SCOTTISH KINGS

part 1: regional-states

Dark Age Scotland was divided into five major kingdoms, those of (1) Albany, (2) Dalriada, (3) Strathclyde, (4) Galloway, and (5) Gododdin.

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(1) Kings of Albany

The inhabitants of the Kingdom of Albany were the Picts, who were the Iron Age survivors of the Bronze Age Britons, that is, the original inhabitants of the entire British Isles.

The Kingdom of Albany, appears in the New Iron Age as the successor-state of the Late Iron Age Kingdom of Scone. The kings of Scone reigned in Scotland during the Late Iron Age as the successors of the earlier Kings of Tara [its first series of kings], who had reigned in Ireland during the Middle Iron Age as the successors of the still earlier Kings of Aberffraw, who had reigned in Wales during the Old Iron Age as the successors of the ancient British sacral-kings of the Megalithic Culture [noted for its huge stonework, e.g. “Stonehenge”], who sat at Avebury, England, during the Bronze Age. Indeed, the Pictish kings who established themselves in Scotland in the Late Iron Age had already been pagan sacral-kings from the dateless past, and were the greatest royalty of the Ancient Britons. The Kingdom of Albany was founded by Calgac[us] (Calgaich) [identified with Gilgidi in the regnal-list], its first king, a Caledonian prince, whose mother was a Pictish princess, who was elected high-king by the druids at a huge assembly at Scone in AD75 attended by perhaps the country’s entire population. Calgacus was enthroned in an ancient ceremony officiated by the druids in a chambered cairn on Moot Hill at Scone while seated upon the “Scone of Scone”. Calgacus, of whom the Roman historian Tacitus wrote saying that he was a great warrior descended from "an ancient line of kings", united the tribes of Scotland to form a defense against the threat of the Roman advance. He fought several battles against the Romans but was ultimately defeated and probably killed in the Battle of Mons Graupius in AD83. The successors of Calgac[us], the first [New Iron Age] King of Albany, descended in the female-line from his sisters, whose mother was a female-line descendant of the sister of Credne, the first [Late Iron Age] King of Scone, whose mother was a female-line descendant of the sister of Tarvos, the first [Middle Iron Age] King of Tara, whose mother was a female-line descendant of the sister of Cruach, the first [Old Iron Age] King of Aberffraw, whose mother was the sister of Ogmios, the last Bronze Age King of Britain, whose mother was a female-line descendant of Andate, the sister-wife of Ampher, who was Britain’s first [Bronze Age] king, according to Plato, the Greek classic, who wrote that Ampher and his sister-wife Andate were the son and daughter of the sea-god Poseidon [equivalent to the Roman deity Neptune] and the mortal-woman Cleito [equivalent to the Roman deity Britannia, the island-goddess of Britain].

The Kingdom of Albany was composed of seven local or provincial kingdoms whose kings all acknowledged the kings of Scone as high-king, who reigned nationally as the King of Albany. The seven provincial kingdoms were: (1) Fortrenn [Fortriu], corresponding roughly to Strathearn [= “Strath-Eireann”, which is another name for Ireland] and Mentieth; (2) Athfotla [Foltlaid], now Athole; (3) Fidach, corresponding roughly to Moray, Ross, and Banff; (4) Fib [Fiobh], now Fife; (5) Cait, now Caithness, and included Sutherland too; (6) Ce, corresponding roughly to Marr and Buchan; and (7) Circinn [Cirech], corresponding roughly to Angus and Mearns. In addition to these seven provincial kingdoms there were also client-states such as the Irish, Scottish, and Norse settlements in the country. The succession to the seven provincial kingdoms was according to the patrilineal principle, while the succession to the high-kingship at Scone [the national monarchy] was according to the matrilineal principle, which was a non-Indo-European system and evidence that the Pictish monarchy pre-dated the Indo-Europeans in Britain.

The Kingdom of Albany, usually called “Pictavia” to distinguish it from Albania, Albanacht, or Albion, flourished throughout the New Iron Age, the Roman Era, and the Early Middle Ages. The Picts, after their long struggle with the Romans, came into conflict with the Welsh, English, and Scots. The Scots eventually conquered the Kingdom of Albany in the ninth century and founded the Kingdom of Scotland in its place. The last King of Albany, or the Picts, Drust X, fell in the Battle of Forteviot fighting the Scots under their chief/king Kenneth MacAlpin, the first King of Scotland, in AD 848. The female-line of Cleito [“Mother Eve”], which was well over three thousand years old by then, snapped Year 848 as the matrilineal principle was eclipsed by the patrilineal principle with the end of the Pictish Monarchy. There was a major suppression of Pictish culture, language, and heritage, at that time in a conscious effort by the Scots to eradicate Pictish nationalism. The Picts themselves did not cease to exist as individuals, however, after AD 848 they were forced to adopt Scottish culture which resulted in the loss of their identity, and after only about two or three generations the Picts were completely absorbed by the Scots and had come to be regarded as a mysterious people of the past.

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regnal-list

c 75-83 01. Calgacus (Calgaich) (Gilgidi)

c 85-95 02. Tarain (Tharin), son of Calgacus' elder sister

c 95-120 3A Morleo, son of Tarain's elder sister

c 95-120 3B Dinortechest (Dinorthetisi), son of Calgacus' younger sister

120-142 04. Duchil (Deocilinon), son of Dinortechest's elder sister

142-148 05. Cinit (Quintus), son of Tarain's younger son

148-158 06. Durgal (Duordeghel), bro of Duchil

158-162 07. Dart (Deorot; Deoord), son of Dinortechest's younger sister

162-177 08. Blieblith (Blieiblituthu; Blieiblitirth), son of Duchil's & Durgal's sister

177-184 09. Carvorst (Corb[ed]) (Corvus), son of Morleo's elder sister

185-195 10. Crud "Bolg" (Crateric), son of Dart's sister

195-205 11. Caranrog (Caranathrecht), son of Blieblith's elder sister

205-210 12. Tethra (Tethothrect) (Deototeric), son of Blieblith's younger sister

210-225 13. Uscbut (Ucombust), son of Caranrog's sister

X(225)X 14. Art "Vroisc", son of daughter of Morleo's younger sister

X(230)X 15. Uist, son of Crud Bolg's sister

X(240)X 16. Roig, sister's son

X(250)X 17. Uere, sister's son

X(258)X 18. Garnot I "Bolg" (Gartnait), son of Uscbut's sister

X(275)X 19. Bridei (Breth; Brath), son of Muthut & Garnot I Bolg's sister

X(285)X 20. Uipoig[namet] (Vepogenus) (Wypopnech) (Umpopwall), sister's son

295-305 21. Fyahor "Albus", son of Fergus "Fogae" & Uipoig's elder sister

305-335 22. Canutulachmet (Canutalachama), son of Cathluan & Uipoig's younger sister

335-337 23. Blaire "Hasert", son of Fyahor Albus' elder sister

337-343 24. Tallad "Amfrud", son of Fyahor Albus' younger sister

343-351 25. Dongart "Netelic" ("Uetalec"), son of Fingal & Canutulachmet's elder sister

351-361 26. Wradech "Vechta" [Feradech "Finlegh"], bro

361-369 27. Hungus, son of Fergus & Canutulachmet's younger sister

369-398 28. Garnot II "Dives" ("Diuperr") [Garnaichai "Uber"], son of Dormach & Hungus' sister

398-414 29. Talorg I, son of Achuir [or Ceodar] & Garnot II Dives' sister

414-457 30. Drust I "Iron-Fist" or "The Great", son of Erb [Seirb] & Talorg I's elder sister;

well-known in legend as the hero of a hundred battles

457-461 31. Talorg II, son of Aniel & Talorg I's younger sister

461-486 32. Nectan I "Morbet" &/or "Celchamoch" (Naiton; Neiton), son of Urban [Erbin] & Drust I Iron-Fist's elder sister

486-493 33. Drust II "Gurthinmoch", son of Cynvar & Talorg II's elder sister

493-506 34. Galam I "Erilich" ("Erilith") &/or "Avetelach", son of Nectan I Morbet's sister

506-511 35. Neiton II "The Saint", bro of Drust II; founded church of Abernethy

511-515 36. Drust III, son of Udrost & Talorg II's younger sister

515-523 37. Drust IV, son of Girom & Drust I Iron-Fist's younger sister

523-530 38. Garnot III (Guitard), bro

530-531 39. Celtran, bro

531-542 40. Talorg III, son of Mordoloic of Ulster & Drust III's sister

542-543 41. Drust V, son of Munait [Moneth] & Talorg III's elder sister

interregnum

552-556 42. Galam II "Cennaleph", dep, d581, son of Aleth & Talorg III's younger sister

555-584 43. Brude I (Bridei), son of Maelgwn "Gwynedd" & Drust V's sister;

in 565 St. Columba traveled across Scotland to King Brude's citadel at Inverness. The saint was opposed at King Brude's Court by the High-Druid, Broichan. St. Columba converted King Brude to Christianity and baptized him and others of his court at Loch Ness. King Brude gave St. Columba land on the Isle of Mona to build a church.

584-597 44. Garnet IV, son of Domlech [Donath; Domnach] & Brude I's sister

597-613 45. Neiton III, dep, d621, son of Cano & Garnet IV's elder sister

613-631 46. Kinioc (Cinioch), son of Luchtrin [Lugthreni], Earl of Albanacht, & Garnet IV's younger sister;

was considerable tension between Kinioc and King Edwin of Northumbria

631-635 47. Garnet V, son of Gwid [Fothe] of Strathclyde & Kinioc's sister

were border skirmishes between he and (a) the Britons of Strathclyde, (b) the Scots of Dalriada, and (c) the Angles of Northumbria

635-641 48. Brude II, bro

defeated Domnall I "Brecc", King of Dalriada, in 638 in battle at Glenn Mureson, soon after Domnall's disastrous campaign in Ireland (637)

641-653 49. Talorg IV, bro

653-657 50. Talorcan I (Talargen), son of Eanfrit [Enfret] of Bernicia & Garnet V's, Brude II's, & Talorg IV's sister

657-664 51. Garnet VI, son of Donald I "Brecc" & Talorcan I's sister [her 1st =]

664-672 52. Drust VI, dep, bro

was expelled in a rebellion of his people after his disastrous defeat in 672 fighting Ecgfrith of Northumbria and the massacre of the Pictish army following the battle

672-693 53. Brude III, son of Bile of Fortrenn & Talorcan I's sister [her 2nd =]

turned back the invasion of Ecgfrith of Northumbria, whom he slew in battle at Nechtansmere [modern Dunnichen Moss, near Forfar] in 685, and pursued the Northumbrians back across the border

693-697 54. Tarachin, dep, son of Entifidach [Ainfrech] & Brude III's sister

697-706 55. Brude IV, son of Derile & Garnet VI's & Drust VI's sister;

the [9th] Abbot of Iona, i.e., Head of the Scottish Church, St. Adomnan, attempts to persuade the Pictish king to adopt Roman usage

