord of Glamorgan as husband of Mabel FitzHamon

1120s = Kenfig Castle established by Robert of Gloucester, Lord of Glamorgan

1126 = Robert of Normandy brother of King Henry I imprisoned at Cardiff Castle

1129 = Richard de Granville granted 8000 acres at Neath to the Abbey of Savigny, Normandy for the establishment of Neath Abbey

1134 = Robert of Normandy died at Cardiff Castle (Buried St.Peter's, Gloucester)

1139 = Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote Histories of the Kings of Britain

1147 = Robert the Consul, Lord of Glamorgan died (Buried St.James', Bristol)

1147 = William of Gloucester (son of Robert the Consul) became Lord of Glamorgan

1147 = Geoffrey of Monmouth became Archdeacon of Llandaff

1147 = Margam Abbey founded when Robert of Gloucester, Lord of Glamorgan granted land at Margam to St.Bernard's Abbey, Clairevaux, Normandy for the founding of a Cistercian Monastery

1152 = Geoffrey of Monmouth appointed Bishop of St.Asaph

1155 = Geoffrey of Monmouth died

1158 = Ifor Bach, Lord of Senghenydd attacked Cardiff Castle and carried off William of Gloucester, Lord of Glamorgan & his wife

Abt 1160 = Swansea Chartered a Borough

1169 = Richard de Clare "Strongbow" Lord of Lower Gwent, accompanied by many Glamorgan knights, invaded Ireland

1180 = Coity Castle buillt

1183 = Kenfig & Cardiff put to flames and Cardiff & Newport Castles damaged by attack by the native Welsh

1183 = William of Gloucester died Lordship of Glamorgan passed to King John who was married to one of the heirs of William

1188 = Archbishop Baldwin preaches the Crusade on Llandaff Green

1205 = Grant of a market and fair at Llandaff by King John

1217 = Gilbert de Clare I became Lord of Glamorgan (nephew of Isabel of Gloucester, heir of William of Gloucester & divorced wife of King John)

1230 = Gilbert de Clare I died

1230 = Richard de Clare became Lord of Glamorgan

1233 = Revolt of Llewelyn the Great, Richard the Marshal, Richard Siward and other English Barons

15 Oct 1233 = Richard the Marshal attacked Cardiff Castle

1242 = Black Friars, Cardiff built by the Dominican Monks

1245 = Richard Siward outlawed

1246 = Llantrisant Castle built by Richard de Clare, Lord of Glamorgan

1248 = earliest known reference to use of coal in Wales at Neath

1254 = Borough of Cowbridge established by Richard de Clare, Lord of Glamorgan

1261 = Iron ore being mined at Penyfai, Bridgend & near Llantrisant

1262 = Richard de Clare died

1262 = Gilbert de Clare II became Lord of Glamorgan

1266 = Gilbert de Clare II defeated the Welsh ruler of Senghenydd and took over his territory

1268 = Caerphilly Castle built by Gilbert de Clare

1280 = Gilbert de Clare endowed the Grey Friars (Franciscan) Monastery , Cardiff

1282/3 = Welsh independence came to an end

1284 = Visit of King Edward I to Oystermouth Castle, Gower

1287 = Swansea ravaged by Rhys ap Maredudd

1288 = Morlais Castle, Merthyr Tydfil built by Gilbert de Clare II (completed 1294)

1294 = Rebellion of the Glamorgan Welsh

1294 = Glamorgan Welsh attack Cardiff Castle

1295 = Morlais Castle, Merthyr Tydfil attacked by the Welsh & put permanently out of action

1295 = Gilbert de Clare II died

1295 = Gilbert de Clare III became Lord of Glamorgan

Abt 1304 = Weobley Castle, Gower built by de la Bere family

1312 = Gilbert de Clare III fortified St.Quentin's Castle, Llanblethian

1314 = Gilbert de Clare III killed at Battle of Bannockburn

1314 = Hugh le Despenser became Lord of Glamorgan

1315 = Revolt of Llewelyn Bren

1315 = Llewelyn Bren attacked Cardiff Castle

1318 = Llewelyn Bren executed as a traitor at Cardiff

1321 = Cardiff Castle captured by the Lord of the March

4 March 1323 = Patent issued to the Gild of Cordwainers & Glovers of Cardiff

1324 = First Royal Charter, by King Edward II, to Cardiff Guild of Cordwainers

1327 = Cardiff and Carmarthen declared Staple Ports

1331 = Lordship of Gower passed to John de Mowbray and was henceforward held by absentee lords

1332 = Hospital of the Blessed St.David built at Swansea by Henry de Gower, Bishop of St.Davids

1361 = Black Death ravaged Cardiff

1369 = Black Death ravaged Cardiff for a 2nd time

1404 = Owain Glyndwr captured Cardiff Castle

1470 = Sir David Matthew acquired the manor of Llandaff

1473 = St.John's Church tower built (Cardiff)

22 Aug 1485 = Battle of Bosworth Field (Leicestershire) fought between the supporters of Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond (Lancastrian) and those of King Richard III Crookback (Yorkist). Many Welsh nobles, gentry and peasantry served in the army of Henry Tudor. Richard slain in battle and the Tudor dynasty established on the English throne.

