International Workshop

“ Traces of the Ancient European Past ”

Ljubljana, 10. – 11. October, 2003



A B S T R A C T S


Page Created: November 25, 2003
Last Updated: December 7, 2003
©Copyright 2003 Gary L. Gorsha


























TABLE OF CONTENTS

      GIACOMO DEVOTO – VENETI IN PANNONIA by Lucijan Vuga
      GIACOMO DEVOTO – VENETI V PANONIJI ob Lucijan Vuga

      RUNIC WRITING AND ALPHABET WRITING by Valery A. Choudinov
      RUNICA IN ČRKOVNE PISAVE ob Valery A. Choudinov

      THE INSCRIPTION PAULI No. 39 by Ivan Tomažič, Giancarlo Tomezzoli
      NAPIS PAULI No. 39 ob Ivan Tomažič and Giancarlo Tomezzoli

      SOME PHRYGIAN INSCRIPTIONS by A. Ambrozic
      NEKAJ FRIGIJSKIH NAPISOV ob A. Ambrozic

      THE "TAVOLA DA ESTE" INSCRIPTION by A. Ambrozic and G. Tomezzoli
      NAPIS "TAVOLA DA ESTE" ob A. Ambrozic in G. Tomezzoli

      BASE TEN COUNTING AS THE EXTENSION OF THE ARCHETYPICAL BASE FIVE SYSTEM OF BASQUES AND SLAVS by Petr Jandáček
      ŠTETJE NA DESETIŠKI OSNOVI KOT PODALJŠEK ŠTETJA NA PETIŠKI OSNOVI PRI BASKIH IN SLOVANIH ob Petr Jandáček

      THE SLAVIC TRIBES ON THE ST. EUSEBIUS’ MAP by Valery Choudinov
      SLOVANSKA PLEMENA NA ZEMLJEVIDU SV. EVZEBIJA ob Valery Choudinov

      ANTIQUE MAPS OF GALLIA by Dimitrij Kebe
      ANTIČNI ZEMLJEVIDI GALIJE ob Dimitrij Kebe

      PREHISTORIC GLOBALITY? by Bogdan Krištofer Meško
      PRAGLOBALNOST ? ob Bogdan Krištofer Meško

      ROOTS OF THE WESTERN AND SOUTHERN SLAVS by V. Vodopivec
      KORENINE ZAHODNIH IN JUŽNIH SLOVANOV ob V. Vodopivec

      RELIGION OF THE ANCIENT LATOBICI by Leopold Sever
      VEROVANJA STARIH LOBJANCEV ob Leopold Sever

      AN ETHNOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE VENETI by Vojislav P. Nikčević
      VENETI U JEDNOJ ETNOLOŠKOJ INTERPRETACIJI ob Vojislav P. Nikčević

      A CRITICSM OF A MONOGENETIC (MONOCENTRIC) ETHNIC AND LINGUISTIC APPROACH (Linguist Fran Ramovš as neo-grammarian) by Vojislav P. Nikčevič
      KRITIKA MONOGENETSKOGA (MONOCENTRIČNOG) ETNIČKOGA I JEZIČKOG PRISTUPA - Fran Ramovš kao mladogramatičar ob Vojislav P. Nikčevič

      THE ORIGINAL MEANING AND ATTRIBUTES OF THE ROMAN GOD MARS by Eric Tomas
      STARORIMSKI BOG MARS, NJEGOV PRVOTEN POMEN IN VZDEVKI ob Eric Tomas

      COMPARISON OF READINGS OF INSCRIPTION ON THE SWORD OF VERONA by Vinko Vodopivec
      PRIMERJAVA BRANJ NAPISA NA MEČU IZ VERONE ob Vinko Vodopivec

THE ABSTRACTS

GIACOMO DEVOTO – VENETI IN PANNONIA

Lucijan Vuga

Linguists Lejeune, Devoto and Pellegrini-Prosdocimi (the last two published the famous Lingua Venetica; and incidentally, Prosdocimi obtained his Ph.D. under Devoto) represent a coherent group, which defends the theory of the Panonian origin of the Venetic people.  Devoto recognizes distinct lexical Indoeuropean groups already in 2nd millenium B.C.

We have some conflicting historical data about Veneti.  However, Italian etymologist Giacomo Devoto (Dizionario etimologico, Felice Le Monier Ed., Firenze, 1968; map I) states that in the 2nd millenium B.C., Veneti, together with Protolatinians, lived in Pannonia north of the Danube, and from there moved southward into Italy.  Their neighbors to the east were a small group of Thracians, and close to them Slavs.  Such a theory supposed quite clearly the formation of ethnic groups already in the 2nd millenium B.C.  But taking into account the theory of continuity (TC), Mario Alinei states that Slavs were spread over the whole Balkan peninsula, and westward in the eastern Alps already during the Neolithic period.  Why did Devoto posit Venetic migration from Panonia to Italy in the 2nd millenium B.C.?; according to the TC this necessarily lead through the Slavic settled territory, which could not have happened without a considerable impact on the language.  However, considering all the facts, the theory of continuity is much more acceptable, stating that settlement stability and prevalent cultural exchanges were more relevant in influencing ethnic development.  Veneti were living in a wide area of Europe far earlier and in close proximity or, from my mind, in unity with Slavs.  This can also be derived from Devoto's (and other's) statements concerning the location of distinct Indo-European languages in Europe during the 2nd millenium B.C. or Neolithic period.

GIACOMO DEVOTO – VENETI V PANONIJI

Lucijan Vuga

Jezikoslovci Lejeune, Devoto in Pellegrini-Prosdocimi (zadnja dva sta izdala slovečo knjigo Lingua venetica; in mimogrede, Prosdocimi je doktoriral pri Devotu) predstavljajo usklajeno skupino, ki zagovarja teorijo panonskega izvora Venetov. Devoto jasno razločuje različne indoevropske jezikovne skupine že v 2. tisočletju pr.n.št.

Imamo nekaj nasprotujočih si zgodovinskih podatkov o Venetih. Vendar italijanski etimolog Giacomo Devoto (Dizionario etimologico, Felice Le Monier Ed., Firenze, 1968; map I) meni, da so Veneti v 2. tisočletju pr.n.št. (skupaj s Protolatinci) živeli v Panoniji, severno od Donave, od tam so se premaknili na jug, v Italijo. Njihovi vzhodni sosedje so bili ne prav številni Tračani, ob teh pa so bili že Slovani. Takšna teorija predpostavlja jasno izoblikovanje etničnih skupin že v 2. tisočletju pr.n.št. Toda če upoštevamo teorijo kontinuitete (TK), Mario Alinei meni, da so Slovani živeli po vsem Balkanu ter zahodneje v Vzhodnih Alpah že v neolitiku. Devoto predpostavlja venetsko migracijo iz Panonije (zakaj?) v Italijo v 2. tisočletju pr.n.št., skladno s TK to vodi neposredno skozi ozemlje poseljeno s Slovani, kar se ni moglo zgoditi brez znatnejšega vpliva tudi na jezik. Očitno je ob upoštevanju vseh dejstev veliko verjetnejša teorija kontinuitete, da je obstajala pomembna naselitvena stabilnost in je pretežno kulturna izmenjava vplivala na razvoj etnosov. Veneti so bili že zelo zgodaj na razsežnem prostoru Evrope v tesnem sosedstvu, ali po mojem mnenju, v skupnosti s Slovani. To konsekventno sledi tudi iz Devotovih (in drugih) stališč, o razporeditvi ločenih indoevropskih jezikov v Evropi.

