Norman - Human/Computer Interaction
Norman put forward a model of human-computer interaction.
The model states that any action consists of 7 stages and these stages
run in a cycle
- Forming a goal -What you want as an outcome
- Forming an intention - What too do too achieve it
- Specifying an action - What too perform
- Executing the action - The action
- Perceiving the state of the system - What's happened
- Interpreting the state of the system - This did this
- Evaluating the outcome - So now im here
Taking these stages Forming a Goal is the central item. The other six are
broken down into 2 "gulfs". As such a designer must bridge these these two
gulfs too create an effective system. To bridge the first gulf, the "gulf
of execution" you must design the system to ease the process of getting
from the intention to the execution. To bridge the seconds gulf, the "
gulf of evaluation" you must design the system so that the response
after the user has performed an action can be easily interpreted and then
evaluated. So making the system easy too perform actions on and easy too
evaluate the effects
Norman put forward the following design principles addressing the gulfs.
- Make things visible
Use natural mappings
- Ensure that the user, by looking, can tell the state of the device
and the alternatives for action. If its easy its good
- Ensure there is a natural relationship between the look of an
object and its function. Objects should look like they should be used.
Provide a good conceptual model
- Give the user full and continuous feedback. Always tell the user
what they have done and how the system has responded if applicable.
- Ensure the system image is coherent and consistent and reflects the
model that underlies the system. The system image must reflect the
designer's model accurately so that the user can construct a mental
model that is in line with this underlying model.