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A CHRONOLOGY OF BRITISH HISTORY

The following is a timeline of British history which may be of use to family historians in order to set their family events in their historical context. As far as possible it includes regnal dates for English, Welsh and Scottish monarchs; major battles; the births and deaths of major religious and artistic figures; the founding of major universities, schools etc; the founding of orders of chivalry; the founding of major organisations; sporting, ceremonial and religious events; inventions; and general British history.

PART 1 Up to 1500AD

122 = Building of Hadrian's Wall commenced

383 = Magnus Maximus declared Roman Emperor in Britain

388 = Magnus Maximus defeated at Battle of Poetovio (Italy)

410 = Emperor Constantine III 's officials deposed from office in Britain

ABT 428 = Vortigern, British Leader invited Hengist and Horsa, Saxon leaders, to Britain as mercenaries

ABT 460 = Ambrosius Aurelianus and his British troops attack the Saxons

ABT 495 = "King" Arthur and his troops defeat the Saxons at Mons Badonicus

515 = "King" Arthur killed at Battle of Camlann

552 = Cynric (a saxon leader but probably part British) took Salisbury and founded the Kingdom of Wessex

ABT 555 = Athelbert became King of Kent

568 = Athelbert saxon King of Kent attacked London

577 = Battle of Dyrham (Glos) between Saxons and Britons

597 = St.Augustine landed in Kent brought to Britain as a result of marriage of Athelbert of Kent to a Frankish Princess

