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the various royal houses that have inherited the English throne

The Kingdom of England was founded Year 886 by Alfred "The Great" the grandson of Egbert of Wessex, the last Anglo-Saxon Bretwalda, who, the heir of the old Anglo-Saxon bretwaldas, defeated the Vikings and liberated England from their domination and founded a national state and monarchy to become the first “King of England”, and founder of the Old English Royal House.

It is interesting that the Saxon writers who compiled the “Anglo-Saxon Chronicle” turned Alfred’s ancestor Cerdic, the founder of the Wessex dynasty, into a “Saxon” when he was actually a “Briton“, for the claim of Alfred to suzerainty over the English Race could not be based on his non-English ancestry from a native British king, Cerdic. The Old English Royal House [of which Alfred “The Great” was the founder] was actually a restoration of the pre-Saxon Old British Royal House in an “anglicized” form, which dynasty was already well over a thousand years old by Alfred’s time, and claimed descent from the British Beli Mawr, or some to the British Brutus. [see article "Cerdic of Wessex" at http://www.angelfire.com/ego/et_deo/cerdic_of_wessex.wps.htm, as well as article on Old British Royal House, of which the Wessex dynasty was descended from, at http://www.angelfire.com/ego/et_deo/oldbritishroyal house.wps.htm]

The Old English Royal House reigned over England until the time of the Norman Conquest, and eventually ended with an heiress on the failure of the male-line.

1. The House of Normandy was founded about 150 years earlier by William’s ancestor, the viking-leader Rollo or Hrolf “The Walker” (Hrolf “Ganger”, or Gongu-Hrolf), who was so large that no horse could carry him, who, and his gang of viking-pirates, called “North-Men” or “Normans”, operating out of their pirate fort at Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands, made raids in Britain, Ireland, and France. The Vikings were permitted by the King of France to settle in the French province of Neustrie [which then became Normandy], which was given to Rollo (Hrolf "Ganger") as a fief of the French Crown, who, thereupon, became the first Duke of Normandy (911). Normandy from its beginnings was a vigorous military state, and Rollo and his descendants made it into the most formidable state in Europe. The viking-colony of Normans in France were the most aggressive and expansionist race in Europe at that time. Later, the Normans adopted the French culture and language and thus over the course of time were absorbed by the native French population. The ancestors of Rollo were Viking sea-kings descended from the famous viking-leader Ogier “The Dane” (Holger “Danske”), called "King of England" (796), a descendant of Havelok "The Dane”, [also] called "King of England" (550), descended from the "Scyldings" of Denmark, who were one of the three great Scandinavian dynasties rivaling the "Haleygjas" of Norway and the "Ynglingas" of Sweden. Hence, the accession of William represented the restoration of the Viking Dynasty which had earlier conquered England and had established itself on the British Throne, succeeding the Anglo-Saxon Bretwaldas but had since been dispossessed by the restoration of the heirs of the old Anglo-Saxon bretwaldas as the Kings of England or the Old English Royal House, which dynasty William overthrew. The struggle between the Vikings and the Anglo-Saxons was fought over 300 years before finally coming to an end with the victory of William "The Great" at the battle of Hastings.

2. The House of Blois [2nd Dynasty] was a French noble house of Norse ancestry which descended from the Viking Sea-King Sholto (765), whose ancestry is unsure, who some genealogists say was the ancestor of three great descent-lines, which were: (1) the French House of Blois [its 2nd dynasty]; (2) the Scottish clan of Douglas; and (3) the Irish MacDougils. Sholto was the ancestor of Blois' 2nd-Dynasty. The 1st-Dynasty of Blois was founded by a Gallo-Roman prince, Aguyvus "Le Blois" (475), who supposedly descended [through Evomadus, an early fifth-century Gallo-Roman governor] from the Gallo-Roman noble Sabinus, the illegitimate son of Julius Caesar begotten of a Gallic princess, who founded a dynasty of Gallo-Roman regional-rulers (50/25BC).The names of three generations of the first dynasty of the counts of Blois are known to be (a) Hugues (d534); (b) Melaudon (d560), and (c) Beleis (Abelechin) "Le Voir" (d593). The heiress of the dynasty [name unsure] married Thibert (d830) [son of William, son of Sholto, “The Viking”], thus, his [Thibert's] son, William (d834), was appointed "governor" of Blois. His son, Eudes (d865), was the father of Thibaut, Vicomte de Troyes (d904), the father/or father-in-law of Gerlon (d928), governor of Blois, father of Thibaut I "Le Tricheur", 1st Count of Blois (940). His descendants held Blois until 1397 when its count, Guido (Gui) (d1407), sold Blois to the Duke of Orleans [Louis IV], who founded its 3rd dynasty.

