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Laos
 

              3 Oct 1893 - 8 Apr 1945; 

            23 Apr 1946 - 11 May 1947

            8 Apr 1945 - 23 Apr 1946;

            11 May 1947 - 2 Dec 1975 

           16 Oct 1945 - 23 Apr 1946; 

                Adopted 2 Dec 1975

 

 Map of Laos

 Text of National Anthem
 Adopted 1949

 Hear National Anthem
"Pheng Xat Lao"
(Hymn of the Lao People)

 Constitution
(14 Aug 1991)
----------
Royal Constitution
(11 May 1947-1975 [in French])

Capital: Vientiane
(Royal Capital: Luang Phra
Bang to 1975)

Currency: Kip (LAK)

National Holiday: 2 Dec (1975) 
Republic Day

Population: 6,068,117 (2004)

GDP: $10.3 billion (2003) 

Exports: $332 million (2003)
Imports: $492 million (2003) 

Ethnic groups: Lao Loum ([Lao] lowland) 53%, Lao Theung
([Mon-Khmer] upland) 23%, Lao Tai (Tai) 13%, 
Lao Soung (highland) including the Hmong (Miao) and 
the Yao (Mien) 10%, other, ethnic Vietnamese/Chinese 1% (2000)

Total Armed Forces: 29,100 (2002)
Merchant marine: 1 ship (2003)

Religions: Buddhist 48.8%, animist and traditional beliefs 41.7%,
non-religious 4.3%, Christian 2.1%, other 3.1% (2000)

International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, ARF, ASEAN, BTWC, CP, CTBT, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, KP, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Laos Index

CHRONOLOGY

1636                       Kingdom of Lan Chang (Lan Xang) becomes Luang
                             Phra Bang.
161. - 1946                Separate Kingdom (from 1904 Principality) of
                             Nakhon Champasak
1707 - 1828                Separate Kingdom of Wiang Chhan.
 3 Oct 1893                French protectorate of Laos; part of French 
                             Indochina (see Vietnam)(Luang Phra Bang a 
                             protectorate; central and south French colonies
                             until 1899 then part of Luang Phra Bang).
23 Mar 1907                West-bank Champasak and Xainyaburi provinces
                             ceded by Siam to Laos.
16 Jun 1940 -  9 Mar 1945  Administration loyal to Vichy France.
 9 May 1941 -  7 Dec 1946  West-bank Champasak and Xainyaburi provinces
                             annexed by Thailand.
21 Aug 1941                Wiang Chhan and Xiang Khuang incorporated 
                             into Luang Phra Bang.
 8 Apr 1945                Royal proclamation by Luang Phra Bang declares
                             end to French protectorate.
 7 Apr 1945 - 27 Aug 1945  Occupied by Japan (Japanese troops present since
                             28 Jul 1941).
 8 Apr 1945                Luang Phra Bang Royal proclamation declares
                             an end to French protectorate.
15 Sep 1945                Unification of Kingdom of Laos proclaimed.
23 Sep 1945 - 12 Mar 1946  Allied (Chinese) occupation north of 16th 
                             parallel and British occupation below it.
23 Apr 1946                France protectorate reestablished.
27 Aug 1946                France recognizes unification of Laos.
19 Jul 1949                French associated state
22 Oct 1953                Independence proclaimed (Kingdom of Laos).
21 Jul 1954                Independence recognized by France.
 2 Dec 1975                Lao People's Democratic Republic

Laos

Luang Phra Bang
(Lan Xang)

Wiang Chhan

Champasak

Xiang Khuang

 

 

 

 

 

Luang Phra Bang  (Lan Xang)


                     to 3 Oct 1893
 

Map of Luang Phra Bang

Capital: Capital: Luang Phra Bang
(Xiang Dong Xiang Thong
to 1561; Vientiane 1561-1695)

