ࡱ> z( F/ 0|DTimes New Roman$v 0( 0DWingdingsRoman$v 0( 0 DSymbolgsRoman$v 0( 00DCourier Newman$v 0( 01@DLucida Console$v 0( 01 ` .  @n?" dd@  @@`` `k@T>n       l !"#$%&a()*+,-0 2346 789:<=>?@ACEFGHJKLMNOPQS=T 0@8 uʚ;2Nʚ;g4BdBdv 0^ppp@ <4!d!d` 0h$<4dddd` 0h$JB___PPT9$&,7L8L? %N;Biology 112 Aims Community College Instructor ~Leba Sarkis <<    Created by Josh DeweyChapter 22 Evolution (   Evolution = the modification of species over time Populations= a group of interbreeding individuals belonging to a particular species in a certain geographical area. Chapter 22 Evolution    0Charles Darwin wrote Origin of the Species in 1859 (Natural selection) Evidence of Evolution 1. Biogeography ~ life based on it s location. Ex- environmental factors 2. Fossil record progression. Ex- fish> amphibians> reptiles> birds> mammals 3. Taxonomy ~ classification 4. Comparative anatomy. Ex-snakes having remnants of leg appendages 5. Comparative embryology a. Ontogeny Recapitulate Phylogeny~ embryonic development replays evolutionary history. Molecular biology- genetics patterns and variations. ZH+" " Chapter 22 Evolution    Carlos Linnaeus is credited with the creation of the binomial system of classification; he used two words to describe organisms  Genus and  Species Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species Cuvier Paleontologist (the study of fossils) fossils are defined as impressions or relics of an organism that once lived. Now sealed in the rock. ~ Two categories Flora-plants Fauna  animals Theory of catastrophism: is due to devastation that buried cities, animals and plants that preserved living organisms. Theory of gradualism: explains or supports Cuvier s view. James Hutton: Believed that form over a period of time gradually. Theory of Uniformitarism: (Lyell) He added to the idea of Gradualism. States that the same forces that form mountains, rivers also does so in reverse. Geographical Theory of Uniformitarianism: The earth s surface was formed over long periods of time by slow geological processes of volcanism, uplift, erosion, and glaciation. (Charles Lyell). Z"""""b""j"""("" Chapter 23 Evolution    D Species~ organisms capable of interbreeding Biological concept (1940) Proposed by Mayr - Organisms that don t interbreed Ex- mule. An species in its own, but doesn t reproduce. - Gene pool- a total aggregate of species at one time - Microevolution  a small change of genetic traits/ materials over time. - Gene frequency  prediction of gene frequency if a population is not changing and at equilibrium. Changes is microevolution Genetic Drift- change in a population due to chance Bottleneck effect- reduction of pop due to chance Founder effect- moving into a new area/environment causing change. Gene Flow  migration or immigration (planned) not by chance Mutation (error in DNA)- the original source of genetic variation Ex- substitution, deletion, addition. Non-random mating Inbreeding  breeding with the local population Assortive mating- when physical characteristics are a factor in the selection process. Natural Selection- survival of the fittest In good physical shape The ability to reproduce jZ,ZZ+ZbZZZ4" Zv" Z" Z" Z," Z0" ZZZ" " " 4 v    , 0  "   l  Chapter 23 Evolution     Contributions for Species variations Barriers- reproductive (mule) and environmental (mountains) Prezycotic- the species is stopped prior to zygote formation. a. Ecological. Ex- Gardner snakes, some live in water, some live on land. The two do not mate because of their habitat. b. Temporal- two species that live in the same environment but mate at different times, so they never mate together. Ex- rainbow trout and brown trout. c. Behavioral- species can t understand each other s signals, calls and smells. So they don t mate. d. Mechanical- Anatomical differences. Ex- appendages of the males may not fit between species. e. Gametic- gametes can t co9me together possibly because the environment of the female is too acidic for the sperm to survive in. Postzycotic a. Hybrid Inviability- two species will hybridize but a zygote doesn t develop. b. Hybrid Steriability- two species will mate but their offspring are sterile. Ex- Horse and Donkey = Mule c. Hybrid Breakdown- two species that breed will produce one generation that can breed with one another but the second generation is sterile. Introgression- two distinct species mate and are fertile, have offspring, some but not all of their alleles will manage to get passed on. Offspring mates with the parents. Ex-corn. Some corn is crossed with grass- only happens in plants. %Z<" Z?" ZxZ " Z\Z" ZZ%"<? x "  \"b` %x  J  Chapter 23 Evolution    Two Speciations That Occur 1. Sympatric Speciation- Formation of a new species within a certain range of their parents. Two species with overlapping ranges (Geographical area) 2. Allopatric Speciation- when a species arises and develop outside the range of their parents. Species get separated. Ex- the finches of Darwin from the Galapagos Islands. Phylogoney- evolutionary history of organisms or life Systematics - branch of biology concerned with the diversity of life. Macroevolution- is the origin of taxonomic groups higher that the species level. Implies the substantial change in organisms. Anytime you have the scientific name of a species you use the genus and species. Genus is capitalized. Written in italics or underlined. Ex- Homo sapiens There are two schools of taxonomy 1. Phenetic  put the greater emphasis on anatomical characteristics and similarities. 2. Cladistic  the individuals that uses time to classify organisms based on the phylogenetic tree. Classical Evolutionary School  take the best of both phenetic and cladistic. ZMZZZZZPZ" "9"  +OD >   Chapter 24 Evolution     Big bang theory- matter blew apart 20 billion years ago. The sun formed 5 billion years ago from matter in the center. The matter in the periphery formed the planets including earth 4.5 billion years ago. Hot H2 formed the early atmosphere (there is no free oxygen in the early atmosphere). (H2=>H20, CO2, CO, N2, Ch4, NH3) all comprised to form the early atmosphere. Stanley Miller and Harold Urey collected water, methane and ammonia in a flask through which they sent an electrical current to simulate the early volcanic and lightning activity. This action turned the mixture into organic matter an amino acids (monomers) into polymers through dehydration synthesis. Polymers were created as proteins or polypeptides. They then took the amino acids and dripped them into clay or hot lava in the presence of iron or zinc. This process is dehydration synthesis of monomers to polymers the catalyst being iron and zinc. ," Chapter 24 Evolution    Evidence For Early Life 1. Stromalites  banded sediment formed 3.5 billion years ago like the jelly like coats of some of today s bacteria. a. The record of the oldest fossils (3.5 billion years) 2. Protobionts  molecular aggregates with chemical characteristics different with their surroundings. Meaning (emergent properties) or abiotically produced molecules exhibiting some life properties referred to as predecessors to true cells. They exhibit metabolism and excitability. They do not however exhibit reproduction. 3. Protenoids (proteins or polymers) 4. Microspheres Formation  droplets of polypeptides that form in cool water. Microspheres have selective permeable membranes. Comes from liposomes, droplets like from lipids, orient into a cell membrane. 5. Coacervates  colloidal drops of amino acids, polypeptides, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides that will self assemble. 6. Formation of Protobionts  exhibit some properties of life this is the origin of life on earth (bacteria). This cannot be done in today s present atmosphere because of the presence of oxygen. 8Le"y > / =  Chapter 24 Evolution    NLiving organisms Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Monera Simple multi-celled Multi celled Or single celled organisms Protista Autotrophic Heterotrophic (Photosynthetic) Plants (Carnivores) Absorptive Nutrition Ingestive Nutrition Fungi Animals x" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " T" " " " " " " " " " "  >C:h & Chapter 40 Tissues    T Tissues 1. Epithelium- (above) (layers) skin or lining of organs Function: Secretion- sweat or oil, absorption ~Simple-one layer ~Stratified- more than one layer a. Squamous- flat, scale like shape a. Simple- lens of the eye, alveoli, have an absorption function: absorbs light, air, ect. b. Stratified- like skin, provides abrasive protection b. Columnar- Function: absorption and secretion a. Simple  single celled, (ciliated) which facilitates movement of particles or fluid through a space. b. Stratified- multi-celled c. Pseudostratified- columnar cells (lines the trachea) c. Transitional- can easily stretch, found in bladder, multi- layered d. Cubodial a. Simple- found in kidney tubules b. Stratified- found in sweat glands ZZ>ZdZ*ZZ5ZZ^ZSZZ"""" """" ""%"" "   " ? "   "  " S "   H.#utV Chapter 40 Tissues    n Muscles a. Skeletal- multi-nucleated, striated, voluntary, cylindrical b. Cardiac- single nucleus, striated, non-voluntary, branched, intercalated disks, relay impulses between muscle cells c. Smooth or Visceral Single nucleus, no striations, non-voluntary, spindle shape, have flattened nucleus Terms Sarcomere: the basic functional unit of a muscle cell or of a contraction Peristalysis: the wavelike notion of smooth muscle moving the food down the esophagus (example= a rhythm of a snake). Diaphragm: a muscle that aids in breathing, runs from the thoracic cavity to the abdominal cavity  TP " " 6" " ("  ,F @ Chapter 40 Tissues     Connective tissues a. Loose or Areolar- elastic and collagenous fibers- the most abundant b. Dense- made of collagenous (tough) fibers densely packed. Found in: Ligaments- bone to bone (joint) connections Tendons- connecting muscle to bone Fascia- tie all tissue together c. Cartilage- Hyaline (in trachea), elastic (ear and nose), and fibro (in the inner-vertebral discs) d. Bone- Osteocyte cell located within the Lacuna a. Spongy or Cancellous- osteocytes and Lacuna spread out with no particular pattern- found in the heads of the long bone. b. Compact- shaft of bone- has a special arrangement called the Hversion system or Osteon. e. Blood a. RBC: (erythrocytes) function is the carrying of 02 via hemoglobin b. WBC: (leukocytes) function is phagocytosis c. Platelets: (trombocytes) performs the function of clotting d. Plasma: the liquid portion of blood Scerum- the plasma minus the clotting factors (proteins, not cells are the clotting factors) f. Adipose Tissue (fat)- functions in insulation and storage of energy g. Nervous a. Neuron- the basic anatomical and functional unit of the nervous tissue. The neuron is made up of the Axon (white matter) the Dendrites, the soma of body (gray mater) and a covering of the axon called the Myelin sheath (appears white). The direction of an impulse travels from the Dendrite > Soma > Axon. ZZ{ZZZZZZZ"   2  2      QChapter 41 Nutrition F Nutrition Holotroph - organisms that ingest other organisms Herbivore - plant eaters Carnivores  meat eaters Omnivore  eats both plant and meat Digestion  involves both mechanical and chemical breakdown of food so it can be absorbed. (Polymers > Monomers utilizing hydrolysis.) Gastro vascular Cavity (GVC)  digestive sacs with a single opening Alimentary Canals  Humans; digestive tubes that run between two openings, the mouth and the anus. Peristalsis  rhythmic wave-like motion (of smooth muscle) to move food down the esophagus vZ ZZZ" """   Chapter 41 Nutrition  4 Mouth  Mechanical digestion begins with the mastication of the food. Chemical digestion of starches begin via secretion of Amylase Pharynx  The epiglottis opens when we swallow Esophagus  Peristalsis squeezes the bolus down to the stomach Stomach  Chemical digestion of protein, gastric juices in the stomach contain 1. Enzymes that act on protein (pepsin) 2. Hcl (pH of 3) The mucous lining of the stomach protects the organ CHYME which is the mixture of food and gastric juices together Small Intestine  Here chemical digestion acts on carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids. The Duodenum produces enzymes that in addition to hydrolysis provide for the chemical digestion. 1. Blood vessels - circulate around the cross section of the small intestines. 2. Villi  their function is to increase the surface area for absorption of more nutrients. Carbohydrates  maltase, sucrace, and lactase Lipids  Lipase Proteins  Proteinase Nucleic acids  nuclease A gastro vascular cavity is possessed by worms and hydras Buffers  Take care of the acidity in the small intestine so that the enzymes can work properly. The acidity of the chyme in neutralized by HCO3  (bicarbonate) H + HCO3- H2CO3 H20 + CO2 (Bicarbonate) (Carbonic acid) ZAZDZ9ZZZZZZRZZ"  "  6"  tt  q( Y"Chapter 41 Nutrition bPancreas  secretes HCO3- and pancreatic enzymes (similar to those of the small intestine lipase). Produces hormones like insulin. By adding the bicarbonate, the pH is lowered from an acid environment to neutral, allowing the enzymes in the digestive system to breakdown food. Bile  a substance that helps stabilize fat and water emulsion (helps to breakdown fat) Alkalinity is from 7  8. The bile is stored in the Gall Bladder and made by the liver. Large intestines  Function is to absorb water and vitamins Humans cannot digest cellulose. Cows can digest cellulose because they contain Rumen (multi-segmented stomach). Rumen is a symbolic bacterium that makes enzymes that digest cellulose. BMR  (Basal Metabolic Rate). This is the amount of calories needed to maintain basic body functions. 1 gram of carbohydrates = 4 cal 1 gram of protein = 4 cal 1 gram of alcohol = 7 cal 1 gram of fat = 9 cal 1 Cal = 1 Kcal 1 Cal = 1000 cal <%ZZZ"6Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular 07  *"$ 2 Types: 1. Open Circulatory System  circulates hemolymph, no vessels containing the fluid. 