I was born a slave between 1840 and 1847 during a difficult period in American history in Copiah County, MS, on "old man Anding’s place," to parents whose names I do not remember. I do remember someone saying my daddy was an Anderson. Stocky built, "low set" with dark complexion, hair, and eyes is how I was described. Martin and Mary Lambright Anding of Caseyville, Copiah County, MS, may have been my slave owners. My name is not listed on Martin Anding’s 1858 inventory listing of slaves. Mary L. Anding kept a family bible where she listed the birth dates of her family and of the family's slaves. A Samuel was listed as being born October 29, 1841. I’m not saying that was me, I’ll let y’all decide.
Seeing the Union soldiers passing round about the Caseyville area, I decided to make a break for freedom. I walked all day and all night to get to Natchez, Adams County, MS, where I enlisted with Co. I, 6th Regiment, United States Colored Heavy Artillery, during the summer of 1863, as a private under the name of Samuel Anden. King Anding (Anden) who was a slave of Martin and Mary Anding served in the same company and regiment as I did. I was discharged March 13, 1866, at Natchez.
During my time with the 6th Regiment, we would have dress parade on the marching grounds. It would be a grand time for the colored people to come and see us in our blue uniforms. I was particularly excited about a young woman named Caroline Williams who would watch us as we marched.
After my discharge, I stayed around Natchez for a little while and then I went up the river a piece. I didn’t have any family back in Copiah County and no desire to return to the place of my birth. I was courting Caroline who lived near Cannonsburg, Jefferson County, MS. I moved to Jefferson County, living on William Hall’s place, so I could be near my sweetheart. I started using my daddy’s surname which was Anderson. Caroline and I, Samuel Anderson, were married on October 09, 1869 in Natchez. We had a small party of her folks to come with us from Cannonsburg to attend our marriage ceremony: Caroline’s sister Emerline Sposely, brother General Tyler, childhood friend Jeanette Kennedy, Arabella Tyler, and Major White were there. Since Natchez was the place where we all did our major trading, we killed two birds with one stone. After we married, Caroline and I settled right there in Jefferson County with Caroline’s people.
Caroline was born about 1845 near Vicksburg, Warren County, MS, to Hudson and Mary Jane Williams. Hudson died before Caroline was born. When Caroline was just a small child, she and her mother was brought to Jefferson County where they became the slaves of Richard Harrison. Richard Harrison owned 38 slaves in 1860. Mary Jane was the cook for the old Missus, Fannie Harrison. Caroline served as a house girl and when needed she worked in the fields.
Caroline’s mother Mary Jane married Gabe Tyler before the war. Gabe b. abt. 1830 and Mary Jane b. abt. 1830 had a house full of children. The children from that marriage were: Levi b. 1855, General b. 1857, Gilbert b. 1858, Davis b. 1863, Celeste(Frisby)b. 1865, Richard b. 1867, Mary Ann(Robinson)b. 1868, Gabe b. 1871, Jackson b. 1873, Eugene b. 1874, Minda Ann(White) b. 1876, Alice, Emerline(Sposey), and Irene(Green).
My children with Caroline were all freedom born. There was Gordon b. May 11, 1870, General b. June 16, 1872, Irene b. 1875, Lydia Ann b. February 02, 1877, David b. April 29, 1879, Caleb b. August 09, 1881, Henry b. January 10, 1884, and Carter b. December 20, 1884, and the last button on the coat was Dorsey b. 1887. I had buried five of these nine children by 1916. Caleb, Henry, Lydia and Carter were all that remained. I want all this wrote down so that my descendants may discover me and remember my name.
Caroline and I made a good living farming on the Harrison’s place. Throughout our marriage, we lived within three miles of where Caroline was raised as a slave child. We had a happy life raising crops and children. My health gradually started declining with various ailments, including heart problems. The rheumatism was in my knees and I could not do as much farming as I had done in my youth. I received a small pension from the United States government after all the trouble they put me through about my two different surnames and my disabilities.
Samuel Anderson died November 10, 1916 of septic pneumonia in Washington, Adams County, MS. According to Samuel's death certificate, he was born in 1841 in Copiah County, MS, and died at the age of 75 years. The informant for death certificate was Viney Johnson of Cannonsburg, Jefferson County, MS. He is buried in the Bethlehem Cemetery.
