Iceland

Indonesia

Israel

Italy


Iceland


The Capital of Iceland is Reykjavik and the country is divided up into Syslur (Counties)and Kaupstadhir (Independent Towns).

Syslur.

ArnessyslaNordhur-Thingeyjarsysla
Austur-BardhastrandarsyslaRangarvallasysla
Austur-HunavatnssyslaSkagafjardharsysla
Austur-SkaftafellssyslaSnaefellsnes-og Hnappadalssysla
BorgarfjardharsyslaStrandasysla
DalasyslaSudhur-Mulasysla
EyjafjardharsyslaSudhur-Thingeyjarsysla
GullbringusyslaVestur-Bardhastrandarsysla
KjosarsyslaVestur-Hunavatnssysla
MyrasyslaVestur-Isafjardharsysla
Nordhur-IsafjardharsyslaVestur-Skaftafellssysla
Nordhur-Mulasys-la

Kaupstadhir.

Akranes Neskaupstadhur
Akureyri Olafsfjordhur
Hafnarfjordhur Reykjavik
Husavik Saudharkrokur
Isafjordhur Seydhisfjordhur
Keflavik Siglufjordhur
Kopavogur Vesttmannaeyjar


Patron Saint : Anskar, Thorlac

Currency : Krona (ISK) = 100 Aurar

National holiday : Independence Day, 17 June (1944)

Highest Point : Hvannadalshnukur 2,119 m

Longest River :


Indonesia

The capital of Indonesia is Jakarta and the country is divided into Propinsi-Propinsi (provinces) , Daerah-Daerah Istimewa (regions), and one Daerah Khusus Ibukota. (special capital city district).

Propinsi - propinsi.

Bali Kalimantan Selatan Papua
Banten Kalimantan Tengah Riau
Bengkulu Kalimantan Timur Sulawesi Selatan
Gorontalo Kepulauan Bangka Belitung Sulawesi Tengah
Jambi Lampung Sulawesi Tenggara
Jawa Barat Maluku Sulawesi Utara
Jawa Tengah Maluku Utara Sumatera Barat
Jawa Timur Nusa Tenggara Barat Sumatera Selatan
Kalimantan Barat Nusa Tenggara Timur Sumatera Utara

Daerah-daerah istimewa.

Aceh Yogyakarta

Daerah khusus ibukota.

Jakarta Raya


Patron Saint :

Currency : Rupiah (Rp) = 100 Sen

National holiday : Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Highest Point : Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Longest River : Kapuas


Israel


Israeli Heads of State

Israeli Prime Minister

The capital of Israel is Jerusalem and the country is divided into mehozot (districts).

Mehozot.

Central Jerusalem Southern
Haifa Northern Tel Aviv


Patron Saint :

Currency : New Sheqel (NIS) = 100 New Agorot

National holiday : Independence Day, 14 May (1948)

Highest Point : Har Meron 1,208 m

Longest River :


Provisional Chairman of the Council of State

15 May 1948 17 May 1948 David Ben-Gurion Mapai
17 May 1948 17 Feb 1949 Haim Weizmann Mapai

President

17 Feb 1949 9 Nov 1952 Haim Weizmann Mapai
9 Nov 1952 10 Dec 1952 Yosef Sprinzak Mapai (interim)
10 Dec 1952 23 Apr 1963 Yitzhak Ben-Zvi Mapai
23 Apr 1963 22 May 1963 Kadish Luz Mapai (interim)
22 May 1963 24 May 1973 Zalman Shazar Avoda
24 May 1973 29 May 1978 Ephraim Katzir Avoda
29 May 1978 5 May 1983 Yitzhak Navon Avoda
5 May 1983 13 May 1993 Haim Herzog Avoda
13 May 1993 12 Jul 2000 Ezer Weizman Avoda
12 Jul 2000 1 Aug 2000 Avraham Burg Avoda (interim)
1 Aug 2000 25 Jan 2007 Moshe Katzav Likud (duties suspended)
25 Jan 2007 1 Jul 2007 Dalia Itzik Kadima (acting)
1 Jul 2007 15 Jul 2007 Dalia Itzik Kadima (interim)
15 Jul 2007 Shimon Peres Kadima