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RUNIC WRITING AND ALPHABET WRITING

V. A. Choudinov

Slavic syllabic writing or runica is introduced.  Examples of the use of runica, a short history of its decipherment, and the syllabary is given.  On the basis of runica and Cyrillic script interaction, the period during which the change from syllabic to alphabetic writing resulted is estimated.  Also presented is the hypothesis about the quality of the process of transition for every change from runica to ethnic alphabet writing.  The coexistence of runica with Glagolitic, Greek and Latin writing is shown for some examples.  Finally, some runica inscriptions on the artifacts from Noricum and the Venetian regions were read, on a coin, armor and a helmet.

RUNICA IN ČRKOVNE PISAVE

V. A. Choudinov

Predstavljena je slovanska zlogovna pisava runica, primeri njene rabe, kratka zgodovina razvozlavanja in zlogovnik.  Na podlagi soobstoja runice in cirilice je ocenjeno obdobje v katerem je prišlo do prehoda z zlogovne pisave na črkovno.  Predstavljena bo hipoteza, ki osvetljuje kvaliteto transformacijskega procesa pri vsaki spremembi runice glede na pisavo določene etnije.  V nekaterih primerih je vidno tudi soobstajanje runice z glagolico, latinico in grško pisavo.  Predstavljeno je branje nekaterih napisov v runici na predmetih iz Norika in Benečije, n. pr na kovancu, oklepu in čeladi.

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THE INSCRIPTION PAULI No. 39

Ivan Tomažič, Giancarlo Tomezzoli

C. Pauli wrote concisely in German:  "39. Inscription on a small dish, found near Verona."  He provides the layout of the inscription, the spelling:  KOLIVETU, but he does not provide a translation of the inscription.

J. Rhys in dealing with the inscription provides the spelling:  KOLIUETU. He sets out that the first four signs from the right of the inscription would represent the word:  KOLI which, on the basis of the English, and other Celtic languages would mean holly, and that the further signs would represent the word:  UIEDU which on the basis of the Irish, the Welsh and the Breton means wood, tree.  Rhys concludes that the idea conveyed by said words is a name or nickname of a man, who would be armed at every point, like the holly.

J. Wathmough provides for the inscription the spelling:  KOLZI * ETU, and concludes that the alphabet of the inscription is mixed, and that the punctuation dot would indicate some connection of the inscription with the Magré group of inscriptions rather than a connection with the Lepontic inscriptions.

M. Bor observed that:  “Punctuation was used in many cases to better differentiate two letters from one another, or simply as a form of decoration”.  Bor used similarities with the Slovenian and other old and modern Slavic languages to translate Venetic, Etruscan and Rhaethian (Magré) inscriptions.

Interpretation of I. Tomažič:

Reading the inscription from right to left, considering the fourth, fifth and sixth sign, each representing the letter I, it is possible to arrive at the word KOLIIIETU, which can be interpreted as follows:  KOLIJ JE TU and give:  Plant the grapevines, the time is here (i.e., has arrived).

Interpretation of G. Tomezzoli:

Reading the inscription from right to left, considering the fourth and fifth signs II as forming the letter Y (yod) and observing that the sixth sign, because of its inclined top and bottom portions, represents the letter S, it is possible to arrive at the word:  KOLYSETU, which can be interpreted as follows:  KOLYS E TU and give:  The pungency is here (i.e., connected with the substance inside the dish).

In the first case the inscription is an invitation to start an agricultural chore, in the second case the inscription is a warning informing the user about the kind of content inside the dish.

In any case, the writer of the inscription belonged to an ancient people whose language was closer to the Slavic languages than to the Latin, Italic Celtic or Saxon languages.

NAPIS PAULI No. 39

Ivan Tomažič, Giancarlo Tomezzoli

C. Pauli je napisal na kratko po nemško:  “39.  Napis na posodici, najdeni blizu Verone.”  Predstavil je napis, njegovo prečrkovanje:  KOLIVETU, ni ga pa prevedel.  Tomažič ga prečrkuje kot KOLIIIETU, bere kot KOLIJ JE TU in prevede v:  POSADI TRTO, ČAS JE.  Tomezzoli ga prečrkuje kot KOLYSETU, bere kot KOLYS E TU in prevede kot:  TU JE OSTRA ZAČIMBA.  V prvem primeru bi napis vabil k delu, v drugem pa opozarjal na vsebino v posodici.  Vsekakor je pisec napisa pripadal nekdanjemu ljudstvu, katerega jezik je bil bliže slovanščinikot latinščini, italščinam, keltščinam ali saščinam.

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SOME PHRYGIAN INSCRIPTIONS

A. Ambrozic

Phrygian inscriptions W-010, W-01b, P-05, G-02, and B-01 are presented, along with their transcription, division into words, and translation into Slovenian and English.

NEKAJ FRIGIJSKIH NAPISOV

A. Ambrozic

Predstavljeni so frigijski napisi z oznakami W-010, W-01b, P-05, G-02 in B-01, njihov prepis, delitev v besede in prevod.

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THE "TAVOLA DA ESTE" INSCRIPTION

A. Ambrozic, G. Tomezzoli

As far as can be understood, the meaning of this rather incomplete inscription appears to point away from a contractual form or a juridical regulation as suggested by Prof. A. Marinetti.  The inscription appears rather to address religious regulations or invocations mixed in an epic poem probably directed at a specific group of persons:  either seafarers, or a family or a tribe of the Venetic people.

NAPIS "TAVOLA DA ESTE"

A. Ambrozic, G. Tomezzoli

Kolikor je mogoče razumeti nepopolni napis, pomen napisa kaže, da to ni pogodba ali pravni akt, kakor predlaga prof. A. Marinetti.  Napis bolj verjetno daje verska navodila ali zaklinjanja pomešana v epski pesmi, namenjeni posebni skupini ljudi:  ali pomorščakom ali družini ali rodu venetskih ljudi.

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BASE TEN COUNTING AS THE EXTENSION OF
THE ARCHETYPICAL BASE FIVE SYSTEM OF BASQUES AND SLAVS

Petr Jandáček

The Basque and Slavic words for “FIVE” are derived from their words for “hand” or “fist”.  Their words for “SIX” contain the vestigial feature of “with”.  Both the Basque and Slavic words for “SEVEN” actually mean “with two more”.  Numerals beyond four in non-Slav Indo-European languages have lost the sense of etymology derived from this manual and digital concept.  While the RHYME and REASON for naming numerals is preserved in Slavic only, the phonemic structure of the numerals has been largely maintained in all Indo-European languages without the speakers’ understanding of the etymology.  Thus, deep within the common Base Ten counting system is the archetypical Basque and Slavic Base Five arithmetic arrangement.

ŠTETJE NA DESETIŠKI OSNOVI KOT PODALJŠEK
ŠTETJA NA PETIŠKI OSNOVI PRI BASKIH IN SLOVANIH

Petr Jandáček

Baskovske in slovanske besede za število 5 (PET) izhajajo iz besed kot sta ROKA in PEST.  Besede za število 6 (ŠEST) imajo ostanke besed S ali SE in PEST.  Baskovske in slovanske besede za število 7 (SEDEM) dejansko pomenijo ŠE DVA (ali DVA VEČ).  Števila višja od 4 (ŠTIRI) izpeljana iz osnovnih pojmov v zvezi z roko in prsti so izgubila besedotvorni pomen v vseh indoevropskih jezikih, razen v slovanskih.  Čeprav se tega ljudje na splošno ne zavedajo, sta v slovanskih jezikih ohranjena tako rima kot razlog za poimenovanje števil, medtem ko so pri štetju v drugih indo-evropskih jezikih ohranjene samo glasovne prvine jezika.  V sedanjem štetju po desetiškem sistemu je pri Baskih in Slovanih skrit prvotni način štetja na osnovi števila PET.