2. Closed Circulatory System  circulates blood. The circulatory system of a vertebrae consists of: Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Veinuoles Veins Capillaries  the space where gases and nutrients are exchanged There is no RBC exchange in the capillaries. * The link between the arteries and veins Fish have a 2-chambered heart, one atria and one ventricle. Amphibians have a 3-chambered heart, two atria and one ventricle. Birds and Mammals have a 4-chambered heart, two atria and two ventricles. H o.""C""Q" " " """<" ";"";",7  y5Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular$6  +"$< Atrium: are thin walled chambers that sit on top of the ventricles. The atrium always receives blood. The right atrium contains the SA NODE or Sino atrial node. The node is the pacemaker of the heart. It has conductive tissue that regulates the beat and contraction of the heart. The brain controls the functions of the sino atrial node. Ventricle: are thick walled chambers that are underneath the atria. The left ventricle is thicker than the right (so that has the strength to move blood throughout the entire body). Ventricles always pump blood away from the heart. The left ventricle pumps blood to the rest of the body other than the lungs, this is called systemic circulation. In systemic circulation the arteries contain highly oxygenated blood, and the veins contain low oxygenated blood. The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs, this is called pulmonary circulation. In pulmonary circulation the veins carry the highly oxygenated blood and the arteries carry low oxygenated blood. Rules 1) Ventricles always pump blood away from the heart 2) Atria always receive the blood 3) Since the atrium receives blood, the veins always bring blood to the heart. 4) Arteries always take blood away from the heart. 5) Veins always connect to atria. 6) Arteries always connect to the ventricles.SZZZZJZ""""J"6 5Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular$6  +"$#Systole - The measure of the contraction of the left ventricle and of the pressure exerted on the arteries and veins (about 120). Diastole - The measure of the relaxation of the left ventricle (about 80). A high diastole (94 and above). Can lead to an aneurism, stroke or a heart attack. $Z#  5Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular$6  +"$ Connections of arteries and veins Pulmonary Artery connects to the right ventricle. It pumps the blood to the lungs. Blood leaving the right ventricle has the lowest ph (least amount of oxygen saturation). Aorta connects to the left ventricle making it the biggest artery in the body. The aorta pumps blood to the rest on the body. Superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava and opening of the Coronary Sinuses all attach to the right atrium. They bring blood from the rest of the body excluding the lungs to the right atrium. The blood is deoxygenated (without oxygen). Pulmonary Veins bring highly oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. Not all veins contain low oxygenated blood, and not all arteries contain highly oxygenated blood. ^$ZZZZ""""5Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular$6  +"$ Valves: are either located at the entrance or exit of ventricles. Atrioventricular valves are located at the entrance of ventricles. a. Tricuspid - located at the entrance of the right ventricle. b. Bicuspid or Mitral  located at the entrance of the left ventricle. Semilunar valves are located at the exit of ventricles. a. Pulmonary Semilunar  located at exit of right ventricle. b. Aortic Semilunar  located at exit of left ventricle. Veins have valves and arteries don t because the muscles of the arteries are stronger so they don t need valves. |9s"""a"bB1 B 6 5Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular$6  +"$Blood: Plasma  blood cells; Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Platelets - Plasma makes up 55% of the volume in blood, 90% of that is water composition - The proteins Fibrin and Fibrinogen are the clotting factors of blood. - Plasma contains imuno globulins (antibodies), fat, minerals, electrolytes, proteins, and nucleic acids. Serum  plasma minus its clotting factors (no fibrin or fibrinogen) Gas Exchange: - Carbon dioxide (CO2) is carried in the from of bicarbonate (HCO3) - Air sacs (alveoli) reverse the Bicarbonate and exhale - Sensors detect: pH, O2, and CO2 to regulate the respiratory system. - Fishes have gills, insects have a tracheal system, and Vertebrates have lungs. ?E6"" "7" Chapter 43 Immune System 6     2 1. Non-Specific Defenses - Help prevent entrance and spread of microorganisms into the body. - Skin and mucous membranes, also some defensive WBC, inflammatory response, and anti-microbial proteins. a. Skin and Mucous Membrane - Barrier against entrance of certain organisms. - Sweat glands help destroy 1. pH of 3 to 5 discourages organisms form growing 2. The substance Lysozyme  Chemical secretions that disrupt the cell wall of bacteria. 3. Through tear ducts (tears) 4. Found in saliva and sweat 5. Forms anti-microbial agent 6. Attacks bacteria cell walls that destroys wall and cell leaks. Penicillin acts in this way. b. Stomach and G.I. Tract Acidity (pH of 1 to 3) destroys bacteria, but doesn t always destroy what they produce which is toxins. Toxins are usually what make you sick when infected. c. Respiratory Hairs, etc. used to trap dirt, organisms, particles in mucous d. Phagocytes and Natural Killer Cells Wondering WBC- travels through the use of the bloodstream but then leaves blood through diapedesis (moving through tissues at junctions between cells) to go to location of trouble/ infection. 1. They get bigger and are now called macrophages or big eaters. 2. Neutrophils- become phagocytic in infected tissues (first response) $ZZ.ZZ,ZZ"ZGZ8Z]Z" " " # " # ~" # " " E"  b    'Chapter 43 Immune System,    4Natural Killer Cells - Will destroy your own cells once they have been infected with pathogen to keep the bacteria from multiplying. - Attack cell membrane but doesn t digest whole cell a. Inflammatory Response Inflammation is a response to injury or microbial response. Swelling, rise in number of white blood cells, increase in heat (more blood to the region) Chemical release  histamine which triggers the immune response First to the scene is the Neutrophils Second to the scene is the monocytes (which develop into macrophages) Pus is created when live and dead white blood cells and pathogens are left during and after the immune response a. Injured cell emit substances that trigger the inflammatory response b. Substances near the site of infection: histamine (alarm substance) c. Small blood vessels dilate and become leakier, causing redness and swelling d. Migration of phagocytic WBC is enhanced Neutrophils arrive first, followed by monocytes, macrophages. e. Increased activity of phagocytes f. Also end up with clotting proteins that begin to seal off injury site g. Stimulation of WBC release from bone marrow Anti  microbial Proteins 1. Interferon: a substance produced by virus-infected cells to help other cells to resist the virus. They are host specific, and not virus specific. 2. Compliment: proteins (20 different kinds) made by body  not the same as anti-bodies i. Some will coat invading microbes to facilitate phagocytosis (circulating in the blood stream) this process is called Opsonization. ii. Another function amplifies inflammatory response by stimulating histamine release and attracting phagocytes. ZZ,ZZZZZZ" "   "    9 Chapter 43 Immune System,     Specific Defenses of the Host Antigen - Any substance capable of generating an immune response in your body - Any substance grater than 10,000 Dalton molecular weight - Any bacteria can have 100 antigenic determinants (sites on an antigen that can elicit response) Vaccination - Injecting dead or live organisms into body to produce response (to develop anti- bodies) to build immunity - Kill or attenuate (weaken) antigens - Body recognizes as not part of self and produces antibodies. - Either quick acting or memory cells. Immunity 1. Active: your body makes the antibodies yourself when exposed to antigen. - Naturally: you catch antigen - Artificially: vaccinate with antigen 2. Passive: you are given the pre-made antibodies (you can t afford to wait to make them later) - Example: antibodies form mother to fetus through breast milk and genetics. Duality of Immune System Humoral immunity - Production of antibodies (ab) - Defends against free (circulating in plasma) bacteria and viruses B cells are responsible  Z ZZZZZ ZcZZ+ZtZZ" V"  , .g Chapter 43 Immune System,    !Chapter 43 Immune System,    Cell-mediated immunity Protect against bacteria and viruses that have already infected cells. Phagocytosis takes place T cells are responsible Lymphocytes Come from: stem cell in bone marrow differentiates into lymphocytes (and all other blood cells). T-cells Phagocytosis Left and went to thymus and spleen B-cells Produce antibodies Mature in the bone marrow B-cells Effector cells Do the fighting Called plasma cells Are able to produce as many as 2000 antibody MC s per second Life expectancy is 4 to 5 days Memory cells Remember known pathogens for the next time the body is infected (they will be more efficient in making more effector cells). <ZZZwZ>ZZ;ZZZZ ZZZ" " ?" " E" " " # " " "  Pi  u    "Chapter 43 Immune System,     T-cells Effector cells 3 Types 1. Helper T-cells Stimulates the making of phagocytes Helps both B and T cells with communications between all cells AIDS virus lacks these cells, so they can t make T and B cells (minimal) 2. Cytotoxic T-cells These phagocyte cells are made Eat effector cells 3. Suppressor T-cells Slows down both helper and cytotoxic cells from growing out of control Are used mainly at the end of infection/ virus killing process 1. Memory cells Stores the history and physiology of the virus in case the body encounters it again ZZ ZcZZ"""" """""M""" "^"P = E #Chapter 43 Immune System,    fPrimary Response (when first encountering pathogen) Begins the process to build enough resistance to fight pathogen Secondary Response (when encountering pathogen again) Can act more quickly this time because memory of the pathogen encountered has been saved in the memory cells and the body can quickly make many anti-bodies to fight it Immunoglobulins (IG s) (antibodies) IgM Largest and produced first during early response IgD Almost always bound to plasma membrane of B-cells IgG Most numerous out of all antibodies Can cross placentra IgE Responsible for allergic responses to pathogens IgA Antibodies that secrete, also found in milky secretions (coloestrom), tears, etc. tZ7ZZZ$ZZ1oZZ2oZZ8oZZ8ZZTZ4"@7""$""1 "2  "  " 8  ""8" "T" R12.0; $Chapter 43 Immune System,    Disorders of the Immune System Auto Immune disease (Lupas Erythromatous) o White blood cells don t recognize body cells (after changing) and eat/ attack them AIDS  Acquired Immunodeficiency virus o Caused by the human Immunodeficiency virus SCID  severe combined Immunodeficiency ARC  AIDS related complex (happens before AIDS) o Night sweats o Fever o Weight loss Stress o Killer cells Allergic Hypersensity  allergic reactions Z*" Z[Z&" Z3ZZ" Z8Z" ZZ," ZZ""*#Z"&  #2"Z#"# "#" #  " ,$$("(((,4l %Chapter 44 Organ Systems,    tOsmoregulation - controlling the solute balance and the gain and/or loss of water. o Flame cells- (protonephridia) regulates the entrance and exit of fluid. Ex. Flat worms. o Metanephridia  also function as excretory cells or structures. Found in annelids (earthworms.) o Malpignian tubes- their function is in the excretion and Osmoregulation. Found in arthropods (insects.) o Kidneys- regulates body fluids in vertebrates by removing nitrogenous wastes and functioning in Osmoregulation by adjusting the concentrations of various salts in the blood stream (filtration and re-absorption). Nephrons- the basic functional units of the kidneys. 180 liters of fluid are passed through the Nephrons in a single day, but only 1.5 liters are excreted as a waste product, the rest is absorbed by the cells. T"E"#_"#g"#o"#"\=T.e W k& Chapter 44 Organ Systems,    '!Chapter 44 Organ Systems,    Components of the Kidney: Cortex Medulla Renal Pyramids Renal Pelvis Ureter Parts of the Nephron: Glomerlus- Site where filtration occurs. A network of capillaries covered by the Bowman s Capsule. ^ck"5""l">E  ]("Chapter 44 Body Systems,    General Physiology of Nephrons 1. Filtration 2. Secretion, or excretion of waste that is made in the liver. 3. Re-absorption 4. Water Retention (in simple cuboidal epithelium.) 5. Regulation of Salt- ionic balance in the blood 6. Regulation of volume of blood 3 Forms of Nitrogen Waste 1. Ammonia  produced by aquatic animals 2. Urea- mammals and adult amphibians 3. Uric Acid- snails, insects birds, and some retiles Nephrons anatomy functions: -Secretion site-proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Example- control over the secretion of hydrogen ions - Reabsorption of NaCl: Proximal Convoluted tubule, and the Loop of Henley (including the ascending loop of Henley) - Regulation of K+ (potassium)  Occurs at the distal convoluted tubule. - Reabsorption of H20  proximal Convoluted Tubule, descending limb of the Loop of Henley, Distal Convoluted Tubule, and the Collecting duct - Reabsorption of Glucose- Proximal Convoluted Tubule ZZZZZZ" " " " " "        *)#Chapter 44 Body Systems,     Regulation of Body Temperature (thermoregulation) External (Environmental factors) 1. Conduction  direct transfer of heat between the environment and an organism. Ex- when an animal sits/lays on a hot rock to warm itself. 2. Convection- a current that flows by you. Ex  the wind chill factor compounds the harshness of winter temps. 