EARLY DANISH KINGS

The early Danish kingdom was centered in Zealand, Falster, and Laaland, and its kings sat at Leire, near Roskilde, in Zealand. The first Danish dynasty was of the original Vanir race of Scandinavia. The dynasty was possibly over a thousand years old when it was overthrown around the beginning of our common era by the Scyldings (Skjoldungas) who came from the Swedish province of Skaane. The Scyldings were the successors of the original dynasty of Scania, the Boreades, which had itself become extinct. The Scyldings conquered Denmark and transferred their seat there and gave Denmark its second dynasty. The Scyldings, according to mythology, descended from Scyld "Scefing", a babe of unknown parentage or origin found lying asleep on a "sheaf of corn" in a boat that drifted "across the sea" to the coast of Scania. The infant was adopted by Queen Gefjon [Swe: Gerda], called "The Snow Queen", the childless daughter and successor of the ancient Scandinavian king Gylfi [Swe: Gymir]. King Gylfi was the last male-line descendant of Othni, the first King of Scania. Othni was the personification of the Teutonic deity Odin (Woten; Votan), who, according to mythology, originally led the migration of the Aesir [Aryans], that is, the Battle-Axe People, to Europe in the Bronze Age and founded the ancient kingdom of Scania, circa 1500BC. The myth of the babe in an oar-less boat has its origin in the ancient practice of the Teutonic People of setting adrift unwanted infants and leaving them to their fate. Gefjon "The Snow Queen" was deified in Teutonic Mythology as the goddess of nature, who, unmarried, also presided over virgins and received the souls of unmarried women upon their deaths. She was also the goddess of agriculture, and, as such, was portrayed tilling land with a plow drawn by oxen. Gefjon was sometimes represented as her son’s wife, but this was a later perversion. Her adoptive son, Scyld, succeeded his adoptive mother, "the Snow Queen", upon her demise in the kingdom of Scania and founded a new dynasty, the Scyldings, circa 50/25BC. Scyld’s epithet "Scefing" is not a patronymic term in this case and should not be translated to mean "son of Sce[a]f", but is a nick-name and should be translated to mean "child of the sheaf" or "sheaf-child". The name "Scyld" itself means "shield" and was probably not his given name [which is unknown], but was a nick-name or another epithet which he earned when he defeated the Romans in battle on the Elbe River in 9BC and saved Scandinavia from Roman invasion. He occupied Denmark about that time, and moved his seat there. The Scyldings of Denmark were rivals of the Haleygjas of Norway and the Ynglingas of Sweden during their histories. Three great branches of the Scyldings developed over time, which were: (1) the kings of the "Land-Danes"; (2) the Viking-Leaders or "Sea-Kings" of the "Sea-Danes"; and (3) the kings of the "Suth-Danes" [South-Danes]. The Scyldings were later dispossessed in Denmark by invading Danes, true Danes [descendants of the Greek Danaoi, not Hebrew Danites], who came under their tribal chief or king Dan "Mykillate" from the Danish Isle of Schonen [their original home] and conquered the Danish mainland and gave Denmark its name as well as its third dynasty, circa AD 275. The story of the Scyldings is told in the "Skjoldunga Saga", which is also a source of information on the legendary history of Scandinavia. The short-lived dynasty of Dan "Mykillate" ended in co-heiresses (circa AD 375), who married Gothic, Vandal, and Heruli chiefs, who each contended for the Danish crown, and Denmark eventually came into the possession of the Volsungs, which family ruled the country throughout medieval times.

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regnal-list & genealogy

note: order of succession unsure in some cases

1st Dynasty

01. Scyld (Skjoldr) (above), moved capital city of "Scania" from Skaane [South-West Sweden] to Denmark, for which he is called the "1st" King of Denmark. Legend says that Scyld had three sons: one was the ancestor of the "Land-Danes"; another was the ancestor of the "South Danes"; and, the other was the ancestor of the "Sea-Danes".