706-724 56. Nectan IV, abd, 1st time, bro

was defeated in battle in 711 on the plain of Manaw in Lothian fighting Osred of Northumbria; recognized the authority of the See of Rome in 717; in 724 was forced to retire into a monastery by his successor, however, in 726 sought to regain his throne and was defeated in battle and imprisoned by King Drust

724-726 57. Drust VII, dep, 1st time, son of Eochaid II of Dalriada & Brude IV's & Neiton IV's sister;

forced the retirement of his predecessor, and later was deposed by his successor

726-728 58. Elphin I, dep, d736, bro

defeated Drust VII and drove him into exile; was himself defeated in battle at Monid Croib by Onuist [I], another candidate; endeavored to hold onto power, but was defeated in battle at Moncrieffe Hill by the ex-king Nectan IV, who regained his throne; he fled to Dalriada where he succeeded to the kingdom on the death of his brother in 733, but opposition from Muredach, another candidate, erupted in a three-year civil war among the Scots

728-729 (56) Nectan IV, 2nd time, dep, d732

was defeated in battle at Monith Carno by Onuist [I], another candidate for the throne, upon which he was again deposed and was forcibly retired into a monastery where he died three years later

729 59. Onuist I, 1st time, son of Urges & Tarachin's elder sister;

expelled by various factions which supported their own candidates

729 (57) Drust VII, 2nd time

returned from exile, and fought three closely contested battles with Onuist I

729-761 (59) Onuist I, 2nd time

defeated Drust VII in battle, and re-took the throne. He conducted a series of raids in Dalriada from 731-736. In 736 Onuist I stormed the citadel at Dunadd and occupied the city. King Alpin [Elphin] of Dalriada was killed in the battle for the city; while Muredach, the rival-king, was chased out of the country and fled to Ireland for refuge. He was pursued by the Pictish King Onuist who caught up with him in Ulster and there slew him, and defeated the rebel Dalriadan forces. His son, Eogan [II], submitted to the Pictish King Onuist who made him a vassal-king under his overlordship, however, in 739 King Onuist deposed Eogan II, and annexed Dalriada to the Pictish kingdom. In 741 King Onuist quelled a rebellion in Dalriada led by the anti-king Indrechtach, whom he slew in battle. The war against Strathclyde from 744-756 went badly for the Picts, which encouraged another uprising in Dalriada. The defeat of the Pictish Army against Strathclyde in 750 caused a rebellion in Albany during which King Onuist lost control of his kingdom for two years (750-752); during which the Scots expelled the Pictish Army from their kingdom and regained their independence. King Onuist recovers his kingdom and renews the struggle against Strathclyde in 752. The war ends disastrously for King Onuist in 756 with the defeat of the Pictish Army in a terrible slaughter.

761-763 60. Brude V, bro

763-775 61. Ciniod I (Kiniod), son of Feradoch of Lorne & Onist I's & Brude V's elder sister;

was defeated in battle by King Aedh "Find" of Dalriada, which assured Scottish independence

775-779 62. Elphin II, dep, d780, son of Uurad [Wroid] & Tarachin's younger sister

779-780 63. Drust VIII, son of Talorgen & Onist I's & Brude V's younger sister

780-782 64. Talorcan II, son of Drust VII & Elphin II's elder sister

782-785 65. Talorcan III, son of Onist I & Elphin II's younger sister

785-789 66. Canaul, dep, d807 [Conall III of Dalriada], son of Teige [Tadhg] & Ciniod I's elder sister

was defeated by Constantine in 789 and fled to Dalriada where sought refuge, and succeeded to that kingdom on the death of his cousin [Donald III] in 705

789-820 67. Constantine, son of Fergus [Urgust] & Ciniod I's younger sister

[note: his sister Urguisticc was wife of Eochaid IV of Dalriada & mother of Alpin of Kyntyre]

succeeded to the kingdom of Dalriada on the death of his cousin [Conall IV] in 811, and took steps towards the unification of the two kingdoms. The Vikings began their attacks on Scotland during his reign. He built a new citadel for himself at Forteviot in Perthshire, and nearby founded a new church at Dunkeld. Some of the monks at Iona moved there after the repeated attacks by the Vikings in 795, 802, and 806, though the majority of them took up residence in Ireland at Kells.

820-834 68. Onuist II, bro

rebuilds the church at St. Andrews' on the site of the older church

834-837 69. Drust IX, son of Constantine & daughter of Drust VIII's elder sister

837 70. Talorg V, son of Uthoil [Fethal; Fochel] & Canaul's elder sister

837-839 71. Uven (Eoganan), son of Onist II & daughter of Drust VIII's younger sister;

was killed fighting the Vikings along with most of the Pictish aristocracy in the "1st" Battle of Forteviot

839-842 72. Ferat (Uurad), son of Bargot & Canaul's younger sister;

was murdered, upon which his sons Brude and Kinat claimed the throne

842-843 73. Brude VI, son of Ferat [Uurad] & Drust IX's elder sister;

was murdered; reigned only one month

843 74. Ciniod II, id. with Kenneth MacAlpin, 1st King of Scotland 848, son of Alpin of Kyntyre & Drust IX's younger sister

843-844 75. Kinat (Kineth), bro of Brude VI

reigned for only a year when another claimant Brude [VII] made his bid for the throne

844-845 76. Brude VII, dep, bro of Talorg V

was deposed by his successor

845-848 77. Drust X, bro of Brude VI & Kinat

under attack by Gaels, Angles, and Danes, was eventually overcome fighting Scots under Kenneth MacAlpin in the "2nd" Battle of Forteviot, in Perthshire, ending the long line of Pictish kings

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(2) Kings of Dalriada

The inhabitants of the Kingdom of Dalriada were the Scots, who migrated from Ireland to Scotland in the fifth century AD and gave the country its name. The name "Scotti" was generic for the Irish people as a whole. The actual tribal name of these Irish invaders to Scotland in the fifth century were the "Dal-Reti", who were a tribe of the Irish "Erinioi" ["Erneans"], who were themselves a major tribe in Ulster from ancient times.

Towards the end of the fifth century AD, in AD 474 [or 498], the three sons of King Eiric of the Irish tribe Dal-Reti in Ulster [descended from the kings of Ierne, an ancient Irish kingdom], namely, Fergus "Mor" Mac Erc, Loarn, and Oengus, led a colony of the Irish Dal-Reti from Antrim County, Ulster, to Argyllshire, Scotland, where they founded a small settlement on the fringe of what was then Pictish territory. Fergus "Mor" Mac Erc built a fortress at Dunadd, which came to be capital city of Dalriada. This settlement was originally an extension of the Irish Kingdom of Dalriada in Ulster, Ireland, which then straddled both sides of the North Channel [the thirteen miles of the Atlantic Ocean which separates Ireland and Scotland at their nearest points], but after 575 the territories of the Scots in Ireland were formally subjective to the Kings of Ireland, yet still yielded tribute to the Scottish kings, that is, until 637 when all Scottish claims to their Irish territories were abandoned following a series of wars between the Scots and the Irish Gaels. After that, the kings of Dalriada who had until then lived peacefully as neighbors of the Picts turned their policy of expansion against the Scottish natives and obtained territories in Scotland by force or treaty from the Picts. And, after more than 300 years of almost constant warfare, with numerous setbacks, the Scots overcame the Picts, who were also under attack by the Gaels, Angles, and Danes, and forged a new nation, that is, the Kingdom of Scotland, in 844.

The Kingdom of Dalriada was divided into three major communities, each of which was based on a clan called a "cenel". These three cenels were the three founding clans of Dalriada, which were: (a) the Cenel nGabrain, so-called after Fergus Mor's grandson Gabrain, whose descendants, the royal clan, held sway over Argyllshire, and, styled themselves as the Kings of Dalriada; (b) the Cenel Loarn, so-called after Fergus Mor's brother Loarn, whose descendants held sway over the district called Lorne around Loch Linnhe and Glencoe, and, styled themselves as the Mormaers of Moray; and (c) the Cenel nOengus, so-called after Fergus Mor's [other] brother Oengus, whose descendants held sway over the Southern Hebrides, and, styled themselves as the Lords of Islay. It is unclear if the three brothers, Fergus Mor, Loarn, and Oengus, carved out these territories in their own lifetimes, or whether this happened in subsequent generations.

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regnal-list

474-501 01. Fergus [II] "Mor" Mac Erc

[note: his bros were Loarn, 1st Mormaer of Moray, & Oengus, 1st Lord of Islay]

among the tales of the life of St. Patrick is that he visited the court of Eirc, King of the Irish Dal-Reti (d474), at his citadel at Dunseverick and prophesied that his son Fergus would be the father of a nation; Fergus & his bros, Loarn & Oengus, led the migration of the Scots

501-506 02. Domgart I (Dongard), dep, d507, son

his brief reign is described as "turbulent", and refers to the subjugation of the Scottish colony by the Britons under King Arthur, who deposed Domgart and retired him into a monastery where he died the next year

506-538 03. Comghal (Comgall), son

was set on the throne by King Arthur, to whom he swore allegiance; it is said that Comghal enjoyed a relatively peaceful reign

538-559 04. Gabhran, bro

endeavored to expand the kingdom, however, his expansion was curbed in 558 by King Brude of Albany, who forced the Scots back into their borders

559-574 05. Conall I, nephew, son of Comghal

in 568 he led an expedition against his [3rd] cousin, Tulchan, Lord of Islay; his success over his other [3rd] cousin, Baetan, Mormaer of Moray, established him as paramount-chief of the Scots

[note: his three sons were Donchad (d574), Eoganan, & Connad "Cerr"]

574-608 06. Aedan "Fradog", abd, cousin, son of Gabhran

on the death of his predecessor, Conall, a squabble broke out over the succession that was finally settled by St. Columba, who preferred Conall's son Eoganan, but, after a vision, ordained Gabhran's son Aedan as king; in 582 Aedan came to the defense of the Scots [Dal-Reti] still in Ireland who were under attack from Baetan, King of Ulster; during the 590s Aedan fought several clashes and skirmishes against the Picts; and, in 603 he led an army against the Angles, but was soundly defeated in battle at Degsastan, in Lothian, by Ethelfrit, King of Northumbria. In his life Aedan married thrice, and had seven or more sons and several daughters. In 608 Aedan abdicated and retired into a monastery at Kilkerran, where he died soon after.