3. Radiation- the transfer of heat between the environment and an organism with no contact. Ex- rays of the sun 4. Evaporation- when a liquid is removed from a surface leaving it at a cooler temperature. Ex- sweat  evaporates- lowers temp -Ectoderms - Body temperature regulation by external factors. Ex- cold-blooded animals/organisms -Endoderm s- body temperature regulation by metabolism; both ectoderms and endoderm s- use environmental factors for regulation of temperature. Ex- humans -Hypothalamus- structure in brain responsible for thermal regulation and other functions. -Ruffini Organs- warm temperature sensors in the skin -Bulb OF Kraus- cold temp sensors in the skin. Ruffini organs and Bulb of Kraus send messages through the nerves brain hypothalamus regulation of body temp. By burning glucose, shivering is an immediate breakdown of ATPquick heat. Fish have a counter current mechanism veins and arteries run close togetherexchanging heat (arteries radiate heat to veins) 43Z!ZZZZZ2""""" "W"3"&"2",\7*$Chapter 45 Hormones,    bHormones 3 key components 1. Made by endocrine system 2. Target cell that receive information as needed 3. Circulated by the blood stream Endocrine System -Endocrine glands -No ducts -Secretions called hormones Exocrine System -Exocrine glands -Have ducts -Secretions called substances. Example- sweat, mucous, and digestive enzymes  " " " <" " l"  Endocrinology- the study of hormones and actions 3 main classes of hormones 1. Steroid (fats) Sex hormones 2. Amino acid derivative Epinephrine 3. Peptides b. Pheromones Not hormone; chemical agents that function in attraction between animals of the same species. c. Local Regulators -Example: neurotransmitters. -Example: acetyl choline. d. Growth Factors E. Prosaglandian Modify fatty acids found between cells, cause retraction 2  `KK" H" " " " " " "  ,]>+%Chapter 45 Hormones,    ,&Chapter 46 Reproduction,    H Asexual Reproduction-cloning 1. Budding -Yeast cells 2. Fragmentation  each segment can re-constitute the whole organism -Some fungi 3. Release of specialized cells -Sponges 4. Regeneration- removing a part of an organism- the organism reconstitutes/regrows part that was lost 5. Parthenogenesis  no sex involved, no sperm (asexual) - End in haploid b. Sexual Reproduction  meiosis 1. Spermatogenesis  production of sperm 2. Oogenesis  production of eggs Fusion of 2 gametes (sperm and egg) Fertilization Zygote c. Hermaphroditism- one organism with both sexes, example: opithorchis clonorsis sinensis d. Sequential Hermaphroditism- starts out as one sex then changes sex when reaches adulthood, example: African frogs Fertilization External  egg fertilized outside of organism Internal  egg fertilized in organism Reproductive System Most organisms have separate sexes #ZZ ZJZ Z%Z ZZ2ZUZZT" ZZ,ZZ+" " " " I" " " " `" " " T @" " " bQ(-'Chapter 46 Reproduction,     Male Reproductive Organs - Testis- sperm is produced outside body cavity  must be cooler temperature - Epididymus- site for 2nd phase of sperm transfer Sperm cells mature and are stored here - Vas Deferens- muscular in nature, sperm travels is spermatic duct - Semi vesicle  secretes a thick clear fluid -Contains mucous and amino acids (food for sperm) - Produces 60% of semen (protein, sperm) - Prostate  raise pH (more basic to less acidic) sperm cannot survive in acidic environment -Eliminates acidity from female vagina - Bulbouretheral gland  lubrication - Urethra - Penis - Semiephorous tubules- make sperm- tiny tubes within the testis &ZZ'ZZ[ZfZ'ZZZZ ""v"*C">|85.(Chapter 46 Reproduction,    %Female Reproductive Organs - Uterus- implementation of embryo -Endometrium- lining - Vagina - Cervix-opening of uterus - Clitoris-erectile- female equivalent to penis - Labia majora-protects - Labia minora erectile - Ovary- produces egg - Oviduct- fallopian tube -Fertilization takes place. Swims - Uterine contractions move sperm - Mammary glands- alveoli made of epithelial tissue Pregnancy - Starts at fertilization Conception - Includes gestation Z+ZZZ"ZfZZ Z"Z ZZZ"" "K"PG P, /)Chapter 46 Reproduction,    0*Chapter 46 Reproduction,    Zygote - Fertilized egg - Cleavage begins 1. Blastula 2. Morula (16-64 cells) 3. Gastula 4. Organogenesis (organ creation) Hormone - Placentally made - HCG (human chorionic gonadtropin) (when fertilization occurs, this is produced) - Produced after formation of a placenta. - Excreted in urine (pregnancy test) zZZZZZ""""bN  1+Chapter 46 Reproduction,    2,Chapter 46 Reproduction,    Conception - 3 major - Rhythm method (counting days) - Prevention of zygote implementation  IUD - Physical barriers- condoms, diaphragm - Chemical contraception- Norplant, birth control pill, abortion pill. - Withdrawal Reproductive Technology - Ultrasound - Amniocentesis (extracting ovarian fluid) - Chorionic villi sampling - Invitro-fertilization (test tube babies)  ZZZZZZ """",r #3-Chapter 47 Reproduction,    Embryology Fertilization- union of sperm with egg. Fusion of sperm nucleus and egg nucleus - Acrosomal reaction - Digestive enzymes work to allow sperm nucleus into egg Cleavage  takes place after fertilization (divisions occurring in a cell into something bigger) - Morula- late cleavage (round ball) - Blastula- blastocyst (hollow ball)(implantation) - Gastrula- invagination of blastula leads to formation of gastrula. o The archenterons is formed Result in formation of digestive tract In chordates a layer buds off from archenterons to give rise to primary germ layers Primary germs layers o Endoderm o Mesoderm Ectoderm \^b "#"#"#"#"P]1 0 )4.Chapter 47 Reproduction,    Organogenesis (chordates)  specialized organ systems Dorsal mesoderm forms notochord Ectoderms form neural tube (will be CNS) central nervous system, epidermis, inner ear, and lens of eye. Mesoderm forms coelem lining, muscles, skeleton, gonads, kidneys, and most of circulation system Endoderm forms digestive tract lining, liver, pancreas, and lungs Metablastic Cleavage  not all cells undergo cleavage Yolk rich eggs Hollowblastic Cleavage- all cells with eggs undergo cleavage Humans ""+""!"""'"H 885/Chapter 48 Nervous System,    Nervous System Pons- reflex and relay Medulla- center: Respiratory Cardiac Vasomotor Thalamus- switchboard Hypothalamus- deeper uncontrollable things Corpus Callosum- connects hemispheres  +&"""" """" "!""",  Nervous System Neuron- functional (basic) unit of the nervous system Impulse Dendrite Cell body Axon Synapse- communication between a neuron and another neuron on a muscle fiber or a gland Another neuron, muscle cell, endocrine gland. 6""6"y/"60Chapter 48 Nervous System,    &Electrochemical Impulse Dendrites to the axon Neurotransmitter Example: acetylcholine Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine Acetyl group + choline group Make and break by enzyme action When neurotransmitter is released, the permeability of the cell membrane is changed. Flushing of Na+ and K+ ions. ?oo">"">G + -This causes the muscle to contract +++++++++++++ Inside cell ++++++++++ - Resting cell ----------------- Inside cell Kurari plant Anesthetic -enzyme can t work (don t allow acetyl and choline to combine) Nerve gas nVBc""b,<71Chapter 48 Nervous System,    82Chapter 48 Nervous System,    Functions of Nerves (PNS) Automatic Unconscious activity-involuntary, autonomic activity. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Sympathetic (fight or flight) Increased heart rate increased respiratory, increased blood pressure, adrenaline, ECT. Parasympathetic (conservative) Inhibits sympathetic nervous system, also active in digestive process and sleep. Somatic- capable of innervating Unconscious activity, voluntary Supporting cells (in addition to neurons) Do not get replenished Neuroglia (glial cells) for support and protection. Capable of reproduction. 1. Oligodendrocytes- help insulate (fatty) (protection) 2. Astrocytes- feeder cells (link between neuron and blood) 3. Microglia- specialized WBC (macrophage only in CNS) Z ZVoZZXoZZQZZ Z"oZ+ZeoZZZZ"" 8 kR":""" E"b @'1.93Chapter 48 Nervous System,     Brain Cerebral Cortex (hemispheres) -4 lobes: -Frontal -Occipital Muscular dystrophy- myelin disorder -Parietal -Temporal Corpus Callosum Bridge between 2 cerebral hemispheres (allows exchange of information) ' PH"""" "R""G"J:4Chapter 48 Nervous System,    Thalamus Switchboard- directs the impulse to the appropriate place. Hypothalamus Homeostasis, emotions, ANS (autonomic nervous system) (non-voluntary actions). Medulla Oblongata Respiratory center, cardiac center, vaso-motor center. PONS Reflexes and switchboard function.  <P8$ "<" ""P"""8"""$"=  Spinal Chord Reflexes and a pathway for motor and sensory impulse. Neurons Sensory -Perceive and take to brain. -Receptor to brain. Motor -Message that brain sends. -Brain to muscle or gland.  6 { ""6""3""8";5Chapter 49 Plants,    Page 1015- muscles microscopic structures Sarcomere- functional unit of muscle From z line to z line- I band + other I band. The middle of I band What contributes to muscle striation (light microscope) I band= actin A band= actin H band= middle of A band - No actin (only myosin) Z lines get closer during contraction. Heterosporous- having megaspores which develop into gametophytes bearing archegonia (female), and microspores which develop into 3) Sphenophyta - Are homospores - Have a photosynthetic free living gametophyte - Sporophyte is dominant - Have flagellated sperm ex- epuisetum OZZZZRZZ(ZZZZZZ" M "  ) "7y  , 1  *4) Pterophyta (ferns) - No seeds - Have megaphylls= equivalent of leaves - Most have compound fronds - Have sporophylls & their fronds - Have structures call Sori- rust like structures on the fronds. - Have flagellated sperm- must have water to spread/ fertilize - Spores develop into prothalium or gametophyte Terrestrial Adaptations of seeded/ vascular plants 1. Gametophyte is reduced 2. Pollination evolved - No flagellated sperm 3. Evolution of seed Seed- zygote that develops into embryo that is packed with food supply with in a coat. 4. Seeds replaced spores- as means of dispersion 5. Spores if still present are produced by gametophyte (makes spores) 6. Majority of seed plants are dicot Z[ZZ4ZZZZ" # "   * J .  9( 3 <6Chapter 49 Plants,    =7Chapter 49 Plants,    Gymnosperms Produce naked seeds Evolved production of pollen Divisions of: 1. Cycadophyta 2. Ginkophyta 3. Gnetophyta 4. Coniferophyta (pines, furs, redwoods) Structures that belong to the Gymnosperms: Fibers- for support Tracheids- function in eater transport and support - Are made of Xylem tissues Are heterosporous Sometimes it takes 3 years to produce mature seeds Have winged seeds Conifers are the tallest, largest, and oldest living organisms today , Z"ZZhZZ+ZG" Z$Z" ZZZ "8" "k"*""G$"  "tSY Q>8Chapter 49 Plants,     Angiosperms (Flowering plants) Covered seeds- main characteristic Divisions: - Monocot - Dicot Vascular tissue are more refined (detailed) Contain vessel elements that evolved from Tracheids Xylem is reinforced by fiber Double fertilization- only applies to angiosperms ." #" ".#"  ",aV R Life cycle of Angiosperms 1. Involves double fertilization 2. Haploid spore Megaspore - Microspore give rise to gametophyte which is retained within the sporophyte - Pollen grain- (male part) have 2 haploid nuclei - Ovules (female part) have 7 haploid nuclei, with one large central cell with a 2N (diploid) nuclei 65 million years ago during the crustaceous period the angiosperm became dominant, and are still dominant today. ZFZuZ"%""" ""V""9""m""""r",  ?9Chapter 49 Plants,    Flower Anatomy - Contain reproductive structures - Made of whorls of modified leaves 1. Sepals  sterile structures, not involved in fertilization or pollination, the enclosed bud 2. Petals  sterile structures, but aid in attraction of pollinators 3. Stamen  produce pollen Anther- produces pollen Filament- holds the anther 4. Carpal  seed bearing structure Stigma Style Ovary :ZVZZiZZZZZ")""+""""""U"""";"""""" ""#""""""""""""""" Fruit A ripened ovary that protects dormant seeds and aids in dispersal 3 Kinds 1. Aggregate- several ovaries on the same flower Raspberries 2. Multiple Fruit- developed from several flowers several (ovaries) Pineapple 3. Simple fruit Apple, cherry, orange Seed Plants (angiosperms) Heterosporous No flagellated sperm Wind or insect disseminated Monocot/ dicot Double fertilizationZIZZZZZZ""P""5""""H""""""""""""""""#""""",OR@:Chapter 49 Plants,    Root Function: Absorb H20, nutrients, and minerals Anchor Store food 2 Types: 1. Tap root  (found in dicots) large root that is vertical with many secondary roots. 2. Fibrous root- (found in monocots) mat of thread like root system. Roots hairs greatly increase absorption of water (increasing surface area) Stem The piping of a plant Modifications 1. Stolen- horizontal stems that run along the surface of the ground o Strawberries, spider plant 2. Rhizomes- horizontal stems that run underground o Iris, Kentucky bluegrass 3. Bulbs- vertical underground stem with leavesZ ZQZ ZZZZZZZKZ$Z8Z!Z6Z" " " " # +" " # " " # " " \" " " " " " " " # " " " " J" " # "" " 7" " # " " 5" " >T]P Leaves 1. Main function- photosynthesis 2. Petiole that attaches the leaf. Is absent in monocot Classification of leaves and arrangements Some leaves have modifications 1. Tendrils- for clinging and support 2. Spines  for defense (cactus) 3. Succulent- store water 4. Colorful- attract pollinators Cell growth in plants Growth by the addition of cells Growth is irreversible a increase in cell size mostly cue to uptake of water by vacuoles zZdZZ+Z(ZZZZZZZZ""%""=""""*""#&""""*""%""""%""""""#'""#`""""A;Chapter 49 Plants,    Types of plant cells 1. Parenchyma- loosely packed thin walls, photosynthetic (contains chloroplasts) Contain photosynthetic cells, usually in the leaves Function in storage and support 2. Collenchyma- non-uniformly thick walled Function mainly in support and storage 3. Sclerenchyma- thick walls Have fiber cells called sclerids o Lignin gives hardness, an example is a almond or a walnut May be dead at maturity Vf00"*Z"U""#;""#'""/""#.""!""