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THE SLAVIC TRIBES ON THE ST. EUSEBIUS’ MAP

Valery Choudinov

The St. Eusebius’ map (circa 330 AD) found by German historian K. Miller is shown.  The Latin names of Slavic tribes written in Latin script, as well as in Russian written in runica script were read and interpreted.  This map was combined with the modern archaeological map of Slavic cultures to see the location of nine Slavic tribes.  Now we can see the Slavic tribes' names and their location on the map of Eastern Europe as early as in the Late Antiquity.  It is the first Slavic Eastern Europe map of such type.

SLOVANSKA PLEMENA NA ZEMLJEVIDU SV. EVZEBIJA

Valery Choudinov

Zemljevid sv. Evzebija (okoli 330 po Kr.) je našel nemški zgodovinar K. Miller.  Prebrana in razložena so imena slovanskih plemen v latinščini, pisana v latinici, in v ruščini, pisana z runico.  Ta zemljevid je prerisan na sodoben arheološki zemljevid slovanskih kultur, da bi videli dejansko lego 9 slovanskih plemen.  Sedaj lahko vidimo, kje so bila v vzhodni Evropi slovanska plemena v pozni antiki.  To je prvi tak slovanski zemljevid vzhodne Evrope.

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ANTIQUE MAPS OF GALLIA

Dimitrij Kebe

A survey of antique maps related to ancient Gallia, the Veneti and other ancient populations of Europe are presented.  The maps show us the situation in the time of Julius Caesar and up to the present.

ANTIČNI ZEMLJEVIDI GALIJE

Dimitrij Kebe

Geografski prikaz in pregled starih zemljevidov, ki se nanašajo na Venete in staroselce Evrope.  Zemljevidi prikazujejo stanje v času Julija Cezarja in vse do danes.

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PREHISTORIC GLOBALITY ?

Bogdan Krištofer Meško

The technology of fire has been known to the human race for approximately one million years.  Despite the great age of human memory and the fact that people in many places, including some places in our own country of Slovenia, lived even less than 100 years ago, almost the same way as during the neolithic, we are witnessing in the last century the mass extinction of pre-historic and historic traditions all over the world.  This can be attributed to the so-called “technological progress” e.g., discovery of fossil, electric and nuclear energy, invention of new materials, global communications and mass media, mass computerization and genetic manipulations, all based on the unstoppable, conquering march of modern science.  The triumph of science with its deterministic approach, methods, experiments and calculations depreciated and humiliated all ancient mythic descriptions and perceptions of the world.  This depreciation can only be compared with the expansion of Christianity in Europe of the Middle Ages, which in a similar way absorbed or destroyed most of the pagan traditions and myths; or with a similar revolution occurring at the end of the neolithic period triggered by the invention of metallurgy, when people, due to the technical advantage and superiority of new materials and technology, lost interest in preserving the old knowledge accumulated and mediated by their ancestors for thousands of years.  According to history, massive migrations of peoples occurring during both revolutionary periods can be attributed to the break from and the loss of traditions.

The negligence of the comparative history and rather narrow view of our own tradition stimulates the feeling of a basic diversity of different nationalities, despite and in contrast to the 'melting pot' processes of contemporary globalization.  This is evident in particular in the field of linguistics.  One should just compare the point of view of our distinguished historian Valvasor, quoting that Slovenian is spoken from the Alps down to Japan, with the present distinction between the Serb and Croat language or with the slovenistic purification of all “foreign” or even “foreign sounding” words ( with the exception of Latin or Greek).  But this is not only valid for just the Slavic languages.  The designations as Germanic, Roman, Slavic, Semitic etc. by themselves pose virtually insurmountable barriers between the peoples.  And this can hardly be based on some solid argument, in particular since we all are aware of the common origin of all Indo-Europeans.  Further one could also infer the common origin of all peoples (and hence also of all the languages, as said by the Bible).  After all, actually all living creatures , including plants, have their origin in the same primordial Ocean.

The present paper on pre-historic globalization is an attempt to find a connection between the contemporary and ancient world on the basis of comparison between Slovenian words and words from ancient vocabularies (e.g., Cretan, Punic, Egyptian, Hetitic and Sanskrit languages).  In addition, the quest for the spiritual horizon of ancient ancestors was oriented after the light cast from the deepest layers of our past by the almost universal legends and myths of ancient peoples as reflected also in Slovenian mythology.

PRAGLOBALNOST ?
Poskus osvetlitve slovenske etnogeneze s primerjalnim jezikoslovjem in bajeslovjem

Bogdan Krištofer Meško

Ogenj pozna človek že okrog milijona let.  A čeprav je človeški spomin tako starodaven in so tudi pri nas ponekod še pred manj kot sto leti živeli enako, kot v mlajši kameni dobi, prihaja v zadnjem stoletju po vsem svetu do tako množičnih prekinitev z izročili, predvsem zaradi tehničnega napredka (elektrifikacije, uporabe fosilnih goriv, komunikologije in množičnih medijev), da je zmagoviti pohod znanosti zadnjih nekaj stoletij, ki je z meritvami in izračuni razvrednotila vse starodavne mitične opise sveta, moč primerjati tako s pohodom krščanstva v evropskem srednjem veku, ki je podobno zmagovito vsrkal ali prekinil mnoga poganska izročila, kot s kovinsko revolucijo ob koncu mlajše kamene dobe, ko ljudje zaradi tehničnih prednosti novih tehnologij niso videli več toliko smisla v ohranjanju nespremenjenih izročil. Obema obdobjema zgodovina zaradi prekinitve izročil prisoja množične pohode novih ljudstev.

Zanemarjanje primerjalne zgodovine in ozek pogled na lastna izročila kljub taljenju v sodobno globalnost vzpodbuja občutek temeljne drugačnosti različnih narodnih skupin, kar je še posebej očitno na področju jezikoslovja. Primerjajmo le Valvazorjevo stališče, da se slovenski jezik uporablja od Alp do Japonske, s sodobnim ločevanjem med srbščino in hrvaščino, ali s slovenističnim čiščenjem vseh 'tuje' zvenečih besed (razen grško-latinskih). To pa ne velja le za slovanske jezike. Že same oznake germansko, romansko, slovansko, semitsko itn, postavljajo med ljudi lahko navidezno nepremostljive meje, čeprav komaj utemeljene, saj vemo za skupen izvor vseh Indoevropejcev, sklepamo pa lahko tudi na skupen izvor vseh narodov človeške vrste (in tako tudi vseh jezikov, kot pravi izročilo biblije), saj dejansko vse živalstvo, tako kot tudi rastlinstvo, izvira iz enega in istega praoceana.

Pričujoči spis o praglobalnosti poskuša najti prehod med sodobnim in med starodobnim svetom s pomočjo primerjave domačih slovenskih besed z različnimi starodobnimi besednjaki (kretsko, hetitsko, sanskrt, egipčansko, punsko) poleg tega pa se v svojem iskanju duhovnega obzorja starodobnega človeka ravna tako po žarkih, ki jih s konca rova globoke preteklosti mečejo središčne pripovedi starodobnih narodov, kot po njihovih odsevih v slovenskem bajeslovju.