608-629 07. Eochaid I "The Fair", son [note: his bros were Arthur (d603) & Domgart]

was not his father's eldest son but a younger son chosen by St. Columba to succeed his father; there was continued trouble between Eochaid and the kings of Ulster where the Irish homeland of the Scots was; the sons of Ethelfrit of Northumbria were refuges at Eochaid's court 617-633, during which they were converted to Christianity; too, they served as officers in Eochaid's campaigns in Ireland defending his Irish territories

629 08. Connad "Cerr", 2nd cousin, son of Conall I;

was appointed by his predecessor as governor of the Scots' homeland in Ulster; in 627 he won a victory over Fiachna, King of Ulster, at the Battle of Ard Corann; in 629 when King Eochaid died he succeeded to the whole Scottish kingdom on both sides of the North Channel, but he remained in Ireland and was killed after only three months at the Battle of Fid Eoin fighting the Gaels

629-642 09. Donald I "Brecc" [Domnall], son of Eochaid I "The Fair";

sided with Dunchad I, King of Ulster, against the Irish High-King Domnall II, who considered them as rebellious vassals, and was defeated in the Battle of Mag Rath in 637 by which in consequence he lost the Scots' Irish homeland in Ulster [Co. Antrim]; in 638 he was defeated in battle at Glenn Mureson by the Pictish King Brude II; and, in 642 King Donald was killed in battle at Strathcarron, near Falkirk, fighting King Owen of Strathclyde

642-649 10. Ferchar I, son of Connad "Cerr"

649-660 11A Conall II "Crandomna", bro of Donald I "Brecc"

649-654 11B Dunchad, son of Duban, son of Dunchad, son of Eogan, bro of Aedan "Fradog";

was killed fighting Talorcan I, King of Albany, in battle at Strath Ethairt

660-673 12. Domgart II, son of Donald I "Brecc";

held his ground against the Picts during his reign

673-689 13. Maelduin, cousin, son of Conall II "Crandomna";

was held in check by the Northumbrian King Egfrith, and after 685 by the Pictish King Brude III

689-696 14. Donald II "Donn", bro;

was killed in battle by his successor

696-697 15. Ferchar II "Fota", son of Ferdoc [Feradach], son of Fergus, son of Nectan, son of Colman, son of Baetan, son of Eochu [Eochaid], son of Murdoc [Muredach], son of Loarn, bro of Fergus "Mor" Mac Erc;

challenged his predecessor and slew him in battle; after which he was slain in battle by his successor who had challenged him

697 16. Eochaid II "Crook'd-Nose", son of Domgart II;

was murdered by his predecessor's son, who there upon took the throne

697-698 17. Ainbcellach, dep, d719, son of Ferchar II "Fota";

murdered his predecessor that sparked a civil war between branches of the royal house; was captured after a battle by Prince Fianmail, and taken in chains to Ireland in 698; later, in 719, attempted to regain the throne but was defeated and killed in battle at Findglen

698 18. Eogan I, dep, d714, bro;

was made king by his brother's supporters upon his brother's capture, but obliged to flee on Fianmail's advance

698-700 19. Fianmail [Fiannamail], son of Conall "Cael", bro of Dunchad [son of Duban, etc.];

gained the ascendancy in the civil war between branches of the royal house by his capture of Ainbcellach; advanced on the royal citadel at Dunadd and took the throne; the civil war continued during his short reign, and was killed in battle by his successor

700-723 20. Selbach, abd, d730, bro of Eogan I

defeated and slew Fianmail in battle and took his place on the throne; murdered his brother, the ex-king Eogan I, in 714, to remove any threat from him; and, in 719 defeated and slew his other brother, the ex-king Ainbcellach, who attempted to retake the throne. Selbach was challenged by another claimant, Dunchad "Becc", rival king 719-22. In 723 abdicated in favor of his son, Dungal, and retired into a monastery, however, when Dungal was expelled in 726 Selbach came out of retirement and attempted to regain the throne for him. His battle with King Eochaid was inconclusive, and he survived another three years.

719-722 21. Dunchad "Becc", rival king

723-726 22. Dungal, dep, d736, son;

was deposed by his successor; his father the ex-king Selbach came out of retirement and tried to regain the throne for his son, but without success. Dungal tried to retake the throne after Eochaid's death in 733, but was defeated by his cousin, Prince Murdoc. In 736 Dungal was captured and imprisoned by the Pictish King Onuist I whose anger he had earlier incurred by his support of his rival Drust VII. It is presumed that he died in prison that year, but what really became of him is unknown.

726-733 23. Eochaid III "The Ruthless", son of Eochaid II "Crook'd-Nose";

deposed Dungal and took the throne; defeated the ex-king Selbach in 727 who sought to recover the throne for his son.

733-736 24A Alpin [Elphin], bro;

warred against the Picts; was killed in defense of the royal citadel which was taken and occupied by the Picts

733-736 24B Murdoc (Muredach), dep, d771, son of Ainbcellach

rival-king in opposition to King Alpin; was chased out of the country by conquering Picts; fled to Ireland where he died in exile many years later

736-739 25. Eogan II, dep, d747, son;

was the puppet-king of Onuist I, King of Albany, whose troops occupied the Scottish kingdom

739-750 26. Angus I, dep, d761 [id. with Onuist I, King of Picts]

deposed his protégé, and united Dalriada and Albany under one crown

741 27. Indrechtach, rival-king, son of Fianmail;

led an unsuccessful uprising against the Pictish occupiers of the Scottish kingdom, and was killed in battle

750-778 28. Aedh I "Find", son of Eochaid III "The Ruthless";

during a period of anarchy in the Pictish kingdom, Aedh "Find" seized the opportunity and regained Scottish independence; repulsed attempt of the Pictish King Ciniod I to re-establish Pictish domination in 768 and secured recognition of Scottish independence

778-781 29. Fergus II, bro

781-789 30. Eochaid IV "The Venomous", son of Aedh I "Find"

id. with the legendary King Achaius, who established an accord with Charlemagne which was the origin of the "Auld Alliance"

789-791 31. Donncorc, parentage unsure

791-805 32. Donald III, bro of Eochaid IV "The Venomous";

was killed fighting the Vikings

805-807 33. Conall III, son of Tadhg, bro of Fergus II;

was killed in battle fighting his successor

807-811 34. Conall IV, bro of Donald III;

slew his predecessor in battle

811-820 35. Constantine [I], son of Fergus II;

had earlier succeeded to the throne of Albany in 789 through his mother, and claimed the throne of Dalriada in 811 through his father; was a strong king; repulsed Viking raids

820-834 36. Angus II, bro;

was killed fighting the Vikings

834 X. Alpin of Kyntyre, son of Eochaid IV "The Venomous";

said to have seized power after the defeat of the Scots in battle against the Vikings; was killed campaigning in Galloway against the Vikings; is buried at Laight in Wigtonshire ["Lachtalpin" = "Alpin's Grave"]

834-836 37. Donald IV, son of Constantine [I]

836 38. Aedh II, dep, d839, son of Boanta, son of Conall IV

836-839 39. Uven [Eoganan], son of Angus II;

was killed fighting the Vikings

839-841 40. Eoganan [II] [Ewen], son of Alpin of Kyntyre;

was killed by a major Viking force which had landed in Galloway and marched inland near St. Fillans where they gave battle to a combined force of Scots and Picts

841-844 01. Kenneth [I] MacAlpin, 1st King of Scotland 844, bro

for continuation see Scotland (below)

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(3) Kings of Strathclyde

The inhabitants of the Kingdom of Strathclyde were Britons, who came as refugees during the second century AD following a failed uprising against the Roman occupiers of Southern Britain.

The kingdom was founded in AD 148 by the British prince Corvus (Corb[ed]), who established himself and his followers at Alclyde [“Ail Cluathe”], i.e., “Castle Rock“, which fortified settlement developed into the citadel and city of Dumbarton [“Dun + Bretan” = “Fort of the Britons”], situated on an hill on the banks of the Leven where it meets the Clyde on the north shore of the Firth of the Clyde, where Corvus set up a nationalist British “government-in-exile” and founded the British “Free State”, which evolved into the Scottish regional-kingdom of “Strathclyde”. Corvus of Roman History may be identified with Corb[ed] of Scottish History, called the “first” King of Scotland in some Scottish annals. Also, he may be identified with Carvorst, the ninth King of Albany [Pictavia] in the Pictish king-lists, whose claim to that throne was through his mother, who was a Pictish princess, however, his authority was only recognized by the “South” Picts. Corvus, representing a major branch of the Old British Royal House, reigned as “King of Britain” as an anti-king in opposition to another branch of the Old British Royal House, represented by King Coilus, installed by the Romans in Roman occupied Southern Britain. Corvus maintained himself at Dumbarton against attacks by the Romans as well as attacks by the “North” Picts and attacks by the Irish. Corvus was killed in battle in 184 fighting the renown Roman general Ulpius Marcellus, and, was succeeded at Dumbarton by his son, whose descendants reigned in Dumbarton as an independent-line of kings rivaling the client-kings of Roman Britain and were the ancestors of the later kings of Strathclyde (543-889) surviving the Roman Era until the close of the Early Middle Ages when the male-line of the royal house became extinct and Strathlcyde was inherited through an heiress by a Scottish line of kings, which reigned until the annexation of Strathclyde to the Kingdom of Scotland at the close of the High Middle Ages or the beginning of the Late Middle Ages.

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regnal-list

148-184 01. Corb[ed] (Corvus), son of Quintus (Cinit; Cunedd), son of Art "Cois", son of Guidgen (Gwyddien), anti-king (d78), son of Caratacus, King of Britain 40-43, dep, d54

184-XXX 02. Art "Vroisc", son

XXX 03. Fer "Fi" [id. with Ferither of Galloway], son

X(200)X 04. Duibne "Mor", son [his bros were Thereus, 8th Lord of Galloway, & Cadfan, 1st Lord of Cumbria]

XXX 05. Art "Og", son

XXX 06. Cratylind (Crathlynt), bro

XXX 07. Dermot, bro [his sons were Anghus, Gillecollum, & Fethel "Mac"]

XXX 08. Carantius, nephew, son of Art "Og" [his bros were Confer & Findoc]

XXX 09. Gillespic, son of Gillecollum, son of Dermot, bro of Cratylind & Art "Og"

[note: his son Duncan was the ancestor of Colin "Mor" (d1296), father of Neill (d1315), ancestor of the House of Argyle]

300/325 10. Fer, son of Confer, son of Art "Og"

325/350 11. Cursalem, son

350/375 12. Ceodar, son

375/400 13. Clemens (Clium; Cluian), son

X(425)X 14. Quintilius (Cinhil), son

X(450)X 15. Cynllwyb (Cynloyp), son

X(475)X 16. Ceretic "Guletic" (Coroticus), son;

received two letters from St. Patrick who complained about his raids on Ireland and his profitable slave-trade

XXX 17. Cinuit (Cynwyd; Kynwyd), son [his desc. were called the Kynwydyon Dyn.]

?-543 18. Dyfnwal "Hen", son

was a strong ruler; he took a census of his people to determine how to levy taxes

543-547 19. Gwyddno "Garanhir", son, transferred cap. from Dumbarton [i.e., “Alclyde”, meaning “Rock of the Clyde”], to Glasgow, due to attacks by the Scots after which the name of his kingdom came to be known as "Strathclyde" [meaning, “Vale of the Clyde"] for which he is reckoned as its first king. Gwyddno (Gwythno) “Garanhir” appears in several disconnected stories. In one version of the story about the deluge of “Cantre’r Gwaelod” he appears as a king of Ceredigion; however, the episode of his son Elffin (Elphin) at Maelgwn Gwynedd’s Court anchors Gwyddno “Garanhir” in chronology, and confirms him as the King of Strathclyde.