#(""#@""""">O. ] 4. Xylem- lacks nucleus and ribosome s at maturity- fiber cells, water transport Trachids- long, this tapered tubes with lignin (not living) function in support and water transport through pits Vessed Elements- wider, shorter and less tapered 5. Phloem- functional at maturity (living) Lack nucleus and ribosome s Consist of: 1. Sieve tube members and sieve tube plates 2. Companion cells- contain nucleus and ribosome s, function to serve and aid V0% U""#x""#8""/""##"""" ""0""R""",WjB<Chapter 49 Plants,    Apical meristem- undifferentiated tissue Located at the tip of roots and in bud shoots. The apical meristem supplies cells for the root and shoot to grow in length. Endodermis Single cell thick, innermost layer of cortex, forms layer between cortex and Steele. Pericycle Just inside endodermis Layer of cells that may become meristematic to form new tissues of lateral root or secondary root. Wood Secondary xylem Bark Any tissue outside the vascular cambium- the actual living tissue of the plant Vascular cambium or precambium Meristematic tissue  differentiate new tissue- deposits new phloem Mesophil (Parenchyma) for photosynthesis Primary Meristem- protoderm, ground meristem, procambium Primary xylem and phloem develop form procambium or vascular cambium @)ZZ Z_Z ZZZZZXZZMZ Z)ZZ9ZZFZ(""#"" ""#]"" ""#""#j""""#""""#V""""#K""""#'""8""""D""" \  I  7 2    ( C=Chapter 49 Plants,    D> Chapter 36"     ` f3"V+Nf` ff3f|` www333www` 3f3f3f` /.fRP̙` f"ffH>?" dd@,|?" dd@   " @ ` n?" dd@   @@``@n?" dd@  @@``PR    @ ` ` p>> |(  N   "  H",$D 0$   BCPE(F"2@ 8ApP XP@  `"@   n0e0e  ?BCE<F&2@5%8c8c     ?1d0u0@Ty2 NP'p<'p@A)BCD|E?||FP P  - ffFF@    `"\   BCETF.@' EuOE[: :Pf@      `"   0e0e  ?BCE`F2@5%8c8c     ?1d0u0@Ty2 NP'p<'p@A)BCD|E?||hD[Drmq>uJ^_! BE@       `"$  S BhC! 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" ` S 0&t@ d & Vd & ? 6,@o9 & NYes . " ` U 0d &t@ d 0& Xd 0& @ 6|l & NYes . " ` W 0d 0&@ & Z& A 6hl+& _Smooth < " " ` Y 0&s@ & \& B 6Xml&m MNo . " ` [ 0&s@ &d  ^&d  C 6lh&9  MNo . " ` ] 0&d s@ d &0 `d &0 D 6h & MNo . " ` _ 0d &0@ L bL E 68S+L `Cardiac < " " ` a 0Lt@ L dL F 6pCmL NNo . " ` c 0Lt@ d L fd L G 6m9 L NYes . " ` e 0d Ls@ d 0L hd 0L H 6 m L MNo . " ` g 0d 0LZ j s *3OH  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  `$(  r  S Xpz P  z r  S  `l l H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S m P  m r  S m m H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S xnm P  m r  S Xm m H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S om P  m r  S pm m H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S Fm P  m r  S `m m H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S rm P  m r  S 0m m H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S PBm P  m r  S X@`  H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S m P  m r  S !  H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S m P  m r  S M  H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf   $(  r  S ,m P  m r  S )z z H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  0$(  r  S !~ P  ~ r  S ]~ ~ H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  @$(  r  S 0U~ P  ~ r  S H%m m H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  P$(  r  S |~ P  ~ r  S \z ~ H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf;*  ))`W`{)(  r  S ~ P  ~   S ,~   .B @  8: .B   8  .B @  j X.B   j X.B   @.B   **@.B @  j@.B   jB@.B @  j @.B    @.B @  g?S.B   ?S.B @  .B   _  6 l Lymphocyte D   " "    6z \ , "  F   ) X@@   ' @ A  A  6 u+ bCellular based immunity . " `  0A@ A "A  6nolW {Humoral based immunity . " ` ! 0A@ A  $A ;  6 6i0 `6  U Memory cells ,   "  ? 60 `  \ , "   E 64i S Memory cells *   "  F 6?o u rEffect Mem , "   F )  U  @ @ ,  S, @ ,  H,  < 6Ď+,  sEffector cells . " ` G 0, @ ,  J,  = 6, T v D "  "  ` I 0, Y@ ,  L,  A 64,  31.Killer cell or cytotoxic cells (eats effector cells) 2.Helper T-cells (communicators) 3.Suppresor cell (checks/ balances) (keeps killer cells under control) . " >  / =` K 0, @ ,  N,  B 6$,  8Plasma cell (makes anti-bodies) which stay in plasma. . , 8" ` M 0, @  ,  P ,  C 6Ӆ ,  sEffector cells . " ` O 0 , @  ,  R ,  D 6x ,  \ * "  ` Q 0 , Z T s *)  V 6R0 P6  U Memory cells ,   " XB W 0D@@ XB X 0D XB Y@ 0D`P XB Z 0DP@ XB [@ 0D`XB \ 0D`XB ]@ 0D XB ^ 0D XB _@ 0D@ XB ` 0DP H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S % P   r  S )  H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S  , P   r  S j  H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S Xh P   r  S ܁  H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S x P   r  S x  H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S  ] P   r  S T΅  H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf$    d(   r   S p P      S $yPp   &F "    n@   z@ h  h   6E+= TRenal Arteries (Bring blood and nutrients to& Kidneys Filtering out liquid waste I "" " "`   0h@ h  hX   6 |Renal Veins Return filtered blood throughout the body R 3 ""/`   0h@      6 Wo  ^ . "  `   0Z   s *"H   0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  `X (  r  S  P   x  c $      S d@    XF +    0X   6|Q~+x Proximal Convoluted Tubule Loop of Henley Distal Convoluted Tubule Collecting Duct (Common duct in for many nephronsurine.) Nd u"  "  l    6hox> x$ &  "  "  "  "  "  "  "  "  "   @  6xl>  P Function in absorption and filtration, back into the circulatory system. *O P"  @   6    l * "   @H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf    $(   r   S  P   r   S   H   0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  0$$(  $r $ S > P   r $ S   H $ 0޽h ? f3"V+Nfd   @((  (r ( S l( P   x ( c $D   r ( S p   H ( 0޽h ? f3"V+Nf     ` 0H (  0r 0 S  P    0 S `;    F    0 ppR@    0 @ @ 0@ 0 6hp+ Only the hormones are Endocrine - Example: Pancrease- endocrine and exocrine -HCO3  exocrine -Enzymes-exocrine -Insulin- endocrine (glucose to glycogen) -Glucagon- (glycogen to glucose) Ecdysame-responsible for molting and metamorphosis in animals X  """6">* g 7` 0 0@(@ @   0@ p 0 6Pi~k   Acetyl (enzyme) Cholin Acetylcholine Acetyl (enzyme) Cholin Z  """""H   * ` 0 0@ Z  0 s * H 0 0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  p4$(  4r 4 S @ P   r 4 S J  H 4 0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  8$(  8r 8 S D P   r 8 S o o H 8 0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  <$(  <r < S  P   r < S O  H < 0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  aY@(  @r @ S l P    @ S Æ    F  @   @  @@ R  @R @ 6 ׅ+' gFemale < " " `  @ 0Rw@ R @R @ 6}s QMale 0 " `  @ 0R@  @M @ 68!+~ 9 Meiosis 1 (at birth) Meiosis 2 (after fertilization) 8 " " " " " " " " ` @ 0x@ R @R @ 6' RP2N N N N N N N & " "  "    "  "    ` @ 0R@ R  @R W  @ 6I}  C Meiosis 1 (from birth to puberty) Meiosis 2 (all are different) B " " " " " " " " ` @ 0R @   @ 2  @ 6$# s R2N N `" N N `" N `" N `" N V' " "  "      "  "        ` @ 0 Z @ s *F + @   @ 6,+ zbOogenesis - Before birth - 1st cell - Meiosis 1 - Meiosis 2 doesn t take place till after fertilization - 1 viable egg. 3 polar bodies    " " "" "" * " " " "7" ""    p @ 6x%I MSpermatogenesis - Meiosis 1 and 2 - Every cell - 4 sperm - Happens continuously after puberty r " " "" " " " " "%"   pH @ 0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  H$(  Hr H S  P   r H S O  H H 0޽h ? f3"V+Nf{   + # L(  Lr L S `a P    L S t6    L N\ oPregnancy Trimesters: <    " " F  L  o @  L@   L L 6@I+ 1st 3 months -Organogenesis H  " * " ` L 0@    L  L 6pSl  )2nd 3 months -Rapid growth -Active fetus H  " * &" `  L 0 @    L E L 6,-  Q3rd 3 months -Extremely rapid growth -Lower activity -Parturation (birth) begins H E " * N" 6 `  L 0 Z L s *H L 0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  P$(  Pr P S T P   r P S ,  H P 0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  T$(  Tr T S `k P   r T S   H T 0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  X$(  Xr X S  P   r X S   H X 0޽h ? f3"V+Nfd   \(  \r \ S ; P   x \ c $   r \ S Ip  I H \ 0޽h ? f3"V+Nfd   0d(  dr d S @I P   x d c $D8I  I r d S p   H d 0޽h ? f3"V+Nfs   #  P l (  lr l S  P    l S ]   F + l % l 6$eI+ ; Tetanus Botulism N "" " "   n l 6\cl - Works on the same principle. 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[ e" H l 0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  `p$(  pr p S { P  { r p S D{ { H p 0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  pt$(  tr t S 8{ P  { r t S /{ { H t 0޽h ? f3"V+Nfd   x(  xr x S آ P  { x x c $    r x S Hap  { H x 0޽h ? f3"V+Nf^  (  r  S  P  { r  S !   r  S Pp   H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  e](  r  S t{ P  {   S p   F +      NN+ Monocot - All monocots have paralleled venations - Leaf wraps around stem - Fibrous root system - Flower multiples of 3 - Xylem/ phloem are arranged in bundles inside the stem - Xylem/ phloem are arranged in a circle inside the root > ""  pI  NxI )Dicot - All dicots have netted venations - Leafs are attached to stem by a petiole - Tap root - Flower multiples of 4 and 5 - Xylem/ phloem bundles are arranged in a circle inside the stem - Xylem/ phloem are arranged in a X shape inside the root >$ "#"$  pH  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S { P  { r  S p{ { H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf^  (  r  S { P  { r  S ȼ   r  S p   H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf^  (  r  S - P  { r  S b   r  S L)p   H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf^  (  r  S { P  { r  S    r  S (p   H  0޽h ? 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&՜.+,0     Y On-screen Show -s>%O UTimes New Roman WingdingsSymbol Courier NewLucida ConsoleRibbons<Biology 112 Aims Community College Instructor ~Leba Sarkis Chapter 22 Evolution Chapter 22 EvolutionChapter 22 EvolutionChapter 23 EvolutionChapter 23 EvolutionChapter 23 EvolutionChapter 24 EvolutionChapter 24 EvolutionChapter 24 EvolutionChapter 40 TissuesChapter 40 TissuesChapter 40 TissuesChapter 41 Nutrition Chapter 41 Nutrition Chapter 41 Nutrition7Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular 6Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular6Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular6Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular6Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular6Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular Chapter 43 Immune System Chapter 43 Immune SystemChapter 43 Immune SystemChapter 43 Immune SystemChapter 43 Immune SystemChapter 43 Immune SystemChapter 43 Immune SystemChapter 43 Immune SystemChapter 44 Organ SystemsChapter 44 Organ SystemsChapter 44 Organ SystemsChapter 44 Body SystemsChapter 44 Body SystemsChapter 45 HormonesChapter 45 HormonesChapter 46 ReproductionChapter 46 ReproductionChapter 46 ReproductionChapter 46 ReproductionChapter 46 ReproductionChapter 46 ReproductionChapter 46 ReproductionChapter 47 ReproductionChapter 47 ReproductionChapter 48 Nervous SystemChapter 48 Nervous SystemChapter 48 Nervous SystemChapter 48 Nervous SystemChapter 48 Nervous SystemChapter 48 Nervous SystemChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 36 PlantsChapter 36 PlantsChapter 36 PlantsChapter 36 PlantsChapter 36 PlantsChapter 37 PlantsChapter 37 PlantsChapter 37 PlantsChapter 37 PlantsChapter 38 PlantsChapter 38 PlantsChapter 38 PlantsChapter 38 PlantsChapter 39 PlantsChapter 39 PlantsChapter 39 PlantsChapter 39 PlantsChapter 39 Plants  Fonts UsedDesign Template Slide TitlesO%_  lMillie HerbstMillie Herbst  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnoprstuvwxyz{|}~Root EntrydO)po Current User,GSummaryInformation(qRPowerPoint Document(>%DocumentSummaryInformation8 v 0( 0  DSymbolgsRomanx3v 0( 0 0DCourier Newmanx3v 0( 0 1@DLucida Consolex3v 0( 0 1 ` .  @n?" dd@  @@`` PH}*QT>n     la !"#$ %&'( )*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@=ABCDEFGHIJKLNOPQR 0@8 uʚ;2Nʚ;g4BdBdv 0^ppp@ <4!d!d` 0hd4<4dddd` 0hd4B:___PPT9&,7L8D? %-;Biology 112 Aims Community College Instructor ~Leba Sarkis <<    Created by Josh DeweyChapter 22 Evolution (   Evolution = the modification of species over time Populations= a group of interbreeding individuals belonging to a particular species in a certain geographical area. Chapter 22 Evolution    0Charles Darwin wrote Origin of the Species in 1859 (Natural selection) Evidence of Evolution 1. Biogeography ~ life based on it s location. Ex- environmental factors 2. Fossil record progression. Ex- fish> amphibians> reptiles> birds> mammals 3. Taxonomy ~ classification 4. Comparative anatomy. Ex-snakes having remnants of leg appendages 5. Comparative embryology a. Ontogeny Recapitulate Phylogeny~ embryonic development replays evolutionary history. Molecular biology- genetics patterns and variations. PHA" " Chapter 22 Evolution    Carlos Linnaeus is credited with the creation of the binomial system of classification; he used two words to describe organisms  Genus and  Species Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species Cuvier Paleontologist (the study of fossils) fossils are defined as impressions or relics of an organism that once lived. Now sealed in the rock. ~ Two categories Flora-plants Fauna  animals Theory of catastrophism: is due to devastation that buried cities, animals and plants that preserved living organisms. Theory of gradualism: explains or supports Cuvier s view. James Hutton: Believed that form over a period of time gradually. Theory of Uniformitarism: (Lyell) He added to the idea of Gradualism. States that the same forces that form mountains, rivers also does so in reverse. Geographical Theory of Uniformitarianism: The earth s surface was formed over long periods of time by slow geological processes of volcanism, uplift, erosion, and glaciation. (Charles Lyell). Z"""""b""j"""("" Chapter 23 Evolution    D Species~ organisms capable of interbreeding Biological concept (1940) Proposed by Mayr - Organisms that don t interbreed Ex- mule. An species in its own, but doesn t reproduce. - Gene pool- a total aggregate of species at one time - Microevolution  a small change of genetic traits/ materials over time. - Gene frequency  prediction of gene frequency if a population is not changing and at equilibrium. Changes is microevolution Genetic Drift- change in a population due to chance Bottleneck effect- reduction of pop due to chance Founder effect- moving into a new area/environment causing change. Gene Flow  migration or immigration (planned) not by chance Mutation (error in DNA)- the original source of genetic variation Ex- substitution, deletion, addition. Non-random mating Inbreeding  breeding with the local population Assortive mating- when physical characteristics are a factor in the selection process. Natural Selection- survival of the fittest In good physical shape The ability to reproduce ^Z,ZZZZZ4" Zv" Z" Z" Z," Z0" ZZZ" " " 4 v    , 0  "   l  Chapter 23 Evolution     Contributions for Species variations Barriers- reproductive (mule) and environmental (mountains) Prezycotic- the species is stopped prior to zygote formation. a. Ecological. Ex- Gardner snakes, some live in water, some live on land. The two do not mate because of their habitat. b. Temporal- two species that live in the same environment but mate at different times, so they never mate together. Ex- rainbow trout and brown trout. c. Behavioral- species can t understand each other s signals, calls and smells. So they don t mate. d. Mechanical- Anatomical differences. Ex- appendages of the males may not fit between species. e. Gametic- gametes can t co9me together possibly because the environment of the female is too acidic for the sperm to survive in. Postzycotic a. Hybrid Inviability- two species will hybridize but a zygote doesn t develop. b. Hybrid Steriability- two species will mate but their offspring are sterile. Ex- Horse and Donkey = Mule c. Hybrid Breakdown- two species that breed will produce one generation that can breed with one another but the second generation is sterile. Introgression- two distinct species mate and are fertile, have offspring, some but not all of their alleles will manage to get passed on. Offspring mates with the parents. Ex-corn. Some corn is crossed with grass- only happens in plants. %Z<" Z?" ZxZ " Z\Z" ZZ%"<? x "  \"b` %x  J  Chapter 23 Evolution    Two Speciations That Occur 1. Sympatric Speciation- Formation of a new species within a certain range of their parents. Two species with overlapping ranges (Geographical area) 2. Allopatric Speciation- when a species arises and develop outside the range of their parents. Species get separated. Ex- the finches of Darwin from the Galapagos Islands. Phylogoney- evolutionary history of organisms or life Systematics - branch of biology concerned with the diversity of life. Macroevolution- is the origin of taxonomic groups higher that the species level. Implies the substantial change in organisms. Anytime you have the scientific name of a species you use the genus and species. Genus is capitalized. Written in italics or underlined. Ex- Homo sapiens There are two schools of taxonomy 1. Phenetic  put the greater emphasis on anatomical characteristics and similarities. 