3. The House of Anjou was a French noble house of royal Gallic ancestry, which essentially descended from the epic Greek hero Hercules and the Gallic queen. Geoffrey of Anjou, the dashing prince-consort of England’s queen Matilda, descended in the male-line from Geoffrey “Ferole” of Chateau-Landon, Count of Gatinais, ancestor of the third Angevin dynasty, who descended from Warin, the twin brother of Mille [the ancestor of the Capetians of France], the sons of Robert, Duke of Hesbaye, the grandson of [another] Warin, Count of Paris, the brother of St. Leger, Bishop of Autun, and, Didion, Bishop of Poitiers, another brother, the three sons of Bodilon [and wife, Sigrade, his niece], who descended from Torquatus (Torquate), the first Count of Anjou (513), the founder of the first Angevin dynasty, one of the original “Twelve Peers of France”, the grandson of Syagrius, the last Roman Governor of Gaul, who descended from old pre-Roman Gallic kings, e.g., Ambiorix "The Heroic Gaul" (58-53BC), descendant of Akichorix, King of Gaul (300-250BC), descendant of Ambigatus, "the Celtic Charlemagne" (500BC), who descended from the old Iron Age Celtic emperors, e.g., Albiorix "Galates", the son of the epic Greek hero Hercules and Galatea Keltine, Queen of Gaul (1200BC), only child and daughter of Narbos Celtae (1250BC), the last male-line descendant of the Old Celtic Royal House founded by Samothes (2050BC). Thus, the Angevins ["Plantagenets"] of England and the Capetians of France were collateral-lines of an ancient dynasty of pre-Roman Gallic kings who were the cousins of the ancient Macedonian-Greek kings, as well as the ancient Thessalian kings, the co-kings of Sparta, and other Classical Greek dynasties. The Angevins ["Plantagenets"], appear later divided into two major branches, namely, the houses of Lancaster and York, which fought the “War of The Roses”. The 1st Angevin dynasty was restored to its ancient estate after an interim as the 3rd Angevin Dynasty succeeding the 2nd Angevin Dynasty, which the Plantagenets also represented through intermarriage. The second Angevin dynasty was founded by Tertulle (Tertullus) of Rennes, Seneschal of the Gatinais, Count of Anjou (876), who possibly may be identified with Tortulfe "The Woodsman" of Nid-de-Merie, called "a soldier of fortune", and, his wife, Melusine, called "the Devil's Daughter" in local lore because she was non-European [Moroccan] by race and non-Christian [Muslim] by religion. She was rumored to have practiced witchcraft and the "black arts", hence, the tradition arose that the Plantagenets were "Satan's Spawns". It was said of the Plantagenets that "from the Devil they came and to the Devil they would return". Tertulle of Rennes is however usually regarded as the son of Hugh, Count of Bourges, Auxerre, and Nevers (d853), which would make him a scion of the House of Alsace and the Ethiconides, descended from the Alaholfingians, ancestors of the modern House of Hapsburg-Lorraine. The second Angevin dynasty was founded following the Viking Wars that swept away the first Angevin dynasty. The descendants of Tertulle, the second Angevin dynasty, ended with an heiress, Ermengarde, Countess of Anjou, who married Geoffrey "Ferole", Count of Gatinais, descended from the first Angevin dynasty, who became the ancestor of the third Angevin dynasty.