Abt 1530 = Llanmihangel Place built by James Thomas

Abt 1530 = Llancaiach Fawr (house) built by David Prichard

1531 = Iron ore discovered on the Kings lands at Llantrisant

1536 = Act of Suppression - Dissolution of the Monastaries

1536 = Union of England and Wales (Act of Union)

24 August 1536 = Sir Rice Mansel took possesison of Margam Abbey on behalf of the King.

February 1537 = Sir Rice Mansel granted a 21 year lease on Margam Abbey

1539 = St.Mary's Church, Cardiff transferred from Tewksbury Abbey to Gloucester Cathedral

June 1540 = Sir Rice Mansel bought Margam Abbey Estate

1542 = Cardiff became Free Borough

1543 = The manor of Penarth passed to the Dean & Chapter of Bristol

1542 = Sir Richard Williams alias Cromwell purchased Neath Abbey after the dissolution and started the enlargement of the property into a mansion for his family

19 Apr 1544 = Sir George Herbert bought the manor of Cogan

10 May 1544 = Edward Ferrers, Lord Clynton bought the manor of Llandough East

1546 = Sir George Herbert bought the Cardiff property of Tewksbury Abbey including the Grey Friars buildings in Cardiff.

1550 = Iron ore mines at Llantrisant granted to Sir William Herbert

Abt 1550 = haematite ore discovered at Little Garth, near Pentyrch and Draethen near Machen, Mon.

7 May 1550 = Cardiff granted to William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, by King Edward VI

Bef 1551 = Plas Llantrithyd built for John Basset

10 Oct 1551 = William Herbert created Baron Herbert of Cardiff

1552 = Sir Rice Mansel built a house on the site of Margam Abbey

Mar 1555 = Martyrdom of Rawlins White for his protestant beliefs during the Marian persecutions

1557 = Llanishen & Lisvane Churches sold by Tewkesbury Abbey to Roger Kemeys of Cefn Mably.for 120.

Abt 1559 = Wales incorporated into the English Customs system

1559 = Sir Edward Mansel inherited Oxwich Castle, Gower and started its re- modelling.

1563 = William Morgan of Llantarnam, Mon bought the Manor of Roath Keynsham in Cardiff

1570 = Congress of Bards held in Cardiff Castle under patronage of Sir William Herbert

Abt 1578 = Sir William Herbert built a "sumptuous" house on the Grey Friars site in Cardiff (Herbert House)

1580s = Sir Robert Sidney set up ironworks at Llanharry, Llantrisant, Angleton & Coity

1583 = The Van (house), Caerphilly built for Thomas Lewis

1589 = Patent issued to the Gild of Cordwainers & Glovers of Cadiff (in confirmation of the 1323 patent)

1589 = Angelton Blast Furnace, Bridgend started

Abt 1596 = St.John's Church, Cardiff becomes a separate parish from St.Mary's

Abt 1596 = Dr. John Gibbon built St.Fagans Castle

Abt 1596 = Sutton (House), Llandow built by Edward Turberville

1597 = Edmund Matthew forging ordnance at Pentyrch Works

1598 = Old Place, Llantwit Major built by Edward Van

By 1600 = Neath Abbey bought by Sir John Herbert from Williams/Cromwell family

By about 1600 = Neath was the main copper smelting area in Britain. As a result Neath became Wales' first industrial town

Abt 1600 = St.Margaret's Church, Roath became a parish church in its own right, rather than a chapelry of St.Mary's, Cardiff

1600 = Edmund Matthew leased Pentyrch Iron Works to Peter Samyne & Robert Cantrell

1603 = Lease of Pentyrch Iron Works to Peter Samyne alone

Jul 1608 = Charter declared Cardiff a free town

1609 = Sir Edward Stradling of St.Donats died having started the establishment of Cowbridge Grammar School

Abt 1610 = Nottage Court, Newton Nottage built by Robert Lougher

Abt 1610 = Sir John Stradling of St.Donats completed the establishment of Cowbridge Grammar School. Walter Stradling (a relative) became Master of the school

1612 = Thomas Button of Worlton, Glam. commissioned by the Crown to explore the North West Passage to China

Abt 1613/4 = Piracy in the Bristol Channel brought under control (temporarily) by the sending of ships of war into the channel. Previously Cardiff had been renowned as a place that harboured pirates and since the 13th century the whole Bristol Channel had been frequented by pirates.

1616 = Old Pentyrch Iron Furnace demolished because Peter Samyne had ignored a notice to stop casting ordnance (which was thought to be finding its way to Spain)

1616 = Sir Edward Lewis of the Van, Caerphilly bought St.Fagans Castle

Abt 1620 - 1660 = Barbary/Moorish pirates active in the Bristol Channel

1625 = Tongwynlais Iron Furnace in operation

1626 = Ruperra Castle built by Sir Thomas Morgan

1634 = William Erbery, Vicar of St.Mary's, Cardiff & his curate, Walter Cradock reported to Archbishop Laund (Canterbury for "preaching schismatically and dangerously, to the people"

1634 = William Erbery, Vicar of St.Mary's, Cardiff admonished by the Bishop of Llandaff

1634 = Walter Cradock, Curate of St.Mary's, Cardiff "a bold, ignorant fellow" suspended

1636 = William Erbery, Vicar of St.Mary's, Cardiff tried before the High Commission Court for his "non-conformity"

1638 = William Erbery resigned his living as Vicar of St.Mary's, Cardiff and became an itinerant preacher and Chaplain to the Parliamentary Forces in London.