2. Cladistic  the individuals that uses time to classify organisms based on the phylogenetic tree. Classical Evolutionary School  take the best of both phenetic and cladistic. FAZ" "9"  +OD >   Chapter 24 Evolution     Big bang theory- matter blew apart 20 billion years ago. The sun formed 5 billion years ago from matter in the center. The matter in the periphery formed the planets including earth 4.5 billion years ago. Hot H2 formed the early atmosphere (there is no free oxygen in the early atmosphere). (H2=>H20, CO2, CO, N2, Ch4, NH3) all comprised to form the early atmosphere. Stanley Miller and Harold Urey collected water, methane and ammonia in a flask through which they sent an electrical current to simulate the early volcanic and lightning activity. This action turned the mixture into organic matter an amino acids (monomers) into polymers through dehydration synthesis. Polymers were created as proteins or polypeptides. They then took the amino acids and dripped them into clay or hot lava in the presence of iron or zinc. This process is dehydration synthesis of monomers to polymers the catalyst being iron and zinc. ," Chapter 24 Evolution    Evidence For Early Life 1. Stromalites  banded sediment formed 3.5 billion years ago like the jelly like coats of some of today s bacteria. a. The record of the oldest fossils (3.5 billion years) 2. Protobionts  molecular aggregates with chemical characteristics different with their surroundings. Meaning (emergent properties) or abiotically produced molecules exhibiting some life properties referred to as predecessors to true cells. They exhibit metabolism and excitability. They do not however exhibit reproduction. 3. Protenoids (proteins or polymers) 4. Microspheres Formation  droplets of polypeptides that form in cool water. Microspheres have selective permeable membranes. Comes from liposomes, droplets like from lipids, orient into a cell membrane. 5. Coacervates  colloidal drops of amino acids, polypeptides, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides that will self assemble. 6. Formation of Protobionts  exhibit some properties of life this is the origin of life on earth (bacteria). This cannot be done in today s present atmosphere because of the presence of oxygen. .Me"y = / =  Chapter 24 Evolution    NLiving organisms Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Monera Simple multi-celled Multi celled Or single celled organisms Protista Autotrophic Heterotrophic (Photosynthetic) Plants (Carnivores) Absorptive Nutrition Ingestive Nutrition Fungi Animals O" " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " T" " " " " " " " " " "  > >Aa & Chapter 40 Tissues    T Tissues 1. Epithelium- (above) (layers) skin or lining of organs Function: Secretion- sweat or oil, absorption ~Simple-one layer ~Stratified- more than one layer a. Squamous- flat, scale like shape a. Simple- lens of the eye, alveoli, have an absorption function: absorbs light, air, ect. b. Stratified- like skin, provides abrasive protection b. Columnar- Function: absorption and secretion a. Simple  single celled, (ciliated) which facilitates movement of particles or fluid through a space. b. Stratified- multi-celled c. Pseudostratified- columnar cells (lines the trachea) c. Transitional- can easily stretch, found in bladder, multi- layered d. Cubodial a. Simple- found in kidney tubules b. Stratified- found in sweat glands vZZZZ5ZZ^ZSZZ""""""" ""%"" "   " ? "   "  " S "   H.#utT Chapter 40 Tissues    n Muscles a. Skeletal- multi-nucleated, striated, voluntary, cylindrical b. Cardiac- single nucleus, striated, non-voluntary, branched, intercalated disks, relay impulses between muscle cells c. Smooth or Visceral Single nucleus, no striations, non-voluntary, spindle shape, have flattened nucleus Terms Sarcomere: the basic functional unit of a muscle cell or of a contraction Peristalysis: the wavelike notion of smooth muscle moving the food down the esophagus (example= a rhythm of a snake). Diaphragm: a muscle that aids in breathing, runs from the thoracic cavity to the abdominal cavity  2P " " 6" " ("  ,F @ Chapter 40 Tissues     Connective tissues a. Loose or Areolar- elastic and collagenous fibers- the most abundant b. Dense- made of collagenous (tough) fibers densely packed. Found in: Ligaments- bone to bone (joint) connections Tendons- connecting muscle to bone Fascia- tie all tissue together c. Cartilage- Hyaline (in trachea), elastic (ear and nose), and fibro (in the inner-vertebral discs) d. Bone- Osteocyte cell located within the Lacuna a. Spongy or Cancellous- osteocytes and Lacuna spread out with no particular pattern- found in the heads of the long bone. b. Compact- shaft of bone- has a special arrangement called the Hversion system or Osteon. e. Blood a. RBC: (erythrocytes) function is the carrying of 02 via hemoglobin b. WBC: (leukocytes) function is phagocytosis c. Platelets: (trombocytes) performs the function of clotting d. Plasma: the liquid portion of blood Scerum- the plasma minus the clotting factors (proteins, not cells are the clotting factors) f. Adipose Tissue (fat)- functions in insulation and storage of energy g. Nervous a. Neuron- the basic anatomical and functional unit of the nervous tissue. The neuron is made up of the Axon (white matter) the Dendrites, the soma of body (gray mater) and a covering of the axon called the Myelin sheath (appears white). The direction of an impulse travels from the Dendrite > Soma > Axon. fZZZZZZ"   2  2      QChapter 41 Nutrition F Nutrition Holotroph - organisms that ingest other organisms Herbivore - plant eaters Carnivores  meat eaters Omnivore  eats both plant and meat Digestion  involves both mechanical and chemical breakdown of food so it can be absorbed. (Polymers > Monomers utilizing hydrolysis.) Gastro vascular Cavity (GVC)  digestive sacs with a single opening Alimentary Canals  Humans; digestive tubes that run between two openings, the mouth and the anus. Peristalsis  rhythmic wave-like motion (of smooth muscle) to move food down the esophagus vZ ZZZ" """   Chapter 41 Nutrition  4 Mouth  Mechanical digestion begins with the mastication of the food. Chemical digestion of starches begin via secretion of Amylase Pharynx  The epiglottis opens when we swallow Esophagus  Peristalsis squeezes the bolus down to the stomach Stomach  Chemical digestion of protein, gastric juices in the stomach contain 1. Enzymes that act on protein (pepsin) 2. Hcl (pH of 3) The mucous lining of the stomach protects the organ CHYME which is the mixture of food and gastric juices together Small Intestine  Here chemical digestion acts on carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids. The Duodenum produces enzymes that in addition to hydrolysis provide for the chemical digestion. 1. Blood vessels - circulate around the cross section of the small intestines. 2. Villi  their function is to increase the surface area for absorption of more nutrients. Carbohydrates  maltase, sucrace, and lactase Lipids  Lipase Proteins  Proteinase Nucleic acids  nuclease A gastro vascular cavity is possessed by worms and hydras Buffers  Take care of the acidity in the small intestine so that the enzymes can work properly. The acidity of the chyme in neutralized by HCO3  (bicarbonate) H + HCO3- H2CO3 H20 + CO2 (Bicarbonate) (Carbonic acid) ZuZZZZZRZZ"  "  6"  tt  q( Y"Chapter 41 Nutrition bPancreas  secretes HCO3- and pancreatic enzymes (similar to those of the small intestine lipase). Produces hormones like insulin. By adding the bicarbonate, the pH is lowered from an acid environment to neutral, allowing the enzymes in the digestive system to breakdown food. Bile  a substance that helps stabilize fat and water emulsion (helps to breakdown fat) Alkalinity is from 7  8. The bile is stored in the Gall Bladder and made by the liver. Large intestines  Function is to absorb water and vitamins Humans cannot digest cellulose. Cows can digest cellulose because they contain Rumen (multi-segmented stomach). Rumen is a symbolic bacterium that makes enzymes that digest cellulose. BMR  (Basal Metabolic Rate). This is the amount of calories needed to maintain basic body functions. 1 gram of carbohydrates = 4 cal 1 gram of protein = 4 cal 1 gram of alcohol = 7 cal 1 gram of fat = 9 cal 1 Cal = 1 Kcal 1 Cal = 1000 cal Z%ZjZZ ZZ"6Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular 07  *"$ 2 Types: 1. Open Circulatory System  circulates hemolymph, no vessels containing the fluid. 2. Closed Circulatory System  circulates blood. The circulatory system of a vertebrae consists of: Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Veinuoles Veins Capillaries  the space where gases and nutrients are exchanged There is no RBC exchange in the capillaries. * The link between the arteries and veins Fish have a 2-chambered heart, one atria and one ventricle. Amphibians have a 3-chambered heart, two atria and one ventricle. Birds and Mammals have a 4-chambered heart, two atria and two ventricles. > j.""C""Q" " " """<" ";"";",7  y5Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular$6  +"$< Atrium: are thin walled chambers that sit on top of the ventricles. The atrium always receives blood. The right atrium contains the SA NODE or Sino atrial node. The node is the pacemaker of the heart. It has conductive tissue that regulates the beat and contraction of the heart. The brain controls the functions of the sino atrial node. Ventricle: are thick walled chambers that are underneath the atria. The left ventricle is thicker than the right (so that has the strength to move blood throughout the entire body). Ventricles always pump blood away from the heart. The left ventricle pumps blood to the rest of the body other than the lungs, this is called systemic circulation. In systemic circulation the arteries contain highly oxygenated blood, and the veins contain low oxygenated blood. The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs, this is called pulmonary circulation. In pulmonary circulation the veins carry the highly oxygenated blood and the arteries carry low oxygenated blood. Rules 1) Ventricles always pump blood away from the heart 2) Atria always receive the blood 3) Since the atrium receives blood, the veins always bring blood to the heart. 4) Arteries always take blood away from the heart. 5) Veins always connect to atria. 6) Arteries always connect to the ventricles.SZZZZJZ""""J"6 5Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular$6  +"$#Systole - The measure of the contraction of the left ventricle and of the pressure exerted on the arteries and veins (about 120). Diastole - The measure of the relaxation of the left ventricle (about 80). A high diastole (94 and above). Can lead to an aneurism, stroke or a heart attack. 