547-? 20. Clinioc (Clinoch; Clynawg), bro

XXX 21. Tudwal "Tutclyd", son

XXX 22. Neiton (Nwython), cousin, son of Gwyddno "Garanhir" [note: Neiton had a famous bro, Elphin]

XXX 23. Morken, son of Clitno "of Alclud", son of Cynfelin, bro of Clinioc & Gwyddno

"Garanhir"

?-614 24. Riderch I "Hael" &/or "Ardderchddrud", son of Tudwal "Tutclyd";

joined forces with a coalition of northern British kings against the Angles of Bernicia

614-633 25. Beli (Bile), 2nd cousin, son of Neiton, son of Gwyddno "Garanhir";

was an ally of Cadwallon of Gwynedd against Edwin of Deira; was killed in battle at Hatfield Chase

X(645)X 26. Owen I (Eugein), son

defeated and killed the Scottish king Domnall "Brecc" in 643 at the Battle of Strathcarron in Stirlingshire; the victory restored the dominance of Strathclyde in the region

?-658 27. Gwriad, usurper, husband of Gwladys, dau of Riderch I "Hael"

658-682 28. Mermin, son of Morken

682-694 29. Domnall I "Macavin", son of Owen I

694-722 30. Beli II, son of Elphin [Elffin], bro of Domnall I "Macavin"

was drawn into battle against the Scots twice, and on both occasions was defeated, but held onto his kingdom

722-752 31. Teudebir, son;

defeated the Picts in battle at Mygedawg [modern Mugdock] in 750; was killed in battle fighting Edbert of Northumbria

752-760 32. Dyfnwal II (Dumnagual) (Domnall), son;

fought the Danes, Angles, and Picts; was reduced to vassalage by the Northumbrians

760-780 33. Owen II, son

780-? 34. Riderch II, son

?-816 35. Cynan, son

816-869 36. Dyfnwal III (Domnall), son;

was a small child when he succeeded his father on the throne; was a weak ruler manipulated by rival factions in his court throughout his reign; the surrounding nations, that is, the Scots, Angles, and Picts, exploited the situation to their own advantages

869-872 37. Artgal, "rex Britanorum Stratha Cluadhe", son;

was overcome by Vikings under Olaf and Ivar, who sailed up the Clyde, defeated Artgal in battle, sacked Dumbarton after a four-month siege, and occupied the country for a year, 870-871; Artgal escaped and fled to the court of the Scottish King Constantine, who had him murdered as per an agreement with the Vikings

872-876 38. Rhun, son

was a puppet-king subordinate to the Scottish King Constantine who had him marry his sister, Maelmicira, to maintain his authority over Strathclyde

876-889 39. Eochu, dep, d890, son, last king of original dynasty

was co-king of Scotland with Scottish King Giric I; was expelled by the Scottish King Donald II and fled to Wales to the court of King Anarawd [ap Rhodri] of Gwynedd along with the remaining members of Strathclyde's royal family, whereupon Strathcylde became an appanage of the Scottish kingdom

[note: Eochu had issue of a son, Hobert [Hoah], & a dau, Lund, wife of (1) Cadell, King of Seisyllwg (d909); (2) Niall "Glundub", King of Ireland (d919), & (3) Cadwyr, a Cornish-Dumnonian prince

----------- the Scottish dynasty --------------------------------------------------------

889-900 01. Dyfnwal IV, aka Donald II, King of Scotland;

deposed Eochu, and assumed style Dynfwal IV as his successor

900-926 02. Dyfnwal V, abd, d934, cousin, son of King Aedh "White-Foot" of Scotland;

was the first client-king appointed to the new Scottish sub-kingdom of Strathclyde

926-937 03. Owen III "Caesarios", son of Dyfnwal IV;

was among those killed fighting the English King Athelstan in the famous Battle of Brunanburh

937-? 04. Owen IV, abd, d 945, cousin, son of Dyfnwal V;

retired into a monastery; came out of retirement to support his brother against the English invaders; was killed in battle

?-945 05. Dyfnwal VI, dep, bro;

deposed and blinded by the English King Edmund, who invaded Strathclyde

945-954 06. Indulf (Indulph), abd, d962, aka King of Scotland 954-962;

abdicated upon his succession to the Scottish throne

954 07. Dunwallun I, bro of Owen III "Caesarios"

954-962 08. Duff, abd, d966, aka King of Scotland 962-967

abdicated upon his succession to the Scottish throne

962-973 09. Dyfnwal VII, abd, d975, cousin, son of Owen III "Caesarios"

abdicated in favor of his son; retired into a monastery; died on a pilgrimage in Rome

973 10. Malcolm I, son, 1st time

973-975 11. Dunwallun II, uncle, bro of Dyfnwal VII

975-990 12. Domnall II, bro

990 [10] Malcolm I, 2nd time

990-995 13. Malcolm II, dep, son of Duff

995-997 [10] Malcolm I, 3rd time

997 14. Riderch III, bro

997-1005 15. Malcolm III, abd, d1034, aka Malcolm II, King of Scotland 1005-1034;

challenged by [another] Malcolm in 1002; abdicated in 1005 upon his succession to the Scottish throne

1002 X. Malcolm [IV], rival-king, son of Eochaid (d971), son of Indulf (Indulph), King of Strathclyde & Scotland

1005-1018 16. Owen V "The Bald", bro of Riderch III

1018-1034 17. Duncan, aka King of Scotland 1034-1040

annexed Strathclyde to Scotland upon his succession to the Scottish throne

1034-1045 X. Maldred, regent, bro

appointed regent by his older brother King Duncan; repulsed the Northumbrians in 1038; made peace by marrying the half-sister of Earl Eadulf of Northumberland; fought Thorfinn, Earl of The Orkneys, who plundered Strathclyde in 1042

1045-1058 18. Malcolm V, nephew, son of King Duncan, aka Malcolm III, King of Scotland 1058-1093

1045 incorporation of Strathclyde into the Scottish kingdom

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(4) Kings of Galloway

The inhabitants of the Kingdom of Galloway were [also] Britons, whose "civitas" became an independent local kingdom during a period of civil wars in Britain following the evacuation of the Roman Army in the early fifth century. The Kingdom of Galloway was founded in 418 by the Roman general Antonius "Donatus" [the Welsh Authun "Wledic" of Galloway], one of the sons of the Roman Emperor Maximus, descended from Roman emperors, and, representative of the Roman imperial house, whose command became independent upon the collapse of Roman authority in Britain, and, establishing himself at Carlisle in Galloway [South-West Scotland], founded a post-Roman British regional-kingdom, and is reckoned the first King of Galloway. His descendants held sway in Galloway until 683 when the Angles overran the regional-state. The Angles were later driven out by the Scots, who annexed Galloway to their kingdom.

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regnal-list

418-423 01. Antonius "Donatus" ( Authun "Wledic" ), son of Roman Emperor Maximus

423-? 02. Edynfed (Nidnet; Nyfedd) (Eidniuet), son

XXX 03. Tudwal [II] (Tuduvallus) (Tutagual), son

XXX 04. Dingad [I] (Dinacat), son

XXX 05. Senylt "Hael", son

XXX 06. Cathen, son

XXX 07. Dingat II, nephew, son of Nudd "Hael", bro of Cathen

XXX 08. Rhun, cousin, son of Neiton, bro of Cathen

XXX 09. Tudwal [III] (Tutagual), son

XXX 10. Anthec (Anllec), son

XXX 11. Cynfyn, son

?-683 12. Merfyn "Mawr", son, killed vs the Angles

[note: his son, Anarawd "Walltgrwn", fled to the Isle of Man where he married the Manx heiress and begot Tutgual, King of Isle of Man, father of a son, Tudgual, King of Isle of Man, & a dau, Celenion, wife of Sandef "Byrd Angel", the Arthurian heir]

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(5) Kings of Gododdin

The inhabitants of the Kingdom of Gododdin were [also] Britons. The kingdom was founded in the early years following the evacuation of the Roman Army when Britain was afflicted by civil wars among powerful chieftains, one of whom was the British prince Coilus “Votepacus” [the Welsh Cole "Godebog" or "Guotepauc"], who had been in Roman service as the “dux Britanniarum”. He appears with the title “protector” in some sources. Coilus “Votepacus” was regarded by the annalists of Northern England as Britain’s first Dark Age king, whereas his rival Dunvallo "Molmutius" was regarded by the annalists of Southern England as Britain's first Dark Age king; ignoring the unpopular and forgettable Gorboduc (Gorfoddwg) [the Welsh Gwrfyw "Digu" "Wledic"], who was actually Britain's first Dark Age king. Cole “Votepacus” is usually reckoned the first King of Gododdin, because he moved his headquarters to Dunbar in Gododdin [South-East Scotland] upon quitting York in Northumbria [North-East England] during the civil war between he and Dunvallo “Molumtius”, who held sway over Southern England. His move to Gododdin in 418 is reckoned as the founding date of the kingdom. The descendants of Cole “Votepacus” developed into numerous branches over time and were the rulers of lands throughout Northern England, which was called the British “North Country”, and, were themselves called the “Gwyr Y Gogledd” [“Men of the North-Country”] or the “Coelings”. They established themselves in eight of the thirteen regional-kingdoms into which the British “North Country” had come to be resolved by the mid-sixth century, though the main-line of his descendants held sway as the Kings of Gododdin until the conquest of the regional-state by the Angles in 638. The Angles were later driven out of Gododdin by the Scots, who annexed Gododdin to their kingdom in 973.

