Patrick Flannigan and the invention of the Neurophone.

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The neurophone - transmitting information directly

(word processor parameters LM=8, RM=75, TM=2, BM=2)
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March 8, 1991
-------------------------------------------------------------------- This file courtesy of Bob Paddock.
-------------------------------------------------------------------- Thu Mar 07 19:12:00 1991: #38
I would be interested in hearing more about transmitting info into the brain, if you come across any. I've been collecting information on how the brain analyzes & processes information, in a attempt to do speech recognition.
Here are a few of the things that I've found that your colleages might find useful, when transmitting info INTO the brain. (Need less to say a lot of this information is controversial, and in some cases in direct conflict with the 'medical establishment'; but I go where the path leads....)
The most interesting work, as well as the most controversial, in this area has been done by G. Patrick Flanagan on a device he calls the "Neurophone".
The basic concept of the Neurophone is it has an audio input, which can come from a microphone, tape recorder, radio etc.... With an output that goes to two transducers that you wear as a head band. The transducer disks are made from Zirconium Titanate imbedded in acrylic plastic tiles which possesses the same dielectric constant as human skin [Any one know where to get such a transducer, or how you measure the dielectric constant of the skin?]. The end result is that your brain perceives the sound that is input into the Neurophone with NO involvement of the Ear.
Batteau of Tuffs University devised an experiment that proved the the Neurophone does NOT work by:
(A) the transducers act as electrostatic loudspeakers,
(B) the transducers excite via bone conduction of the sound,
(C) the transducers activate the Eighth Cranial Nerve.
Flanagan hypothesizes that input to the brain is based upon the fact that the skin is both piezoelectric and optoelectric, that is, when the skin is stimulated by an electric or photon field, it vibrates. This means that it produces minute electrical currents when vibrated or rubbed.
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Sheldon C. Deal, D.C, N.D. of Tucson says (REF #1): "The skin is embryonically the source of all our special senses. Our skin contains more sensors for heat, touch, pain, ect., than any other part of the human anatomy. The human ear evolves embryonically out of the convolutions of the skin of an embryo. Basically, the skin is the oldest evolutionary nervous system sensor. Another way to look at this, is the special sense of touch has progressively extended over the entire body by way of the skin and evolutionarywise our other special senses should follow suit and extend over our entire body in time [What is that going to look like?]. The skin then, since it is the precursor of the ears, should also be cable of hearing, or to put it another way, it should be able to transmit the sense of hearing to the brain by means other than the 8th Cranial Nerve."

The Zirconium Titanate transducer effectively forms a piezoelectric transmitter, where some thing called the Pacinian Corpuscle acts as a receiver.
The Pacinian Corpuscle is a special nerve ending that transforms mechanical vibration, or pressure, into nerve impulses. (REF #11) The Pacinian Corpuscle consists of a sensitive nerve ending surrounded by a cylindrical-like core structure consisting of closely packed membranes called lamellae. The core is surrounded by a second set of lamellae, in which the distance between each one increases from the innermost lamella toward the periphery of the corpuscle. The space between all the lamellae is filled with a liquid whose mechanical properties can be considered similar to that of water. When a displacement of the outermost lamella is caused by exerting an appropriate pressure, this stimulus is transmitted to the core, and in turn, causes a compression of the innermost lamella. This system acts as a differentiating mechanical amplifier.

What all of this gobbledygook is trying to say is that the Pacinian Corpuscle responds best to a square wave signal. Where the time-rate-of-change of the signal is more important than the amplitude of the pressure applied to the corpuscle. This shows that this receptor is designed to detect time significance first, and pressure significance secondly.
Now that we have gotten trough the descriptions of the transmitter (Zirconium Titanate transducer) and the receiver (Pacinian Corpuscle) we can get into the interesting stuff:
Interesting Stuff:
Nerve encoding
In the Neurophone the input signal is passed into a section which clips everything into a series of square waves, analogous to the sort of clipped waves Lisitsyn confirms are the carriers of the human brain waves (REF #8). Next, the square waves are differentiated, yielding a series of sharp spikes. These spikes are again differentiated, since these are finite spikes with real non-zero rise times and decay times rather than theoretical constructs, a series of noisy spikes results from the second differentiator section. From here, the noisy spikes are introduced to the Zirconium Titanate transducers which are placed on the skin.
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In REF #6: "It was established that the nervous system uses time ratios as major sources of intelligent information. It was found that speech intelligibility was contained in the time dominant ratios in the speech waveform. Speech quality was found to be contained in dominant frequency ratios. So the nervous system is designed to recognize two distinct parameters: the time domain and the frequency domain."