8ZZZ#  5Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular$6  +"$ Connections of arteries and veins Pulmonary Artery connects to the right ventricle. It pumps the blood to the lungs. Blood leaving the right ventricle has the lowest ph (least amount of oxygen saturation). Aorta connects to the left ventricle making it the biggest artery in the body. The aorta pumps blood to the rest on the body. Superior Vena Cava, Inferior Vena Cava and opening of the Coronary Sinuses all attach to the right atrium. They bring blood from the rest of the body excluding the lungs to the right atrium. The blood is deoxygenated (without oxygen). Pulmonary Veins bring highly oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. Not all veins contain low oxygenated blood, and not all arteries contain highly oxygenated blood. ^$ZZZZ""""      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy{|}~5Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular$6  +"$ Valves: are either located at the entrance or exit of ventricles. Atrioventricular valves are located at the entrance of ventricles. a. Tricuspid - located at the entrance of the right ventricle. b. Bicuspid or Mitral  located at the entrance of the left ventricle. Semilunar valves are located at the exit of ventricles. a. Pulmonary Semilunar  located at exit of right ventricle. b. Aortic Semilunar  located at exit of left ventricle. Veins have valves and arteries don t because the muscles of the arteries are stronger so they don t need valves. ^/"""a"bB1 B 6 5Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular$6  +"$Blood: Plasma  blood cells; Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Platelets - Plasma makes up 55% of the volume in blood, 90% of that is water composition - The proteins Fibrin and Fibrinogen are the clotting factors of blood. - Plasma contains imuno globulins (antibodies), fat, minerals, electrolytes, proteins, and nucleic acids. Serum  plasma minus its clotting factors (no fibrin or fibrinogen) Gas Exchange: - Carbon dioxide (CO2) is carried in the from of bicarbonate (HCO3) - Air sacs (alveoli) reverse the Bicarbonate and exhale - Sensors detect: pH, O2, and CO2 to regulate the respiratory system. - Fishes have gills, insects have a tracheal system, and Vertebrates have lungs. j7"" "7" Chapter 43 Immune System 6     : 1. Non-Specific Defenses - Help prevent entrance and spread of microorganisms into the body. - Skin and mucous membranes, also some defensive WBC, inflammatory response, and anti-microbial proteins. a. Skin and Mucous Membrane - Barrier against entrance of certain organisms. - Sweat glands help destroy 1. pH of 3 to 5 discourages organisms form growing 2. The substance Lysozyme  Chemical secretions that disrupt the cell wall of bacteria. 3. Through tear ducts (tears) 4. Found in saliva and sweat 5. Forms anti-microbial agent 6. Attacks bacteria cell walls that destroys wall and cell leaks. Penicillin acts in this way. b. Stomach and G.I. Tract Acidity (pH of 1 to 3) destroys bacteria, but doesn t always destroy what they produce which is toxins. Toxins are usually what make you sick when infected. c. Respiratory Hairs, etc. used to trap dirt, organisms, particles in mucous d. Phagocytes and Natural Killer Cells Wondering WBC- travels through the use of the bloodstream but then leaves blood through diapedesis (moving through tissues at junctions between cells) to go to location of trouble/ infection. 1. They get bigger and are now called macrophages or big eaters. 2. Neutrophils- become phagocytic in infected tissues (first response) Z" " " # " # " # " " E"      'Chapter 43 Immune System,    4Natural Killer Cells - Will destroy your own cells once they have been infected with pathogen to keep the bacteria from multiplying. - Attack cell membrane but doesn t digest whole cell a. Inflammatory Response Inflammation is a response to injury or microbial response. Swelling, rise in number of white blood cells, increase in heat (more blood to the region) Chemical release  histamine which triggers the immune response First to the scene is the Neutrophils Second to the scene is the monocytes (which develop into macrophages) Pus is created when live and dead white blood cells and pathogens are left during and after the immune response a. Injured cell emit substances that trigger the inflammatory response b. Substances near the site of infection: histamine (alarm substance) c. Small blood vessels dilate and become leakier, causing redness and swelling d. Migration of phagocytic WBC is enhanced Neutrophils arrive first, followed by monocytes, macrophages. e. Increased activity of phagocytes f. Also end up with clotting proteins that begin to seal off injury site g. Stimulation of WBC release from bone marrow Anti  microbial Proteins 1. Interferon: a substance produced by virus-infected cells to help other cells to resist the virus. They are host specific, and not virus specific. 2. Compliment: proteins (20 different kinds) made by body  not the same as anti-bodies i. Some will coat invading microbes to facilitate phagocytosis (circulating in the blood stream) this process is called Opsonization. ii. Another function amplifies inflammatory response by stimulating histamine release and attracting phagocytes. XZZ,Z$Z" "      9 Chapter 43 Immune System,     Specific Defenses of the Host Antigen - Any substance capable of generating an immune response in your body - Any substance grater than 10,000 Dalton molecular weight - Any bacteria can have 100 antigenic determinants (sites on an antigen that can elicit response) Vaccination - Injecting dead or live organisms into body to produce response (to develop anti- bodies) to build immunity - Kill or attenuate (weaken) antigens - Body recognizes as not part of self and produces antibodies. - Either quick acting or memory cells. Immunity 1. Active: your body makes the antibodies yourself when exposed to antigen. - Naturally: you catch antigen - Artificially: vaccinate with antigen 2. Passive: you are given the pre-made antibodies (you can t afford to wait to make them later) - Example: antibodies form mother to fetus through breast milk and genetics. Duality of Immune System Humoral immunity - Production of antibodies (ab) - Defends against free (circulating in plasma) bacteria and viruses B cells are responsible r Z.ZZlZZZ" V"  , .g Chapter 43 Immune System,    !Chapter 43 Immune System,    Cell-mediated immunity Protect against bacteria and viruses that have already infected cells. Phagocytosis takes place T cells are responsible Lymphocytes Come from: stem cell in bone marrow differentiates into lymphocytes (and all other blood cells). T-cells Phagocytosis Left and went to thymus and spleen B-cells Produce antibodies Mature in the bone marrow B-cells Effector cells Do the fighting Called plasma cells Are able to produce as many as 2000 antibody MC s per second Life expectancy is 4 to 5 days Memory cells Remember known pathogens for the next time the body is infected (they will be more efficient in making more effector cells). ZZZZZZ" " ?" " E" " " # " " "  Pi m    "Chapter 43 Immune System,     T-cells Effector cells 3 Types 1. Helper T-cells Stimulates the making of phagocytes Helps both B and T cells with communications between all cells AIDS virus lacks these cells, so they can t make T and B cells (minimal) 2. Cytotoxic T-cells These phagocyte cells are made Eat effector cells 3. Suppressor T-cells Slows down both helper and cytotoxic cells from growing out of control Are used mainly at the end of infection/ virus killing process 1. Memory cells Stores the history and physiology of the virus in case the body encounters it again ZZ ZdZ"""" """""M""" "^"P = E #Chapter 43 Immune System,    fPrimary Response (when first encountering pathogen) Begins the process to build enough resistance to fight pathogen Secondary Response (when encountering pathogen again) Can act more quickly this time because memory of the pathogen encountered has been saved in the memory cells and the body can quickly make many anti-bodies to fight it Immunoglobulins (IG s) (antibodies) IgM Largest and produced first during early response IgD Almost always bound to plasma membrane of B-cells IgG Most numerous out of all antibodies Can cross placentra IgE Responsible for allergic responses to pathogens IgA Antibodies that secrete, also found in milky secretions (coloestrom), tears, etc. tZ7ZZZ$ZZ1oZZ2oZZ8oZZ8ZZTZ4"@7""$""1 "2  "  " 8  ""8" "T" R12./; $Chapter 43 Immune System,    Disorders of the Immune System Auto Immune disease (Lupas Erythromatous) White blood cells don t recognize body cells (after changing) and eat/ attack them AIDS  Acquired Immunodeficiency virus Caused by the human Immunodeficiency virus SCID  severe combined Immunodeficiency ARC  AIDS related complex (happens before AIDS) Night sweats Fever Weight loss Stress Killer cells Allergic Hypersensity  allergic reactions NZ*" ZZZ&" Z2ZZ" Z5Z" ZZ," ZZ""*Z"&  2"Z5" " ,$$("(((,4f %Chapter 44 Organ Systems,    jOsmoregulation - controlling the solute balance and the gain and/or loss of water. Flame cells- (protonephridia) regulates the entrance and exit of fluid. Ex. Flat worms. Metanephridia  also function as excretory cells or structures. Found in annelids (earthworms.) Malpignian tubes- their function is in the excretion and Osmoregulation. Found in arthropods (insects.) Kidneys- regulates body fluids in vertebrates by removing nitrogenous wastes and functioning in Osmoregulation by adjusting the concentrations of various salts in the blood stream (filtration and re-absorption). Nephrons- the basic functional units of the kidneys. 180 liters of fluid are passed through the Nephrons in a single day, but only 1.5 liters are excreted as a waste product, the rest is absorbed by the cells. $6"'"Z<S.e W k& Chapter 44 Organ Systems,    '!Chapter 44 Organ Systems,    Components of the Kidney: Cortex Medulla Renal Pyramids Renal Pelvis Ureter Parts of the Nephron: Glomerlus- Site where filtration occurs. A network of capillaries covered by the Bowman s Capsule. ^ck"5""l">E  ]("Chapter 44 Body Systems,    General Physiology of Nephrons 1. Filtration 2. Secretion, or excretion of waste that is made in the liver. 3. Re-absorption 4. Water Retention (in simple cuboidal epithelium.) 5. Regulation of Salt- ionic balance in the blood 6. Regulation of volume of blood 3 Forms of Nitrogen Waste 1. Ammonia  produced by aquatic animals 2. Urea- mammals and adult amphibians 3. Uric Acid- snails, insects birds, and some retiles Nephrons anatomy functions: -Secretion site-proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Example- control over the secretion of hydrogen ions - Reabsorption of NaCl: Proximal Convoluted tubule, and the Loop of Henley (including the ascending loop of Henley) - Regulation of K+ (potassium)  Occurs at the distal convoluted tubule. - Reabsorption of H20  proximal Convoluted Tubule, descending limb of the Loop of Henley, Distal Convoluted Tubule, and the Collecting duct - Reabsorption of Glucose- Proximal Convoluted Tubule fZ" " " " " "        *)#Chapter 44 Body Systems,     Regulation of Body Temperature (thermoregulation) External (Environmental factors) 1. Conduction  direct transfer of heat between the environment and an organism. Ex- when an animal sits/lays on a hot rock to warm itself. 2. Convection- a current that flows by you. Ex  the wind chill factor compounds the harshness of winter temps. 3. Radiation- the transfer of heat between the environment and an organism with no contact. Ex- rays of the sun 4. Evaporation- when a liquid is removed from a surface leaving it at a cooler temperature. Ex- sweat  evaporates- lowers temp -Ectoderms - Body temperature regulation by external factors. Ex- cold-blooded animals/organisms -Endoderm s- body temperature regulation by metabolism; both ectoderms and endoderm s- use environmental factors for regulation of temperature. Ex- humans -Hypothalamus- structure in brain responsible for thermal regulation and other functions. -Ruffini Organs- warm temperature sensors in the skin -Bulb OF Kraus- cold temp sensors in the skin. Ruffini organs and Bulb of Kraus send messages through the nerves brain hypothalamus regulation of body temp. By burning glucose, shivering is an immediate breakdown of ATPquick heat. Fish have a counter current mechanism veins and arteries run close togetherexchanging heat (arteries radiate heat to veins) 3Z"ZZZ2""""" "W"3"&"2",\7*$Chapter 45 Hormones,    bHormones 3 key components 1. Made by endocrine system 2. Target cell that receive information as needed 3. Circulated by the blood stream Endocrine System -Endocrine glands -No ducts -Secretions called hormones Exocrine System -Exocrine glands -Have ducts -Secretions called substances. Example- sweat, mucous, and digestive enzymes fc " " " <" " l"  Endocrinology- the study of hormones and actions 3 main classes of hormones 1. Steroid (fats) Sex hormones 2. Amino acid derivative Epinephrine 3. Peptides b. Pheromones Not hormone; chemical agents that function in attraction between animals of the same species. c. Local Regulators -Example: neurotransmitters. -Example: acetyl choline. d. Growth Factors E. Prosaglandian Modify fatty acids found between cells, cause retraction 2IK" H" " " " " " "  ,]<+%Chapter 45 Hormones,    ,&Chapter 46 Reproduction,    H Asexual Reproduction-cloning 1. Budding -Yeast cells 2. Fragmentation  each segment can re-constitute the whole organism -Some fungi 3. Release of specialized cells -Sponges 4. Regeneration- removing a part of an organism- the organism reconstitutes/regrows part that was lost 5. Parthenogenesis  no sex involved, no sperm (asexual) - End in haploid b. Sexual Reproduction  meiosis 1. Spermatogenesis  production of sperm 2. Oogenesis  production of eggs Fusion of 2 gametes (sperm and egg) Fertilization Zygote c. Hermaphroditism- one organism with both sexes, example: opithorchis clonorsis sinensis d. Sequential Hermaphroditism- starts out as one sex then changes sex when reaches adulthood, example: African frogs Fertilization External  egg fertilized outside of organism Internal  egg fertilized in organism Reproductive System Most organisms have separate sexes  #ZZT" ZAZZ+" " " " I" " " " `" " " T @" " " bQ(-'Chapter 46 Reproduction,     Male Reproductive Organs - Testis- sperm is produced outside body cavity  must be cooler temperature - Epididymus- site for 2nd phase of sperm transfer Sperm cells mature and are stored here - Vas Deferens- muscular in nature, sperm travels is spermatic duct - Semi vesicle  secretes a thick clear fluid -Contains mucous and amino acids (food for sperm) - Produces 60% of semen (protein, sperm) - Prostate  raise pH (more basic to less acidic) sperm cannot survive in acidic environment -Eliminates acidity from female vagina - Bulbouretheral gland  lubrication - Urethra - Penis - Semiephorous tubules- make sperm- tiny tubes within the testis &ZZZZ ""v"*C">|75.