Prime Ministers

17 May 1948 7 Dec 1953 David Ben-Gurion Mapai
7 Dec 1953 2 Nov 1955 Moshe Sharett Mapai
2 Nov 1955 21 Jun 1963 David Ben-Gurion Mapai
21 Jun 1963 26 Feb 1969 Levi Eshkol Mapai
26 Feb 1969 17 Mar 1969 Yigal Allon Avoda
17 Mar 1969 3 Jun 1974 Golda Meir Avoda
3 Jun 1974 22 Apr 1977 Yitzhak Rabin Avoda
22 Apr 1977 21 Jun 1977 Shimon Peres Avoda (acting)
21 Jun 1977 10 Oct 1983 Menahem Begin Herut/Likud
10 Oct 1983 14 Sep 1984 Yitzhak Shamir Herut/Likud
14 Sep 1984 20 Oct 1986 Shimon Peres Avoda
20 Oct 1986 13 Jul 1992 Yitzhak Shamir Likud
13 Jul 1992 4 Nov 1995 Yitzhak Rabin Avoda
4 Nov 1995 22 Nov 1995 Shimon Peres Avoda (acting)
22 Nov 1995 18 Jun 1996 Shimon Peres Avoda
18 Jun 1996 6 Jul 1999 Binyamin Netanyahu Likud
6 Jul 1999 7 Mar 2001 Ehud Barak Avoda
7 Mar 2001 4 Jan 2006 Ariel Sharon Likud, Kadima
4 Jan 2006 14 Apr 2006 Ehud Olmert Kadima (acting)
14 Apr 2006 31 March 2009 Ehud Olmert Kadima
31 March 2009 Benjamin Netanyahu Likud


Italy


Royalty

Prime Minister

National Anthem



The Capital of Italy is Rome and the country is divided up into regioni.

Regioni.

Abruzzi Molise
Basilicata Piemonte
Calabria Puglia
Campania Sardegna
Emilia-Romagna Sicilia
Friuli-Venezia Giulia Toscana
Lazio Trentino-Alto Adige
Liguria Umbria
Lombardia Valle d'Aosta
Marche Veneto


Patron Saint : Bernardine of Siena, Catherine of Siena, Francis of Assisi, Our Lady of Loreto, Our Lady of Perpetual Help, Our Lady of the Snows

Currency : Euro = 100 cents

National holiday : Republic Day, 2 June (1946)

Highest Point : Monte Bianco de Courmayeur 4,748 m

Longest River : Po


Italian Royalty

Dux Italiae

476493 Odoaker

Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy

493526 Theodoric the Great
526534 Athalaric
534536Theodahad
536540Witiges
540541 Ildibad
541541Eraric
541552Totila
552 553 Teia

Byzantine Empire Rule

553565 Justinian
565 568 Justin

Lombard Kingdom of Italy

568572Alboin
572574Cleph

Interegnum

574584Hule of the Dukes

Lombard Kingdom of Italy

584590 Authari
591616 Agilulf
616626 Adaloald
626636 Arioald
636652Rothari
652 653Rodoald
653661 Aripert I
661662 Perctarit
Godepert
662671Grimoald
671 688Perctarit (restored from exile)
688689 Alahis (rebel)
688700 Cunincpert I
700701Liutpert
701701Raginpert
701712 Aripert II
712712 Ansprand
712744Liutprand
744 744Hildeprand
744749 Ratchis
749756 Aistulf
756774Desiderius

Frankish Kingdom of Italy

h Charles I the Great (774V814 (as King of the Lombards) h Pippin (781V810) h Bernard (810V818) h Lothair I (818V855) h Louis II (844V875) h Charles II the Bald (875V877) h Carloman (877V879) h Charles III the Fat (879V887) h Berengar I (888V924) Between 888 and 933, there were usually several claimants to the throne of Italy, and on occasion even several living crowned emperors. In 955, the kingdom of Italy was subjected to Otto I. h Guy (889V894) h Lambert (892V898) h Hugh (924V947) h Lothair II (947V950) h Berengar II (950V961) h Adalbert (950V963) h Arnulf (896V899) h Ratold

Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire

Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy

18051814Napoleon Bonaparte

Kingdom of Italy

1861 1878 Vittorio Emmanuel II
1878 1900Umberto I
1900 1946Vittorio Emmanuel III
1946 1946 Umberto II


Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy

23 March 1861 7 June 1861 Camillo Benso, count of Cavour Liberal-Conservative
12 June 1861 3 March 1862 Bettino Ricasoli Liberal-Conservative
3 March 1862 8 December 1862 Urbano Rattazzi Democrat
8 December 1862 24 March 1863 Luigi Carlo Farini Liberal-Conservative
24 March 1863 28 September 1864 Marco Minghetti Liberal-Conservative
28 September 1864 20 June 1866 Alfonso Ferrero la Marmora Liberal-Conservative
20 June 1866 10 April 1867 Bettino Ricasoli Liberal-Conservative
10 April 1867 27 October 1867 Urbano Rattazzi Democrat
27 October 1867 14 December 1869 Federico Luigi, Conte Menabrea Liberal-Conservative
14 December 1869 10 July 1873 Giovanni Lanza Liberal-Conservative
10 July 1873 25 March 1876 Marco Minghetti Liberal-Conservative
25 March 1876 24 March 1878 Agostino Depretis Democrat
24 March 1878 19 December 1878 Benedetto Cairoli Democrat
19 December 1878 14 July 1879 Agostino Depretis Democrat
14 July 1879 29 May 1881 Benedetto Cairoli Democrat
29 May 1881 29 July 1887 Agostino Depretis Democrat
29 July 1887 6 February 1891 Francesco Crispi Democrat
6 February 1891 15 May 1892 Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudin Liberal-Conservative
15 May 1892 15 December 1893 Giovanni Giolitti Liberal-Conservative
15 December 1893 10 March 1896 Francesco Crispi Democrat
10 March 1896 29 June 1898 Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudin Liberal-Conservative
29 June 1898 24 June 1900 Luigi Pelloux Liberal-Conservative
24 June 1900 15 February 1901 Giuseppe Saracco Democrat/Liberal
15 February 1901 3 November 1903 Giuseppe Zanardelli Liberal
3 November 1903 12 March 1905 Giovanni Giolitti Liberal
12 March 1905 28 March 1905 Tommaso Tittoni Liberal-Conservative
28 March 1905 8 February 1906 Alessandro Fortis Liberal
8 February 1906 29 May 1906 Sidney Sonnino Liberal-Conservative
29 May 1906 11 December 1909 Giovanni Giolitti Liberal
11 December 1909 31 March 1910 Sidney Sonnino Liberal-Conservative
31 March 1910 30 March 1911 Luigi Luzzatti Liberal
30 March 1911 21 March 1914 Giovanni Giolitti Liberal
21 March 1914 18 June 1916 Antonio Salandra Liberal-Conservative
18 June 1916 29 October 1917 Paolo Boselli Liberal-Conservative
23 October 1917 23 June 1919 Vittorio Emanuele Orlando Liberal
23 June 1919 15 June 1920 Francesco Saverio Nitti Radical Party
15 June 1920 4 July 1921 Giovanni Giolitti Liberal
4 July 1921 26 February 1922 Ivanoe Bonomi Italian Reform Socialist Party
26 February 1922 31 October 1922 Luigi Facta Liberal
31 October 1922 25 July 1943 Benito Mussolini National Fascist Party
25 July 1943 18 June 1944 Marshal Pietro Badoglio (Provisional Military Government)
18 June 1944 19 June 1945 Ivanoe Bonomi Labour Democratic Party
21 June 1945 8 December 1945 Ferruccio Parri Action Party
10 December 1945 1 July 1946 Alcide de Gasperi Christian Democracy

Prime Ministers of the Italian Republic.