664 = Synod of Whitby

17 Mar 803 = 1000 die in storms on west coast of Ireland

806 = Vikings ravage Iona for the third time

827 = Egbert King of Wessex became King of All England

ABT 837 = Norse settle in northern Scotland

839 = Egbert King of England died

839 = Ethelwulf King of England

844 = Kenneth I MacAlpin, King of Scotland

844 = Rhodri Mawr becomes Prince of Wales

858 = end of reign of Kenneth I MacAlpin of Scotland

858 = Ethelwulf King of England died

858 = Ethelbald & Ethelbert Joint Kings of England

859 = Donald I King of Scotland

860 = Ethelbald King of England died

860 = Ethelbert became sole King of England

13 Apr 862 = end of reign of Donald I of Scotland

863 = Constantine I King of Scotland

865 = Norse invade East Anglia

866 = Ethelbert King of England died

866 = Ethelred I King of England

1 Nov 866 = Norse sack York

871 = Ethelred I died

871 = Alfred King of England

877 = Aed Whitefoot King of Scotland

877 = end of reign of Constantine I of Scotland

878 = Eochaid and Giric Kings of Scotland

878 = Battle of Ethandun

878 = Rhodri Mawr succeeded by his son Anarwd as Prince of Wales

878 = end of reign of Aed, Whitefoot, of Scotland

889 = Donald II King of Scotland

889 = reign of Eochaid and Giric of Scotland

900 = end of reign of Donald II of Scotland

900 = Constantine II King of Scotland

901 = King Alfred the Great of England died

901 = Edward the Elder King of England

916 = Hywel Dda becomes Prince of Wales

925 = King Edward the Elder of England died

925 = Athelstan King of England

940 = King Athelstan of England died

940 = Edmund King of England

943 = end of reign of Constantine II of Scotland

943 = Malcolm I King of Scotland

946 = King Edmund of England died

946 = Edred King of England

950 = Iago ap Idwal becomes Prince of Wales

954 = end of reign of Malcolm I King of Scotland

954 = Indulf King of Scotland

955 = Edred King of England died

955 = Edwy King of England

958 = Edwy King of England died

958 = Edgar King of England

ABT 960 = Indulf takes Edinburgh

962 = end of reign of Indulf of Scotland

962 = Dubh the Black King of Scotland

967 = end of reign of Dubh, the Black, of Scotland

967 = Culen the Whelp King of Scotland

971 = end of reign of Culen, the Whelp, of Scotland

971 = Kenneth II King of Scotland

973 = Edgar orders striking of silver penny

973 = Edgar crowned 'Emperor of Britain' at Bath

8 Jul 975 = end of reign of Edgar of England

976 = Edward King of England

18 Mar 978 = end of reign of Edward of England

14 Apr 978 = Athelred II King of England

979 = Hywel (II) ap Ieuaf, the bad becomes Prince of Wales

985 = Cadwallon ap Ieuaf becomes Prince of Wales

986 = Maredudd ab Owain ap Hywel Dda becomes Prince of Wales

992 = Norse settlers in Dublin open mint

995 = end of reign of Kenneth II of Scotland

995 = Constantine III King of Scotland

997 = end of reign of Constantine III of Scotland

997 = Kenneth III the Brown King of Scotland

999 = Norse invade Kent again

999 = Cynan ap Hywel ap Ieuaf becomes Prince of Wales

13 Nov 1002 = Danes massacred in England

25 Mar 1005 = end of reign of Kenneth III, the Brown, of Scotland

26 Mar 1005 = Malcolm II King of Scotland

1008 = end of reign of Cynan ap Hywel as Prince of Wales

Dec 1013 = London surrenders to Danes

Apr 1016 = end of reign of Athelred II of England

May 1016 = Edmund Ironside King of England

30 Nov 1016 = end of reign of Edmund 'Ironside' of England

1 Dec 1016 = Cnut King of England

1018 = Llewelyn ap Sitsylt becomes Prince of Wales

1023 = Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig becomes Prince of Wales