Population: N/A

889 - 1368                 Part of Khmer (Cambodian) empire.
....                       Müang Xiang Dong Xiang Tong
1353                       Kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao 
1478 - 1479                Occupied by Vietnam.
1574 - 1603                Burmese vassal.
1707                       Kingdom of Luang Phra Bang (officially Lan Xang Hom Khao).
Mar 1765 - 1772            Under Burmese suzerainty.
1772 - 1795                Under Thai suzerainty.
1788 - 1792                Thai occupation.
179. -  2 Jun 1794         Thai occupation.
1795 - 1828                Vassal of Vietnam
 3 Oct 1893                French protectorate; part of French Indochina (see Vietnam).
21 Aug 1941                Wiang Chhan and Xiang Khuang incorporated into Luang Phra Bang.
 7 Apr 1945 - 27 Aug 1945  Japanese occupation.
 8 Apr 1945                Royal proclamation declares end of French protectorate.
15 Sep 1945                Part of Kingdom of Laos

Kings
1637 - 1694                Souligna Vongsa
1690 - 1695                Tian Thala                         (d. 1696)
1695 - 1698                Nan Tharat                         (d. 1698) 
1700 - 1707                Setthathirath II                   (b. 1685 - d. 1735)
                            (to 1735 in Wiang Chhan)
1707 - 1713                Kingkitsarad                       (d. 1713)
1713 - 1723                Ong Kham                           (d. 1731)
1723 - 1749                Thao Ang                           (d. 1749)
1749 - 1749                Inthaphom                          (d. 1776)
1749 - 1771                Sotika-Kuman                       (b. bf.1734 - d. 1771)
1771 - 1788                Suryavong                          (d. 1791)
1788 - 1792                Thai occupation
1792 - 179.                Anurutha (1st time)                (b. 1735 - d. 1819)
179. -  2 Jun 1794         Thai occupation
 2 Jun 1794 - 31 Dec 1819  Anurutha (2nd time)                (s.a.)
31 Dec 1819 -  7 Mar 1837  Manthaturad                        (b. 1772 - d. 1837)
                            (regent for Anurutha 1817 - 31 Dec 1819; lives as a
                             monk in Bangkok 1825-26, leaving Luang Phra Bang to
                             be administered by Siamese officials)
1825 - 1826                .... -Siamese officials
1837 - 1838                Unkeo -Regent                      (d. 1850)
1838 - 23 Sep 1850         Sukha-Söm                          (b. 1797 - d. 1850)
23 Sep 1850 -  1 Oct 1868  Chantha-Kuman                      (b. 1799 - d. 1868)
 1 Oct 1868 - 15 Dec 1895  Unkham                             (b. 1811 - d. 1895)
15 Dec 1895 - 25 Mar 1904  Sakkarin                           (b. 1840 - d. 1904)
                            (regent for Unkham Apr 1888 - 15 Dec 1895)
26 Mar 1904 - 15 Sep 1945  Sisavang Vong (1st time)           (b. 1885 - d. 1959)
                            (King of Laos from 12 Oct 1945)
15 May 1946 - 27 Aug 1946  Sisavang Vong (2nd time)           (s.a.)

Prime minister 
21 Aug 1941 - 10 Oct 1945  Prince Phetsarath Rattanavongga    (b. 1890 - d. 1959)  Non-party