02. Frode I "Frid", King of Denmark ["Land-Danes"] c 5BC-AD45; eldest of Scyld's three sons; said to have reigned for fifty years; legend says he was King of Denmark during the time of Christ

issue:

03. Frolaf I (Fridleif), son

04. Frode II, son

seven generations

12. Frolaf II (Fridleif), King of Denmark (above)

[note: his uncle, Finn, a Danish sea-king, was the father of Froulf, identified with Frithuwulf of the Wessex Pedigree in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, father of Frolaf (Frealaf), father of Froald (Frithuwald), father of Froger, rival vs. Frode III (below), father of (a) Frolaf [father of Oli] & (b) Frowin [father of Wig & Ket]

13. Frovor (dau), also called "Drott", the Danish heiress; wife of Dan "Mykillate", also called "1st" King of Denmark, who represents another dynasty inheriting the Danish throne

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2nd Dynasty

00. Yppr, a Scandinavian king, father of Dan "Mykillate"

issue:

a. Nor, eponymous ancestor of a line of Norse kings

b. Osten, eponymous ancestor of a line of Swedish kings

c. Dan, eponymous ancestor of a line of Danish kings

01. Dan "Mykillate", founds new Danish dynasty for which he is sometimes also called the "1st" King of Denmark (AD 275)

= Frovor (Drott), the Danish heiress of the previous Scylding dynasty (above)

issue:

a. Frode III "Fridsami" (below)

b. Domald, # 3

c. Hoter (Hodder), # 4

02. Frode III "Fridsami", King of Denmark (AD 300)

issue:

a. dau

= Vermund "Vitre" (Varmundr; Wermund) "The Sage", a Gothic prince

b. dau

= Havarix (Havardr) "Handramme", an Heruli prince

c. dau

= Visimar, a Vandal King

[note: his [Frode III's] three sons-in-law (above), the husbands of his three daughters, were co-rulers, that is, they are numbered as kings of Denmark in official-lists]

03. Domald

04. Hoter (Hodder)

5A. Vermund "Vitre", identified with Wermund in the genealogy of the Mercian Kings in the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle", see "Balthae Dynasty" at http://www.angelfire.com/ego/et_deo/balthae_dynasty.wps.htm

= dau of Frode III "Fridsami" (above)

issue:

a. Olaf I (Uffe; Offa) "Litilati"

b. Alov (dau)

= Halfdan I (below)

5B. Havarix (Havardr) "Handramme"

= dau of Frode III "Fridsami" (above)

issue:

a. Halfdan I (below)

b. Scatz

c. Hrodgar I (Hroar)

5C. Visimar

= dau of Frode III "Fridsami" (above)

issue:

a. Rigan, father of Sueno

b. Mitun

06. Olaf I (Uffe; Offa) "Litilati" (375)

= Hervor [I], Queen of Angles

issue:

a. Angewit (Angantyr)

b. Heidreik (Hattaric)

07. Halfdan I [Danus II]

= Alov, dau of Vermund "Vitre" & wife, dau of Frode III "Fridsami"

issue:

a. Frolaf III (Fridleif)

08. Scatz

09. Hrodgar I (Hroar)

10. Frolaf III (Fridleif)

issue:

a. Gram

b. Frode IV "Froekni"

c. Olaf II

11. Gram

issue:

a. Guthorm

b. Hadding

12. Svibdager, usurper

13. Guthorm

14. Hadding

15.Frode IV "Froekni"

issue:

a. Ingeld I (Ingialdr) "Skarkadar-Fostri"

b. Halfdan II "The Tall" (dc 498)

c. Frode V

16. Olaf II

issue:

a. Wiglet

b. Huglet

17. Wiglet

18. Huglet

19.Ingeld I (Ingialdr) "Skarkadar-Fostri"

issue:

a. Frode VI

20. Halfdan II "The Tall" [aka Dan III] (dc 498)

issue:

a. Hjorir (Heorogar) (Hiarre) (dc 500)

b. Helgi (dc 503)

c. Hroar II (Hrodgar) (dc 525) (below)

21. Frode V

issue:

a. Ingeld II

22. Hjorir (Heorogar) (Hiarre) (dc 500)

issue:

a. Hjorvard

23. Frode VI

24. Ingeld II

25. Helgi (dc 503)

=1 Alov

=2 Yrsa [she =1 Adils of Sweden]

