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 Sr.Di's Midterm Review for:

Integrated Earth and Space Science: Ch.3, 4, & 5

Ch.11 Ch.12 Ch.13 Ch.3 Ch.4 Ch.5 Ch.1 Ch.2
A. Links to Glencoe's Review Puzzles   B. Sample Short Essays    C. Sample Long Essays
Ch.3 Matter and Atomic Structure Matching
Ch.4 Minerals Silicates, Carbonates, Oxides Categories:
Ch5 Igneous Rocks Crsswd Puzz Gabbro
Sample Short Essays: Ch.11, 12, 13, 3, 4, 5, 1, 2

Ch.3 Matter and Atomic Structure
Study the diagram, which shows the formation of calcium chloride and potassium iodide. Then answer the questions

 1. Which compound in the diagram is formed by ionic bonding? Explain.
ANS: Calcium fluoride; it is formed by ionic bonding because two electrons are transferred from the calcium atom, one to each fluorine atom, to form two fluoride ions and one calcium ion.

2. Which compound in the diagram is formed by covalent bonding? Explain.
ANS: Nitrogen; it is formed by covalent bonding because two electrons, one from each nitrogen atom, are shared by both nitrogen atoms that make up the nitrogen molecule.

3. How many electrons are in the outermost level of the calcium atom in the diagram?
ANS: There are two electrons in the outermost level of a calcium atom.

4. Which atom in the diagram forms an ion by the loss of electrons?
ANS: Calcium forms an ion by the loss of electrons.

5. Most cities add chlorine to their water systems. The atomic number of chlorine is 17. The two isotopes of chlorine that exist in nature are chlorine-35 and chlorine-37. The average atomic mass of chlorine is 35.45. Why does this indicate that most chlorine atoms contain 18 neutrons?
ANS: An atom of chlorine has 17 protons. Because the average atomic mass of 35.45 is closer to 35 than 36, most atoms of chlorine have 18 neutrons, giving a mass number of 35.

6. The atomic number of chlorine is 17. Draw all the electrons for an atom of chlorine in the following diagram. Make sure that the electrons are in the appropriate energy levels. 
7. The isotopes neon-20 and neon-22 have the same chemical properties. Explain why.
ANS: All naturally occurring neon is actually a mixture of all its isotopes. Although atoms of neon isotopes may have different numbers of neutrons, they all have 10 protons and 10 electrons. As the number of valance electrons determines an element’s chemical properties, neon isotopes have the same number of valance electrons and thus the same chemical properties.
Element  Atomic  Number 
of Protons 
of Neutrons
of Electrons 
Number Atomic Mass 
(rounded off)
Oxygen 8
Fluorine 10
Neon 20
 In the table above, what information was filled in for the element Oxygen?
ANS: Number of Protons = 8, number of electrons = 8, atomic number = 8, atomic mass = 16

 18. In the table above, what information was filled in for the element Fluorine?
ANS: Number of Protons = 9, number of electrons = 9, atomic number = 9, atomic mass = 19

 19. In the table above, what information was filled in for the element Neon?
ANS: Number of protons = 10, number of neutrons = 10, number of electrons = 10, atomic number = 10

Ch.4 Minerals
Hardness Hardness of Common Objects
Talc 1(softest)
Gypsum 2 fingernail (2.5)
Calcite 3 piece of copper (3.5)
Fluorite 4 iron nail (4.5)
Apatite 5 glass (5.5)
Feldspar 6 steel file (6.5)
Quartz 7 streak plate (7)
Topaz 8 scratches quartz
Corundum 9 scratches topaz
Diamond 10(hardest) scratches all common materials
1. Your task is to determine the relative hardness on the Mohs’ scale of two everyday objects—a penny and a steel pocketknife. You also have samples of gypsum, fluorite, and quartz. By experimentation, you determine the following: The penny scratches gypsum, but it doesn’t scratch quartz, fluorite, or the knife blade. The knife scratches gypsum, fluorite, and the penny, but it doesn’t scratch quartz. What is the hardness of the penny? What range of Mohs’ values can the knife blade have?
ANS: The penny has a hardness of 3. The knife has a hardness of either 5 or 6.

2.  Discuss the unique characteristic of silica that is represented in the diagram below.

ANS: One silicon attaches to four oxygen atoms to form one tetrahedron. A tetrahedron has the ability to share oxygen atoms with other tetrahedron molecules. This structure allows elements to combine chemically and structurally in a vast number of ways and accounts for the diversity in silicates. As shown in the diagram, silica tetrahedra can form single chains, double chains, or a tetrahedral sheet.