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ROOTS OF THE WEST AND SOUTH SLAVS

V. Vodopivec

Many theories have been put forward searching for the roots of Slavic peoples in the Danube basin (e.g., Vinča culture or Lepenski vir), in the Lusatian region (Urnfield culture), in the Afro-European area, or in the broader Mediterranean area (Adriatic and Paphlagonian Veneti), or in all these regions.  The peoples were defined by their need to conform to the living conditions during and after the last glacial period which ended before 8000 B.C.  The common original language began to differentiate only with the beginning of agriculture, and when the population began to be bound to the fertile cultivated farmland.  This differentiation was further accelerated by the formation of small city states, which created boundaries and mutual competition between each other.

KORENINE ZAHODNIH IN JUŽNIH SLOVANOV

V. Vodopivec

Korenine slovanskih narodov obravnava več teorij z izvori v donavskem bazenu (kultura Vinče in Lepenskega vira), v Lužiškem bazenu (Kultura žarnih grobišč), v Afroevropskem bazenu ali Sredozemlju (jadranski in paflagonski Veneti) ali na vseh navedenih mestih dokaj enakomerno.  Ljudstva so se oblikovala skladno s pogoji življenja med in po zadnji poledenitvi, ki se končuje nekako do leta 8000 pred Kristusom.  Skupni prajezik se je začel močneje razlikovati šele z začetkom poljedelstva, ko so bili ljudje bolj vezani na dobre obdelovalne površine.  Pospešeno razlikovanje pa so vzpodbujale posamezne mestne državice, ki so z zapiranjem in tekmovanjem tako razlikovanje močno pospeševale.

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RELIGION OF THE ANCIENT LOBYANCI

Leopold Sever

Lobyanci or Lobici (Lobjanci, Lobiki) is a very old name for the inhabitants of the Western Lower Carniola (Dolenjska).  The name was derived from the rounded hills, nowadays known as Lower Carniola hills (Dolenjsko gričevje).  After the Roman occupation in the 1st century B.C., the new rulers gave them a Romanized name, Latobici.

Before the Roman occupation, the Lobyanci were organized into communities (so-called 'zhupajevine' or 'shpajevine'), headed by leaders called shpan or zhupaj.  In addition to their political and economic activities (agriculture, stockbreeding, particularly horse breeding, hunting, trading, iron mining and foundry working), they also developed two other efficiently organized systems:  their defense (of the community) and their spiritual life.  The center of their defensive system was fortified settlements, usually on hills (ancient forts) with a shpan village, which offered solid protection to the inhabitants of shpajevina and all their movable property in the case of an outside attack or plundering raid.  The center of their spiritual life was the worshiping of nature which in this way developed a divine character.  In the Lobyanci region, the predominant cult was the worship of water in all three of its aggregate states and in all its vital fluids.  At that time it was called muzha, nowadays also called mocha.  Since the muzha can be found in three aggregate states, it got a divine name “Trimozhje” (originally Trimuzhjad).  Our ancient ancestors erected many sanctuaries devoted to this aquatic deity which were also a destination of pilgrimage for the worshipers.  A very well-known such sanctuary was in the contemporary village of Škocjan near Turjak.  In Western Lower Carniola numerous names (hydronyms) for the worshiped waters are still preserved.  These are famous streams Trmozhniks Zdravshcheks.  Until recently, just before the Second World War, the Trmozhnik near the village of Draga was still frequently visited by the neighboring population just for drinking the healing water and for taking healing baths.

The souls of the deceased Lobyanci departed after death to the »other, next world«, which meant to either the dark or the bright side of the Moon (e.g., in popular saying to be »beyond the Moon«).  The worshipped stellar body acquired the divine name, Reitija, apparently due to the functional similarity to the common tool of farmers, the »rejta« (a riddle).  According to the beliefs of the ancestors, the transfer of souls to the other world or vice versa was accomplished by the holy birds (big or small tice or ptice).  The Moon or the holy Reitija reflected and spread the light during the night and hence was designated as shajnata (i.e., shining).  With time the attribute »shajnat« was acquired by all who served this holy stellar body and which was where they could continue the post-mortem life.  So along with the Shajnata Reitija, we know also of the existence of »Shajnato Trimozhje« and of »Shajnata Tica« (known in Slovenian ancient mythology also as Zhar Tica).  All the deities important for life on this or the next world and designated as »shajnata« were worshiped by our ancient ancestors who donated and offered to them a ransom, called »toler«.

The religious life of the old Slavic Lobyanci, ancestors of the present inhabitants of Western Lower Carniola left numerous and rather richly preserved traces.  We can easily recognize them by carefully studying our living habits, our toponyms and onomastics of our vocabulary, and by observing and verifying nature, and by experiments.  All the religious names for the worshipped nature have an onomatopoetic origin and possess a profound Slovenian sonority.  During the very long period of formation of our ethnicity, Western Lower Carniola was rather isolated, without too many foreign influences and with rather small immigration.  This can be a clue as to why the Lower Carniolan dialects are so rich on the preserved traces and proofs of our pre-historic period.  The linguistic proofs of our relic and autochthonous existence in Central Europe become even more persuasive if one compares them with the existing archeological facts.  Both of these proofs are in excellent agreement with the inscriptions written by the ancient Veneti over two thousand years ago.

VEROVANJA STARIH LOBJANCEV

Leopold Sever

Lobjanci ali Lobiki je staro ime za prebivalce zahodne Dolenjske.  Ime so dobili po pretežno zaobljenih (lobastih) vzpetinah, danes imenovanih Dolenjsko gričevje.  Po rimski okupaciji so jim novi gospodarji ime romanizirali v Latobike.  Pred rimsko zasedbo so bili Lobjanci organizirani v skupnosti imenovane španovine ali župajevine pod vodstvom španov in župajev.

V okviru svojih »državic« so poleg gospodarske dejavnosti (poljedelstvo, živinoreja – posebej konjereja, lov, železarstvo in trgovina) razvili dva učinkovita sistema:  obrambnega in duhovnega.

Središče obrambnega sistema so bila utrjena gradišča s špansko vasjo, kamor so se v nevarnih časih zatekli špajani z vsem premičnim imetjem in se postavili v bran plenilcem.

Jedro duhovnosti je bilo čaščenje narave, ki je s tem dobila božanski značaj.  Na Lobjanskem je prevladoval kult vode in vseh njenih življenjskih tekočin.  Tedaj so ji rekli muža, danes pa ji pravimo moča.  Ker se muža pojavlja v treh agregatnih stanjih, so jo po božje imenovali Trimožje (izvirno Trimužjad).  Naši prazgodovinski predniki Lobjanci so vodnemu božanstvu postavljali tudi svetišča kamor so romali (prvotno (t)rumali) številni častilci.  Najbolj znano svetišče je bilo v današnjem Škocjanu pri Turjaku.  Na dolenjskem zahodu se je obdržalo več izvirnih imen za oboževane vode.  To so znameniti Trmožniki in Zdravščki.  K Dražanskemu Trmožniku so okoličani hodili po zdravje in vodo obredno častili vse do začetka druge svetovne vojne.

Duše umrlih Lobjancev so po smrti odšle na »oni svet«, to se pravi na svetlo in na temno stran lune (za luno).  Po božje čaščeno nebesno telo je zaradi ujemanja s poljedelsko rejto dobilo božansko ime Reitija.  Prenos duš s tega na oni svet in v obratni smeri, so po prepričanju prednamcev, opravile ptice (nekdaj velike in male tice).