=3 Tron

issue of 2nd wife:

a. Rolf (Hrothulf) "Krake" (dc 535)

issue of 3rd wife:

b. Scullda (dau), mother of Grendel, claimant

26. Hroar II (Hrothgar) (dc 525)

= Wealtheow, an Angle princess

issue:

a. Rorek I (Hraerekr) "Hnavggvanbaugi"

b. Hrodmund

c. Freawaru (dau)

=1 Ingeld II [cousin]

=2 Elfhere, aka Beowulf

27. Hjorvard, reigned 1 day

28. Rolf (Hrothulf) "Krake" (dc 535)

issue:

a. Drif (dau), wife of Bodvar "Bjarki"

b. Skur (dau), wife of Hvitserk "The White"

29. Ungvin, usurper

30. Beowulf [Elfhere], epic hero (dc 543), son of Ecgdjof, a Danish sub-king, son of Ecgwela, a Danish sub-king [descended from the kings of the Sea-Danes]

=1 [name]

=2 Freawaru, dau of Hrothgar [Hroar II]

issue of 1:

a. Valdar "The Dane", father of Harold I (below), Havelok "The Dane", & Hallaf

b. Broder

31. Rorek I (Hraerekr) (Hrethric) "Hnavggvanbaugi"

issue:

a. Frode VII (below)

b. Gertrude (Gryd) (dau)

=1 Eritil, King of Wends

=2 Feng, bro of 1st husband; mother of HAMLET by 1st marriage

c. Hrodny (Hrut) (dau)

= Harold I, King of Denmark, bro of Havelok "The Dane" & Hallaf, a Danish Jarl, son[s] of Valdar "The Dane", son of the epic hero Beowulf (above), who represents another branch of the great Scylding dynasty

see LINE-B (below)

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the succession splits here between the descendants of

[LINE-A] Frode VII & [LINE-B] Harold I

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LINE "A"

32. Frode VII, King of Denmark (d548)

= Hilde, a Vandal princess

issue:

a. Frode VIII

b. Ingeld III

33. Ingeld III, yr bro of Frode VIII

issue:

a. Frolaf IV

b. Halfdan III

34. Halfdan III (dc 597), yr bro of Frolaf IV

issue:

a. Rorek II (Hraerekr) (Hrethric) "Slyongvanbaugi"

35. Rorek II (Hraerekr) (Hrethric) "Slyongvanbaugi"

= Auda "Djuphvgda", Queen of Denmark [at Roeskilde] 647-674 [her 2nd =]

issue:

a. Harold IV "Hildetonn" ["War-Tooth"]

continued below

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LINE "B"

32. Harold I, King of Denmark, son of Valdar "The Dane", son of Beowulf, the epic hero

= Hrodny (Hrut), a Danish princess, dau of Rorek I (Hraerekr) (Hrethric) "Hnavggvanbaugi" (above)

issue:

a. Harold II

b. Halfdan "Snjalle", aka "King Snio"

33. Halfdan "Snjalle" , id. with the legendary King Snio

= Moallda "Digri" of East Anglia

issue:

a. Harold III

b. Ivar "Wide-Fathom"

34. Ivar "Wide-Fathom" ["Vidfadmi"], King of Denmark (d647)

= Gyrita of Jutland

issue:

a. Auda "Djuphvgda", Queen of Denmark

35A. Auda "Djuphvgda", Queen of Denmark [at Roeskilde] 647-674

=1 Radbard (Radbarz) (Radbard; Radbod), King of Gardarige [Russia]

[note: there was a contemporary Frisian king of this name; the domain of Radbard, that is, "Gardarige", may probably be a scribal error for an unidentified medieval fiefdom]; he apparently was a scion of the Volsungs, with a Frisian mother; his wife divorced him before she became queen]