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regnal-list [order of succession uncertain]

418-420 01. Coilus "Votepacus" (Cole "Godebog" or "Guotepauc"), "Dux Britannorum" 401

[note: of 1st wife begot 3 sons, Gwrwst "Farfdrwch", St. Ceneu, & Goryon; of 2nd wife, Strada, begot 2 sons & 1 dau, Ynywl, Deifyr, Gwawl, wife of Cunedda "Guletic"]

420-424 02. Gwrwst [I] (Gorst) "Farfdrwch" [id. with Gurgust "Barbtruc"], son

424 03. Syslt [I] (Seisyllt) (Sisyllt), son

424-? 04. St. Ceneu (Cynio; Kenau) [id. with "Cheneus map Coil"], uncle, bro of Gwrwst I "Farddrwch"

(425) 05. Goryon (Gwrion), bro

(428) 6A Gorst [II] "Ledlum" (Gwrwst; Gorust; Gwrast), nephew, son of St. Ceneu

(437) 6B Mor (Morydd) (Mar), bro

[note: his 7 sons were (1) Ceredig, (2) Einion, King of York [father of Rhun "Ryfedd Fawr"] (3) Masguic "Clop" [father of Lleinog, father of Gwallauc, father of Ceredic of Elmet], (4) Arthwys, King of the Pennines, (5) Ceidyaw [father of Nud, Gwendoleu (d573), & Cof], (6) Fferog [father of Morien], & (7) Morfryn "Frych"]

(450) 6C Gorbon [I] (Garbaniawn), bro

(475) 07. Cyleddon "Wledic", son of Goryon [his bros were Culvinodd "Prydain" & Cydfwlch]

(500) 8A Cyngar (Cincar), son of Gorbon [I] [father of Morcant "Bulc"]

(500) 8B Bran "Hen", bro

(500) 8C Dyfnwal, bro

(525) 9A Sisyllt II (Seisyllt) (Syslt), son of Gwrwst [II] "Ledlum"

(525) 9B Meirchion "Gul", bro

(525) 9C Elifer "Gosgorddvawr", bro [father of Gwrgi & Peredur "Arueu-Dur"]

(550) 10. Outigern, son of Cyleddon "Wledic"

(555) 11A Elidur "Lydanwyn" [father of Llywarch "Hen"]

(555) 11B March

(555) 11C Cynvar "Oer" [father of Arawn "of Salway", Lleu[dd], & Urien "of Rheged]

(560) 12A Gwrwst [III] (Gorst) "Priodawr", son of Dyfnwal [father of Elidur "Mynfawr", King of Lancaster]

(560) 12B Ceidio, bro [father of Serfyn, father of Mordaf "Hael"]

(560) 12C Gorbon II (Garmonion), bro [father of Cardif, Iago, & Cetula "Rex"]

(565) 13. Cherin, bro of Outigern

(570) 14A Fulgen, son

(570) 14B Edad, bro

(570) 14C Afarwy, bro

(575) 15A Pabo "Post Prydain", son of Arthwys, King of the Pennines, son of Mor

[issue 3 sons: (1) Dunawt "The Stout" [father of Deniol "Gwyn"], (2) Sawyl "Penuchel" [father of Madoc "Ailither", Guitcun, & St. Asaph], & (3) Cerwyd]

(575) 15B Cynvelyn "Drwsgl"

[issue 3 sons: (1) Cynferch, (2) Cynwyd "Cynwydion" [father of Cynfor "Cadgadduc", Chynan "Genhir", Cadrod of Keltro, etc.], & (3) Coeling]

(575) 15C Idno [father of Mabon & Moric]

(580) 16. Cinar (Kimar), son of Seisyllt [II]

(581) 17. Danus (Danfyw), bro

died childless except for an illegitimate son Morvid, who succeeded his father in the absence of legitimate issue

(585) 18. Morvid, son

XXX 19. Gorbon [III], son

XXX 20. Archgallo, bro, dep, 1st time

XXX 21. Elidur "The Dutiful", bro, abd, 1st time

XXX [20] Archgallo, 2nd time

XXX [21] Elidur "The Dutiful", dep, 2nd time

XXX 22A Ingen, bro

XXX 22B Perdur, bro

XXX [21] Elidur "The Dutiful", 3rd time

XXX 23. X name unk, son of Gorbon III

XXX 24. Margan, son of Archgallo

XXX 25. Eniaun, bro, dep

XXX 26. Idvallo, son of Ingen

XXX 27. Runo [II], son of Perdur

XXX 28. Gerain (Gerennus), son of Elidur "The Dutiful"

XXX 29. Catell[us], son

?-592 30. Urien [I], King of Rheged, son of Cynvar "Oer"

[issue 5 sons: (1) Owain, (2) Run [father of Rhoeth of Rheged], (3) Pasgen [father of Llanukod "Angel"], (4) Mor, & (5) Elpin [father of Gwaith "Hengaer", father of St. Gorst]]

592-? 31. Owain, King of Rheged, son

?-613 32. Cetula "Rex", son of Gorbon [II]

XXX 33. Clitgno "Eitin" [aka Clydog of Edinburgh], son of Cynwyd "Cynwydion", son of Cynvelyn "Drwsgl"

XXX 34. Urien [II], son of Afarwy

XXX 35. Sisyllt [III], son

XXX 36. Bledywryd, bro

XXX 37. Archmail, bro

XXX 38. Redechius, son

XXX 39. Cynddylan, son

?-663 40. Ceredic, son of Catgual, son of Guitcun, son of Sawyl "Penuchel", son of Pabo "Post Prydain"

XXX ff. others

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part 2: united kingdom

The Kingdom of Scotland (Scotia) was founded in 844/848 by Kenneth MacAlpin, King of Dalriada, who united Dalriada [a tiny kingdom on Scotland's western shore] and Albany [the major kingdom of Scotland's five regional-states] to form the Kingdom of Scotland. The union of the Dal-Reti [the Irish Erinioi], called Scots, of Dalriada [an immigrant tribe] with the Picts of Albany [the natives] came about through the marriages of Erin royalty to Pict heiresses which sometimes led to the Erin and Pict kingdoms occasionally uniting under one king, and a final union took place when Kenneth MacAlpin, the 40th King of Dalriada (841), succeeded to the throne of Albany [through his mother, a Pict "throne-princess"] as Ciniod II, the 74th King of Albany (843), though he had to fight three successive rival-kings for six years, of whom the last one, Drust X, is reckoned the last Pict king (848). Kenneth MacAlpin moved his seat from Dunadd [cap. of Dalriada] to Scone [cap. of Albany] and the kingdom of Dalriada became the province of Argyle in the new Kingdom of Scotland, just like the seven "provincial" kingdoms of Albany lost their independence and all became provinces of Scotland and their royalty became Scottish nobility. Kenneth MacAlpin was killed in battle fighting the Vikings (859). His descendants maintained themselves against the Vikings and went on to enlarge the Scottish kingdom by annexing the kingdoms of Gododdin [cap. at Dunbar], Strathclyde [cap. at Glasgow], and Galloway [cap. at Carlisle]. The culture, language, and customs of the Scots became the common heritage of the new kingdom. The Scottish system of succession was determined by the principle of "tanistry", just like the Welsh and Irish systems of succession, by which the king chose his successor during his lifetime, or his successor could be elected by the Scottish chieftains but only from the royal house. This system replaced or superceded the Pictish matrilineal system; and "tanistry" itself eventually gave way to the principle of primogeniture.

The Picts and the Scots were not the only peoples who would eventually makeup the medieval Scottish kingdom; for there were also the Britons [Welsh] of Strathclyde, the Angles of Gododdin, and Scotland's scattered Norse settlements.

The House of Alpin [original dynasty] was succeeded in Scotland through an heiress by the House of Athole, which was a branch of the Irish Royal House [the O'Neills], which was briefly challenged by the House of Moray, which was a collateral line of the old Scottish royal house. The Ynglings of Norway were briefly represented on the Scottish throne by Queen Margaret, whose maternal grandfather [mother's father] was the last Scottish king of the House of Athole. She died a young girl only eight years old. After her death the Scottish throne was contested by three Norman [Viking] families, the Balliols, the Hastings, and the family of de Bruce, which families had each taken wives from the Scottish royal house. The Stuarts, a Breton family from Brittany in North-West France, at length inherited the Scottish throne through the de Bruce heiress and went on to also inherit the crowns of Wales and England thus unifying the whole of Britain by dynastic union.

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regnal-list

848-859 01. Kenneth MacAlpin, son of Alpin of Kyntyre (d834), son of Eochaid IV "The Venomous", King of Dalriada;

succeeded to the kingdom of the Scots [Dalriada] (841) through his father; succeeded to the kingdom of the Picts [Albany] (843) through his mother; united the two kingdoms as the Kingdom of Scotland, or Scotia, in 844/848; established his capital city at Scone, the capital city of the old Pictish kings; established Dunkeld as the seat of the Scottish Primate, and brought the relics of St. Columba from the Chapel of Iona to the Church at Dunkeld in 849, though in 943 the Scottish King Constantine II had them taken to St. Andrews which became the new seat of the Scottish Primate; warred against the Britons of Strathclyde, the Angles of Northumbria, and the Vikings of Scandinavia; was wounded in battle fighting the Vikings and died soon afterwards of an illness

859-863 02. Donald I [V], bro;

continued the work that his brother had begun in integrating the Scots and Picts; imposed the customs, laws, and culture of the Scots on the Picts which made him very unpopular among the Picts; his reign was troubled by Viking raids; was killed attempting to suppress an uprising of the Picts

863-877 03. Constantine I [II], nephew, son of Kenneth MacAlpin;

reign dominated by Viking attacks; fought the Norse under Olaf "The White" 866-869 whose incursion into Scotland reached as far as the royal citadel at Forteviot; fought the Danes under Halfdan 874-875; was defeated in battle in 875 by Halfdan at Dollar, Centralshire; was defeated and killed in battle at Inverdovat, in Fife, by the remnants of the Danish Army of Halfdan returning to the Danish kingdom of Yorkshire from Ireland where they had been defeated and Halfdan killed in battle when they encountered the Scottish king

877-878 04. Aedh [III] "White-Foot", bro;

was challenged by his cousin Giric, who defeated and slew him at the Battle of Strathallan and took the throne

878-889 5A Giric I, dep, son of Donald I [V], co-ruler with [5B] Eochu;

recognized the overlordship of the English King Alfred "The Great"; sent an embassy to get Alfred's support against his rival the Scottish Prince Donald, who slew him in battle at Dundurn, Tayside, and took the throne

878-889 5B Eochu [Eochaid V], dep, d890, son of Rhun of Strathclyde & Maelmicira, dau of Kenneth MacAlpin; co-ruler with [5A] Giric [I];

was King of Strathclyde as well as co-king of Scotland according to a pact; deposed by his successor and fled to Wales

889-900 06. Donald II [VI], son of Constantine I [II];

deposed his cousin the Scottish King Giric I whom he slew in battle and usurped the throne; deposed Eochu, the last native King of Strathclyde; expelled the Strathclyde nobles; occupied Strathclyde and annexed it to Scotland; worked to integrate Strathclyde into Scotland; fought the Vikings who established settlements in Scotland, Wales, and England; recognized the overlordship of the English King Alfred "The Great" in 896 along with the Welsh princes and the isles' Viking jarls; killed fighting the Vikings in battle at Dunnottar

900-943 07. Constantine II [III], abd, d952, cousin, son of Aedh [III] "White-Foot";

worked to consolidate the Scottish kingdom; in 906 he forged the union of the Pictish and Scottish churches under the Scottish Primate, Cellach, Bishop of St. Andrews'; fought two major battles against the Vikings under Ragnald of York in 914 and 918 both at Corbridge with each side suffering heavy losses; joined forces with Olaf of Dublin, the Manx King Gebeachan, Owen of Strathclyde, and other kings in the British Isles against the English King Athelstan, who utterly defeated their combined forces in the Battle of Brunanburh in 937 which victory established the primacy of England in the British Isles; the Scottish King Constantine never recovered from the humiliation at Brunanburh; in his old age he abdicated and retired into the monastery at St. Andrews' where he died a monk nine years later

943-954 08. Malcolm I, son of Donald II [VI];

was killed in battle at Fetteresso [or Fordoun] fighting the "Men of Moray", who raised Indulf to the throne