Luna, po božje Reitija, je širila (odbijala) svetlobo, zato je bila šajnata.  Sčasoma so pridevnik šajnat dobili vsi, ki so služili sveti nebesni popotnici, na kateri se je nadaljevalo življenje po smrti.  Tako ni bila šajnata samo Reitija temveč tudi Trimožje (šajnato Trimožje) in ptice (šajnate Tice imenovane tudi Žar-tice.)  Vse »šajnate«, ki so imeli pomembno vlogo pri zemeljskem in zagrobnem življenju, so naši predniki častili in jim nosili odkupnino imenovano toler.

Versko življenje staroslovenskih Lobjancev, prednikov današnjih zahodnih Dolenjcev, je pustilo bogate sledi.  Spoznamo jih, če tenkočutno preučimo naše življenjske navade, naša zemljepisna imena in vse naše besedišče in vse to preverimo v naravi ali z eksperimentom. Vsi našteti izrazi za oboževano naravo imajo onomatopoetično izhodišče in izrazito slovensko glasovno zvočnost.  Zahodna Dolenjska je imela v vsem času naše etnogeneze zelo malo priseljevanja in tujih vplivov, zato so zahodno dolenjska narečja še posebej bogata z dokazili o naši prazgodovinski preteklosti.  Jezikovna dokazila o naši starožitnosti v srednji Evropi postanejo še prepričljivejša, če jim priložimo pravilno pojasnjene arheološke ostaline.  Oboje pa je v čudoviti skladnosti z napisi, ki so jih pred več kot dvema tisočletjema zapisali naši prednamci, staroveški Veneti.

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AN ETHNOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE VENETI

Vojislav P. Nikčević

The paper presents data on the Veneti as ancestors of Slovenians or Slovjens published by the Serbian ethnologist Tatomir Vukanović in his book Ethnogenesis of the South Slavs (Vranje, 1974).  These data have been collected from the writings of ancient authors dating from the 6th century AD.  The data explicitly or hypothetically identify Slovenians as the Veneti even in the period when they were still settled in their primeval homeland in northeastern Europe and also later on their newly acquired territories all over Europe after their migration from their homeland towards the East, West and South.  In the interpretation of the ancient authors, the name Slov(j)&en(e) is formed from the basic part slov- from the Slovjen word slovo (i.e., word or speech) and the non-slovjen suffix – vene stemming from the West European word Veneti with the meaning of western dwellers of the sea coast in the time when the Veneti were settling the coasts of the Baltic before the appearance of name Slov(j)en(e).  Accordingly the ethnonym Slovenec as one of the synonyms of the name Slovjene was formed from slov + veneti→ slovveneti → sloveneci → Slovenci.  This is the essence of the etymology of this ethnonym as explained in the morphological and semantic meaning of this name.

VENETI U JEDNOJ ETNOLOŠKOJ INTERPRETACIJI

Vojislav P. Nikčević

Donose se podaci o Venetima kao Slovjenima, odnosno Slovencima, koje je srpski etnolog Tatomir Vukanović objavio u knjizi Etnogeneza Južnih Slovena (Vranje, 1974).  Ti podaci sadržani su u spisima antičkijeh pisaca datiranim od VI. vijeka.  Ti podaci izrično ili hipotetično identifikuju Slovjene kao Venete još dok su prebivali u njihovoj pradomovini na evropskom śeveroistoku, ali i na njihovijem teritorijama nastanjenim širom Evrope nakon seoba iz te pradomovine na istok, zapad i jug.  I u interpretaciji antičkijeh pisaca naziv Slovjen(e) sačinjen je od osnove slov- iz slovjenske riječi slovo "riječ, govor" + neslovjenski nastavak -vene iz zapadnoevropske riječi Veneti u značenju zapadni "nastanjenici morske obale" još dok su prebivali na obalama Baltičkog mora u doba prije pojave naziva Slov(j)en(e).  Prema tome, i etnonim Slovenec kao jedan od sinonimnijeh pojavnih oblika imena Slov(j)en(e) nastao je od slov- + veneti > slovveneti > sloveneci > Slovenci.  U tome se sastoji etimologija toga etnonima shvaćena u morfološkome i semantičkom značenju toga pojma.

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A CRITICISM OF A MONOGENETIC (MONOCENTRIC) ETHNIC AND LINGUISTIC APPROACH (Linguist Fran Ramovš as neo-grammarian)

Vojislav P. Nikčević

The ideas of monogenetic ethnic approach, as well as the ideas and work of neo-grammarians, are analyzed and critically discussed.  The linguistic work of Fran Ramovš as a representative supporter of the monogenetic neo-grammarian ideas and as an insightful founder of Slovenian linguistics is discussed from the point of view of the polygenetic conceptualization of language evolution.  His adherence to the monogenetic ethnic and linguistic principles is reflected in the fact that he considered the Slovenian language as existing before the end of the 6th century A.D and which actually was formed in the period from the end of the 6th century to the 10th century A.D., only as a dialect, deriving from one unified very ancient south-Slavic, pre-Slavic and Indo-European language.  As an adherent of the German neo-grammarian linguistic school he studied the elements of the Slovenian language as being considered out of the whole system, i.e. in his atomism, including the denomination of his phonetic elements as psycho-physical and psycho-physiological phenomena which can be explained and classified as they are developed from each other in a chain process.  Like a negation of this schematic and rather mechanistic understanding of a language appears the more structuralistic school of Ferdinad de Saussure.  According to this school the origin of every language, including also of the Slovenian, can be traced back from the very early primordial beginning from the Nostratic to the Indo-European, then pre-Slavic and to the early common south-Slavic pre-language.  The phonetics of the language is being constantly subjected to the developing process by mutual interactions over the long time speaking activity.  This model is opening a broad way to consider also the ancient Veneti as one of ancestors of the modern Slovenians and their language as one of the origins of the Slovenian language.

KRITIKA MONOGENETSKOGA (MONOCENTRIČNOG) ETNIČKOGA I JEZIČKOG PRISTUPA - Fran Ramovš kao mladogramatičar

Vojislav P. Nikčević

Autor u ovome radu analitičko-kritički razmatra pojam monogeneze, ko su i što su mladogramatičari, daje prikaz Frana Ramovša kao reprezentativnoga monogenetskog mladogramatičara i u svjetlosti pojma poligeneze ocjenjuje njegov lingvistički rad kao jednoga od najznačajnijih utemeljivača jezikoslovne slovenistike.  Njegovu pripadnost monogenetskome etničkom i jezičkome učenju ogleda se u tome što je slovenski jezik, koji mu se formirao tek od kraja VI. do X. stoljeća, predstavio samo kao jedan dijalekat do konca VI. vijeka tako kao da je potekao iz jedinstvenoga južnoslovjenskog, praslovjenskoga i indoevropskoga prajezika.  A pripadnost njemačkoj mladogramatičarskoj školi ispoljio je u izolovanome proučavanju elemenata toga jezika izvanj njegova sistema, tj. u njihovom tzv. atomizmu, pa i u poimanju njegovijeh glasova kao psiho-fizičkijeh, psiho-fizioloških pojava koje se lančano razlažu i granaju razvijajući se jedan iz drugih.  Negaciju toga shematičnoga i mehanicističkog shvatanja jeste strukturalističko učenje Ferdinanda de Saussura po kojemu se zametak svakog jezika, pa i slovenskoga, nalazi u prapočetku njegova nastanka od nostratičkoga, preko indoevropskog i praslovjenskoga do južnoslovjenskog prajezika.  A glasovi mu se razvijaju u neminovnijem međusobnim uzajamnijem suodnosima zahvaljujući stalnijem unutrašnjim i spoljašnjijem promjenama tokom govorne djelatnosti.  To otvara širok prostor za prihvatanje Veneta i njihova jezika kao prapredaka Slovenaca i prapočetaka slovenskoga jezika.