25 Nov 1034 = end of reign of Malcolm II of Scotland

26 Nov 1034 = Duncan I King of Scotland

12 Nov 1035 = end of reign of Cnut of England

Dec 1037 = Harald Harefoot King of England

1039 = Gruffydd ap Llewelyn ap Sitsylt becomes Prince of Wales

1040 = end of reign of Duncan I, the Gracious, of Scotland

1040 = Macbeth King of Scotland

17 Mar 1040 = end of reign of Harald 'Harefoot' of England

18 Mar 1040 = Harthacnut King of England

8 Jun 1042 = end of reign of Harthacnut of England

2 Apr 1043 = Edward the Confessor King of England

1 May 1048 = Derby and Worcester hit by earthquake

1057 = Lady Godiva's ride through Coventry

15 Aug 1057 = end of reign of Macbeth of Scotland

16 Aug 1057 = Lulach King of Scotland

1058 = end of reign of Lulach, the Simple, of Scotland

1058 = Malcolm III Canmore King of Scotland

1063 = Bleddyn ap Cynfin becomes Primce of Wales

5 Jan 1066 = end of reign of Edward the Confessor of England

6 Jan 1066 = Harold II Godwinson King of England

25 Sep 1066 = Battle of Stamford Bridge

14 Oct 1066 = Battle of Hastings

14 Oct 1066 = end of reign of Harold II of England

Dec 1066 = England surrenders to the Normans

25 Dec 1066 = William I the Conqueror King of England

1068 = Rebellion of Edgar Atheling in the North of England crushed by normans

Dec 1069 = Normans lay waste to north of England

1070 = Rebellion of Hereward the Wake in the Fen country

1072 = Malcolm III of Scotland submits to William the Conqueror

1075 = Trahaern ap Caradog becomes Prince of Wales

1081 = Gruffydd (II) ap Cynan ap Iago becomes Prince of Wales

1087 = Domesday Book compiled

1087 = Fire sweeps through London after two years of plague

9 Sep 1087 = end of reign of William the Conqueror of England

26 Sep 1087 = William II Rufus King of England

13 Nov 1093 = end of reign of Malcolm III Canmore of Scotland

1094 = brief reign of Duncan II of Scotland

14 Nov 1094 = Donald III Ban King of Scotland

27 Nov 1095 = Pope Urban II calls for crusade to free the Holy Land

1097 = Tower of London "White Tower" completed

1097 = end of reign of Donald III, Ban, of Scotland

1097 = Edgar King of Scotland

2 Aug 1100 = William II killed in hunting accident

5 Aug 1100 = Henry I King of England

8 Jan 1107 = end of reign of Edgar of Scotland

9 Jan 1107 = Alexander I the Fierce King of Scotland

1113 = Fire destroys Worcester

23 Apr 1124 = end of reign of Alexander I, the Fierce, of Scotland

24 Apr 1124 = David I King of Scotland

1132 = City of London granted the right to elect two sheriffs

1133 = Earl of Oxford appointed first Lord Great Chamberlain by King Henry I

1 Dec 1135 = end of reign of Henry I of England

22 Dec 1135 = Stephen King of England

1137 = Owain Gwynedd becomes Prince of Wales

22 Aug 1138 = Battle of The Standard

19 May 1147 = Start of second crusade

24 May 1153 = end of reign of David I of Scotland

25 May 1153 = Malcolm IV the Maiden King of Scotland

25 Oct 1154 = end of reign of Stephen of England

19 Dec 1154 = Henry II King of England

9 Dec 1165 = end of reign of Malcolm IV, the Maiden, of Scotland

10 Dec 1165 = William I the Lion King of Scotland

1170 = Dafydd ap Owain Gwynedd becomes Prince of Wales

1176 = Lord Rhys' Eisteddfod held at Cardigan

6 Jul 1189 = end of reign of Henry II of England

3 Sep 1189 = Richard I the Lionheart King of England

1190 = Richard I departs on crusade

1191 = First Lord Mayor of London appointed

1194 = Llywelyn (II) Fawr becomes Prince of Wales

6 Apr 1199 = end of reign of Richard, the Lionheart, of England

27 May 1199 = John King of England

Nov 1209 = King John excommunicated by Pope Innocent III

4 Dec 1214 = end of reign of William I, the Lion, of Scotland

5 Dec 1214 = Alexander II the Peaceful King of Scotland

15 Jun 1215 = King John signs Magna Carta

18 Oct 1216 = end of reign of King John of England

28 Oct 1216 = Henry III King of England

1240 = Dafydd (II) ap Llywelyn becomes Prince of Wales

1246 = Llywelyn (III) ap Gruffydd ap Llywelyn becomes Prince of Wales

1249 = University College,Oxford founded

8 Jul 1249 = end of reign of Alexander II, the Peaceful, of Scotland

9 Jul 1249 = Alexander III King of Scotland

1257 = First register of Knights Bachelor started

1263 = Balliol College,Oxford founded

1264 = Merton College,Oxford founded

1264 = First Corpus Christi procession takes place

14 May 1264 = Henry III captured by Simon de Montfort at Lewes

4 Aug 1265 = Battle of Evesham

1267 = Llywelyn ap Gruffydd granted the title Prince of Wales by King Henry III

1267 = Duchy of Lancaster formed

16 Nov 1272 = end of reign of Henry III of England

17 Nov 1272 = Edward I King of England

1275 = Levy on export of wool and leather (origin of customs duties)

1277 = Institution of Norroy King of Arms covering Northern England

1282 = Llywelyn (III) died. Independant Principality of Wales ceased.

1284 = Statute of Wales "transfers wholly and entirely to the king's dominion the land of Wales"