(Chapter 46 Reproduction,    %Female Reproductive Organs - Uterus- implementation of embryo -Endometrium- lining - Vagina - Cervix-opening of uterus - Clitoris-erectile- female equivalent to penis - Labia majora-protects - Labia minora erectile - Ovary- produces egg - Oviduct- fallopian tube -Fertilization takes place. Swims - Uterine contractions move sperm - Mammary glands- alveoli made of epithelial tissue Pregnancy - Starts at fertilization Conception - Includes gestation tZZZUZ"" "K"PG P, /)Chapter 46 Reproduction,    0*Chapter 46 Reproduction,    Zygote - Fertilized egg - Cleavage begins 1. Blastula 2. Morula (16-64 cells) 3. Gastula 4. Organogenesis (organ creation) Hormone - Placentally made - HCG (human chorionic gonadtropin) (when fertilization occurs, this is produced) - Produced after formation of a placenta. - Excreted in urine (pregnancy test) rZZZZ""""bN 1+Chapter 46 Reproduction,    2,Chapter 46 Reproduction,    Conception - 3 major - Rhythm method (counting days) - Prevention of zygote implementation  IUD - Physical barriers- condoms, diaphragm - Chemical contraception- Norplant, birth control pill, abortion pill. - Withdrawal Reproductive Technology - Ultrasound - Amniocentesis (extracting ovarian fluid) - Chorionic villi sampling - Invitro-fertilization (test tube babies) r ZZZZ """",r #3-Chapter 47 Reproduction,    Embryology Fertilization- union of sperm with egg. Fusion of sperm nucleus and egg nucleus Acrosomal reaction Digestive enzymes work to allow sperm nucleus into egg Cleavage  takes place after fertilization (divisions occurring in a cell into something bigger) Morula- late cleavage (round ball) Blastula- blastocyst (hollow ball)(implantation) Gastrula- invagination of blastula leads to formation of gastrula. The archenterons is formed Result in formation of digestive tract In chordates a layer buds off from archenterons to give rise to primary germ layers Primary germs layers Endoderm Mesoderm Ectoderm 6~1"b\0 . 34.Chapter 47 Reproduction,    Organogenesis (chordates)  specialized organ systems Dorsal mesoderm forms notochord Ectoderms form neural tube (will be CNS) central nervous system, epidermis, inner ear, and lens of eye. Mesoderm forms coelem lining, muscles, skeleton, gonads, kidneys, and most of circulation system Endoderm forms digestive tract lining, liver, pancreas, and lungs Metablastic Cleavage  not all cells undergo cleavage Yolk rich eggs Hollowblastic Cleavage- all cells with eggs undergo cleavage Humans ""+""!"""'"H 885/Chapter 48 Nervous System,    Nervous System Pons- reflex and relay Medulla- center: Respiratory Cardiac Vasomotor Thalamus- switchboard Hypothalamus- deeper uncontrollable things Corpus Callosum- connects hemispheres _+&"""" """" "!""",  Nervous System Neuron- functional (basic) unit of the nervous system Impulse Dendrite Cell body Axon Synapse- communication between a neuron and another neuron on a muscle fiber or a gland Another neuron, muscle cell, endocrine gland. 6""6"y/"60Chapter 48 Nervous System,    &Electrochemical Impulse Dendrites to the axon Neurotransmitter Example: acetylcholine Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine Acetyl group + choline group Make and break by enzyme action When neurotransmitter is released, the permeability of the cell membrane is changed. Flushing of Na+ and K+ ions. ?oo">"">G + -This causes the muscle to contract +++++++++++++ Inside cell ++++++++++ - Resting cell ----------------- Inside cell Kurari plant Anesthetic -enzyme can t work (don t allow acetyl and choline to combine) Nerve gas nVBc""b,<71Chapter 48 Nervous System,    82Chapter 48 Nervous System,    Functions of Nerves (PNS) Automatic Unconscious activity-involuntary, autonomic activity. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Sympathetic (fight or flight) Increased heart rate increased respiratory, increased blood pressure, adrenaline, ECT. Parasympathetic (conservative) Inhibits sympathetic nervous system, also active in digestive process and sleep. Somatic- capable of innervating Unconscious activity, voluntary Supporting cells (in addition to neurons) Do not get replenished Neuroglia (glial cells) for support and protection. Capable of reproduction. 1. Oligodendrocytes- help insulate (fatty) (protection) 2. Astrocytes- feeder cells (link between neuron and blood) 3. Microglia- specialized WBC (macrophage only in CNS) Z ZVoZZXoZpZZ Z"oZ+ZeoZZZZ"" 8 kR":""" E"b @'1.93Chapter 48 Nervous System,     Brain Cerebral Cortex (hemispheres) -4 lobes: -Frontal -Occipital Muscular dystrophy- myelin disorder -Parietal -Temporal Corpus Callosum Bridge between 2 cerebral hemispheres (allows exchange of information) ' PH"""" "R""G" H:4Chapter 48 Nervous System,    Thalamus Switchboard- directs the impulse to the appropriate place. Hypothalamus Homeostasis, emotions, ANS (autonomic nervous system) (non-voluntary actions). Medulla Oblongata Respiratory center, cardiac center, vaso-motor center. PONS Reflexes and switchboard function.  <P8$ "<" ""P"""8"""$"=  Spinal Chord Reflexes and a pathway for motor and sensory impulse. Neurons Sensory -Perceive and take to brain. -Receptor to brain. Motor -Message that brain sends. -Brain to muscle or gland.  6 { ""6""3""8";5Chapter 49 Plants,    Page 1015- muscles microscopic structures Sarcomere- functional unit of muscle From z line to z line- I band + other I band. The middle of I band What contributes to muscle striation (light microscope) I band= actin A band= actin H band= middle of A band - No actin (only myosin) Z lines get closer during contraction. Heterosporous- having megaspores which develop into gametophytes bearing archegonia (female), and microspores which develop into 3) Sphenophyta - Are homospores - Have a photosynthetic free living gametophyte - Sporophyte is dominant - Have flagellated sperm ex- epuisetum OZZZZRZZ(ZZZZZZ" M "  ) "7y , 1  *4) Pterophyta (ferns) - No seeds - Have megaphylls= equivalent of leaves - Most have compound fronds - Have sporophylls & their fronds - Have structures call Sori- rust like structures on the fronds. - Have flagellated sperm- must have water to spread/ fertilize - Spores develop into prothalium or gametophyte Terrestrial Adaptations of seeded/ vascular plants 1. Gametophyte is reduced 2. Pollination evolved - No flagellated sperm 3. Evolution of seed Seed- zygote that develops into embryo that is packed with food supply with in a coat. 4. Seeds replaced spores- as means of dispersion 5. Spores if still present are produced by gametophyte (makes spores) 6. Majority of seed plants are dicot ~Z[ZZZZZ" # "   * J . 6( 3 <6Chapter 49 Plants,    =7Chapter 49 Plants,    Gymnosperms Produce naked seeds Evolved production of pollen Divisions of: 1. Cycadophyta 2. Ginkophyta 3. Gnetophyta 4. Coniferophyta (pines, furs, redwoods) Structures that belong to the Gymnosperms: Fibers- for support Tracheids- function in eater transport and support - Are made of Xylem tissues Are heterosporous Sometimes it takes 3 years to produce mature seeds Have winged seeds Conifers are the tallest, largest, and oldest living organisms today BZZhZZ+ZG" Z$Z" ZZZ "8" "k"*""G$"  "tSY Q>8Chapter 49 Plants,     Angiosperms (Flowering plants) Covered seeds- main characteristic Divisions: - Monocot - Dicot Vascular tissue are more refined (detailed) Contain vessel elements that evolved from Tracheids Xylem is reinforced by fiber Double fertilization- only applies to angiosperms ." #" ".#"  ",aV P Life cycle of Angiosperms 1. Involves double fertilization 2. Haploid spore Megaspore - Microspore give rise to gametophyte which is retained within the sporophyte - Pollen grain- (male part) have 2 haploid nuclei - Ovules (female part) have 7 haploid nuclei, with one large central cell with a 2N (diploid) nuclei 65 million years ago during the crustaceous period the angiosperm became dominant, and are still dominant today. ZZ"%""" ""V""9""m""""r",  ?9Chapter 49 Plants,    Flower Anatomy - Contain reproductive structures - Made of whorls of modified leaves 1. Sepals  sterile structures, not involved in fertilization or pollination, the enclosed bud 2. Petals  sterile structures, but aid in attraction of pollinators 3. Stamen  produce pollen Anther- produces pollen Filament- holds the anther 4. Carpal  seed bearing structure Stigma Style Ovary "ZZZZZZ")""+""""""U"""";"""""" ""#""""""""""""""" Fruit A ripened ovary that protects dormant seeds and aids in dispersal 3 Kinds 1. Aggregate- several ovaries on the same flower Raspberries 2. Multiple Fruit- developed from several flowers several (ovaries) Pineapple 3. Simple fruit Apple, cherry, orange Seed Plants (angiosperms) Heterosporous No flagellated sperm Wind or insect disseminated Monocot/ dicot Double fertilizationWZZZZ""P""5""""H""""""""""""""""#""""",OI@:Chapter 49 Plants,    Root Function: Absorb H20, nutrients, and minerals Anchor Store food 2 Types: 1. Tap root  (found in dicots) large root that is vertical with many secondary roots. 2. Fibrous root- (found in monocots) mat of thread like root system. Roots hairs greatly increase absorption of water (increasing surface area) Stem The piping of a plant Modifications 1. Stolen- horizontal stems that run along the surface of the ground o Strawberries, spider plant 2. Rhizomes- horizontal stems that run underground o Iris, Kentucky bluegrass 3. Bulbs- vertical underground stem with leavesZ[Z ZZZ$ZZYZ$Z8Z!Z6Z" " " " # +" " # " " # " " \" " " " " " " " # " " " " J" " # "" " 7" " # " " 5" " >T]P Leaves 1. Main function- photosynthesis 2. Petiole that attaches the leaf. Is absent in monocot Classification of leaves and arrangements Some leaves have modifications 1. Tendrils- for clinging and support 2. Spines  for defense (cactus) 3. Succulent- store water 4. Colorful- attract pollinators Cell growth in plants Growth by the addition of cells Growth is irreversible a increase in cell size mostly cue to uptake of water by vacuoles RkZZ+Z*ZZZZZZ""%""=""""*""#&""""*""%""""%""""""#'""#`""""A;Chapter 49 Plants,    Types of plant cells 1. Parenchyma- loosely packed thin walls, photosynthetic (contains chloroplasts) Contain photosynthetic cells, usually in the leaves Function in storage and support 2. Collenchyma- non-uniformly thick walled Function mainly in support and storage 3. Sclerenchyma- thick walls Have fiber cells called sclerids o Lignin gives hardness, an example is a almond or a walnut May be dead at maturity Vf00"*Z"U""#;""#'""/""#.""!""#(""#@""""">O. ] 4. Xylem- lacks nucleus and ribosome s at maturity- fiber cells, water transport Trachids- long, this tapered tubes with lignin (not living) function in support and water transport through pits Vessed Elements- wider, shorter and less tapered 5. Phloem- functional at maturity (living) Lack nucleus and ribosome s Consist of: 1. Sieve tube members and sieve tube plates 2. Companion cells- contain nucleus and ribosome s, function to serve and aid `V0'U""#x""#8""/""##"""" ""0""R""",WjB<Chapter 49 Plants,    Apical meristem- undifferentiated tissue Located at the tip of roots and in bud shoots. The apical meristem supplies cells for the root and shoot to grow in length. Endodermis Single cell thick, innermost layer of cortex, forms layer between cortex and Steele. Pericycle Just inside endodermis Layer of cells that may become meristematic to form new tissues of lateral root or secondary root. Wood Secondary xylem Bark Any tissue outside the vascular cambium- the actual living tissue of the plant Vascular cambium or precambium Meristematic tissue  differentiate new tissue- deposits new phloem Mesophil (Parenchyma) for photosynthesis Primary Meristem- protoderm, ground meristem, procambium Primary xylem and phloem develop form procambium or vascular cambium )ZZ Z_Z ZZZZ9ZZFZ(""#"" ""#]"" ""#""#j""""#""""#V""""#K""""#'""8""""D""" \  I  6 2    ( C=Chapter 49 Plants,    D>Chapter 36 Plants"  Transpiration and relocation of substances in plants Water and minerals enter the plant at the root level 1. Through the root epidermis 2. To the cortex 3. To the endodermis 4. To the Steele 5. To the xylem 6. Finally ascending upward to leaves There is a proton pump inside the tissue responsible for facilitating conduction 2 ways water and minerals enter the Xylem 1. Via the simplest  the living continuum of a cell 2. Via the apoplast- the non living matrix of a plant At the endodermis level, the apoplastic route is blocked by a casparian, part of the endodermis Reasons for Casparin Strip 1. To ensure that certain substances are selected 2. To prevent leaking ,5Z5ZZQZ,ZuZ`ZZRZZ5"4" " """""""""""*""P" " "+"9"":""_" " "6""""P ?  $ ZE?Chapter 36 Plants Ascent of Xylem Sap 1. Happens by transpiration or the loss of water, powered by solar energy. Transpiration works from the root (sink) to the leaves (source) In order for transpiration to occur the following is required: Adhesion of water to cellulose Cohesion of water Evaporation of water Transpiration through xylem Adhesion of water to xylem 2. Due to root pressure- root pressure drives water up by ions and leads to Guttation- leakage of water on leaves, like dew. Dead cells (xylem) have a lower water potential than the soil, meaning xylem is hypertonic to soil, osmosis will occur naturally, driven to leaf by transpiration. R|/"""F""&""""""#""""""""""",  KF@Chapter 36 Plants Guard Cells- found around stomata opening Regulate the opening and closure of stomata Allow for gas and water exchange If stomata are closed there is a decrease in photosynthesis causing photorespiration to begin. When guard cells accumulate K+ ions (potassium) and their turgor pressure increases- stomata open Water and electrolyte movement control the opening and closing of the stomata Potassium drives water in and out of the cell When potassium is inside the central vacuole of the guard cells, water will follow it allowing the stomata to shrink in size. This gives room for guard cells to expand, making the opening bigger. \*)""#3""#(""#g""#j""#U""#5""#""4GAChapter 36 Plants bPlant Types 1. Xerophytes- plants in hot regions Adaptations of xerophytes Stomata are found on the underside of their leafs and are recessed (the openings grow deep within the leaf) Have thick leaves They store water in stems or leaves During the summer they loose leaves to minimize water loss C4 plants- 4 carbon organic substances store CO2 during the night so they can maintain photosynthesis during the day. The stomata have to close during the day to keep from loosing water through transpiration CAM plants- uses an organic substance other than the 4c to store CO2. Example  yucca 2. Mesophites- found in plants in a medium climate Stomata found on top and bottom of leaves 3. Hydrophites- found near water Stomata is found on the top of the leaves  ZoZZeZZ#Z+Z ""&""""r"""")""@""""[""""4""/""""""")", Z>HBChapter 36 Plants hAbsorption of Food Food and sugars are made in the leaf (source) and moved to the (sink) root. Translocation- movement of substances from source to sink (downward) More than 90% of water loss is due to transpiration via the stomata The Bulk of the dry weight of a plant is CO2 95-96% of the dry weight of a plant is carbohydrates 4-5% of the dry weight of a plant is minerals A herbaceous plant contains 85% water Essential Nutrients of plants Macronutrients- elements required in large quantities Micronutrients- elements required in small quantities ZZZ"ZZZnZZZ""T""L""""K""4""<""5""-""""6""6""""ICChapter 37 Plants Symptoms of mineral deficiency 1. Depends upon the form that the mineral plays. 