French Vice-consul
1887 -  5 Jun 1894         Auguste Jean Marie Pavie           (b. 1847 - d. 1925)
Commissioner-general
 5 Jun 1894 - Apr 1895     Auguste Jean Marie Pavie           (s.a.)
Commandant-superior of Bas-Laos (in Khong, Champasak)
May 1895 - Apr 1899        Marie Auguste Armand Tournier
Commandants-superior of Haut-Laos (in Luang Prabang)
Jun 1895 - Apr 1897        Joseph Vacle (1st time) (interim)
May 1897 - Oct 1898        Paul Louis Luce (interim)
Oct 1898 - Apr 1899        Joseph Vacle (2nd time) (interim)
Residents-superior
Sep 1895 - Mar 1896        Léon Jules Pol Boulloche           (b. 1855 - d. 19..)
Apr 1899 - Apr 1903        Marie Auguste Armand Tournier
Aug 1903 - May 1906        Georges Marie Joseph Mahé 
                             (1st time) (interim)
May 1906 - Apr 1907        Louis Saturnin Laffont (interim)
Apr 1907 - Jan 1912        Georges Marie Joseph Mahé 
                             (2nd time)
Aug 1910 - Jul 1911        Antoine Georges Amédeé Ernest      (b. 1863 - d. 1941)
                            Outrey (interim) 
Jan 1912 - Jul 1913        Louis Antoine Aubry de la Noé
                             (interim)
Jul 1913 - Oct 1913        Claude Léon Garnier (1st time)
                             (acting)
Oct 1913 - Feb 1914        Jean Édouard Bourcier
                             Saint-Chaffray (interim)         (b. 1870 - d. 19..)
May 1914 - May 1918        Claude Léon Garnier (2nd time)
                             (acting)
Jun 1918 - Mar 1931        Jules Georges Théodore Bosc
Apr 1921 - Jan 1923        Joël Darrousin (interim)
May 1925 - Jan 1926        Jean-Jacques Dauplay (interim)     (b. 1878 - d. 19..)
May 1928 - Dec 1928        Paul Raimond Octane Le Boulanger
                             (interim)
Mar 1931                   Paul Raimond Octane Le Boulanger
                             (1st time) (interim)
Mar 1931                   Pierre André Michel Pagès          (b. 1893 - d. 1980)
Mar 1931 - Jun 1931        Yves Chrles Chatel                 (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
Jun 1931 - Oct 1931        Paul Raimond Octane Le Boulanger
                             (2nd time) (interim)
Oct 1931 - Feb 1932        Jules Nicolas Thiebaut (interim)
Feb 1932 - Oct 1933        Aristide Eugène Le Fol
Oct 1933 - Jan 1934        Adrien Anthony Maurice Roques
                             (1st time) (acting)
Jan 1934 - Jul 1934        Louis Frédéric Eckert (interim)
Jul 1934 - Aug 1934        Adrien Anthony Maurice Roques
                             (2nd time) (acting)
Aug 1934 - Apr 1938        Eugène Henri Roger Eutrope
Nov 1934 - Oct 1935        Louis Frédéric Claire Guillaume
                             Marty (interim)
Apr 1938 - Nov 1940        André Touzet
Nov 1940 - Dec 1941        Adrien Anthony Maurice Roques
                             (3rd time) (interim)
Dec 1941 -  5 Apr 1945     Louis Antoine Marie Brasey
Japanese Supreme Counselor
 5 Apr 1945 - 22 Aug 1945  ....
French Commissioner
25 Aug 1945 -  4 Jan 1946  Hans Imfeld (interim)


Wiang Chhan (Viang Chan)


                  to 1828 
          

Map of Wiang Chhan

Capital: Vientiane 

1707                       Kingdom of Wiang Chhan resulting from the split of
                             the Kingdom of Lan Xang.
1778 - 1782                Occupied by Siam.
1782 - 1828                Vassal of Siam.
1828                       Annexation by Siam (see Thailand).
17 Oct 1887                French colony (Vientiane - French deformation).
21 Aug 1941                Incorporation into Kingdom of Luang Phra Bang.

Kings
1707 - 1735                Setthathirath II                   (b. 1685 - d. 1735)
1735 - 1760                Ong Long
1760 - 1779                Ong Bun                            (b. 1730 - d. 1781)
1779 - 1782                Thai occupation 
1782 - 1795                Nanthasen                          (d. 1795)
1795 - 1803                Intharavong                        (d. 1805)
1804 - 1828                Anuvong                            (b. 1767 - d. 1829)


Champasak  (Nakhon Champasak)


                        to 1946
 

Map of Champasak

Capital: Paksé
(Bassac to 1908)

161.                       Kingdom of Nakhon Kala Champaknaburisi founded.
1714                       Name changed to Nakhon Champa Nakhaburisi.
1791                       Name changed to Nakhon Champasak.
1772 - 1899                Vasal of Siam.
1811 - 1813                Thai occupation.
1819 - 1821                Thai occupation.
1851 - 1856                Thai occupation.
1860 - 1863                Thai occupation.
22 Nov 1904                Principality under French protectorate.
15 Sep 1945                Part of Kingdom of Laos.
27 Aug 1946                Principality extinguished.

