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VERBS

INFINITIVES

CONJUGATION  

SEIN,HABEN, MÖGEN

SEPARABLE VERBS

IMPERATIVES

 

 

 

In German, this tense can have 3 meanings:

\'Ich spiele Tennis.\' can mean

1.  I play Tennis.

2.  I am playing Tennis.

3.  I do play Tennis.

Subject-Verb Agreement

To make the subject agree with the verb, we have to conjugate the verb.  (Note:  We do conjugate the verb in English:  I play, he plays...)  In German we have to consider the following groups of  verbs:

A.  Most German verbs follow a certain pattern when we conjugate them:

 

wohnen

hören

antworten

ich

wohne

höre

antworte

du

wohnst

hörst

antwortest

er, es, sie

wohnt

hört

antwortet

wir

wohnen

hören

antworten

ihr

wohnt

hört

antwortet

Sie, sie

wohnen

hören

antworten

From the above we know that we remove the - en/n from the infinitive and add the endings   to the stem:

ich:  - e                               du:  - st

er, es sie, ihr :  - t             wir, sie, Sie :  - en

Verbs that belong to this group include:

schreiben,    machen,  spielen,  verstehen,  leben, kommen, gehen,  singen,  lernen,  schwimmen,  tanzen,  malen,  heißen, besuchen, kaufen, brauchen, sagen, bringen, trinken

Note that for verbs whose stem ends in - t , - d , we usually add an - e before writing the usual endings.  (Eg:  antworten, arbeiten, reden)

 

B.  The verbs :\'sein\', \'haben\' und \'mögen\' have the following conjugation. 

 

sein (to be)

haben  (to have)

mögen  (to like)

ich

bin

habe

mag

du

bist

hast

magst

er, es, sie

ist

hat

mag

wir

sind

haben

mögen

ihr

seid

habt

mögt

Sie, sie

sind

haben

mögen

Exercise: sein

Exercise: haben

 

C.  A number of verbs change its vowel in their stems for the 2nd and 3rd persons.  Here we usually add an \'Umlaut\' to \'a\' or \'o\'.  The consonants \'e\' is also often changed to \'ie\' or \'i\'.

 

sprechen

schlafen

lesen

ich

spreche

schlafe

lese

du

sprichst

schläfst

liest

er, es, sie

spricht

schläft

liest

wir

sprechen

schlafen

lesen

ihr

sprecht

schlaft

lest

Sie, sie

sprechen

schlafen

lesen

Verbs that belong to this group include:

fahren,  laufen,  essen, sprechen, sehen, geben, fallen, treffen

 

vorlesen  (~ to read out)        aufschreiben  (~ to write down)

The prefix of the separable verb goes to the end of the sentence.

Der Schüler liest den Text vor.

Der Polizist schreibt die Adresse auf.

 

Other separable verbs that are useful to us are:

aufschlagen,  anrufen,  nachschlagen,  zuhören,  zumachen,   radfahren,  fernsehen,   mitbringen,   mitnehmen,   mitkommen

 

o  An imperative let us give order or make a request to

   (i)  a friend ( du)  :   

        "Komm her!"    "Komm mit!"   "Nimm das!"

        (Consider  the \'du\' form of the present tense and take only the stem .   Leave out the pronoun \' du\'.)

    

  (ii)  more than one person  ( ihr):   

      "Kommt mit!"     "Nehmt das!"

        (Just take the  ihr form of the present tense and leave out the pronoun \' ihr.\')

   

  (iii)  a stranger or strangers ( Sie)

       "Kommen Sie mit!"   "Nehmen Sie das!"

 

 

 

 

 

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