2. Mobility of nutrients Older leaves usually if nutrient is mobile, the deficiency can also affect younger leaves in case of immobility. 3. Fertilizer Most fertilizers come with: 20-5-10, referring to the potency of Nitrogen- Phosphorous- Potassium. Concentration depends upon the plant chlorosis (deficiency of nitrogen) Chlorosis is spotted by yellowing of the leaf (not to be confused with lack of water) 2""5""""#y""""#k""#O""#^"", OJDChapter 37 Plants Soil Texture and composition Soil- weathering of rocks Topsoil- mixture of sand, silt and clay; very fertile soil Humus soil- contains all the decomposing organic substances Humus and loamy soil together make the most ideal soil Clay Consists of negatively charge electrons; therefore it attracts positively charged electrons. This allows clay to hold on to positively charge ions (potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium) => more fertile soil Clay prevents leaching of minerals; you want it in the topsoil. Negatively charged ions tend to leach away from the soil quickly, clay helps keep the positive, and a little of the negative. Soil Management 1. Fertilizers- the best are organic forms, they last longer because they slowly degrade, example- manure 2. Irrigation- most effective: drip irrigation 3. Erosion prevention- ground cover, terracing, wind breaks (trees), rotating crops (nitrogen fixation) ZZZ?ZZZZZZ""""":"";"">""""""""""""n""3""l""KEChapter 37 Plants ANitrogen Fixation N2> NH3 (ammonia) >NH4+, Nitrifying bacteria converts this into NO3 (nitrate) Nitrogenase reduces nitrate to form NH3 Nitrogen fixing plant (N03-) is called Legumes, which includes beans, peas, ECT. Nitrogen is essential = macronutrient Found on growth nodule at roots Rhizobium is an example of nitrogen fixing bacteria Nutritional Adaptations of plants Mycorrhizae- mutual association between plants and fungus Associated at the root level Increase the surface area allowing for more water and nutrients v\o"M""'""X""-""("";""""!""9""%""H"">_ N LFChapter 37 Plants Carnivorous Plants Ex. Venus fly plant Plants that directly ingest organic substances Direct feeding Parasitic plants (don t rely on photosynthesis) Ex. Mistletoe, dodder j2""""6""""""/""""MGChapter 38 Plants bReproduction in plants Flower- reproductive structure of plant Mass of modified leaves 1. Sepals- sterile structures enclosed in the bud A modification of a leaf 2. Petals  color portion of a plant Sterile structure Attracts pollinators 3. Stamen  male part Produces pollen Reproductive structure. Consists of: Anther Filament 4. Carpels -female part Seed bearing structures Reproductive structures Containing: Stigma Style Ovary Z)Z ZZZZ"""(""""""6""!"")""""""""""-"""""""" "","""""""   NHChapter 38 Plants Classification of flowers 1. Complete flowers- contains all parts 2. Incomplete flower- missing one part 3. Perfect Flowers- contains stamens and carpel s a. (Complete flowers are perfect) 4. Imperfect flower- missing either stamen or carpel s a. (Incomplete flowers isn t always imperfect) 5. Monoecious flowers  a flower that is perfect (contains both stamen and carpel s) 6. Dioecious flowers- have either stamen of carpel Double Fertilization Common characteristic of angiosperms life cycles Summary: Meiosis> Pollination> Nuclear Fusion (fertilization)> Embryo (2N0) > Formation of endosperm (3N) ZZZ:ZkZZ"",""+""6""&"";""3""Y""7""""9""""a"",CJOIChapter 38 Plants Fruit (ripened ovary) Protects and disperses the seed 1. Simple  derives from a single ovary Ex. Cherries, soybeans 2. Aggregate  single flower with many ovaries Ex. Raspberries, strawberries 3. Multiple Fruit- more than one flower Ex. Pineapple Requirements for seed germination 1. Acts of nature An example is a fire- high temp is sometimes needed for seeds to germinate, but not all seeds require heat. 2. Imbibition- soaking up water Seed must imbibe water in order to germinate  starting metabolic activity 3. Gibberallic acid hormone After water imbibes then enzymatic reactions occur Has to do with plant elongation The plant needs gibberallic acid to break dormancy of the seed coat Aleuron- top layer of endosperm, where chemical reactions occur :Z*Z0ZZ$ZZAZ" " )" " /" " " " 3" " &" " ," " " " #" " " " t" " $" " S" " " " ;" " (" " L" " ?" "  bAi (: jAsexual Reproduction In Plants 1. Referred to as Monoculture or Vegetative OR Cloning 2. Asexual reproduction leads to clones Advantages 1. Predictable characteristics are passed on allowing for predictable yields and crops. a. Once you have a favorable organism, (hybrid reached by sexual reproduction) clone it to keep the yield. Disadvantages No variation > no adaptability in clones No chance for crossing over If one disease comes along it can destroy the entire crop An example of this is the Irish potato famine- they were all the same kind of potato> Disease came and wiped out the country s food supple and killed many people ZiZZ ZZZ@ZZZ"";"",""" "]""p""0"""""@""""PJChapter 38 Plants Terms Applying to Cloning Stock- the host tree, has its own roots Scion- what is being grafted to the host Development of Pollen Male- anther growing into microsporocyte (2n) leading to meiosis> 4 microspores (n) > mitosis> pollen grain Female- megasporocytes (2n) > meiosis > megaspore (n)> mitosis (yields at least 7 cells)> formation of embryo sac (female gametophyte) Micropyle- the little opening through which the pollen tube enters the embryo sac, called antipodal cells- located at top to the ovary Endosperm- found in the seed Provides nutrition for the embryo Eating an endosperm when you are eating rice, wheat, and corn, ECT. The embryo will not develop within the seed until the seed germinates. The seed is dehydrated, it only has 5- 10% water in it When the seed first germinates it produces a structure called a radical, which shoots down and becomes the root. Seed also produces the coleophyle, which grows up forming embryonic leaves. ZQZZZZZZZZyZZHZZZ" '" " (" " " " " " l" " " " " " " " " " # )" " # L" " " " G" " # >" " # y" " # T" "  bKc  : -QKChapter 39 Plants Hormones Hormone- chemical produced by an organism a sent to another cell (target cell) to Control it. (May travel through bloodstream or xylem). Phototropism- movement toward the light (like taxis in bacteria) Coleotile- bends towards the light, is the initial stem as the seed has germinated (before The plant has fully developed. (Leaf like) Auxins- substances (hormones) at the tip of the coleotile that is sent down to the plant through the xylem. 1. Amount of auxins on the dark side of the coleotile is higher; this usually causes rapid cell division, forcing it to bend toward the light. 2. Darwin and his son did the original study 3. The study was also done by F.W. Went, whom decided that the concentration of auxins on the dark side is higher. (Bending the plant toward stimuli. 4. Went gave the name  auxins .  ZSZ8ZZ+ZmZZZZ "R""7""@""[""*""l""""""1""""%"" }) G \RLChapter 39 Plants Classes of plant Hormones 1. Auxins (IAA- indo Acetic Acid)- hormone involved in tropism (movement) ex. Phototropism- the movement toward the light. a. Stimulate growth of branch roots- the fullness and branching of the plant. i. Allowing for apical dominance b. Stem growth i. Apical dominance- the apical meristem of a shoot is a major site of auxin synthesis ii. Allows the plant to grow taller and not as wide iii. Works by acid growth hypothesis~acid causes the cross-linking of cell walls to break, allowing stretching or bending of the plant toward the light. c. Auxins can also be used as herbicides, 2-4-D is a weed killer. i. Destroys dicots (dandelions) but not monocots (grasses)J-HHH" " " " S" " ," " " " b" " @" " " " G" " G" " t 3  :) 2. cytokinins a. Moving through the xylem b. Stimulates cell division c. Affects cell differentiation (auxins can also do this) d. Effects apical dominance and lateral budding e. It inhibits branch roots  which works opposite from auxins f. Inhibits leaf senescence (aging) i. Reduces aging process g. Promotes stomata opening *Most apical dominance is exhibited by woody dicots *Herbaceous doesn t get woody f:*!S""!"" "">""4""C""*"")"" ""3""""Pk SMChapter 39 Plants l1. Gibberellins (GA)- has a stronger effect than auxins a. Over 70 different types b. Causes bolting of a plant- rapid growth i. Important properties of a gibberalin 1. Rapid growth 2. Growth in length 3. Result in normal growth of mutant dwarf plant 4. Ex. Genetic corn- by adding gibberalin you can increase the sixe of the corn by . c. Hormone (gibberalin) is release by the embryo just after Imbibition i. Help mobilized energy stored in endosperm d. Triggers germination i. Hormones act at the gene level of target cells- affects genetic codeZ0Z Z7ZZQZ<""""/""/""""""5""Z""K""6""""P""t5u  $ %  2. Absciccic acid (ABA) a. Help prepare plants for winter by suspending primary and secondary growth b. Inhibits cell division in vascular cambium c. Induces seed dormancy d. Stress hormone i. Causes leaves to close stomata under environmental stress- reducing transpiration and loss water ii. The ratio of ABA to Gibberalins determines wither the seed will remain dormant or germinate. ""R""2""""""k""i"",S ATNChapter 39 Plants 0 Ethylene a. Gas b. Triggers senescence i. Causing aging (ripening quicker by softening of fruit wall and loss of greenness) ii. Aging cell produce more ethylene, causing the ripening of fruit c. Before a leaf falls, an abscission zone forms i. Auxin levels drop, ethylene levels rise ii. Stimulates rapid division at stem (petiole) of leaf iii. Forms a layer (seal) that prevents anything from entering (diseases) plants and trees that drop their leaves in the winter doe so to prevent desiccation tZ(ZZ6ZZZUZ "" """"^""K""5""2"">""P""""S">   h Florigen a. Stimulates flowering- flower formation (modified leaf) b. Produced by leaves zZ "">""""]UOChapter 39 Plants 6Hormones mode of Action Altering gene level or genetic expression Modifying permeability of cell membrane Stretching cell walls- allows for bending or growth mechanism to happen Tropism- the movement of a plant toward a stimulus 1. Phototropism- the movement towards light with the aid of auxins 2. Gravitotropism- (geotropism)-root always orients itself down Root are positive- they grow down with gravity Stems are negative- they grow against gravity (upward) 3. Thigmotropism- response to touch Ex. Venus fly trap (closes up) 4. Turgor movement- fills up with water, large or plump Ex. Guard cells close due to lack of potassium 5. Sleep movement- closing of leaves at night Ex. Legumes Potassium ions involved ZZ3Z6ZZ" " # 1" " # /" " # O" " 2" " G" " D" " 8" " ?" " (" " '" " =" " 7" " 2" " " " " "  P@>  Photoperiodism- capability of plant to detect night and day (phytocrome makes this possible) 1. long day plant- flowers when there is a lot of day length, needs less night 2. short day plant- flowers when there is less light, needs a lot of darkness. Ex. Shining light on a plant at night will inhibit flowering 3. Neutral plant- flowering is not affected by light or dark periods Phytochrome- the pigment that absorbs light and tells the plant how to behave during phototropism ]1d\""T""""I""""a""""6/ FZ  0$(  r  S Qp P  p r  S lRp p H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  `$(  r  S p P  p r  S Hp@` p H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S p P  p r  S dp p H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  $(  r  S  P   r  S h  H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf   $(  r  S $ P   r  S 䉀  H  0޽h ? f3"V+Nf  H$(  Hr H S %O UTimes New Roman WingdingsSymbol Courier NewLucida ConsoleRibbons<Biology 112 Aims Community College Instructor ~Leba Sarkis Chapter 22 Evolution Chapter 22 EvolutionChapter 22 EvolutionChapter 23 EvolutionChapter 23 EvolutionChapter 23 EvolutionChapter 24 EvolutionChapter 24 EvolutionChapter 24 EvolutionChapter 40 TissuesChapter 40 TissuesChapter 40 TissuesChapter 41 Nutrition Chapter 41 Nutrition Chapter 41 Nutrition7Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular 6Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular6Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular6Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular6Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular6Chapter 38 Circulatory and Respiratory Cardiovascular Chapter 43 Immune System Chapter 43 Immune SystemChapter 43 Immune SystemChapter 43 Immune SystemChapter 43 Immune SystemChapter 43 Immune SystemChapter 43 Immune SystemChapter 43 Immune SystemChapter 44 Organ SystemsChapter 44 Organ SystemsChapter 44 Organ SystemsChapter 44 Body SystemsChapter 44 Body SystemsChapter 45 HormonesChapter 45 HormonesChapter 46 ReproductionChapter 46 ReproductionChapter 46 ReproductionChapter 46 ReproductionChapter 46 ReproductionChapter 46 ReproductionChapter 46 ReproductionChapter 47 ReproductionChapter 47 ReproductionChapter 48 Nervous SystemChapter 48 Nervous SystemChapter 48 Nervous SystemChapter 48 Nervous SystemChapter 48 Nervous SystemChapter 48 Nervous SystemChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 49 PlantsChapter 36 PlantsChapter 36 PlantsChapter 36 PlantsChapter 36 PlantsChapter 36 PlantsChapter 37 PlantsChapter 37 PlantsChapter 37 PlantsChapter 37 PlantsChapter 38 PlantsChapter 38 PlantsChapter 38 PlantsChapter 38 PlantsChapter 39 PlantsChapter 39 PlantsChapter 39 PlantsChapter 39 PlantsChapter 39 Plants  Fonts UsedDesign Template Slide TitlesO%_% Millie HerbstMillie Herbst
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