=2 Rorek II (Hraerekr) (Hrethric) "Slyongvanbaugi", associate-ruler with wife

issue of 1:

a. Randver "of Denmark", father of Sigurd [I] "Hring", King of Denmark 735-756, father of RAGNAR "LODBROK", overlord of Scandinavia

issue of 2:

b. Harold IV "War-Tooth" ["Hildetonn"]

35B. Rorek II (Hraerekr) (Hrethric) "Slyongvanbaugi"

[note: the marriage of Auda "Djuphvgda" & Rorek II "Slyongvanbaugi" united rivaling-lines "A" & "B" of the royal house]

36.Harold IV "War-Tooth" ["Hildetonn"] (d735)

issue:

a. Halfdan IV (dc 750)

b. Gudrod, King of Skaane

= Asta [dau of Ingjald "Illrade" of Sweden], & begot Asta (dau), wife of Halfdan "Hvitbein" of Vestfold [Norway]

c. Sigfrid (Sigurd) [I], father of (a) Signe, (b) Hroar [father of Suomi, claimant 811], & (c) Helgi

d. Hrorek [III]

e. Thrand

f. Eystein

g. Ingeld

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37. Sigurd "Hring", father of Ragnar "Lodbrok" (above/below)

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note: succession divided here [again]

between (a) the heirs of Harold "War-Tooth" and (b) the heirs of Ragnar "Lodbrok"

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38. Halfdan IV (d750)

issue:

a. Harold V (d782)

b. Sigfrid (Sigurd) [II] (d798), father of (a) Onund & (b) Geva, wife of Witikind of Saxony

c. Halfdan V (d802)

39. Harold V (d782)

issue:

a. Harold VI, King 798-804, father of (a) Halfdan (d810) & (b) Godfred, King 819-827, father of two sons, both claimants

b. Halfdan VI (d810)

c. Heiligo (Helgi), father of Osfrid "of Schonen"

40. Halfdan VI (d810)

issue:

a. Anulo, claimant (d812)

b. Hring (819)

c. Reginfred (d814)

d. Harold [VII] [II], King 812-813, 819-822, 825-826 (d841)

e. Hebbi (819)

f. Hemming (d837)

g. Aowin (811)

41. Halfdan V (d802), bro of Sigfrid [II] (d798) & Harold V (d782)

issue:

a. Sigfrid III (d810)

b. Godfred I (d810)

42.Sigfrid III (d810)

issue:

a. Reginald (Ragnwald) (d808)

b. Hemming, King 810-812

c. Sigfrid [IV], claimant (d812), father of Ragnar, claimant (d836)

d. Angandeo (Angantyr) (d812)

e. Hankwin (Haakon) (d812)

43. Godfred I

issue:

a. Uorm, King 813-814

b. Horik (Eric) (d812)

c. Glum (d812)

d. Olaf III [II] (d827), father of (a) Sigurd (d862), (b) Ragnald "The Rich" [father of Eric (d891)], & (c) Harold

e. Rolf (d836)

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the Volsungs [DYN. III] inherit the Danish throne

37. Sigurd [I] "Hring", King of Denmark 735-756 (above)

= Alfhild, dau of Gandalf

issue:

a. Ragnar "Lodbrok"

38. RAGNAR "LODBROK", overlord of Scandinavia (d794)

=1 Thora

=2 Kraga

=3 Aslog

issue of 1:

a. Eirik (d794)

b. Agnar (d794)

issue of 2:

c. Ivar (d794)

d. Sigurd [III] (Sigfrid) "Snake-Eye", King of Denmark 794-803

e. Bjorn [I] "Ironside", King of Sweden (d804)

f. Hvitserk

g. Ragnald (d794)

h. Halfdan

i. Eric III (Horik), King of Sweden

j. Alofa (dau)

k. Ragnhild (dau)

l. Thora (dau)

issue of 3:

m. Osfre "Turdimulo", father of War-Stein

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39. Sigurd [III] (Sigfrid) "Snake-Eye", King of Denmark 794-803

issue:

a. Canute I (below)

b. Halfdan [VI] (d812) (below)

c. Godfred II (d814) (below)

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40A. Canute I, King of Denmark 803-827

issue:

a. Frode IX "Enski" (below)

b. Awuslir

c. Sigfrid [IV]