954-962 09. Indulf [Indulph], abd, son of Constantine II [III];

reclaimed Lothian [Gododdin] from England and captured the English fortress at Edinburgh [= "Din Eidyn"], defeated Oswulf I, Earl of Northumberland, and pushed his borders as far as the Tweed, which is where the modern boundary-line of Scotland lies; abdicated in 962 and retired into the monastery at St. Andrews; that same year the monastery at St. Andrews was raided by the Vikings; the ex-king escaped and fled but was captured by the Vikings and put to death

962-967 10. Duff [Dubh], son of Malcolm I;

was kidnapped and murdered at Forres Castle by the "Men of Moray" acting on the interests of his rival and successor; his body was found covered in turf in a ditch at Kinross

967-971 11. Cuilean [Colin], 3rd cousin, son of Indulf [Indulph];

was murdered in Lothian by assassins in the hire of the sub-king of Strathclyde, Riderch III, in revenge for the Scottish king's rape of his daughter

971-977 12. Olaf, bro, rival-king;

civil war between Olaf, Cuilean's brother, and Kenneth II, ended with Olaf's death in mysterious circumstances at Finella's Castle, near Fettercairn

971-995 13. Kenneth II, son of Malcolm I;

attended the convention at Chester in 973 along with other British rulers, who all swore their allegiance to the English King Edgar I; was murdered at Fettercairn, in Mearns, by a noblewoman whose son he had executed for supporting his rival [and successor] in the continuing inter-dynastic civil wars

995-997 14. Constantine III [IV], son of Cuilean [Colin];

involved in the on-going civil wars among various claimants; was killed in battle at Rathinveramon by his successor

997-1005 15A Kenneth III, son of Duff [Dubh];

was killed in battle at Monzievaird, near Loch Earn, by his successor

1005 15B Giric II, son, associate-king;

was associate-king under his father; was murdered after the battle in which his father was killed

1005-1034 16. Malcolm II, son of Kenneth II [begot 3 daughters: (1) Bethoc, wife of Crinan, Earl of Athole; (2) Anleta, wife of Sigurd "Digri", Earl of the Orkneys; & (3) Donada, wife of Finlay, Earl of Moray];

his victory over Earl Uhtred of Northumberland in battle at Cartham in 1016 secured Lothian [Gododdin] for Scotland; in 1027 Canute "The Great", King of England, marched into Scotland and met with Malcolm II who acknowledged his overlordship; failed to produce a son begetting only three daughters; he did what he could to secure the succession for his grandson, Duncan [the son of his eldest daughter], and attempted to eliminate certain rival claimants who might contest Duncan's succession; was murdered by a kinsman

1034-1040 17. Duncan I, son of Crinan, Earl of Athole (d1045), & Bethoc, dau of Malcolm II;

since the Scottish crown had never before passed through a female, his succession was challenged by the representative of a collateral male-line of the royal house, Macbeth, who slew him at Bothnagowan [now Pitgaveny], near Elgin, in Morayshire; his sons were minors at the time of his death and were taken away to England for safety where they grew up in the court of the English King Edward "The Confessor"

1040-1057 18. Macbeth, son of Finlay [Findlech] Mac Rory, Earl of Moray (d1020), & Donada, dau of Malcolm II [note: his wife, Gruoch ["Lady Macbeth"], the dau of Boite, bro of [14B] Giric [II], was the widow of Gillacomgan, Earl of Moray, her 2nd husband's cousin];

encouraged by his wife, he slew King Duncan and seized the throne; in 1054, Malcolm "Canmore", the late King Duncan's son, supported by Earl Siward of Northumberland, returned to Scotland and claimed the throne; the usurper Macbeth was defeated in battle at Dunsinane [or Dundee], in 1057, fighting a combined English, Scandinavian, and Scottish force under Earl Siward and fled the battlefield accompanied by his bodyguard of "Moray-Men", however, was ambushed by Malcolm's supporters at Lumphanan, in Aberdeenshire, and was slain

1057-1058 19. Lulach "The Simple" ["Fatuus"], step-son, son of Gillacomgan (d1032), son of Maelbridge [bro of Finlay Mac Rory], son of Ruadri [Rory], son of Domnall [bro of Maelbridge II & Donchad], son of Morgund (d955), son of Domnall [bro of Maelbridge I], son of Cathmail, son of Ruadri, son of Ferchar, son of Mordach, son of Baetan, son of Eochu [bro of Eogan II, King of Dalriada], son of Murdoc [Muredach], King of Dalriada, son of Ainbcellach, King of Dalriada [bro of Eogan I & Selbach], son of Ferchar II "Fota", King of Dalriada, son of Ferdoc [Feradach], son of Fergus, son of Nectan, son of Colman, son of Baetan, son of Eochu [Eochaid], son of Murdoc [Muredach], son of Loarn, 1st Mormaer of Moray, bro of Fergus "Mor" Mac Erc. [note: begot of his wife, Finguala [the dau of Sinill, Earl of Angus, descendant of Oengus, 1st Lord of Islay, bro of Loarn & Fergus "Mor" Mac Erc], a son, Maelsnechtai [who died a monk in 1085], & a dau, Olithe, the wife of Ethelred, last Abbot of Dunkeld & 1st Earl of Fife];

his step-father's supporters had him crowned as king following Macbeth's death in battle, and he managed to hold onto power for seven months; his brief reign was occupied in the struggle with Malcolm "Canmore"; the rival-king Lulach was killed in a skirmish at Essie, in Strathbogie

1058-1093 20. Malcolm III "Canmore", son of Duncan I [his bros were Donald III "Bane" & Melmare, Earl of Athole];

is numbered in official lists as the 22nd in succession from Kenneth MacAlpin and 58th in succession from Fergus "Mor" MacErc; was taken to England at age nine following his father's murder, and was brought up in the court of the English King Edward "The Confessor", where he acquired Anglo-Norman attitudes; upon his coming of age, his uncle, Earl Siward of Northumberland, took an army to Scotland to set Malcolm "Canmore" on the throne; the usurper Macbeth was defeated and killed in battle following three years of fighting; and, upon eliminating the rival-king Lulach after seven more months of fighting Malcolm "Canmore" was accepted as king by the Scottish nobles; Malcolm III =1(1059) Ingeborg, the widow of Earl Thorfinn II of The Orkneys, who bore him three sons, (1) Duncan [II], (2) Malcolm, & (3) Donald; she brought into the marriage two sons, Paul & Erlend, the co-earls of The Orkneys, begotten by her 1st husband, the late earl; the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 forced many English refugees to come to Scotland, and among them was the surviving members of the Old English Royal House, that is, England's last "Saxon" King Edgar II "Aetheling" and his two sisters St. Margaret and Christina, who were given refuge in King Malcolm's court; Malcolm III =2(1069) St. Margaret, sister and heiress of the English ex-king, who bore him eight children [six sons & two daughters], namely: (1) Edward (d1093); (2) Edmund [III], rival-king of England (1094-1097), confined in Montacute Abbey, Somerset (d1101); (3) Ethelred, last Abbot of Dunkeld & 1st Earl of Fife (d1097); (4) Edgar, King of Scotland; (5) Alexander I “The Fierce“, King of Scotland; (6) David I “The Saint“, King of Scotland; (7) Edith (Matilda) (1076-1118), wife of Henry I "Beauclerc", King of England; & (8) Mary (1083-1116), wife of Eustace III, Count of Boulogne; under St. Margaret's influence the royal Scottish court was moved from Dunfermline to Edinburgh Castle and adopted English culture, fashions, and customs, which was much resented by the Scots; in 1069 the hold on England by William "The Conqueror" was far from secure, and the ex-king Edgar II "Aetheling" supported by Scottish troops made a series of raids in England 1069-1072 against the Normans in an attempt to regain the English throne, which enraged William "The Conqueror" who took an army to Scotland and forced King Malcolm to expel the English ex-king from his realm; the Scottish king Malcolm III was also compelled by the Treaty of Abernethy to recognize William "The Conqueror" as his feudal-lord, to whom King Malcolm gave homage; the successors of William "The Conqueror" regarded the treaty as the date of Scotland's conquest; too, by the treaty, the Arch-Bishop of York was given authority over the Church of Scotland who replaced the Bishop of St. Andrews as Scotland's Primate; after the death of William "The Conqueror" in 1087 King Malcolm felt free of the provisions of the Treaty of Abernethy and supported the attempt of the ex-king Edgar II "Aetheling" to regain the English throne; the English ex-king returned to Scotland in 1090 and supported by Scottish troops again campaigned in England against the country's Norman occupiers; the ex-king Edgar II "Aetheling" was defeated in battle in 1091 by England's new King William II "Rufus" who invaded Scotland and compelled King Malcolm to submit and abide by the provisions of the Treaty of Abernethy; but, the next year, in 1092, and again in 1093, twice more King Malcolm supported the English ex-king's attempts at restoration; in his fifth attempt in 1093 the Norman Earl of Northumberland, Robert Mowbray, ambushed King Malcolm at Alnwick and slew him and one of his sons, Edward, however, the ex-king Edgar escaped and fled back to the European continent; when St. Margaret, who was already sick with an illness, heard the news of the deaths of her husband and eldest son, she pined away and died soon after.

1093-1094 21. Donald III "Bane", dep, 1st time, bro;

claimed the throne over his brother's sons on the grounds of "tanistry"; did not support his brother's reforms; his opposition to the pro-English innovations made by his brother made his popular with the Scottish people; he promptly expelled the English refugees in Scotland who had come there following the Norman conquest; moved the royal court from Edinburgh back to Dunfermline; also broke off diplomatic relations with England's King William II "Rufus"; in response King "Rufus" took an army to Scotland, defeated Donald "Bane" in battle and drove him into exile, and placed Duncan, the eldest son of King Malcolm and his first wife, on the Scottish throne

1094 22. Duncan II, son of Malcolm III & 1st wife, Ingeborg;

was a vassal-king of England's King William II "Rufus", which made him unpopular with the Scottish people; held the throne for seven months before his defeat in battle at Mondynes [Monthecin] fighting the ex-king Donald "Bane", and his murder after the battle by Malpeder MacLeon, Mormaer of Mearns, in the interest of Donald "Bane", who retook the throne

1094-1097 [21] Donald III "Bane", dep, 2nd time, d1099

regained the throne after King Duncan's death and reigned a second time; he held sway only north of the Forth-Clyde line; was deposed by another of King Malcolm's sons, Edgar, who, supported by William II "Rufus", King of England, deposed Donald "Bane" and imprisoned him at Rescobie in Forfarshire, where he died 18 months later

1094-1097 X. Edmund, rival King of England, son of Malcolm III & 2nd wife, St. Margaret, the English heiress, held sway over Lothian, Strathclyde, & Cumbria, while his uncle Donald III "Bane" ruled Scotland proper; was seen by the English as heir to his uncle, the English ex-king Edgar II "Aetheling", who was still alive; Edmund incurred the wrath of England's King William II "Rufus" by his claim to the English throne; was deposed by his brother Edgar, who had England's King William's support, and Edmund was arrested by his brother and sent a prisoner to King William who confined him at Montacute Abbey, Somerset, where he died a monk in 1101. His son, Henry, a claimant to the English throne (1097), was opposed by his uncle, Edgar, who supported by Norman soldiers, took the throne