This is similar to the work of Dr. Arie Visser of Extrema Systems International Corporation. The Extrema theory of human perception assumes that the ear distinguishes sounds not by amplitude or frequency, but rather by timing and context. Specifically, the ear extracts only certain features of a signal- that is, the local minima and maxima, or the extrema and passes to the brain the instances at which they occur [it doesn't matter whether it is minima or maxima, just the change in direction of the signal is important].
Here is a starting point for the circuitry for a Neurophone, and a Extrema Enhancer:
Find your self a copy of "National Semiconductor's "Linear Applications Databook" 1986, then locate: AN-72 "The LM3900: A New Current-Differencing Quad of +/- Input Amplifiers" For the Extrema Enhancer hook up the AN-72 stages like so: Input:>>----AN-72-35 4 KHz Low Pass Filter --------> (A)
Noise Source:
Noisy Zener Diode (1N964B) & 100k bias resistor----> (B) From (A) ----\ *---AN-72-87 Audio Mixer-------------> (C) From (B) ----/ From (C) ----AN-72-82 Differentiator---------------> (D)
A point worth experimenting with would be to put multiple differentiators in series.
/---AN-72-66 Invert Volt Compar------> (E) From (D) ----* (Bisa for + and - = Set/Reset) \---AN-72-68 Non-Invert Volt Compar--> (F) From (E) ------\ *--AN-72-59 Bi-Stable-Multivbrater-> (G) From (F) ------/
(G) Is now a square wave in the Time-Domain of the input signal's extremas. Timing-Feature-Extraction output (Speech recognition output here)
From (G) ----AN-72-83 Difference Integrator--------> (H) (H) ----AN-72-35 4 KHz Low Pass Filter --------->> (Output)
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(Output): is now filtered version of input (Increased signal-to-noise-ratio [More signal than noise, than the original input signal], with redundant information removed).
Heres a starting point for the Neurophone (I'am still studying how this works, so haven't got it finished yet).
>>--- Input (0 - 15 KHz) --------------------------> (A) AN-72-41 Sine wave Oscillator [50 KHz] --------> (B) From (A) ----\ *---AN-72-87 Audio Mixer-------------> (C) From (B) ----/
(C) ---- AN-72-34 High Pass filter ---------------->
(D) [Multiple stages: High-pass filter having a 6 decibels per octave slope from 0 to 15 KHz, total combined slope of 12 decibels per octave. ]
(D) ----- AN-72-13 Non-Inverting AC Amp ----------->
(E) (E) ------ AN-72-? Clipper ----------------------->
(F) ----- AN-72-13 Non-Inverting AC Amp ----------->
(G) ------ AN-72-? Clipper -----------------------> (H)
(H) ------- AN-?-? Output driver --*---> Zi-Ti Out (Right) \--> Zi-Ti Out (Left)
For safety reasons the Neurophone circuit should be battery powered.
So where do we go from here/hear?

Extrema processing is covered by US patent 4,545,065. Flanagan's "Nervous System Excitation Device" is covered by US patent 3,393,279 7/16/68. The Neurophone Thinkman [TM] Model 50 is covered by US Patent 3,647,970 "Method And System For Simplifying Speech Waveforms" 3/7/72.