40B. Halfdan [VI] (d812)

40C. Godfred I/II (d814)

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41A. Frode IX "Enski", King of Denmark 827-836

= Emma of England

issue:

a. Harold VI (d883), father of Godfred IV (d 891)

b. Sigfrid [V][III], co-King 873 (d887)

c. Halfdan VII, co-King 873 (d885)

d. Gorm I "Enski" (d890)

e. Helgi III (d891), father of Gorm II "The Rich" (d894), father of ? Roger de Monte Gomerii (d942)

41B. Awuslir, father of Horm, Weland (850/860), & Ring

41C. Sigfrid IV, co-ruler with brothers

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40B. Halfdan [VI] (d812) (above), bro of Canute I

issue:

(1A) Harold [VI] "Klak", a Danish king, deposed 827, afterwards was Count of Rustringen, in Frisia (d843), father of three sons: (a) Rorek (Hreoric) [id. with RURIK, "1st" Grand-Duke/King of Russia (872) (d876)], (b) Sineus, & (c) Trevor

(2A) Ragnar [II] "The Raven", also called "Lodbrok" (d866) (below)

(3A) Godfred [II], father of (a) Oscar (Asgeir) (841/851-2, 856), (b) Sidroc (851, d856), & (c) Bjorn, father of (a) Hoskuld (Askold) of Kiev (d890), (b) Helgi (Oleg) of Kiev (d912), & (c) Hroald "Hrygg", father of Bjorn, father of Hofda-Thord, Law-Man of Iceland

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40C. Godfred [II] (d814) (above), bro of Halfdan [VI] & Canute I

issue:

A. Eric I (Horik), King 836-854, father of (a) Eric II, King 854-869, & (b) Edny (dau), wife of Olaf, a Swedish prince (859), the parents of (a) Ring, (b) Chnob (Gnupa), & (c) Gurd (Gurth)

[note: Chnob (Gnupa) was the father of Sigtrygg (Sigerich), King of Denmark 894-899, the father of Chnob (Gnupa) (d935), father of Cynthia (Cyrid), wife of King Harold VIII/I "Blue-Tooth" of Denmark (d988/991)

B. Ragnar (d836)

C. Harold (20), father of (a) Guthorm (Gudurm) (21), claimant (d854), (b) Rudolf (Rolf) (21)(d873) (below), & (c) Godfred (21) (d855)

D. Roerik (Rorekr) (d844)

E. Olaf III "Enski" (856), father of (a) Frode X "Friske", (b) Godfred III (d8XX), & (c) Helgi [II] "Keen", father of Sigurd (Sigfrid) "Hart" (d891), father of (a) Guthorm [or Gorm] (dc916) & (b) Ragnhild (dau), wife of Halfdan "Svarte" of Norway (d863)

42A. Harold [VI] "Klak", King of Denmark, deposed 827, became Count of Rustringen, in Frisia (d843)

42B. Ragnar [II] "The Raven"/also called "Lodbrok" (above/below)

42C. Godfred [II], co-ruler with brothers

43. Eric I (Horik), King of Denmark 836-854

44. Eric II, King of Denmark 854-869

45A. Guthorm (d854)

45B. Rudolf (Rolf), King of Denmark, deposed (d873), was the father of

(A) Hreoric (d882), father of Knut (d894); &

(B) Sigfrid (874), father of Guthorm [II], King of East Anglia 902-916, father of (a) son, killed 916, & (b) son, expelled 916

(C) Godfred (d885), who, of his wife, Gisela, dau of the HRE Lothaire II, begot Ragnhild (dau), wife of Dietrich, Duke of Saxony

45C. Godfred (d855)

46. Olaf III "Enski" (856)

47A Frode X "Friske" (857)

47B Godfred III

47C Heli II "Keen", father of Sigfrid (Sigurd) "Hart" (d891), father of (a) Guthorm [or Gorm] (d916) & (b) Ragnhild (dau), wife of Halfdan "Svarte" of Norway (d863)