Kings
1700 - 1713?               Nan Rath
1713 - 1738                Nokasat                            (b. c.1690 - d. 1738)
1738 - 1791                Saya Kuman                         (b. 1710 - d. 1791)
                            (regent for Nokasat 1725-38)
1791                       Xiang Keo
1791 - 1811                Fai Na                             (d. 1811)
1811 (3 days)              No Muong                           (d. 1811)      
1811 - 1813                Cha Nou                            (d. 1813)
1813 - 1819                Ma Noi                             (d. 1821)
1819 - 1821                Thai occupation
1821 - 1827                Rajabud Yo
1827 - 1840                Hui                                (b. 1780 - d. 1840)
1840 - 1850                Nak (regent to 1841)               (b. 1774 - d. 1850)
1850 - 1851                Süa -Regent
1851 - 1856                Thai occupation
1856 - 1858                Kham Ñai                           (b. 1830 - d. 1858)
1858 - 1860                Chu -Regent
1860 - 1863                Thai occupation
1863 - 28 Jul 1900         Kham Suk                           (b. 1838 - d. 1900)
28 Jul 1900 - 22 Nov 1904  Bua Laphan                         (b. 1874 - d. 1946)
Princes
22 Nov 1904 - Jun 1946     Bua Laphan                         (s.a.)
Jun 1946 - 27 Aug 1946     Boun Oum                           (b. 1912 - d. 1980)


Xiang Khuang
 

Map of Xiang Khuang

Capital: Xiang Khuang

698                        Müang Maharatanaburirom Phommachakkhati 
                             Simahanakkharatakkasela Nakhon Xiang Khuang Rajathani
                             state founded in the Plain of Jars.
889 - 1368                 Part of Khmer (Cambodian) empire.
1478 - ....                Vassal of Vietnam.
1568 - 1598                Vassal of Pegu (Burma).
1772 - 1835                Under Thai suzerainty.
1835                       Annexed by Siam (see Thailand).
18..                       Annexed by Vietnam.
1848                       Restored as a vassal state of Vietnam.
1851                       Sovereignty restored.
1875                       Annexed by Siam.
1876                       Sovereignty restored.
1887                       Made a vassal state of Siam.
1888                       Annexed by Siam.
 3 Oct 1893                Made a French colonial possession as part of Laos.
21 Aug 1941                Incorporated into Luang Phra Bang.

Kings (rath, chao xiwit)
1687 - 1688                Chao Kham Lan                      (d. 1688)
1688 - 1690                Chao Kham Phuttha                  (d. 1690)
1690 - 1694                Chao Kham Sattha                   (d. 1694)
1694                       Chao Bun Lang Thai                 (d. 1694)
1694 - 1698                Chao Bun Lot                       (d. 1698)
1698 - 1712                Chao Kham Bun Khong
1712 - 1714                Phraña Kham Thewo -Regent          (d. 1714)
                             (Phraña Thammatewo
1714 - 1740                Chao Bun Chan
1740 - 1751                Chao Kham Un Müang
1751 - 1753                Chao Ong Lo (1st time)
1753 (3 months)            Chao Ong Bun
1753 - 1779                Chao Ong Lo (2nd time)
1779 - 1781                Chao Ong Si Phom
1781 - 1782                Chao No Müang
1782 - 1802                Chao Som Phu
1802 - 1803                Chao Xiang
1803 - 1831                Chao Suthakasuvannakuman 
                             (Chao Noi)
1831 - 1835                Chao San -Regent
1835 - 1848                Annexed to Thailand then Vietnam
1848 - 1865                Phra Chao Issarasettha (Chao Po)
1865 - 1874                Chao Üng
1875 - 1876                Annexed to Thailand
1876 - 1887                Chao Khanti
1887 - 1888                Thao Xiang Phet -Regent


