- 1951- The first commercial computer, named the
- Douglas Hartree (the leading expert in the country on the specialized computing machines called differential analyzers) gives his professional opinion to Ferranti Ltd., of Manchester, England:
- 1956- At MIT, researchers began experimentation on direct keyboard input on computers, a forerunner of today's normal mode of operation.
- 1958- Jack Kilby created the first integrated circuit at Texas Instruments to prove that resistors and capacitors could exist on the same piece of semiconductor material.
- 1959- Robert Noyce's practical integrated circuit, invented at Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp., allowed printing of conducting channels directly on the silicon surface. IBM's 7000 series mainframes were the company's first transistorized computers.