 2. Which is a more reliable method of identifying a mineral–streak or color? Explain.
ANS: Streak; a mineral’s streak rarely changes, even if it is weathered or its external color varies slightly.

 3. How does the cost of removing waste material affect the classification of an ore?
ANS: If the cost of removing the waste material becomes higher than the value of the ore itself, the mineral will no longer be classified as an ore. It would no longer be economical to mine the ore.

 4. Explain the meaning of the terms naturally occurring and inorganic as they relate to mineral characteristics.
ANS: A naturally occurring substance is one that is made by natural processes. Thus, a substance developed in a lab, such as a synthetic diamond, cannot be considered a mineral. An inorganic substance is one that is not alive nor has ever been alive. Therefore coal, formed by an organic process, is not a mineral.

Compare and contrast each pair of related terms or phrases.
 5. cleavage, fracture
ANS: Both describe how minerals split due to their atomic arrangements. Minerals with cleavage split easily and evenly along one or more planes, while minerals with fracture break unevenly along jagged edges.

 6. density, specific gravity
ANS: Density is the ratio of the mass of a substance divided by its volume. Specific gravity is the most common measure of density. It is the ratio of the weight of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of water.

 7. hardness, texture
ANS: Both are tests used to identify a mineral. Hardness is a measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched, while texture describes how a mineral feels.

 8. luster, streak
ANS: Both are tests used to identify a mineral. Luster is the way a mineral reflects light from its surface, while streak is the color of a mineral when it is broken up and powdered.

 9. What are three characteristics of a mineral?
ANS: Answers should include any three of the following: naturally occurring, inorganic, solid, unique chemical composition, definite crystalline structure.

 10. If you took random samples of minerals from several locations, which type of mineral would you likely have more of—oxides, silicates, or carbonates. Why?
ANS: There likely would be more silicates than other types because 96 percent of the minerals in Earth’s crust are silicates.

 11. What accounts for the large diversity of silicates?
ANS: A silica tetrahedron has the ability to share oxygen atoms with other tetrahedrons. This allows elements to combine chemically and structurally in many ways.

 12. Why is color one of the least reliable tests for identifying minerals? Give an example to support your answer.
ANS: Color is not a reliable test because a lot of minerals have the same color and can be mistaken for one another. Pyrite and gold, for example, cannot be distinguished by color alone.

 13. Why are some minerals classified as gems? Give three examples of gems.
ANS: Rare or exceptionally beautiful minerals that are considered to be valuable are called gems. Examples include diamonds, sapphires, emeralds, rubies, and amethyst.

 14. A solution is nearly saturated with dissolved minerals. What will happen if 50 percent of the water in the solution evaporated?  ANS: Crystals may begin to form.

 15. What conditions typically result in the formation of large, well-shaped mineral crystals?
ANS: Large, well-shaped crystals tend to form from magmas that cool slowly in an unrestricted space.

 16. What can you conclude about the atomic bonds along a plane of cleavage?
ANS: The atomic bonds along a plane of cleavage are usually weak. That is why they break evenly into a cleavage plane.

 17. Why do geologists usually use a combination of tests to identify a mineral?
ANS: Some minerals have characteristics similar to other minerals. Therefore, more than one test may be necessary to accurately identify the minerals.

 18. What mineral would you use to polish a piece of corundum? Why?
ANS: Diamond could polish corundum because diamond is harder than corundum and is capable of scratching the surface of corundum instead of being scratched by it.

 19. Which mineral would react to iron filings—magnetite or graphite? What special property would that mineral have? ANS:  Magnetite would react to the iron filings. It is naturally magnetic.

Ch.5 Igneous Rocks
How does the geothermal gradient of continental crust differ from that of oceanic crust?

ANS: At depths up to about 300 km, the geothermal gradient is hotter in the oceanic crust than in the continental crust.

 2. What causes the difference in grain size between intrusive igneous rocks and extrusive Igneous rocks?
ANS: When rocks cool slowly, as do intrusive igneous rocks, they have time to form large crystals, unlike rocks that cool quickly, which tend to form small crystals.

 3. How is partial melting related to fractional crystallization?
ANS: Partial melting and fractional crystallization are similar processes in that the composition of magma may change with either. During fractional crystallization, however, the changes occur because as each group of minerals crystallizes, it removes elements from the remaining magma instead of adding new elements as occurs in partial melting.