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THE ORIGINAL MEANING AND ATTRIBUTES OF THE ROMAN GOD MARS

Eric Tomas

STARORIMSKI BOG MARS, NJEGOV PRVOTEN POMEN IN VZDEVKI

Eric Tomas

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COMPARISON OF READINGS OF THE INSCRIPTION ON THE SWORD OF VERONA

Vinko Vodopivec

Scientists are still searching for an appropriate understanding of an inscription on the sword of Verona.  A comparison of all the available interpretations of the up-to-the-present-time incomprehensible inscription can significantly improve its understanding.  Here we have 7 different ways how to group together the letters and 4 translations.  The working hypothesis should suppose to find an appropriate part of correctly grouped letters and an appropriate part of correctly recognized letters and intelligible words.  An analysis shows that all the present groupings of letters were rather inconsistent.  Concerning the translations only the translations by A. Perdih are strikingly different since this is the only one which even surpasses the set conditions of the working hypothesis and by this is the only one which most probably gives us the correct meaning of the inscription.

The results confirm the correctness of the translation by A. Perdih.  His grouping of letters can be considered as appropriate, the translation is based on 68.3% of recognised letters, while the relevant percentage for the other authors amount to 4.8%, 20% and 19.5%.  Concerning the recognized words, the translation by A. Perdih gives us a recognition of 90.9% of words.  Other translations give us the percentage of words understood only at 38%, 41.7% and 38.5%.  This study shows us that the translation by A. Perdih is the most trustworthy, while other translations are far less believable.  Our study confirms the theory that the primeval origin of Etruscans should be sought in the Venetic roots.  Both the Venetic and Etruscan inscriptions can be deciphered on the basis of Slavic languages.  Also in this case the Slovenian language seems to be a very suitable tool, since its numerous dialects enable us to understand the older Etruscan inscriptions.

PRIMERJAVA BRANJ NAPISA NA MEČU IZ VERONE

Vinko Vodopivec

Znanstveniki še vedno iščejo vsebino napisa na meču iz Verone in v teh prizadevanjih lahko bistveno pripomore ustrezno razumevanje do sedaj nerazumljenega napisa, kjer si pomagamo s primerjavo do sedaj znanih prevodov.  Za primerjavo prečrkovanja imamo kar sedem možnosti različnih avtorjev, pri prevodih pa le štiri.  Delovna hipoteza predvideva ustrezen delež pravilno prečrkovanih črk in ustrezen delež prepoznanih črk in razumljenih besed.  Analiza kaže, da so dosedanja prečrkovanja nekoliko nedosledna, pri prevodih pa izrazito odstopa prevod A. Perdiha, ki edini močno presega pogoje delovne hipoteze in nam zato najverjetneje podaja ustrezno razumljeno vsebino napisa.

Rezultati potrjujejo pravilnost Perdihovega prevoda saj je njegov zapis ustrezno prečrkovan, v njegovem prevodu pa je 68,3% prepoznanih črk, medtem ko ostali prevodi dosegajo le 4,8%, 20,0% in 19,5%.  Podobna je primerjava prepoznanih besed, saj jih ima Perdihov prevod kar 90,9%, medtem ko jih imajo ostali prevodi le 38,5% in 41,7% in 38,5%.  Rezultati kažejo, da je Perdihov prevod odličen, ostali prevodi pa so bistveno manj verjetni.  Navedeni rezultati potrjujejo tezo, da je prvotni izvor Etruščanov iz venetskih korenin, saj je tako venetske zapise kot etruščanska besedila možno razumeti na podlagi slovanskih jezikovnih prvin.  Slovenščina je tudi v tem primeru uporabno orodje, saj s svojimi številnimi dialekti omogoča razumevanje starejših etruščanskih zapisov.