Laos

15 Sep 1945                The united Kingdom of Laos proclaimed.
23 Sep 1945 - 12 Mar 1946  Allied (Chinese) occupation north of 16th parallel 
                             and British occupation below it.
23 Apr 1946                France re-establishes protectorate.
27 Aug 1946                France recognizes unification of Laos.
19 Jul 1949                French associated state.
22 Oct 1953                Independence (Kingdom of Laos).
21 Jul 1954                Independence recognized by France.
 2 Dec 1975                Lao People's Democratic Republic

General secretary of the Lao People's Party (Phak Pativat Lao)(PPL)
(from Feb 1972, Lao People's Revolutionary Party [Phak Paxaxôn Pativat Lao, PPPL])
22 Mar 1955 - 29 Mar 1991  Kaysone Phomvihane                 (b. 1920 - d. 1992)
Presidents of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (PPPL)
29 Mar 1991 - 21 Nov 1992  Kaysone Phomvihane                 (s.a.)
25 Nov 1992 -              Khamtai Siphandon                  (b. 1924)

Kings (Rath)¹
15 Sep 1945 - 20 Oct 1945  Sisavang Vong (1st time)           (b. 1885 - d. 1959)
Chinese Occupation Commander
23 Sep 1945 - 12 Mar 1946  Lu Han (China)
Head of State
20 Oct 1945 - 23 Apr 1946  Prince Phetsarath Rattanavongga    (b. 1890 - d. 1959)  LI
Kings (Rath)¹
23 Apr 1946 - 29 Oct 1959  Sisavang Vong (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                             (of Luang Phra Bang 15 May - 27 Aug 1946)
28 Nov 1946 - 25 Oct 1949  Prince Phetsarath Rattanavongga    (s.a.)               LI
                             (Head of State, in Bangkok exile) 
30 Oct 1959 -  2 Dec 1975  Savang Vatthana                    (b. 1907 - d. 1978?)
Presidents
 3 Dec 1975 - 15 Aug 1991  Prince Souphanouvong               (b. 1912 - d. 1995)  PPPL
31 Oct 1986 - 15 Aug 1991  Phoumi Vongvichit                  (b. 1909 - d. 1994)  PPPL
                             (acting for Souphanouvong)
15 Aug 1991 - 21 Nov 1992  Kaysone Phomvihane                 (s.a.)               PPPL
25 Nov 1992 - 24 Feb 1998  Nouhak Phoumsavan                  (b. 1914)            PPPL
24 Feb 1998 -              Khamtai Siphandon                  (s.a.)               PPPL

Prime ministers

15 Sep 1945 - 20 Oct 1945  Prince Phetsarath Rattanavongga    (s.a.)               Non-party

20 Oct 1945 - 23 Apr 1946  Prince Phaya Khammao               (b. 1911 - d. 1984)  LI

                             (chairman of provisional government)

23 Apr 1946 - 15 Mar 1947  Prince Kindavong                   (b. 1900 - d. 1951)  Non-party

24 Apr 1946 - 25 Oct 1949  Prince Phaya Khammao               (s.a.)               LI

                             (in Bangkok exile) 

15 Mar 1947 - 25 Mar 1948  Prince Souvannarath                (b. 1893 - d. 1960)  neutralist

25 Mar 1948 - 24 Feb 1950  Prince Boun Oum (1st time)         (b. 1912 - d. 1962)  neutralist

24 Feb 1950 - 15 Oct 1951  Phoui Sananikone (1st time)        (b. 1903 - d. 1983)  neutralist

21 Nov 1951 - 20 Oct 1954  Prince Souvanna Phouma (1st time)  (b. 1901 - d. 1984)  NPP

25 Nov 1954 - 21 Mar 1956  Katay Don Sasorith                 (b. 1904 - d. 1959)  NPP

21 Mar 1956 - 17 Aug 1958  Prince Souvanna Phouma (2nd time)  (s.a.)               NPP

17 Aug 1958 - 31 Dec 1959  Phoui Sananikone (2nd time)        (s.a.)               neutralist

31 Dec 1959 -  7 Jan 1960  Sounthone Pathammavong             (b. 1911)            CDNI/Mil

                             (Army Chief of Staff)