 4. A group of igneous rocks are found. The rocks all have very low silica contents. Based on this characteristic alone, to what group of igneous rocks do these rocks likely belong?
ANS: The rocks are either mafic or ultramafic igneous rocks, depending on how high the levels of iron and magnesium are.

Compare and contrast each pair of related terms or phrases.
 5. intrusive igneous rock, extrusive igneous rock
ANS: Both describe the formation of igneous rock. Fine-grained rocks that cool quickly on Earth’s surface are extrusive igneous rocks. Coarse-grained igneous rocks that cool slowly beneath Earth’s surface are intrusive igneous rocks.

 6. magma, lava
ANS: Both are molten rock. Magma is molten rock below Earth’s surface, while lava is magma that flows out onto Earth’s surface.

 7. felsic, mafic
ANS: Both are groups of igneous rocks. Felsic rocks are light-colored, have high silica content, and contain quartz and feldspars. Mafic rocks are darker-colored, have low silica content, and high iron and magnesium content.

 8. Which rock type or feature forms when rapid cooling of magma does not allow its calcium-rich core to react completely with the magma?
ANS: a zoned crystal

 9. Which rock type or feature forms when crystallization begins slowly and then becomes rapid?
ANS: porphyritic texture

 10. Which rock type or feature may be formed when magma is forced rapidly upward, creating pipelike intrusions? ANS: kimberlite

 11. In general, do intrusive rocks crystallize more rapidly or less rapidly than do extrusive rocks?
ANS: less rapidly

 12. What is partial melting? Explain how partial melting affects igneous rock formation.
ANS: Partial melting describes how different minerals melt at different temperatures. The resulting magma and the rocks that form when the magma cools have a different chemical composition than that of the original rock.

 13. What is fractional crystallization? Does it add or remove elements from magma? Explain your answer.
ANS: Fractional crystallization describes how different minerals form at different temperatures. It removes elements because as the minerals crystallize, they are no longer part of the magma.

 14. What relationship does Bowen’s reaction series illustrate? What crystallization patterns did Bowen discover in feldspars and iron-rich minerals?
ANS: The relationship shown is between cooling magma and mineral formation. Minerals crystallize from magma in a sequential pattern, with feldspar minerals undergoing a continuous, gradual change of mineral composition, and iron-rich minerals undergoing an abrupt change.

 15. What are the three main groups of igneous rocks? What are the characteristics of each group?
ANS: Igneous rocks are classified as felsic, mafic, and intermediate. Felsic rocks are light-colored, have high silica content, and contain quartz and feldspars. Mafic rocks are dark-colored, have low silica content, and are rich in iron and magnesium. Intermediate rocks lie between felsic and mafic rocks in silica and iron content.

 16. Why would crystals formed early in magma crystallization have larger, better-shaped crystals than those that formed later?
ANS: Early-forming, slower-cooling minerals may have time to form larger, well-shaped crystals because crystallization occurs in an unconfined space, while later-forming, quick-cooling crystals have irregular shapes because they form in a confined space and lack time to form.

 17. What is porphyritic texture? What sequence of events produces porphyritic texture in rocks?
ANS: A rock with porphyritic texture contains both large and small crystals. A porphyritic texture indicates a complex cooling history in which a slowly cooling magma begins to cool rapidly, forming smaller crystals.

1. According to the diagram below, what elements are removed from this particular magma during fractional crystallization? What effect does this have on the overall proportions of the remaining elements—Al, Ca, Si, O, Na, and K—in the magma?
ANS: Mg and Fe are removed and crystallized. This increases the overall proportion of all other elements in the magma.

Sample Long Essays:

Ch.5. What is Bowen’s Reaction Series and what relationship does it explain?

Ch.2. Give an example of a remote sensing satellite that uses active sensors, and one that uses passive sensors and contrast how these work and what information they report.

Ch.4. How do minerals form (give 2 ways) and which are most common in Earth’s crust?

Ch.11. Describe the importance of water vapor in the atmosphere.

Ch.12. What is Doppler radar, and what is it used for?

Ch.13. Describe the life cycle of a thunderstorm.

Ch.13. Compare and contrast tornadoes and hurricanes.

Ch.1. Does your area (identify your township: i.e. Arlington, Great Falls, etc.) contribute to a “Heat Island Effect” on local weather near you? Explain what the “heat island effect” is.


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