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੻慶⁲潟煩ⁱ‽潟煩ⁱ籼嬠㭝弊楯煱瀮獵⡨❛楯影摡偤条䉥慲摮Ⱗ䰧捹獯崧㬩弊楯煱瀮獵⡨❛楯影摡偤条䍥瑡Ⱗ䤧瑮牥敮⁴‾敗獢瑩獥崧㬩弊楯煱瀮獵⡨❛楯影摡偤条䱥晩捥捹敬Ⱗ䤧瑮湥❤⥝਻潟煩⹱異桳嬨漧煩摟呯条崧㬩⠊畦据楴湯⤨笠瘊牡漠煩㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴㬩漠煩琮灹⁥‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧漠煩愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥漊煩献捲㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣‫⼧瀯⹸睯敮楲⹱敮⽴瑳獡猯氯捹獯⹮獪㬧瘊牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝猠瀮牡湥乴摯⹥湩敳瑲敂潦敲漨煩‬⥳਻⥽⤨਻੽⼊⼯⼯⼯䜠潯汧⁥湁污瑹捩ੳ慶⁲束煡㴠张慧ⁱ籼嬠㭝弊慧⹱異桳嬨弧敳䅴捣畯瑮Ⱗ✠䅕㈭㐱㈰㤶ⴵㄲ崧㬩弊慧⹱異桳嬨弧敳䑴浯楡乮浡❥‬愧杮汥楦敲挮浯崧㬩弊慧⹱異桳嬨弧敳䍴獵潴噭牡Ⱗㄠ‬洧浥敢彲慮敭Ⱗ✠潣湵牴⽹敶敮楴Ⱗ㌠⥝਻束煡瀮獵⡨❛瑟慲正慐敧楶睥崧㬩⠊畦据楴湯⤨笠 瘠牡朠⁡‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧※慧琮灹⁥‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧朠⹡獡湹⁣‽牴敵਻†慧献捲㴠⠠栧瑴獰✺㴠‽潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩⹮牰瑯捯汯㼠✠瑨灴㩳⼯獳❬㨠✠瑨灴⼺眯睷⤧⬠✠朮潯汧ⵥ湡污瑹捩⹳潣⽭慧樮❳਻†慶⁲⁳‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥猧牣灩❴嬩崰※⹳慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥慧‬⥳਻⥽⤨਻⼊⼯⼯ 祌潣⁳湉瑩慩楬慺楴湯⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯瘊牡氠捹獯慟⁤‽牁慲⡹㬩瘊牡氠捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⁹‽∢਻慶⁲祬潣彳湯潬摡瑟浩牥਻瘊牡挠彭潲敬㴠∠楬敶㬢瘊牡挠彭潨瑳㴠∠湡敧晬物⹥祬潣⹳潣≭਻慶⁲浣瑟硡摩㴠∠洯浥敢敲扭摥敤≤਻慶⁲湡敧晬物彥敭扭牥湟浡⁥‽挢畯瑮祲瘯湥瑥≩਻慶⁲湡敧晬物彥敭扭牥灟条⁥‽挢畯瑮祲瘯湥瑥⽩牔捡獥慐瑳栮浴≬਻慶⁲湡敧晬物彥慲楴杮彳慨桳㴠∠㐱㐵㐸㠲㔴ㄺ换戸㝦㡥昶昰昶慥㍡て挳挲搱戶㈴∴਻瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤慣整潧祲㴠笠搢潭≺∺潳楣瑥屹术湥慥潬祧Ⱒ漢瑮牡敧≴∺䌦呁昽浡汩╹〲湡╤〲楬敦瑳汹獥Ⱒ昢湩彤桷瑡㨢䈢極摬礠畯⁲敗獢瑩≥㭽ਊ慶⁲祬潣彳摡牟浥瑯彥摡牤㴠∠〵ㄮ⸷ㄱ⸴㈲∷਻慶⁲祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶⁲‽眢睷愮杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡攠楤彴楳整畟汲㴠∠睷⹷湡敧晬物⹥祬潣⹳潣⽭慬摮湩⽧慬摮湩⹧浴汰甿浴獟畯捲㵥潨獵♥瑵彭敭楤浵氽湡楤杮慰敧甦浴损浡慰杩㵮潴汯慢汲湩≫਻㰊猯牣灩㹴㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰•牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯捳楲瑰⹳祬潣⹳潣⽭慣浴湡椯楮⹴獪㸢⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸧 慶⁲潧杯敬慴⁧‽潧杯敬慴⁧籼笠㭽 潧杯敬慴⹧浣⁤‽潧杯敬慴⹧浣⁤籼嬠㭝 昨湵瑣潩⡮
੻†瘠牡朠摡⁳‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧਻†朠摡⹳獡湹⁣‽牴敵਻†朠摡⹳祴数㴠✠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴਻†瘠牡甠敳卓⁌‽栧瑴獰✺㴠‽潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩⹮牰瑯捯汯਻†朠摡⹳牳⁣‽用敳卓⁌‿栧瑴獰✺㨠✠瑨灴✺
ਫ††✠⼯睷⹷潧杯敬慴獧牥楶散⹳潣⽭慴⽧獪术瑰樮❳਻†瘠牡渠摯⁥‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥猧牣灩❴嬩崰਻†渠摯⹥慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥慧獤‬潮敤㬩 ⥽⤨਻⼼捳楲瑰ਾਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数✽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴ਾ朠潯汧瑥条挮摭瀮獵⡨畦据楴湯⤨笠 †潧杯敬慴⹧敤楦敮汓瑯✨㤯㤵㌶㤵⼶乁彇〳砰㔲弰晤❰‬㍛〰‬㔲崰‬搧癩札瑰愭ⵤ㐱〵〲㐷㐸㜰ⴰ✰⸩摡卤牥楶散木潯汧瑥条瀮扵摡⡳⤩਻†朠潯汧瑥条攮慮汢卥牥楶散⡳㬩 ⥽਻⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸧 潧杯敬慴⹧浣⹤異桳昨湵瑣潩⡮
੻†朠潯汧瑥条搮晥湩卥潬⡴⼧㔹㘹㔳㘹䄯䝎慟潢敶㝟㠲㥸弰晤❰‬㝛㠲‬〹ⱝ✠楤⵶灧⵴摡ㄭ㔴㈰㜰㠴〴〷ㄭ⤧愮摤敓癲捩⡥潧杯敬慴⹧異慢獤⤨㬩 †潧杯敬慴⹧湥扡敬敓癲捩獥⤨਻素㬩㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数✽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴ਾ朠潯汧瑥条挮摭瀮獵⡨畦据楴湯⤨笠 †潧杯敬慴⹧敤楦敮汓瑯✨㤯㤵㌶㤵⼶乁彇敢潬彷㈷堸〹摟灦Ⱗ嬠㈷ⰸ㤠崰‬搧癩札瑰愭ⵤ㐱〵〲㐷㐸㜰ⴰ✲⸩摡卤牥楶散木潯汧瑥条瀮扵摡⡳⤩਻†朠潯汧瑥条攮慮汢卥牥楶散⡳㬩 ⥽਻⼼捳楲瑰ਾਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴ਾ昨湵瑣潩⡮獩⥖笠 †椠⁦ℨ獩⥖笠 †††爠瑥牵㭮 †素ਊ††⼯桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⁹‽祬潣彳敧彴敳牡档牟晥牥敲⡲㬩 †瘠牡愠䵤牧㴠渠睥䄠䵤湡条牥⤨਻††慶⁲祬潣彳牰摯獟瑥㴠愠䵤牧挮潨獯健潲畤瑣敓⡴㬩 †瘠牡猠潬獴㴠嬠氢慥敤扲慯摲Ⱒ∠敬摡牥潢牡㉤Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲浩条≥‬琢潯扬牡瑟硥≴‬猢慭汬潢≸‬琢灯灟潲潭Ⱒ∠潦瑯牥∲∬汳摩牥崢਻††慶⁲摡慃⁴‽桴獩氮捹獯慟彤慣整潧祲਻††摡杍⹲敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨慰敧Ⱗ⠠摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡搮潭⥺㼠愠䍤瑡搮潭⁺›洧浥敢❲㬩ਊ††晩⠠桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欢祥潷摲Ⱒ琠楨⹳祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㬩 †素ਠ††汥敳椠⁦愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃⹴楦摮睟慨⥴笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欧祥潷摲Ⱗ愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡㬩 †素ਊ††潦⁲瘨牡猠椠汳瑯⥳笠 †††瘠牡猠潬⁴‽汳瑯孳嵳਻††††晩⠠摡杍⹲獩汓瑯癁楡慬汢⡥汳瑯⤩笠 †††††琠楨⹳祬潣彳摡獛潬嵴㴠愠䵤牧朮瑥汓瑯猨潬⥴਻††††੽††੽ਊ††摡杍⹲敲摮牥效摡牥⤨਻††摡杍⹲敲摮牥潆瑯牥⤨਻⡽昨湵瑣潩⡮
੻††慶⁲⁷‽ⰰ栠㴠〠‬業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬㴠㌠〰਻††晩⠠潴⁰㴽猠汥⥦笠 †††爠瑥牵牴敵਻††੽ †椠⁦琨灹潥⡦楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤⥨㴠‽渧浵敢❲⤠笠 †††眠㴠眠湩潤⹷湩敮坲摩桴਻††††⁨‽楷摮睯椮湮牥效杩瑨਻††੽††汥敳椠⁦搨捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⁴☦⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴
੻††††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴਻††††⁨‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴 †素 †攠獬⁥晩⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯⁹☦⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯⹹汣敩瑮楗瑤⁨籼搠捯浵湥⹴潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴
੻††††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯⹹汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴 †素ਊ††敲畴湲⠠眨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤☠…栨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤㬩紊⤨⤩㬩ਊਊ楷摮睯漮汮慯⁤‽畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡映㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉∨祬潣䙳潯整䅲≤㬩 †瘠牡戠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝 †戠愮灰湥䍤楨摬昨㬩 †映献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠∠汢捯≫਻††潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭⤧献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤潦瑯牥摁椮牦浡⹥瑨汭㬧ਊ††⼯匠楬敤⁲湉敪瑣潩੮††昨湵瑣潩⡮
੻††††慶⁲⁥‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥潢摲牥㴠✠✰਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥慭杲湩㴠〠਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††攠献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽爧杩瑨㬧 †††攠献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††攠献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥慰摤湩⁧‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸਻††⥽⤨਻ਊ††⼯䈠瑯潴摁䤠橮捥楴湯 †⠠映湵瑣潩⡮