4. The House of Tudor inherited the English throne through intermarriage as representing "the Lancaster heirs", however, were descended in the male-line from the great King Arthur of Britain himself, and, was a secondary-branch of the Arthurian Dynasty, which dynasty rivaled both the Old British Royal House and the Anglo-Saxon Dynasty, thus, the accession of the Tudors was seen not as the establishment of a new dynasty on the throne but as the restoration of an old dynasty, the Arthurian Dynasty, after almost a thousand years of obscurity as local Welsh lords. King Henry VII was himself exactly 30th in descent in the male-line from King Arthur, the great legendary British king. The Welsh called Henry “Mab Darogan”, that is, the “prophesied son”, referring to the widespread Welsh belief in the prophecy of the restoration of a “son [descendant]” of King Arthur and the Arthurian Dynasty on the British throne. The Arthurian Dynasty itself descended from the ancient Roman emperors, nonetheless, the Arthurian Dynasty had female-links to British Royalty, and, through them, going through Arthur’s mother, could trace genealogical-links to "The Virgin" Mary, who was regarded as the Arthurian Dynasty's ancestress, or matriarch. The same year that King Henry VII, the first Tudor king, ascended the throne Malory’s book “Morte d’Arthur” was published, which coincidence could hardly be ignored and invested the crown with a new mystique. The monarchy of King Arthur was actually restored after a thousand years in abeyance. The long reign of the Saxons, and the Norman-French after them, was at last over. It was the end of the “Late English Era” and the beginning of the “New British Era”.

5. The House of Suffolk [or Grey], descended from Anschetil of Allerdale, son of Maldred of Allerdale, male-line descendant of Ireland's Royal House, and Adelaide, the sister of Anschetil de Greye-Sur-Mer, one of "The Conqueror's Companions", a Norman noble, thus, for nine days the Old Irish Royal House occupied the British throne.

6. The House of Hapsburg sat on the British throne in the person of Queen Mary's royal-consort and co-sovereign, Prince [later King] Philip [II] of Spain, whose male-line ancestry is still a matter of controversy. There are three major theories of the Hapsburg ancestry, which are: (a) the Alsace theory, which would make them a branch of the Etichoni, who were themselves a branch of the Alaholfingians; (b) the Merovingian theory, which would make them a branch of the Merovingians; and, (c) the Colonna theory, which would give them an imperial descent from "the Forum Iulii", descended from Julius Caesar's cousin, Sextus. One of these three theories is probably true, but, which one is a matter of conjecture. The "Alsace Theory" was the official theory of the House of Lorraine, which, after the extinction of the Hapsburgs in the male-line, its legacy was inherited through the Hapsburg-heiress, Empress Maria-Theresa, to her husband and her descendants by him, representing the House of Hapsburg-Lorraine. This theory was popularized by the House of Lorraine since it was a branch of the Etichoni, and would make Lorraine and Hapsburg collateral-lines. The Merovingian Theory was popular in medieval times; and the Colonna Theory was popular during the Renaissance. There is a new modern theory that the original House of Hapsburg was a desposynic family which had settled in Switzerland and were supported for a period of time by the contributions of local churches.

7. The House of Stuart, descended in the male-line through the dukes/kings of Brittany [the French province of Bretagne] from Conan “Meraidoc”, the son of Agippanius of Provence [South France], said to have been of the "Desposynoi" [="Master’s Kin"], a Greek term essentially meaning "Jesus' Dynasty", representing a “desposynic” descent-line, and, his wife, the British princess, Thametes, the sister of the British client-king Eudaf “Hen”. Conan “Meraidoc” was given Armorica, that is, Brittany, as his estate by the Roman Emperor Maximus in AD382/3. The Stuarts thus trace their ancestry in the male-line from Christianity's "Holy Family" [whose Greek language family-surname was "Kyriakon", meaning "The Lord's House"], or, more precisely from "Saint" James, the eldest of Jesus‘ so-called “brothers“ (Mt. 13:55), and, through him, to "The Virgin" Mary, undoubtedly, the “matriarch” [or, if “Protestant”, then, the “ancestress”] of “The Holy Family”. "The Virgin" Mary even still today appears at the head of some versions of the genealogy of the British Royal House as its matriarch and/or ancestress. The Stuarts were the last traceable male-line descendance of The Holy Family in Europe. The Stuarts came from Brittany [North-West France] to England at the time of the Norman Conquest (1066) and settled in Scotland where they married into the Scottish royal house and rapidly rose to prominence. The House of Stewart/Stuart over time inherited Scotland through an heiress, hence it came to represent the Royal House of Scotland [which eventually inherited the English throne].