 7 Jan 1960 -  3 Jun 1960  Kou Abhay                          (b. 1892 - d. 1964)

 3 Jun 1960 - 15 Aug 1960  Prince Somsanith                   (b. 1913 - d. 1975)

30 Aug 1960 - 13 Dec 1960  Prince Souvanna Phouma (3rd time)  (s.a.) 

                             (from 9 Dec 1960, in Cambodia exile

                             recognized by the communist states)

11 Dec 1960 - 13 Dec 1960  Quinim Pholsena (not recognized)   (b. 1915 - d. 1963)  PNP

13 Dec 1960 - 23 Jun 1962  Prince Boun Oum (2nd time)         (s.a.)               neutralist

23 Jun 1962 -  2 Dec 1975  Prince Souvanna Phouma (4th time)  (s.a.) 

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (prime ministers)

 8 Dec 1975 - 15 Aug 1991  Kaysone Phomvihane                 (s.a.)               PPPL

15 Aug 1991 - 24 Feb 1998  Khamtai Siphandon                  (s.a.)               PPPL

24 Feb 1998 - 27 Mar 2001  Sisavath Keobounphanh              (b. 1928)            PPPL

27 Mar 2001 -              Boungnang Vorachith                (b. 1937)            PPPL

 

French Commissioners

17 Mar 1946 - Apr 1946     Hans Imfeld (interim)


Apr 1946 - Jul 1947        Jean Léon François Marie de        (b. 1907 - d. 1951)
                             Raymond 
Jul 1947 - Mar 1948        Maurice Auguste Michaudel
                             (interim)
Mar 1948 - Dec 1949        Alfred Valmary (interim)
Dec 1949 - Apr 1953        Robert Regnier
Apr 1953 - Jan 1954        Miguel de Pereyra

 

[Flag of the Hmong]

  Ethnic Hmong 'Chao Fah' flag

  ¹The full style of the ruler was: Somdetch Brhat Chao Lan Xang Hom Khao Luang Prabang Parama Sidha Khatiya Suriya Varman Brhat Maha Sri.

Territorial Disputes: Demarcation of boundaries with Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam is largely complete, but with Thailand several areas including Mekong River islets remain in dispute; ongoing disputes with Thailand and Vietnam over squatters. 

Party abbreviations: PPPL = Phak Paxaxôn Pativat Lao (Revolutionary People's Party of Laos, part of mainly Vietnamese Indochinese Communist Party [DCSD] founded 1930 by Ho Chi Minh, a Committee for Laos est.1936; known 1950-1955 as Neo Lao Issara [Lao Freedom Front] which on  22 Mar 1955 became Lao People's Party [PPL]; renamed PPPL Feb 1972, dictatorial, communist -only Legal Party since 1975); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: CDNI = Committee for the Defence of the National Interests (rightist, military backed, 1958-196.); LI = Lao Issara (Free Laos, nationalist, anti-communist, 1945-47); NPP = Phak Xat Kao Na (National Progressive Party, 1951-58, became RLP); PNP = Peace and Neutrality Party; RLP = Lao Rouam Lao (Rally of the Lao People, est.1958)


Some useful websites about Lao map:

  1. Laos graphic intensive map

setstats    1http://www.nexus.net/~911gfx/laos.html

  1. Interesting National Geographic map

            http://plasma.nationalgeographic.com/mapmachine/profiles/la.html

  1. Map of Laos from Encarta

            http://encarta.msn.com/map_701514057/Laos.html