1097-1107 23. Edgar, son of Malcolm III & 2nd wife, St. Margaret, the English heiress

was placed on Scotland's throne by Norman soldiers; his submissive attitude to the Norman kings made him unpopular with the Scottish people; moved the royal court from Dunfermline back to Edinburgh; shortly after his succession the Norwegian King Magnus III "Barefoot" led a major expedition to Britain and asserted his authority over the Orkneys [the Nordreys], the Hebrides [the Sudreys], and the Isle of Man, which were already heavily populated by the Norse or Gallo-Norse; was succeeded by his brother on his death since his two sons, Harold & Sigurd, begotten of his late wife, Ealdgyth, had predeceased him; and his daughter, Elfhild [Matilda], resided in France with her husband Guigues VIII of Grenoble

1107-1124 24. Alistair I "The Fierce", bro;

earned his nickname after the ferocious way he quelled an uprising of the Moray-Men; though a vassal-king of England's King Henry I "Beauclerc", he stood for a Scottish identity and took a nationalistic position in his policies; dissuaded Scottish bishops from recognizing the authority of the Arch-Bishop of York and to accept the primacy of the See of St. Andrews; produced no issue of his wife, Sibylla, illegitimate daughter of England's King Henry I begotten of his mistress Sibylla Corbet, however, was survived by an illegitimate son, Malcolm, who made two attempts to gain the throne from his father's brother and successor

1124-1153 25. David I "The Saint", bro;

earned his epithet as a patron of the church; founded abbeys, several sees, and introduced new monastic orders; his impact on Scotland was immense; his reforms brought Scotland out of the "dark ages" into step with Medieval Europe; introduced feudalism and systematically transformed Scottish society from a tribal one into a feudal one; introduced the "rule of law"; played politics during the English civil war by switching his support back and forth between Henry I's daughter, Matilda, and her cousin, Stephen; = Maud, daughter & heiress of Waltheof II, Earl of Northumberland, and, widow of Simon de St. Liz, Earl of Huntingdon, who bore him two sons; his first-born, Malcolm, was murdered at a young age; and his other son, Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, was groomed to be the next king, but predeceased his father in 1152 at age thirty-eight though was survived by three sons: the future King Malcolm IV, the future King William [I] "The Lion", & David, Earl of Huntingdon (d1219) [note: David, Earl of Huntingdon, was the father of 3 daughters: (1) Margaret, wife of Alan of Galloway; (2) Ada, wife of Henry Hastings; & (3) Isobel, wife of Robert Bruce of Annandale]

1153-1165 26. Malcolm IV "The Maiden", grandson, son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon (d1152), son of David I "The Saint";

got his epithet due to his vow of chastity he took in his devotion to the church, to which he made many endowments; showed no interest in women and remained unwed throughout his life; in 1160 quashed the rebellion of Fergus, Earl of Galloway; and, in 1164 suppressed the rebellion of Somerled, Lord of The Isles; died childless after a short illness

1165-1214 27. William [I] "The Lion", bro;

his obsession to regain Scottish independence led him to join the rebellion of the sons of England's King Henry II in 1173; invaded England but was defeated, captured, and imprisoned by the Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1174; was released and returned to Scotland in 1175 in return for accepting the overlordship of the English King Henry II; there was civil war in Scotland for five years (1181-1187) between King William and Donald MacWilliam [the grandson of King Duncan II], a rival claimant, who challenged his title to the throne; the civil war ended with the death of Donald MacWilliam in battle at Mangarnia Moor, near Iverness; in 1189 King William purchased Scottish independence for 10,000 marks from the new English king, Richard I "Lion-Heart", who was desperate for money to finance the "Third Crusade"; another rebellion broke out in Scotland in 1197 this time led by Harald III, Earl of The Orkneys, which King William at length suppressed by 1202; a third rebellion broke out in Scotland in 1211 this one led by Godfrey MacWilliam [son of Donald MacWilliam, the earlier claimant] which was easily quelled, and Godfrey was executed in 1213; made an effort to bring the highland clans under control during his reign

1214-1249 28. Alistair II [Alexander], son;

continued his father's policy of the construction of fortifications throughout Scotland to control the countryside; an uprising of the highland clans, led by Donald MacWilliam [son of the earlier claimant of that name], was put down in 1215; in 1230 repulse an attempted Norse invasion; determined to end the Norse occupation of the Western Islands [Hebrides] in 1249 assembled a huge fleet of ships, but caught a fever and died while on campaign

1249-1286 29. Alistair III "The Glorious", son;

was one of Scotland's strongest kings, hence his epithet; was a minor on his succession, and Scotland was governed by a series of regents until he came of age; he resumed his father's campaign to retake the Hebrides from the Norse; crushed the Norse under Haakon IV, King of Norway, in the Battle of Largs (1263) and expelled them from the Hebrides; shortly after King Haakon died, but negotiations continued with the new Norse king, Magnus VI, who in 1266 ceded the Hebrides to Scotland and relinquished all claims; afterwards King Alistair [Alexander] turned his interests to Scotland's domestic matters; cleverly avoided the issue of England's feudal suzerainty; the Scottish King attended a parliament of the English King Edward I "Long-Shanks", King Alistair III sat at King Edward's right hand, while Llywelyn III, Prince of Wales, sat at King Edward's left hand upon the dais; married twice in the hope of begetting a son; one stormy night following a routine council meeting while returning to his residence to his new bride of four months was killed when his horse stumbled and threw him over a cliff near Kinghorne, in Fife; his only child, a daughter, Margaret, had predeceased him, and he was succeeded by his grand-daughter

1286-1290 30. Margaret, queen, grand-daughter, called "The Maid of Norway", dau of King Eric II of Norway & Margaret (d1283), dau of Alistair III "The Glorious";

was proclaimed queen on her grandfather's death; was betrothed in marriage to the son of England's King Edward "Long-Shanks", the future King Edward II then the Prince of Wales; she died from severe sea-sickness during her voyage to Scotland at age eight; her early death threw the Scottish succession in a crisis with no clear heir among thirteen claimants, upon which followed the first "interregnum"

1290-1292 the "1st" interregnum: succession contested by 13 claimants

of the thirteen claimants only three had strong claims, who were (1) John Balliol, son of John de Balliol (d1269) & Devorguilla (d1290), dau of Alan of Galloway (d1234) & Margaret (d1228), dau of David, Earl of Huntingdon, bro of King Malcolm IV "The Maiden" & William [I] "The Lion"; (2) John Hastings, son of Henry Hastings, son of [another] Henry Hastings (d1250) & Ada, dau of David, Earl of Huntingdon, bro of King Malcolm IV "The Maiden" & William [I] "The Lion"; & (3) Robert Bruce, son of [another] Robert Bruce (d1295), son of [another] Robert Bruce (d1245) & Isobel (d1251), dau of David, Earl of Huntingdon, bro of King Malcolm IV "The Maiden" & William [I] "The Lion"; the matter was referred to England's King Edward I "Long-Shanks" as arbitrator, and, after two years of deliberation on the suits of the claimants chose in favor of John Balliol, who was obliged to pay homage to England's king

1292-1296 31. John Balliol, dep, d1313, called "Toom Tabard" ["Empty-Coat"], son of John de Balliol (d1269) & Devorguilla (d1290), dau of Alan of Galloway (d1234) & Margaret (d1228), dau of David, Earl of Huntingdon (d1219), bro of Malcolm IV "The Maiden" & William "The Lion";

acknowledged the overlordship of England's King Edward I "Long-Shanks", but later renounced his oath and attempted to assert his independence; upon this King Edward invaded Scotland and crushed John Balliol's forces; was deposed in 1296, the royal arms was stripped from his tunic [from which his epithet "Toom Tabard" derives], and sent to the Tower of London where he was imprisoned for three years; was released in 1299 and retired to his ancestral estate at Bailleul-en-Gouffern in Normandy, France, where he died several years later

1296-1306 32. Edward I of England, gt-gt-gt-gdson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" of England & Matilda [Edith], dau of Malcolm III & 2nd wife, St. Margaret;

upon deposing John Balliol England's King Edward occupied Scotland and proclaimed himself to be Scotland's king; it was at this time that the "Stone of Scone" [coronation-stone of Scotland's kings] was removed to England, but was returned to Scotland 700 years later]; the administration of Scotland was left to regents; the next year in 1297 there was an uprising led by William Wallace against the English occupation of the country; the rebel-leader Wallace routed an English army at Stirling in 1297, but was himself defeated by an English army the next year in 1298 at Falkirk; the rabble-rouser Wallace escaped the battlefield and went into hiding for seven years; he was betrayed by his former supporters in 1305 and was captured, tried for treason, and executed by the authorities

1306-1328 the "2nd" interregnum

in 1306 Robert Bruce [the grandson of the earlier claimant of that name], one of the co-regents of Scotland appointed by King Edward, murdered his co-regent, John Comyn, during a council-meeting, and, acting on impulse, took up the cause of Scottish independence; in six weeks he was able to gather enough supporters to challenge the English occupiers and set himself up as an anti-king; not all the Scots supported his actions, for many Scots regarded him as an opportunist; upon the news King Edward marched against Bruce but died before reaching Scotland, which gave Bruce time to consolidate his position; he surprised everyone by his victory over the English under the Earl of Pembroke in 1307 at the Battle of Loudon Hill, and over the next six years systematically drove the English out of Scotland by 1313; this pressured the new English king, Edward II, into action; another English army arrived in Scotland in 1314 and engaged the Scots in the decisive Battle of Bannockburn in which the English were utterly defeated by Bruce securing his recognition as Scotland's king by the Scottish clergy and winning Scottish independence

1328-1329 33. Robert I, anti-king 1306-1328, son of Robert Bruce of Annandale (d1304), son of Robert Bruce of Annandale (d1295), son of Robert Bruce of Annandale (d1245) & Isobel (d1251), dau of David, Earl of Huntingdon, bro of Malcolm IV "The Maiden" & William "The Lion";

by his victory over the English in the decisive Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, he won the Scottish crown and won Scotland's independence, however, it was not until 1328 that Pope John XII lifted his excommunication of Bruce and recognized his kingship, and the Treaty of Northampton was signed by the new English king, Edward III, recognizing Scottish independence; Robert Bruce lived only a little over a year after this, dying the following year of leprosy

1329-1332 34. David II, 1st time, son of Robert I & 2nd wife, Elizabeth de Burgh

was only age five when he succeeded to the throne; was deposed by Edward Balliol which was followed by six years of civil war

1332 35. Edward [II] Balliol, 1st time, son of John de Balliol, King of Scotland

defeated the forces of David II under the Earl of Mar at Dupplin Moor in Perthshire and deposed the boy-king and took the throne; but four months later his forces were defeated in battle at Annan by forces loyal to the ex-king, David II, under Archibald Douglas; and escaped to England only with his life

1332-1333 [34] David II, 2nd time

restored by forces loyal to him under Archibald Douglas, but deposed again the next year and was taken to safety in France

