SOURCES OF ENERGY ENTERING THE EARTH’S SURFACE ENVIRONMENT
1. Energy from solar radiation.
2. Tidal energy from the combined potential and kinetic energy of the earth-moon-sun system.
3. Geothermal energy from inside the earth, including heat conduction and convection of energy by the material transport of hot springs, volcanoes, and uplifting of mountains.
1. Direct reflection, known as the ALBEDO, of short wavelength solar radiation into outer space.
2. Radiation into outer space of long wavelength thermal radiation characteristic of the surface temperature of earth.
Solar power 173,000 x 10 watts
Geothermal power 32 x 10 watts
Tidal power 3 x 10 watts
SOLAR ATOMIC GRAVITATIONAL GEOTHERMAL
Solar Nuclear fission Tidal Geothermal
Fossil fuels Nuclear fusion
Deep ocean currents
1 kilogram = 2.205 pounds
1000 kilograms = 1 metric ton
1 metric ton = 2,205 pounds = 1.102 short ton
1 short ton = 2,000 pounds = .0972 metric ton
1 long ton = 2,240 pounds = 1.016 metric ton
1 kilowatt = 1000 watts = 1.341 horsepower
1 horsepower = 745 watts
1 kilowatt hour = 3413 BTU
1 therm = 100,000 BTU
1 barrel (oil) = 42 gallons
1 gallon (gasoline) 125,000 BTU
1 short ton = 25,000,000 BTU
1 cubic foot (natural gas) = 1,031 BTU
Quad or Q = 1 quadrillion BTU (this is equal to the amount of oil carried in 170 supertankers – which equals approximately 172 million barrels).
One cord (4x4x8) of dry hardwood equals
6,500 kilowatts, electricity
1,600 pounds, coal
220 gallons, propane gas
150-175 gallons, oil
28 cubic feel (MCF) natural gas
At sea level the average intensity of solar energy = 15,000 gram calories/ square meter/ minute.
This represents 9 million calories/ square meter/ day assuming 10 or more hours of sunshine or more than 36 billion calories/ acre/ day.
Total amount striking the earth each day = 684 billion tons coal.