My research subject is "Rehabilitation and Availability of Waterways in Metro Manila". In the beginning, I will explain the present situation. Pasig River is the river which flows through Metro Manila. The water quality of Pasig River is highly deteriorated because of human discharge.
The GDP of the Philippines was $83.8 billion in 1996. This is almost equal to Japanese GDP in 1950's. We can say that it will take at least 40 years to catch up with developed countries like Japan. So, it is impossible to improve environmental situation in the Philippines soon. Consequently, it is necessary to propose a new social system that doesn't need a high infrastructure.
To improve the water quality of Pasig river we propose that the waterways be rehabilitated. The waterways in Metro Manila are currently abandoned. Some creeks are reclaimed and some are covered by roads, some are used for squatter's houses.
In Japan there used to be a similar situation. The more active land transportation became, the less active waterborne transportation became. The Philippines followed a same way. However, the transportation situation in the Philippines is kind of terrible. It doesn't work efficiently. So, if the waterways are rehabilitated, heavy traffic jam will disappear.
In addition, the rehabilitation of waterways will resolve other problems. One is a relief of flood. Some regions in the Metro Manila suffer from flood, sometimes. That is because the capacity of drainage is very low. If waterways are rehabilitated, the flood will be relieved. The other advantage of rehabilitation of waterways is that they can transport waste material through waterways. There is a project of waste reduction. According to this project they transport waste material somewhere to dispose. It is impossible to transport them on land because of the present transportation situation in Metro Manila. Waterways make it possible to do so.
Photo 1 shows "New-Type Toilet" called Bio-toilet. The septic tank is replaced by a composting chamber filled with sawdust. After using the toilet, the push of a button activates a spiral screw, and the sawdust is turned over. In a composting chamber, aerobic bacteria decompose human waste. After half a year, sawdust and human waste becomes compost. The merits of using Bio-toilet are no water is required and the cost of installation is relatively cheap. This means that introducing Bio-toilet to the Philippines is very practical for restoring water quality of the Pasig River. In addition, compost is easy to transport. Obviously, nobody wants to transport human discharge, but once human discharge becomes compost, it is easy to transport.