13 July 1946 2 August 1953 Alcide De Gasperi Democrazia Cristiana
17 August 1953 12 January 1954 Giuseppe Pella Democrazia Cristiana
18 January 1954 8 February 1954 Amintore Fanfani Democrazia Cristiana
10 February 1954 2 July 1955 Mario Scelba Democrazia Cristiana
6 July 1955 15 May 1957 Antonio Segni Democrazia Cristiana
19 May 1957 1 July 1958 Adone Zoli Democrazia Cristiana
1 July 1958 15 February 1959 Amintore Fanfani Democrazia Cristiana
15 February 1959 23 March 1960 Antonio Segni Democrazia Cristiana
25 March 196026 July 1960 Fernando Tambroni Democrazia Cristiana
26 July 1960 21 June 1963 Amintore Fanfani Democrazia Cristiana
21 June 1963 4 December 1963 Giovanni Leone Democrazia Cristiana
4 December 1963 24 June 1968 Aldo Moro Democrazia Cristiana
24 June 1968 12 December 1968 Giovanni Leone Democrazia Cristiana
12 December 1968 6 August 1970 Mariano Rumor Democrazia Cristiana
6 August 1970 17 February 1972 Emilio Colombo Democrazia Cristiana
17 February 1972 7 July 1973 Giulio Andreotti Democrazia Cristiana
26 July 1973 23 November 1974 Mariano Rumor Democrazia Cristiana
23 November 1974 July 1976 Aldo Moro Democrazia Cristiana
29 July 1976 4 August 1979 Giulio Andreotti Democrazia Cristiana
4 August 1979 18 October 1980 Francesco Cossiga Democrazia Cristiana
18 October 1980 28 June 1981 Arnaldo Forlani Democrazia Cristiana
28 June 1981 1 December 1982 Giovanni Spadolini Partito Repubblicano Italiano
1 December 1982 4 August 1983 Amintore Fanfani Democrazia Cristiana
4 August 1983 17 April 1987 Bettino Craxi Partito Socialista Italiano
17 April 1987 28 July 1987 Amintore Fanfani Democrazia Cristiana
28 July 1987 13 April 1988 Giovanni Goria Democrazia Cristiana
13 April 1988 22 July 1989 Ciriaco de Mita Democrazia Cristiana
22 July 1989 24 April 1992 Giulio Andreotti Democrazia Cristiana
28 June 1992 28 April 1993 Giuliano Amato Partito Socialista Italiano
28 April 1993 10 May 1994 Carlo Azeglio Ciampi Independent
10 May 1994 17 January 1995 Silvio Berlusconi Forza Italia
17 January 1995 17 May 1996 Lamberto Dini Independent
17 May 1996 21 October 1998 Romano Prodi L'Ulivo
21 October 1998 25 April 2000 Massimo D'Alema Democratici di Sinistra
25 April 2000 11 June 2001 Giuliano Amato L'Ulivo
11 June 2001 17 May 2006 Silvio Berlusconi Forza Italia
17 May 2006 8 May 2008 Romano Prodi Partito Democratico
8 May 2008 Silvio Berlusconi The People of Freedom


Il Canto degli Italiani

Il Canto degli Italiani (The Song of the Italians) is the Italian national anthem.
It is best known among Italians as Inno di Mameli (Mameli's Hymn) and sometimes referred to as Fratelli d'Italia (Brothers of Italy),
 

Fratelli d'Italia, l'Italia s' desta, dell'elmo di Scipio s' cinta la testa. Dov' la Vittoria? Le porga la chioma, che schiava di Roma Iddio la cre. Fratelli d'Italia, l'Italia s' desta, dell'elmo di Scipio s' cinta la testa. Dov' la Vittoria? Le porga la chioma, che schiava di Roma Iddio la cre. CORO: Stringiamoci a coorte, siam pronti alla morte. Siam pronti alla morte, l'Italia chiam. Stringiamoci a coorte, siam pronti alla morte. Siam pronti alla morte, l'Italia chiam! Si


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