1333-1334 [35] Edward [II] Balliol, 2nd time

was restored by England's King Edward III, who intervened in the Scottish civil war and defeated the forces loyal to the ex-king, David II, slaying Archibald Douglas in battle at Halidon Hill in 1333; was deposed again in 1334

1335-1338 [35] Edward [II] Balliol, 3rd time

restored again in 1335, and deposed a third time in 1336, the civil war between the forces loyal to David Bruce and those loyal Edward Balliol continued for another two years; in 1338 he finally fled to England where he settled onto an estate at Wheatley, near Doncaster; surrendered his claims to the Scottish throne to England's King Edward III in exchange for a pension in 1356; died childless in 1363 either at his estate in England or at his ancestral estate in France

1336-1371 [34] David II, 3rd time

though restored by forces loyal to him in Scotland in 1336, he remained in France until it was felt safe to return to Scotland, which he did in 1341, age seventeen; an uneasy peace ensured for the next five years, by then the English were at war with the French; the Scottish king invaded England in 1346 in support of France but was defeated in battle at Neville's Cross, near Durham, captured by the English, and held prisoner in the Tower of London for the next eleven years; meanwhile, his nephew, Robert Stewart, governed Scotland the country during the king's captivity; the Scottish king was released and allowed to return to Scotland in 1357 on the promise to pay the staggering sum of 100,000 marks as the price for his ransom; this was never paid, but David II occasionally made installments when necessary to stave off the ambitions of the English king; he died childless in 1371 after a short illness

1371-1390 36. Robert II, son of Walter Stewart, [6th] High-Steward of Scotland (d1326), & Marjorie (d1316), dau of Robert I & 1st wife, Isabel, dau of Donald, Earl of Mar, & Helen, dau of Llywelyn II "The Great", Prince of Wales;

[note: his issue legitimated by "per subsequens matrimonium"]

was regent of Scotland during King David's absence in France 1334-1341, and the imprisonment of the Scottish king in England 1346-1357; was a weak king unable to control the country; by 1384 the elderly king had grown senile and the administration of the country was taken over by his eldest son Prince John [future Robert III], unfortunately, a kick from a horse in 1388 left Prince John an invalid and incompetent to govern the country, whereupon, another of the king's sons, Robert, took over Scotland's day to day affairs; died in 1390 at age seventy-four

1390-1406 37. Robert III John, son;

original name was John, but changed it to avoid being known as John II as it had come to be believed that the name John was an unlucky one for a king as shown by the kings of Scotland, England, and France of that name; his reign saw the collapse of law and order; due to an earlier accident was unfit to rule thus upon his succession his brother Robert, Duke of Albany, governed the country as regent; in 1398 the queen, Annabella, replaced Duke Robert as regent with her eldest son, David, but following the queen's death in 1401 Prince David was seized by Duke Robert and imprisoned in Falkland Castle, where he was murdered soon afterwards in 1402; in 1406 King Robert fearing for the safety of his surviving son, James, sent the prince to France, unfortunately he was captured at sea by English sailors, and Prince James was imprisoned in the Tower of London for the next eighteen years; the news brought on his father's death a few days later

1406-1437 38. James I, son;

was a prisoner in the Tower of London when his father died and he became king; during his captivity his uncle, Duke Robert, served as regent until his death, then, the duke was followed by his son, Murdoch, the king's cousin; after 18 years the Scottish king was released in 1424 on a ransom of 60,000 marks, and returned to Scotland which he found in chaos; an enlightened ruler for his time, he devoted all his energies to restoring law and order, rectifying abuses, and dispensing justice; carried out many social reforms; enforced the laws; the strong-arm actions he took to regain stability and control in Scotland made him many enemies; one night he was attacked in the palace by a group of assassins led by his uncle Walter, Earl of Athole, who hacked him to death; the conspirators were all caught, tortured, and executed

1437-1460 39. James II "Fiery Face", son;

was a boy age seven on his succession; there was immediately a power struggle among the Scottish nobles for custody of the boy-king; were rivaling nobles for several years exercising authority over the boy-king and through him over the nation; upon his coming of age he set about to curb the power of the Scottish nobles; updated many laws and introduced new ones effectively ending the feudal system; was accidentally killed by an exploding canon while laying siege to Roxburgh Castle in support of the English King Henry VI during the War of the Roses

1460-1488 40. James III, son;

was a minor, age eight, when he succeeded to the throne, and once more Scotland was ruled by a council of regents; upon his coming of age he left the government of the country in the hands of unworthy favorites; cared little for government and pursued his interests in the arts and sciences; was a patron of the arts, literature, and music; ignored the nobles in favor of artists and artisans and middle-class merchants; disaffected nobles in reaction encouraged the king's brothers to take charge; discovering the ambitions of his brothers the king had them imprisoned which for a time solved the internal threat against him; and, the external threat was solved for a time by signing a treaty with England's King Edward IV, which made him unpopular among the Scots; in 1468 the Northern Islands [Orkneys, Shetlands, and Faroes] were seceded by Norway to Scotland as the dowry of the Scandinavian Princess Margaret [daughter of King Christian I of Norway, Denmark, & Sweden] to the Scottish king; due to negotiations with The Holy See in 1472 St. Andrews was granted the status of an arch-bishopric by the pope, which was a great honor for Scotland as this released it from control of the archbishopric of York which had long claimed supremacy over the Scottish church; in 1481 the king was pressured by the nobles to open hostilities with England for the return of the border-counties; the king unwillingly led an army into England taking along his court favorites; the Scottish nobles besought the king to dismiss his favorites, and when James refused the nobles seized the king's favorites and murdered them; the king was himself arrested by the rebel nobles and imprisoned at Edinburgh Castle for three months; civil war followed in Scotland against the rebel nobles for a year, 1482-1483; in 1488 there was another uprising of the Scottish nobles, who rallied behind the king's reluctant fifteen-year-old son, Prince James; the rebel nobles defeated King James in battle at Sauchieburn; the king fled the battlefield but was pursued and murdered in a cottage at Milltown where he had taken refuge.

1488-1513 41. James IV, son;

was age fifteen on his succession; the rebel nobles conducted the country's government for a time; upon assuming power he quickly brought Scotland back to order after the strife of the last year of his father's reign; did not ignore the nobles as his father had done, and earned their respect and support; was a strong king unlike his father; subdued the Western Islands [Hebrides] which were annexed to Scotland in 1493, which was followed by three uprisings (1494, 1496, & 1503) in the isles; endeavored to maintain peace with England in spite of national opposition; in 1503 married the sister of England's King Henry VIII, Margaret, which angered the country; his reign ended tragically: was bound by the "auld alliance" to support France, so when Henry VIII invaded France in 1513 he was obliged to invade England, and was defeated and killed in battle at Flodden Field by an English army under Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey; his body was found on the battlefield and was conveyed to London, where it was kept at Richmond Palace for some time before it was interred at Sheen Abbey, Surrey. There were rumors that King James had not died at Flodden Field but was murdered by Lord Home, who was executed in 1516.

1513-1542 42. James V, son;

was only seventeen months old when his father was killed and for fifteen years Scotland was ruled by regents; the Scottish nobles offered the regency to John Stewart, Duke of Albany, who was opposed by the king's mother, Margaret, and her 2nd husband, Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus;

in 1528 the young king freed himself of his step-father's oppression and assumed power; suspicious of the nobility, he attempted to curb their power; was sympathetic of the plight of the poor, and would go about among the poor incognito; his relationship with the Scottish nobles was strained and getting worse, while he was very popular among the general Scottish populace; when war broke out between England and France in 1542, the renewal of hostilities between England and Scotland was inevitable; the Scots were obliged by the "auld alliance" to invade England as pawns of the French; was defeated and routed in battle at Solway Moss; fled back to Edinburgh, and, overcome by depression, fell into decline and died soon after; was survived by one legitimate child, a daughter, Mary, and several illegitimate children

1542-1567 43. Mary [I], dau, queen, dep, d1587

was only one week old at the time of her father's death, and for the next nineteen years Scotland was governed by regents; she was betrothed to the son of England's King Henry VIII, Prince Edward [the future King Edward VI] in 1543 and placed under the guardianship of Lord Erskine; when Henry VIII died in 1547 the French began to exert a stronger influence in Scotland, and the fear of a possible invasion by the English in 1548 was the pretext by which Mary was taken to France by her mother, Marie of Guise; and, for the next decade Scotland found itself the pawn of French affairs; the death of England's boy-king Edward VI in 1553 dissolved Mary's betrothal to him, and in 1558 she married the French dauphin [future King Francis II]; the next year, in 1559, King Henri II of France died and the French dauphin succeeded to the French throne as Francis II with Mary as his queen; he reigned for less than eighteen months and died premature in 1560 from meningitis; at age 18 Queen Mary suddenly found herself a childless widow; she returned to Scotland the following year; on her arrival back in Scotland in 1561she found a very different country from the one that she had left as a child, for during her long absence in France the Protestant Reformation had been taking place in Scotland led by John Knox; she worked with her councilors and church representatives to establish a moderate rule acceptable to everyone; in 1565 she married secondly [her 2nd cousin] Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley; who was next in line to the throne after her; she soon became disillusioned by her dissolute husband and found solace in the company of her private secretary, David Rizzio; her husband and some nobles suspected that Rizzio was the queen's lover, and conspired to do away with him; he was dragged from her presence and murdered in Holyroodhouse (1566); all of the conspirators except Darnley were banished, though later returned; meantime, they conceived a hatred of Darnley, whom they felt had betrayed them; the birth of her son, James, meant that Darnley was now dispensable, and he was murdered in 1567 under mysterious circumstances; suspicion fell on James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, one of the most powerful nobles in the country, whom Mary married three months later; the marriage discredited Mary in the eyes of the Scots; the country was on the verge of civil war; the queen and Bothwell gathered an army; there was a meeting with the Scottish nobles; after a day of discussion Mary surrendered herself to the nobles; she was arrested by the Scottish nobles and imprisoned for nearly a year in Lochleven Castle, where she miscarried twin sons; meantime, Bothwell tried to rally support but eventually was forced to flee; he sought refuge in Denmark, but was imprisoned by its king and held in solitary confinement for eleven years where unknown to Mary he died insane; under arrest Mary was compelled by the rebel Scottish nobles to abdicate, and her infant son, James, was proclaimed king; the next year her supporters engineered her escape; she raised an army, but was defeated at Langside by the forces of her half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, her father's illegitimate son, who was regent of Scotland by this time; she attempted to flee to France where she had friends awaiting her, but was captured by the English and her cousin the English Queen Elizabeth placed her under house arrest the remaining nineteen years of her life; in 1586 the ex-queen was implicated in the Babington Plot which was a conspiracy to overthrow Elizabeth and place Mary on the English throne, for Mary was the next in line to the English throne after Elizabeth; the conspirators were all tried, convicted, and executed (1587), though Elizabeth delayed signing her death warrant for three months.

1567-1625 44. James VI, son, became James I of England in 1603

1603 dynastic union with England

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David Hughes, 2004, genealogical-tables available, RdavidH218@AOL.com

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