Matter and Atomic Structure Matching
Minerals Silicates, Carbonates, Oxides Categories:
Igneous Rocks Crsswd Puzz Gabbro
|Ch.3 Matter and Atomic
Study the diagram, which shows the formation of calcium chloride and potassium iodide. Then answer the questions
1. Which compound in the diagram is formed by ionic bonding? Explain.
ANS: Calcium fluoride; it is formed by ionic bonding because two electrons are transferred from the calcium atom, one to each fluorine atom, to form two fluoride ions and one calcium ion.
2. Which compound in the diagram
is formed by covalent bonding? Explain.
3. How many electrons are in
the outermost level of the calcium atom in the diagram?
4. Which atom in the diagram
forms an ion by the loss of electrons?
5. Most cities add chlorine to
their water systems. The atomic number of chlorine is 17. The two isotopes
of chlorine that exist in nature are chlorine-35 and chlorine-37. The average
atomic mass of chlorine is 35.45. Why does this indicate that most chlorine
atoms contain 18 neutrons?
|6. The atomic number
of chlorine is 17. Draw all the electrons for an atom of chlorine in the
following diagram. Make sure that the electrons are in the appropriate
7. The isotopes neon-20 and neon-22 have the same chemical properties. Explain why.
ANS: All naturally occurring neon is actually a mixture of all its isotopes. Although atoms of neon isotopes may have different numbers of neutrons, they all have 10 protons and 10 electrons. As the number of valance electrons determines an element’s chemical properties, neon isotopes have the same number of valance electrons and thus the same chemical properties.
ANS: Number of Protons = 8, number of electrons = 8, atomic number = 8, atomic mass = 16
18. In the table above,
what information was filled in for the element Fluorine?
19. In the table above,
what information was filled in for the element Neon?
ANS: The penny has a hardness of 3. The knife has a hardness of either 5 or 6.
2. Discuss the unique characteristic
of silica that is represented in the diagram below.
2. Which is a more reliable
method of identifying a mineral–streak or color? Explain.
3. How does the cost of
removing waste material affect the classification of an ore?
4. Explain the meaning
of the terms naturally occurring and inorganic as they relate to mineral
Compare and contrast each pair
of related terms or phrases.
6. density, specific gravity
7. hardness, texture
8. luster, streak
9. What are three characteristics
of a mineral?
10. If you took random
samples of minerals from several locations, which type of mineral would
you likely have more of—oxides, silicates, or carbonates. Why?
11. What accounts for the
large diversity of silicates?
12. Why is color one of
the least reliable tests for identifying minerals? Give an example to support
13. Why are some minerals
classified as gems? Give three examples of gems.
14. A solution is nearly saturated with dissolved minerals. What will happen if 50 percent of the water in the solution evaporated? ANS: Crystals may begin to form.
15. What conditions typically
result in the formation of large, well-shaped mineral crystals?
16. What can you conclude
about the atomic bonds along a plane of cleavage?
17. Why do geologists usually
use a combination of tests to identify a mineral?
18. What mineral would
you use to polish a piece of corundum? Why?
19. Which mineral would react to iron filings—magnetite or graphite? What special property would that mineral have? ANS: Magnetite would react to the iron filings. It is naturally magnetic.
|Ch.5 Igneous Rocks
How does the geothermal gradient of continental crust differ from that of oceanic crust?
ANS: At depths up to about 300 km, the geothermal gradient is hotter in the oceanic crust than in the continental crust.
2. What causes the difference
in grain size between intrusive igneous rocks and extrusive Igneous rocks?
3. How is partial melting
related to fractional crystallization?
4. A group of igneous rocks
are found. The rocks all have very low silica contents. Based on this characteristic
alone, to what group of igneous rocks do these rocks likely belong?
Compare and contrast each pair
of related terms or phrases.
6. magma, lava
7. felsic, mafic
8. Which rock type or feature
forms when rapid cooling of magma does not allow its calcium-rich core
to react completely with the magma?
9. Which rock type or feature
forms when crystallization begins slowly and then becomes rapid?
10. Which rock type or feature may be formed when magma is forced rapidly upward, creating pipelike intrusions? ANS: kimberlite
11. In general, do intrusive
rocks crystallize more rapidly or less rapidly than do extrusive rocks?
12. What is partial melting?
Explain how partial melting affects igneous rock formation.
13. What is fractional
crystallization? Does it add or remove elements from magma? Explain your
14. What relationship does
Bowen’s reaction series illustrate? What crystallization patterns did Bowen
discover in feldspars and iron-rich minerals?
15. What are the three
main groups of igneous rocks? What are the characteristics of each group?
16. Why would crystals
formed early in magma crystallization have larger, better-shaped crystals
than those that formed later?
17. What is porphyritic
texture? What sequence of events produces porphyritic texture in rocks?
1. According to the diagram below, what elements are removed from this particular magma during fractional crystallization? What effect does this have on the overall proportions of the remaining elements—Al, Ca, Si, O, Na, and K—in the magma?
ANS: Mg and Fe are removed and crystallized. This increases the overall proportion of all other elements in the magma.
Sample Long Essays:
|Ch.5. What is Bowen’s Reaction
Series and what relationship does it explain?
Ch.2. Give an example of a remote sensing satellite that uses active sensors, and one that uses passive sensors and contrast how these work and what information they report.
Ch.4. How do minerals form (give 2 ways) and which are most common in Earth’s crust?
Ch.11. Describe the importance of water vapor in the atmosphere.
Ch.12. What is Doppler radar, and what is it used for?
Ch.13. Describe the life cycle of a thunderstorm.
Ch.13. Compare and contrast tornadoes and hurricanes.
Ch.1. Does your area (identify your township: i.e. Arlington, Great Falls, etc.) contribute to a “Heat Island Effect” on local weather near you? Explain what the “heat island effect” is.
<Return to Sr.Dianne's Webpage?