1638 = William Wroth established the first Non-Conformist Chapel in Wales at Llanvaches, Mon.

23 October 1642 = Miles Matthew of Llandaff in command of the Life Guards carried the banner of the King at the Battle of Edgehill and assisted him in his escape.

27 July 1645 = King Charles I (following defeated at Battle of Naseby ) came to South Wales to seek refuge and rally support, staying at Ruperra Castle.

29 July 1645 = King Charles II came to Cardiff to seek assistance from Glamorgan, but met with little enthusiasm since it was considered that his cause was lost (despite the fact that most of Glamorgan was loyal to him).

August 1645 = Glamorgan started to pass into Parliamentary hands Cardiff handed over to Prichard of Llancaiach..

1646 = Cardiff Town taken by Royalist forces under Sir Edward Carne and the Castle beseiged.

1646 = Parliamentary forces (under Major-General Laugharne) diverted from siege of Aberystwyth to relieve Cardiff Castle and Parliamentary ship of war sent to Cardiff..

20 February 1646 = Royalist forces from Raglan (under Sir Charles Kemeys) sent to Cardiff to support Carne. Considerable skirmish on the Heath at Cardiff. Followed by rout of the Royalists and the retaking of the town for Parliament.

25 May 1646 = Chepstow Castle, Monmouthshire taken by Parliamentary forces (under Col.Ewer) after stout defence by Sir Nicholas Kemeys who was killed and buried at St.John's Church, Cardiff by Rev. Thomas Andrews the vicar.

9 August 1646 - surrender of Raglan Castle to Parliament under honourable terms. Whole of South Wales in Parliamentary hands

1648 = Parliamentary Army in West Wales (under Major-General Laugharne) became disaffected and joined with Glamorgan Royalists to attack Parliamentary forces at Cardiff

8 May 1648 = Battle of St.Fagans fought between St.Fagans and Peterston-super-Ely. Royalist forces defeated with very high casualties. (it is said that there were 65 widows left in the parish of St.Fagans alone and 700 in Glamorgan as a whole as a result of this battle - the river Ely ran with blood !)

1648 = As a result of the Battle of St.Fagans many of the Glamorgan Gentry were condemned to death, 240 Welshmen were transported to Barbadoes and 1000 of the rank and file of the defeated army were sent to fight in Italy.. Some of the Gentry escaped with exilement instead of death.

1650 = school set up in Cardiff under a Commonwealth scheme for the provision of education

1651 = Christopher Love of Cardiff instigates Love's Plot to restore the monarchy

1651 = Christopher Love executed on Tower Hill, London for opposition to Cromwell

1653 = Cardiff Castle repaired and used for ammunition storage and as a garrison

1655 - Thomas Holmes of Kendal, Westmorland, a Quaker (converted by George Fox), toured South Wales preaching the Quaker Doctrine.

1655 = John ap John, Welsh Quaker "apostle" toured South Wales and was imprisoned at Swansea

1657 = George Fox, Quaker leader, visited Cardiff and preached at the Town Hall

1660 = Restoration of the Monarchy

1660 = King Charles II called upon the county of Glamorgan to clear the Bristol Channel of pirates.

1662 = Independents & Baptists started a church at Craig-yr-Allt Farmhouse, Caerphilly

1662 = Many clergy ejected from their livings in Glamorgan for dissent

1662 = Revival of Llandaff Cathedral School after Civil War

1668 = George Fox (Quaker leader) visited South Wales for a second time

1672 - Act of Indulgence allows some degree of freedom to Non-conformists but withdrawn 1673

1673 = Beau Nash born at Swansea

1680 = new iron furnace built at Caerphilly

1682 = Establishment of Swansea Grammar School

Abt 1682 = Sir Leoline Jenkins bought Cowbridge Grammar School from the Stradling family

By 1684 = Margam Abbey House built by the Mansel family

1685 = Sir Leoline Jenkins died leaving a bequest to Cowbridge Grammar School to fund schoolonig for 10 "poor boys" and 5 "pensioners" and endowing two scholarships and an exhibition at Jesus College, Oxford

1686 = Gnoll Estate, Neath came into posession of Sir Humphrey Mackworth

1688 = Edward Llewelyn of Newton Nottage tried as a Jacobite

1689 = Religious toleration for Non-conformists re-established

1690 = Non-conformist chapel set up in Merthyr Tydfil at Cwm-y-Glo

1690s = New smelting techniques using coal as fuel applied at the Abbey & Melincryddan Copper Works at Neath

1698 = Baptist Chapel established in High Street, Swansea