[1] "Meridian Balancing by use of the Neurophone" Sheldon C. Deal D.C., N.D.; of Tucson; Director of the Swan Clinic, Current [Former?] President of the International College of Applied Kinsiology. Reprinted in Innergy News June 1980.
[2] "Role of the Pinna [External Ear/Ear Lobe] in Localization: Theoretical and Physiological Consequences" by Dwight Wayne Batteau. Ciba Foundation Symposium on Hearing Mechanisms in Vertebrates, 1968. pp. 234 to 239 (Edited by A.V.S. deReuck and Julie Knight. Published by J. & A. Churchill Ltd., 104 Gloucester Place, London, W.I.)
[3] Proceedings of Royal Society, Biology, 1967, 158, 158-180 by Dwight Wayne Batteau.
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[4] "Molecular Sensation" by Dwight Wayne Batteau and W. M. Hemmes (1966). First Semi-Annual Report for U.S. Navy Office of Naval Research, Contract 4863(00). NTIS order number: AD-635955
[5] "On The Significance of Energy Level Transitions in Nerve Function" by Dwight Wayne Batteau and T. B. Eyrick. (1967) Interim Technical Report for U.S. Navy Office of Naval Research, Contract 4863(00). NTIS order number: AD-670614
[6] "Theories of Sonar Systems and Their Application to Biological Organisms", D.W.Batteau Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tufts University, Medfoard, Massachusetts, Sept. 1966.
[7] "The Neuro Physiology of Spcialy Oriented Behavior" edited by Samford J. Freedman. 1968 Dorcy Press IL. Chapter 7 "Listening with the Naked Ear" by Dwight Wayne Batteau.
[8] "New Approach to the Analysis of Electroencephalogram", by S. K. Lisitsyn Problems of Bionics (selected articles) pg 16-25 NTIS order number: AD-730045 NTIS: National Technical Information Service (NTIS), an agencyof the U.S. Department of Commerce: 5285 PortRoyal Road, Springfield, VA 22161: (703) 487-4650
[9] "Analog" magazine July 1967.
[10] "Whiz Kid, Hands Down" by William Mofser "LIFE" 9/14/1962 pg 69 and 72
[11] Research by Fernando Grandori and Antonio Pedotti of Milan, Italy. IEEE Transactions on Bio-Medical Engineering: VOL BME-27, No 10, October 1980.)
[12] Phone conversations with LLoyd Mac Gregory Trefethen, Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Tufts University Anderson Hall. He was instrumental in locating some of Batteau's research papers (Dwight Wayne Batteau is now deceased).
A partial collection of Neurophone related articles is availible from:
Rex Research PO Box 19250 Jean, NV, 89019 Order: "NR: F2-FLN 'Flnagan: Neurophone'"
Note: The information contained here in is of experimental nature, and not intended for diagnosis or treatment of disease, or intended as a substitute for sound medical care.
The problem with XSI is they refuse to deal in small qualities, seems they are going after the military market.
I was able to locate Patrick Flanagan to see if any one was still selling the ThinkMan-50 Neurophone. He sent me info on Vortexian Water Purification, so I took that as a no (No one currently selling the Neurophone). What I've wondred is how one of these would work out for a hearing aid for the Deaf?
-------------------------------------------------------------------- Vangard Notes...
I was fortunate enough to attend a small seminar of about 5 hours with Pat Flanagan and a group of about 25 others at the National Health Federation meeting here in Dallas somewhere around 1983(?).
Pat went into some detail on the Neurophone and some of his other work. The original version put out a 3000 volt signal which was modulated by any audio signal.
It was based on a principle called "acoustic conduction" which had been an anomaly first noticed in the early days of radio.
The effect can be demonstrated by attached a "Chore Girl" scrub pad to the output of any audio amplifier system. The positive lead goes to one pad, the negative to another. The pads are then applied to the ear, the amplifier tuned to a music source and cranked up. You will hear the music from the electrostatically driven threads of the scrub pad.
Flanagan figured that the principle could be "enhanced" which led to fine tuning using an oscilloscope and other equipment. From these humble beginnings came the first Neurophone using a vacuum tube amplifier capable of generating the audio modulated 3000 volts.
The next improvement came when Pat found that the human nervous system vibrated within a range of 50 KHZ to 100 KHZ. He found that by transmitting an acoustically modulated carrier frequency which would match the current vibrations of the nervous system, the two frequencies would "tune in" leaving the audio frequencies.
This system uses a 20 volt peak to peak signal and requires some training to be able to use the device. Training involves audibly listening to music which is simultaneously transmitted via the Neurophone into the nervous system.
As one continues, the audible volume is gradually decreased which "trains" the system to become ever more aware of the Neurophonically driven signals.
There have been strange reports of experiments using the Neurophone either in groups or singly and spaced over distance.
People have become suddenly telepathically linked to others operating the Neurophone at the same time. At one time, Flanagan was asking for Neurophone operators to experiment in groups to see what the possibilities might be. I never heard of the outcome of any of these experiments.
Bearden mentions the possibilities of the Neurophone for
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telepathic linking among a group of minds with the same general purposes (much like witchcraft). He believes that those people might unknowingly awaken a great mind which he calls ZARG.
This mind would be synthesized from the linking of the many smaller minds. He also cautions that such an awakening might lead to disasters beyond our control when ZARG sees how screwed up everything has become from our actions.
The Bible mentions how the linking of two or more people in a common enterprise will lead to geometrically amplified results.
That is the essential principle of witchcraft as well as group prayer in the more socially accepted version. The stories relating to miracles when people pray (read concentrate on a focussed objective) in concert are legion.
In formal Magick, the operator uses geometries, intense concentration and words of power to generate the same result as witchcraft yet working on much more resolved levels of energy.
I think the Neurophone offers its greatest hope with the 20 volt peak to peak version. Training of the operator to awaken his innate abilities would lead to the possibility of direct input of information to the brain without the filtering which is built in to the other methods of sensory input.
The danger here is the possibility of mind control techniques far beyond simplified subliminals.
If you have comments or other information relating to such topics as this paper covers, please upload to KeelyNet or send to the Vangard Sciences address as listed on the first page. Thank you for your consideration, interest and support.
Jerry W. Decker.........Ron Barker...........Chuck Henderson Vangard Sciences/KeelyNet
If we can be of service, you may contact Jerry at (214) 324-8741 or Ron at (214) 242-9346
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