1286 = John de Langton first recorded Master of the Rolls

19 Mar 1286 = Alexander III of Scotland thrown from his horse and dies

19 Mar 1286 = end of reign of Alexander III of Scotland

20 Mar 1286 = Margaret, Maid of Norway Queen of Scotland

1290 = Expulsion of the Jews from England

1290 = end of reign of Margaret, Maid of Norway, of Scotland

1292 = John Balliol King of Scotland

1296 = end of reign of John Balliol of Scotland

7 Feb 1301 = Prince Edward of England (later King Edward II) created Prince of Wales

23 Aug 1305 = William Wallace executed

ABT Feb 1306 = Robert I the Bruce King of Scotland

7 Jul 1307 = end of reign of Edward I of England

8 Jul 1307 = Edward II King of England

1314 = Exeter College,Oxford founded

24 Jun 1314 = Battle of Bannockburn

1318 = Recognition of Cambridge as a University by the Pope

1326 = Oriel College,Oxford founded

24 Jan 1327 = Edward II forced to abdicate

1 Feb 1327 = Edward III King of England

1329 = John Wycliffe born

7 Jun 1329 = end of reign of Robert I, the Bruce, of Scotland

8 Jun 1329 = David II King of Scotland

1333 = Suzerainty of the Isle of Man assumed by King Edward III

19 Jul 1333 = Battle of Halidon Hill

1337 = Duchy of Cornwall formed for the eldest son of the Monarch

1340 = Queen's College,Oxford founded

1343 = Edward, the Black Prince, created Prince of Wales

23 Apr 1344 = Order of the Garter founded by King Edward III at Windsor

17 Oct 1346 = Battle of Neville's Cross

1348 = King Edward III founds Military Knights of Windsor

1349 = The Black Death claims almost 1 million lives in England

1362 = Institution of Clarenceux King of Arms covering Southern England

1368 = Justices of the Peace established by statute

22 Feb 1371 = end of reign of David II of Scotland

23 Feb 1371 = Robert II King of Scotland

1376 = First recorded Speaker of the House of Commons chosen

8 Jun 1376 = end of reign of Edward III of England

22 Feb 1377 = Parliament votes in Poll Tax

16 Jul 1377 = Richard II King of England

1379 = New College,Oxford founded

1381 = Wat Tyler died

Jun 1381 = The Peasants Revolt

12 Jun 1381 = Riots in London over Poll Tax

1384 = John Wycliffe died

1384 = First English Bible produced

1388 = Tyburn first used as a place of execution

19 Apr 1390 = end of reign of Robert II of Scotland

20 Apr 1390 = Robert III King of Scotland

30 Sep 1399 = end of reign of Richard II of England

13 Oct 1399 = Henry IV King of England

1399 = Duchy of Lancaster merged with the Crown when the Duke of Lancater became King Henry IV

14 Sep 1402 = Battle of Homildon Hill

1403 = John Stanley becomes 'King of Mann' and starts the Earls of Derby's association with the island

4 Apr 1406 = end of reign of Robert III, John Faranyeir, of Scotland

5 Apr 1406 = James I King of Scotland

1410 = St.Andrew's University founded

20 Mar 1413 = end of reign of Henry IV of England

21 Mar 1413 = Henry V King of England

1417 = Institution of Office of Garter King of Arms

31 Aug 1422 = end of reign of Henry V of England

1 Sep 1422 = Henry VI King of England

1427 = Lincoln College,Oxford founded

21 Feb 1437 = end of reign of James I of Scotland

22 Feb 1437 = James II Fiery Face King of Scotland

1438 = All Souls College,Oxford founded

1440 = Creation of the first Viscount (Viscount Beaumont)

1441 = Founding of Eton College by King Henry VI

1441 = Founding of King's College,Cambridge by King Henry VI

1445 = Foundation of Pancake races at Olney,Bucks.

ABT 1450 = Invention of moveable type press by J Gutenberg

Aug 1453 = Henry VI becomes mentally unstable

1455 = Start of Wars of the Roses

1458 = Magdalen College,Oxford founded

23 Sep 1459 = Battle of Blore Heath

ABT 1460 = Order of the Thistle instituted in Scotland by King James III of Scotland

10 Jul 1460 = Battle of Northampton

3 Aug 1460 = end of reign of James II, Fiery Face, of Scotland

4 Aug 1460 = James III King of Scotland

31 Dec 1460 = Battle of Wakefield

2 Feb 1461 = Battle of Mortimer's Cross

16 Feb 1461 = Battle of St Albans 2

29 Mar 1461 = Battle of Towton

27 Jun 1461 = end of reign of Henry VI of England

28 Jun 1461 = Edward IV King of England

1469 = Shetland becomes part of Scotland

11 Oct 1470 = Henry VI flees to The Hague

14 Apr 1471 = Battle of Barnet

14 May 1471 = Battle of Tewkesbury

ABT 1475 = Invention of the muzzle-loading rifle

1478 = Caxton publishes Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales"

1479 = The Black Death re-emerges

9 Apr 1483 = end of reign of Edward IV of England

10 Apr 1483 = Edward V King of England

26 Jun 1483 = end of reign of Edward V of England

27 Jun 1483 = Richard III Crookback King of England

Oct 1483 = Edward V and brother executed in the Tower of London

2 Mar 1484 = College of Heralds established by Richard III

1485 = Queen's Bodyguard of the Yeomen of the Guard founded

7 Aug 1485 = Henry Tudor's landing at Milford Haven

22 Aug 1485 = Battle of Bosworth Field

22 Aug 1485 = End of Wars of the Roses

23 Aug 1485 = Henry VII Tudor King of England

16 Jun 1487 = Battle of Stoke

11 Jun 1488 = end of reign of James III of Scotland

12 Jun 1488 = James IV King of Scotland

1489 = First pound coin minted

1495 = Aberdeen University established

1497 = Office of Lord President of the Council established

1497 = Syphilis breaks out in Scotland