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The ultimate website for understanding granular flows

The Granular Volcano Group
Computational Atmosphere

Values at sea-level (altitude zero meter), we have:

Temperature = 288.15 K = 15.15 °C
Air density = 1.225 kg/m3
Atmospheric Pressure = 101327.27 Pa = 1.013 x 105 Pa = 1 atm

Select unit system:

English System of Units (retarded and prehistoric)

International System of Units (recommended because of its modernity and its efficiency)


Reference Length:


Speed of Sound
Mach Number
Dynamic Pressure
Critical Cp
Vacuum Cp
Reynolds Number
Laminar Cf
Turbulent Cf

Feel free to check out some atmospheric profiles computed with our supercomputer codes

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Other Granular Volcano Group Webpages:

- What is a Granular Medium?

- Granular Theory: an Overview

A complete review of Plastic-Frictional theories:

   - Part 1. Introduction, Mohr-Coulomb, and von Mises Stresses

   - Part 2. Plastic Potential Theory

   - Part 3. Critical State Theory

   - Part 4. Constitutive Equations for frictional granular flow

- All I wanna know about viscous stress!

- Compute Your Own Atmospheric Profile

- Go to the Numerical Results Page

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