1880 Federal Census - Jefferson County, MS -
Anderson, Samuel, 37, head, laborer, MS, ?, MS
Caroline, wife, 29, laborer, MS, MS, MS
Carter, son, 10, laborer
Gene, son, 8
Lethann, daughter, 3
David, son, 1
1900 Federal Census - Jefferson County, MS - Beat 4 - Roll 812, Page 159
Anderson, Sam, head, March 1840, 60, married 30 years
Caroline, wife, April 1850, 50, 9 births/7 living
Kalob, son, August 1881, 18
Henry, son, January 1886, 14
Pr??, LethAnn, daughter, February 1877, 23, married 5 years, 4 births/3 living
Morris, son-inlaw, March 1873, 27
Caroline, granddaughter, September 1895, 4
Morris, grandson, September 1897, 2
Jane, granddaughter, January 1900, 6 months
Anderson, Ladosia, daughter, August 1889, 10
1910 Federal Census - Jefferson County, MS - Beat 4 - Roll 744, Page 153
Anderson, Sam, head, 70, married 40 years
Caroline, wife, 60, 9 births/4 living
Henry, son, 25
Pry, Caroline, granddaughter, 15
(Note: This is the last census for Samuel Anderson who died November 10, 1916.)
1920 Federal Census - Jefferson County, MS - Beat 4 -Roll 880, Page 140
Anderson, Caleb, head, 38
Henretta, wife, 32
Daisy, daughter, 4 months
Johnson, Rosetta, stepdaughter, 13
Anderson, Caroline, mother, 74
Hezekiah Armistead - He served with 58th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. Testified he visited with Samuel Anden in camp.
Edward Baker b. 1856 - He was a neighbor to Samuel and Caroline. He witness the burial of Samuel Anderson.
Henry Buckles b. 1848 - Served with Company C, 58th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry. He met Samuel Anden while they were in service in Natchez and he would see him after the War in Fayette, Jefferson County, MS. He knew Samuel as Anden and Anderson.
John Cahoe b. 1852 - He knew Caroline since childhood. He and his family also belonged to the Harrison family.
George Ben Hall b. ? - Served with Samuel Anden in Company I, 6th Regiment, United States Colored Heavy Artillery.
Jeanette Kennedy b. 1854 - She knew Caroline Williams Anderson since childhood. She was a witness to the marriage ceremony between Samuel and Caroline. She and Caroline both served as house girls to the same slave owner, Richard Harrison.
Phillip Kennedy b. 1852 - He is husband to Jeanette Kennedy. Phillip was a farmer and preacher. He met Samuel shortly after he was discharged from the army.
J. H. McBride b. ? - He had a general undertaking business in Fayette, Jefferson County, MS. He sold one coffin for the burial of Samuel Anden on November 10, 1916.
Cary Rose - Served with Samuel Anden in Company I, 6th Regiment, United States Colored Heavy Artillery.
General Tyler b. 1857 - He was a half brother to Caroline Williams Anderson.
Gilbert Tyler b. ? - He was a half brother to Caroline Williams Anderson. He testified that Samuel suffered with rheumatism, kidney problems, heart problems, weak eyes, and general disability.
Philip White b. 1845 - Although he did not serve in the military, he was in Natchez during the Civil War. He saw Samuel serving as a soldier.
George Whittley b. 1873 - He attended the funeral of Samuel Anderson. He also drove the wagon in which his body was carried to the grave.
Samuel Anden Federal Pension's Records
Samuel Anderson's Death Certificate - MS1916 - 20087
1860 Jefferson County Federal Census - MS
1880 Jefferson County Federal Census - MS
1900 Jefferson County Federal Census - MS
1910 Jefferson County Federal Census - MS
1920 Jefferson County Federal Census - MS
1860 Copiah County Slave Schedule - MS
1860 Jefferson County Slave Schedule - MS
Martin A. Anding's Copiah County Probate Records - Microfilm Number 8178
Microfilm found at the Mississippi Department of Archives and History
Private King Anding - 6th Regiment, United States Colored Heavy Artillery
Mary Lambright Anding's Family Bible
Anding Family Bible Record - Slave Births
Remembering Their Names