48. Harold VI (d883), father of (52) Godfred IV (d 891)

49A. Sigfrid [V][III], co-King 873 (d887)

49B. Halfdan VII, co-King 873 (d885)

50. Gorm I "Enski" (d890)

51. Helgi III (d891), father of (53) Gorm II "The Rich" (d894)

52. Godfred IV (d891)

53. Gorm II "The Rich"

54. Sigtrygg (Sigerich), usurper 894-899

55. Hardeknut [Hardegon], King of Denmark 899-902

56. Gorm III "The Great" ["Grandaevus"]/or "The Old" = "Gamle", King of Denmark 902-936, founded new dynasty

note: co-kings, associate-kings, or sub-kings, that is, the sons, brothers, or uncles of the above kings, are not always numbered in the above list, for Gorm III was not the 56th king, but rather the 65th/or 72nd/73rd king

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"SONS OF LODBROK"

44B. Ragnar [II] "The Raven", also called "Lodbrok", King of Denmark, deposed, became a viking-leader (d866) (above)

a. Ivar "Boneless", called "King of England" 867; [II]-King of Dublin 871; [I]-King of York 872 (d873) (below)

b. Sigfrid, King of York 873-876 (below)

c. Halfdan, called "King of England" 871; King of Dublin 875; York 876 (d877)

d. Bagsecg, general (d871)

e. Guthorm, called "King of England 874, King of East Anglia 880-890/2

f. Anwend, general (878)

g. Oscytel, general (878)

h. Bjorn (d872)

i. Godfred (d873) (below)

j. Hastein (Hasting), had issue

k. Ubbe (d878)

l. Thora (dau), wife of Ragnald "Heidum-Hari", a Norwegian king (850)

m. Alofa (dau), wife of Hunda Steinar, a Danish jarl in England (875)

n. Gytha (dau), wife of Eric VI "Vaderhatt", King of Sweden 859-882

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(a) Ivar "Boneless", called "King of England" 867; [II]-King of Dublin 871; [I]-King of York 872 (d873) (above)

a. Godfred (Guthfrith), King of York 877/883 (d894/5)

b. Sigfrid I, King of Dublin 883-888, father of (a) Olaf III, King of Dublin (d896) & (b) Ivar II/III-King of Dublin 896-902 (d904), father of Sihtric (Sigtrygg) III-King of Dublin 941-943, father of Ivar (975)

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(b) Sigfrid, King of York 873-876 (above), by wife, Blaeja of York:

a. Hardeknut [Knut] [Hardegon], King of York 896-899, King of Denmark 899-902, father of GORM III "GRANDAVEUS", ie., "THE GREAT" [or "Gamle" [= "The Old"], usu. reck'd as the founder of the medieval Danish kingdom, King of Denmark 902-936

b. Edred (d902), father of (a) Ingvar, co-king of York 902-910, (b) Halfdan [II], co-king of York 902-910, & (c) Eowils, co-king of York 902-910

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(e) Guthorm, called "King of England 874, King of East Anglia 880-890/2:

a. Eohric, King of East Anglia 890/2-902, father of Ragnhild (dau), 6th wife of Harald I "Harfager", "1st" King of Norway 872-930 (d933)

b. Harold "Parc" (d894), who, by wife, Elgive of England, begot TYRE "DANEBOT", wife of GORM III "GRANDAVEUS", King of Denmark

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(i) Godfred (d873) (above), bro of Ivar "Boneless", Sigfrid, Halfdan, Guthorm, etc.

a. Olaf II "The Young", King of Dublin 888 (d894)

b. Ivar (d883), father of (a) Sihtric (Sigtrygg) I, King of Dublin 888-893, 894-896, (b) Godfred (d884) [father of (a) Ragnald, King of York 912-914 & 919-921, who had issue, (b) Sihtric (Sigtrygg) "Gale" or "Caoch", King of Dublin 917, York 921 (d 927), who had issue, & (c) Godfred, a.k.a. Gorree, King of Isle of Man 918; King of Dublin 920, Waterford 921; York 927 (d934), who had issue]

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David Hughes, 2005, RdavidH218@AOL.com, genealogical charts available