8. The House of Nassau-Orange. The present House of Orange is actually a branch of the House of Nassau, which is one of the many branches of the medieval German royal house descended from ancient Teutonic kings. The House of Nassau, a German noble house, inherited the estate and title of the House of Orange, a French noble house, upon its extinction in the sixteenth century. The tiny princedom of Orange in France is now included in the French department of Vaucluse. The original House of Orange was founded by Gerald "Ademar", Prince of Orange (AD 1000) [the son of Hugh des Plantard, the heir of the Counts of Razes, and, his wife, Anne of Byzantium, a Byzantine princess], who descended from William "Le Cornet" [a.k.a. Guillem de Gellone], one of Charlemagne's paladins (AD800), the son of Theodore [the first Marquis] of Narbonne [formerly the royal Jewish Prince Makhir of Baghdad], the son of a Jewish Babylonian Exilarch, who had come from Mesopotamia, representing a branch of Israel's Davidic Dynasty in exile. His descendants ended in daughters; and Orange was inherited by William “The Silent”, the Count of Nassau, a German prince. His main interests however were the Netherlands, where he was at first a provincial governor of the Holy Roman Empire, and then led the Dutch in their war for independence from the European Empire, and became the first “Stradholder” [“President”] of The Dutch Republic.

9. The House of Hanover [or Guelph] was a German branch of the Italian House of Este, which descended from the Roman gens “Actii”, and Marcus Actius [the husband of Julius Caesar’s sister, Julia "Major"], descendant of Azio, an Albanese prince (650BC), considered the dynasty’s ancestor, the son of Mettus, the last King of Alba "Longa" [mother-city of Rome], thus, through a dynasty of kings, Prince Azio claimed the sun-goddess, Venus, as his ancestress. His descendants became Roman senators, and at least one served as Roman Governor of Britain, namely, Marcus Actius, Rom. Gov. 401-406. The descendants of Azio came to be known as the House of Este during medieval times. The House of Este divided in the eleventh century into three major branches descended from three sons of Ezzo II, the Marquis of Italy and Lord of Este (d1097). His son Folk was the ancestor of the Italian branch [Folk-Este] who were the dukes of Ferrara, Modena, and Reggio in Italy; his son Hugh inherited the French province of Maine and founded the French branch of the family; and, his son Welf was invited to Germany by his mother-in-law who gave him all the possessions of his wife’s father, Welf of Bavaria, and was the ancestor of the German branch [Welf-Este, or Guelph], who gave a line of dukes to Bavaria, became dukes of Brunswick, and one line became the electors [and later kings] of Hanover.

10. The House of Saxe-Coburg [or Wettin], re-named Windsor (1917), was a German noble house which was a branch of the old Saxon royal house and descended through the medieval Saxon dukes from Widukind (Wittikind) "the Great", the last “King of the Saxons“, who submitted to Charlemagne [who conquered Germany] and became one of his vassals as the "first" “Duke of Saxony“, and, who, was himself descended [through earlier Saxon kings and tribal chiefs] from Odovacar, the barbarian chieftain who conquered the Roman Empire, who descended from Arminius (Herman) "The Great", King of Germania (1BC/AD1), who descended from Ariovistus, King of "Germania", who fought Julius Caesar 58-54BC, who was the son of Teutbal (Teutobochus), King of Teutons [Germans] (d102BC), who descended through a line of tribal-kings from Askanes, founder of the dynasty [the ancient Saxon royal house], who was a prince of the Herminones [the ancestors of the medieval German dynasties], one of the three great ancient Teutonic dynasties, rivaling the Ingvaeones [the ancestors of the Scandinavian Ynglingas] and the Istvaeones [the ancestors of the Salian kings of France, Germany, and Italy, and some minor dynasties, such as the Lotharingians of Upper Lorraine].

11. The passing of Queen Elizabeth II ends the House of Saxe-Coburg [Windsor] and begins the House of Oldcastle [anglization of "Oldenburg"], also called “Mountbatten” [anglicization of “Battenburg”], the male-line ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Philip of Greece, and, ancestor of the succeeding dynasty to Britain's throne, represented by H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, and, his two sons, H.R.H. Prince William and H.R.H. Prince Harry [Henry]. Prince Philip took his surname “Mountbatten” from his mother, Alice, the sister of Louis, Earl Mountbatten, when he was naturalized as a British subject at the time of his marriage to [then] Princess [now Queen] Elizabeth.

The "origin-story" of the House of Oldcastle starts with Helyas "The Swan-Knight" of Lorraine (d1101), epic-hero of the First Crusade 1096-99, the 40th and last Grail-King, who, upon entering Jerusalem [accompanying his son, Geoffrey of Bouillon] returned the Holy Grail to the Church of The Holy Sepulchre and placed it himself on the high-altar. Helyas "The Swan-Knight" was the son of Warin of Lorraine [whose name was corrupted in medieval romance into "Loherenc Garin", a.k.a. Lohengrin] (d1071/3), one of the "Conqueror's Companions" (1066), whose parentage is unsure. Warin of Lorraine was the son [or grandson] of either/or one of three contemporary counts or dukes who each had the name "Otto", that is, either

(1) the posthumous son of Otto, Duke of Lorraine [the son of Charles of Lorraine, the Carolingian heir], which would make the House of Oldcastle to be Carolingians, descended in the senior-line from Charlemagne; or,

(2) the grandson of [another] Otto, Count of Chiny [Warcq], who also descended in the male-line from Charlemagne, yet through a secondary-line; or,

(3) the son of Otto "of Lillefort", the “descendant” [not “son”], of Parzival, who descended through a 1000-year-old-line of "Grail-Kings" from Joseph of Arimathea, the uncle of “The Virgin” Mary, and, a scion of Israel's Davidic Dynasty, who immigrated to Europe in the first century AD and whose descendants founded the religious order of the Holy Grail and were its hereditary guardians.

The first mention of Helyas "The Swan-Knight" in history was when the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV (1056-1106) held court at Neumagen to decide a claim by the Count of Frankfort for the duchy of Bouillon, then held by Ida of Louvain, the widow of the Duke of Bouillon, its duchess. The matter was decided by hand-to-hand combat between the Count of Frankfort and Helyas of Lorraine, who championed the duchess, who legend says sailed up the Meuse on a boat drawn by a swan by means of a silver chain, whence his epithet. He won the battle, married her, and became the Duke of Bouillon in right of his wife, by whom he begot Geoffrey of Bouillon, Protector of The Holy Sepulchre 1099-1100. The legend was embellished by medieval romance that says before their marriage Helyas warned the duchess that if she ever asked his identity he would have to leave her. As the story goes she later tempted disregarding her husband’s warning asked him his identity. He rebuked her sorrowfully, and, instantly the boat drawn by the swan re-appeared on the river next to where they were, Helyas stepped into the boat, and the swan swam off with him in the boat out of sight of his sorrowing wife. That is medieval romance, but the fact is Helyas divorced Ida of Louvain, soon after the birth of their son, Geoffrey, and she [his ex-wife] married thirdly Eustace II, Count of Boulogne. Helyas, meanwhile, had come to the aid of Elsa of Brabant, divorced wife of Regnier, Count of Hainault, against a suitor, Frederic de Telramund, who claimed she had promised to marry him. Instead, Elsa of Brabant married Helyas of Lorraine. It was his second marriage, as well as hers. The marriage produced a son, Elimar (Egilmar), who married Rixa (Rikissa), the heiress of Oldenburg, and became the Count of Oldenburg [“Oldcastle”] in right of his wife. Helyas divorced Elsa of Brabant soon after the birth of their son, Elimar, and, she married thirdly Hajo, Count of Uprustringen. Helyas, meanwhile, married thirdly Beatrix of Cleves [identified with Belayne of Lizaborye in medieval romance], daughter of Rutger II, Count of Cleves, and, widow of the Count of Lizaborye. The marriage produced a son, Dietrich [II]. Beatrix of Cleves, after Helyas' death, married thirdly Dietrich I, Count of Cleves. Hence, Helyas “The Swan-Knight" was the ancestor of three great noble European houses, those of Bouillon, Oldenburg [Oldcastle], and Cleves. Legend says that Helyas was murdered by armed men sent by his ex-wife Elsa of Brabant [not by her parents as one romance says, who had already passed away by that time], circa 1101.

The House of Oldcastle has already inherited many European thrones, such as those of Greece, the Scandinavian countries, and Russia. [note: Nicholas II, the last Czar of Russia, 1917, though he bore the surname “Romanov” was actually an “Oldcastle” by male-line lineage, for the House of Oldcastle inherited the Russian throne from the Romanoffs in 1762 through the Romanov heiress.] Now, the House of Oldcastle is poised to inherit the British throne with the eventual accession of the Prince of Wales as King Charles III [or "IV" if you recognize the claims of the Stuart heir, Bonnie Prince Charlie, who had valid claims under international law]. His eldest son, Prince William is expected in due course to inherit the throne and reign as King William V.

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David Hughes, 2005, RdavidH218@AOL.com