੻††††慶⁲⁢‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰਻ †††瘠牡椠晩㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††椠晩献祴敬戮牯敤⁲‽〧㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††椠晩献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫਻††††楩⹦瑳汹⹥獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴਻††††楩⹦瑳汹⹥敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸਻††††楩⹦瑳汹⹥癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠਻††††楩⹦瑳汹⹥楷瑤⁨‽㌧〰硰㬧 †††椠晩献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤湩敪瑣摁椮牦浡⹥瑨汭㬧 †††ਠ††††慶⁲摣癩㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴搧癩⤧਻††††摣癩献祴敬㴠∠楷瑤㩨〳瀰㭸慭杲湩ㄺ瀰⁸畡潴∻਻††††摣癩愮灰湥䍤楨摬
楩⁦㬩 †††椠⡦戠⤠ †††笠 †††††戠椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥摣癩‬⹢慬瑳桃汩⥤਻††††੽††⥽⤨਻紊ਊ㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ猼祴敬ਾ⌉潢祤⸠摡敃瑮牥汃獡筳慭杲湩〺愠瑵絯㰊猯祴敬ਾ㰊楤⁶瑳汹㵥戢捡杫潲湵㩤愣敢昶㬶戠牯敤⵲潢瑴浯ㄺ硰猠汯摩⌠〵愷㜸※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹㤹㸢 †㰠ⴡ‭敓牡档䈠硯ⴠ㸭㰊ⴡ㰭潦浲渠浡㵥猢慥捲≨漠卮扵業㵴爢瑥牵敳牡档瑩⤨•摩✽敨摡牥獟慥捲❨㸠 †††††㰠湩異⁴祴数∽整瑸•汰捡桥汯敤㵲匢慥捲≨猠穩㵥〳渠浡㵥猢慥捲㉨•慶畬㵥∢ਾ††††††椼灮瑵琠灹㵥戢瑵潴≮瘠污敵∽潇∡漠䍮楬正∽敳牡档瑩⤨㸢 †††††㰠是牯㹭 †††††㰠瑳汹㹥 †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲⁨੻††††††††楷瑤㩨㤠㘱硰਻††††††††慭杲湩›‰畡潴㠠硰਻††††††††潰楳楴湯›敲慬楴敶਻††††††੽ਊ††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵笠 †††††††栠楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †††††††映湯⵴楳敺›㐱硰਻††††††††楬敮栭楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †††††††瀠摡楤杮›‰瀸㭸 †††††††戠硯猭穩湩㩧戠牯敤⵲潢㭸 †††††††戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠㑆㉆㥅਻††††††††潢摲牥›瀱⁸潳楬⁤䈣䉂䈸㬸 †††††††琠慲獮瑩潩㩮戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬⁲〳洰⁳慥敳漭瑵ਬ††††††††††††††潣潬⁲〳洰⁳慥敳਻††††††੽ †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲⁨湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢笠 †††††††眠摩桴›〱┰਻††††††੽††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴㩝潦畣⁳੻††††††††潢摲牥挭汯牯›䄣䐲㔰㬴 †††††††戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦 †††††††戠硯猭慨潤㩷〠〠硰ㄠ瀲⁸㐭硰⌠㉁い㐵਻††††††੽ਊ †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲⁨湩異孴祴数∽畢瑴湯崢笠 †††††††瀠獯瑩潩㩮愠獢汯瑵㭥 †††††††琠灯›瀱㭸 †††††††爠杩瑨›瀱㭸 †††††††漠慰楣祴›㬱 †††††††戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠䙄䍄䙃਻††††††††潣潬㩲⌠㘴㜳㐳਻††††††††楷瑤㩨ㄠ㔲硰਻††††††††畣獲牯›潰湩整㭲 †††††††栠楥桧㩴㌠瀸㭸 †††††††戠牯敤㩲渠湯㭥 †††††素 †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲⁨湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮㩝潨敶Ⱳ †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲⁨湩異孴祴数✽畢瑴湯崧栺癯牥笠 †††††††戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠㕁䕃㘵਻††††††††潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦 †††††素 †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲⁨湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮⁝੻††††††††慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯›㔣䄲䑅㭆 †††††††挠汯牯›昣晦਻††††††੽ †††††㰠猯祴敬ਾ †††††㰠捳楲瑰ਾ††††††畦据楴湯猠慥捲楨⡴笩 †††††††ਠ††††††††⼯搠瑥牥業敮攠癮物湯敭瑮ਠ††††††††慶⁲敳牡档敟癮ਠ††††††††晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶⹲湩敤佸⡦⸢摰∮
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੻†††††††††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档㈵瀮⹤祬潣⹳潣⽭⽡㬧 †††††††素攠獬⁥晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶⹲湩敤佸⡦⸢慱∮
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੻†††††††††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档㈵焮⹡祬潣⹳潣⽭⽡㬧 †††††††素攠獬⁥੻†††††††††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档㈵氮捹獯挮浯愯✯਻††††††††੽ †††††瘠牡猠慥捲彨整浲㴠攠据摯啥䥒潃灭湯湥⡴潤畣敭瑮献慥捲⹨敳牡档⸲慶畬⥥ †††††瘠牡猠慥捲彨牵‽敳牡档敟癮猫慥捲彨整浲਻††††††楷摮睯漮数⡮敳牡档畟汲㬩ਊ††††††敲畴湲映污敳 †††††素 †††††㰠猯牣灩⵴㸭 †††㰠ⴡ攭摮猠慥捲⁨潢⁸ⴭਾਊ††搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨ㄹ瀶㭸㸢 †††㰠⁡牨晥∽瑨灴⼺眯睷愮杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯∯琠瑩敬∽湁敧晬物⹥潣㩭戠極摬礠畯⁲牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢 †††㰠浩⁧牳㵣⼢摡⽭摡愯杮汥楦敲昭敲䅥⹤灪≧愠瑬∽楓整栠獯整⁤祢䄠杮汥楦敲挮浯›畂汩⁤潹牵映敲⁥敷獢瑩⁥潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※潢摲牥〺•㸯 †††㰠愯ਾ††††搼癩椠㵤愢彤潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴㜺㠲硰∠ਾ††††††猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥⹴牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛敬摡牥潢牡❤⥝㰻猯牣灩㹴 †††㰠搯癩ਾ††⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ㰊ⴡ‭⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ ⴭਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥⹴牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛汳摩牥崧㬩⼼捳楲瑰ਾਊ搼癩椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁•瑳汹㵥戢捡杫潲湵㩤愣敢昶㬶戠牯敤⵲潴㩰瀱⁸潳楬⁤㔣㜰㡡㬷挠敬牡戺瑯㭨搠獩汰祡渺湯㭥瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※⵺湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹∹ਾ搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨㌹瀶㭸㸢ऊ搼癩椠㵤愢汦湩獫潨摬牥•瑳汹㵥昢潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰∻ਾ††††愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯睷⹷湡敧晬物⹥祬潣⹳潣⽭•楴汴㵥䄢杮汥楦敲挮浯›畢汩⁤潹牵映敲⁥敷獢瑩⁥潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※潢摲牥〺㸢 †††††㰠浩⁧牳㵣⼢摡⽭摡愯杮汥楦敲昭敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴匢瑩⁥潨瑳摥戠⁹湁敧晬物⹥潣㩭䈠極摬礠畯⁲牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫戠牯敤㩲∰⼠ਾ††††⼼㹡 †㰠搯癩ਾ††椼牦浡⁥摩∽祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡≥猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫映潬瑡氺晥㭴栠楥桧㩴㘹硰※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮瀠摡楤杮〺※楷瑤㩨㔷瀰≸㰾椯牦浡㹥㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶ਊਊ