In the year 2003, Malyarchuk et al. in collaboration with a Slovenian, Dr. K. Drobnic (M), published their research paper “Mitochondrial DNA Variability in Bosnians and Slovenians.” The results made it possible for Slovenians to compare themselves, genetically, with other nations through genetic markers (haplogroups) inherited from the mother – mtDNA. – as was possible from the year 2000 with genetic markers from the Y-chromosome inherited from the father (SS). From literature, I summarized the genetic data of various nationalities that would be of interest to Slovenians. It is evident from the comparison that 90% of Slovenians have the mtDNA genetic markers that originated before or during the last ice age; whereas, only 75% of the 4,000 to 5,000 year old skeletons, excavated in the Basque country have genetic markers that are now that old; and the Basques of today have 70% of the genetic markers that originated before or during the last ice age. Only 1% of the Slovenians have genetic groups 6,000 to 13,000 years old; their other genetic groups are all much older.
Archaeologists maintain that man has lived in Europe for at least 800,000 years. This early man was given the name Neanderthal, after the Neanderthal gorge near Dusseldorf in Germany where his bones were first discovered. Even older bones, resembling human, believed to be 1.75 million years old, were discovered by archaeologists in Dmanisi in today’s Republic of Georgia(G). The oldest remnants of tools were found by archaeologists in 1995 in Spain. They estimate that these tools are about 789,000 years old.
Slovenia is also an interesting place for archaeologists. The oldest trace of pre-historic man in Slovenia was found in Divje babe (“wild women”) above the Idrijca River in 1996, when a whistle made of bone was found dating from the period prior to 45,000 years ago, which they ascribed to the Neanderthal man.(TM) As an engineer, I was surprised by the elaborate whistle on account of the workmanship involved in its production. There is evidence that a drilling technique was used in its manufacture. Of the four holes, two are not damaged, but all four show signs of drilling, since they are very symmetrical. It is possible that even then, the Neanderthals used the same drilling techniques that were used by the Eskimos who used a bow and stone-tipped arrows for drilling, even after the arrival of Europeans. Another sign of the developed primitive technological skill is the oldest, more than 5,000 years old, wooden wheel with an axle that was found in the swamplands near Ljubljana. To make this wheel and transverse axle, the craftsmen had to use axes and probably also saws. It is interesting that the wheel did not turn on the axle, but the axle with the wheel turned on bearings, similar to a system used, even today, on modern railway cars. We are able to take the wheel with the integral axle as evidence of a relatively highly developed woodworking technology and also as a sign of metallurgy, since a mold for copper axes was found not far from the site of the pre-historic wheel.
Recently, in Croatian Zagorje, at Vindija and Velika Pecina, bone and stone tools were found. It is believed that they belonged to Neanderthals who may have lived there more than 29,000 years ago. Nearby, tools of stone and bone were also found, characteristic of modern man. It may be that the Neanderthals made the tools themselves or acquired them through trade. It was previously believed that the Neanderthal man became extinct more than 34,000 years ago. This new evidence compelled scientists to change their theories. Fred Smith, an anthropologist from Northern Illinois University, says that it is possible that the Neanderthal man and modern man lived in close proximity in central Europe for many thousands of years. Erik Trinkhaus, an anthropologist from Washington State University, thinks that modern man in some places superseded the Neanderthals, elsewhere, he intermarried with them. Between these two races, Trinkhaus sees very small distinctions. In 1999, he announced that he found, in Portugal, the bones of a child from 24,500 years ago, which showed characteristics similar to those of both the Neanderthal man and of modern man. Trinkhaus and Smith thus raised the new, controversial, hypothesis that Neanderthal man and homo sapiens intermarried.(NP)
Geneticists such as Ridley and others, who are extremely interested in the study of human genes, have discovered that for the last four billion years, the human genome has been recording significant events in our biography. There are genes with the help of which it is possible to track man’s migration during the last thousands of years.(RM) Gutierrez and others theorize about the possibility, that some of the Neanderthal genes are also represented in the genetic structure of Europeans. Gutierrez proved that genetically some Africans are more distant from Europeans, than three Neanderthals to whom they were compared using genetic technology.(G) Calafell has observed that in today’s populations, there are more genetic distinctions in populations whose ancestors had a possible contact with Neanderthals in prehistoric times.(C) Thus some geneticists also agree with anthropologists.
The year 2003 was a new milestone for Slovenian historical research, when a Russian geneticist, Dr. Boris A. Malyarchuk published his paper, “Mitochondrial DNA Variability in Bosnians and Slovenians”. This paper shows the genetic profile of Slovenians based on genetic markers inherited on the mother’s side-the mtDNA. This is a big step forward, since we now have the possibility of genetically comparing Slovenians with other nations, not only on the basis of genetic groups from the Y-chromosome inherited from the father, but also on the basis of ancestral groups inherited on the mother’s side. This will have far-reaching consequences for the re-writing of Slovenian prehistory, because this is additional, unbiased evidence, that Slovenians are an ancient people, living in their own land continuously for thousands of years.
In the tabulated list below, I took the mtDNA haplogroup data from literature of other nations and their ages, and compared them with Slovenians. Included in this comparison, in addition to contemporary people, are also genetic groups from people, who 4,000 to 5,000 years ago, lived in the Basque region of Spain.(BSK1) If we statistically analyze data from the tabulated list and consider the weighted averages, we see that the average genetic age of Europeans is 26,710 years. With Slovenians, the average calculated age of mtDNA genetic groups is about 750 years older at – 27,460 years.
|HaploG||Source:||( I )||(MM)||(MP)||(M)||(M)||(M)||(T1)||(R)||(K)|
|Hg (R)||Age Range (yrs)||(T1-3)|
|Total all U||17||15||6||20||15||16||16||16||13|
|The columns do not add up to 100% because the data is from various sources, and the column figures are also rounded off to whole numbers.|
In the Hg column are the haplogroups: ‘Other’ means other non-enumerated genetic markers; (α) indicates a source in the references below; BSK1 is mtDNA from teeth and skeletons – 4,000 to 5,000 years old from the Basque country; BSK2 is mtDNA of present-day Basques; VEN are Italians from the province of Veneto; SLO are Slovenians; POL are Polish; RUS are Russians; SWE are Swedes; EU avg. is the European average; IND are East Indians.
Geneticists have, with the help of mtDNA, an insight into prehistory, past the ice age, to the first settlements in Europe 50,000 years ago. From the tabulated list, it is evident that 90% of Slovenians carry the mtDNA haplogroups (inherited from the mother) averaging 20,000 years old or more. These genetic markers originated before the ice age. Carriers of these genetic markers survived the ice age and later spread out from the ice age shelters as the climatic conditions permitted. If we genetically compare Slovenians with the Basques of 4,000 to 5,000 years ago, we see that the Basques had only 75% of genetic markers that are now 20,000 years of age or older. This means that Slovenians not only speak an archaic language (SS), but also are genetically very old.
Genetic markers, haplogroups H, I, J, K, T, U, V, W and X, are present in all Europeans at relatively high percentages. Geneticists believe that they originated after the Caucasians separated themselves from Africans, since they are mostly found in Europeans. They are also found in India, although the percentages are considerably smaller than in Europe; people there have these ‘European’ haplogroups, except for V (K). Nevertheless, in India, there are more than 200,000,000 people who have the European genetic markers. Also, in Africa, and even in North America, an occasional specimen of these genetic markers is found in the original inhabitants. (T1) These specimens are challenges for archaeologists, linguists, and historians to search for the reasons as to how, why and when the carriers of these genetic markers arrived there.
Torroni postulated that haplogroups H and preV, originated before the ice age in Europe and later spread out, from the east towards the west (T2). In his study, Malyarchuk studied haplogroup H and resolved it into subhaplogroups (haplotypes and lineages) for a more precise comparison of populations. Thus he ascertained that H lineage 16189-16356, present in all European populations that he analyzed, was not present in the Slovenian sample. On another hand, Slovenians have a relatively high percentage, at 5%, of H lineage 16162 that is found in central and eastern Europe. However, in the Bosnian sample it is not present. In people from Veneto it is also present at 6%. Rare H lineage 16263 is present only in Slovenian, German and French speaking inhabitants. H lineage 16223 is present in Slovenians, in southern Germans, and in Ukrainians, but not in Bosnians. (M) However, it has also been found in the 2,500 year old Venetic skeletal remains from Adria located in the Roman province of Venetia et Histria (V).
Groups J and T may have originated in the Middle East and were later brought to Europe. Thus, 25% of Bedouins in Arabia have the genetic group J (R). If we compare the 5,000-year-old Basques, we see that the percentage in these Basques is close to people from Veneto, Slovenians, and other Slavs. It is very unlikely that Romans brought this genetic group into Eastern Europe. Inhabitants from the Italian province of Veneto have an extraordinarily high percentage of the T genetic group – 22% -- while Slovenians have only 6%. However, Swedes also have 22%; and it is possible to make an inference that this is also a legacy of the arrival of ancient people from the Middle East, before the Roman era, since the Romans stopped in central Europe and did not conquer Scandinavia. The Tuscans, who now live in the territory of historic Etruscans, have 10% of this genetic group T, which is close to the Slav average. Malyarchuk ascertains that the sequence 16069-16126 of genetic group J, is present in 8% of Slovenians. This could also be a sign of migratory people from the Middle East during the Stone Age (M).
Haplogroup U, which is very frequent in Europe and India, is also found in Africans south of the Sahara. Geneticists ascertain that it is 51,000 to 67,000 years old. (T) This haplogroup U is very frequently found in Slovenians at 20%. The European average is 16%. British geneticist Martin Richards has concluded that the U haplogroup has been present in the Balkans for 44,000 years, since it is the only one that is as old as archaeological finds which, in Europe, area the oldest in the Balkans and in the central river basin of the Danube, which are, more than 44,000 years old (R1).
Malyarchuk ascertains that the U5 subhalogroup lineage 16114A is relatively frequent in Slovenians, at almost 4%. Until now, such a high percentage was found only in the Finns. In Bosnians, he did not detect this subgroup. As he compared the genetics of Bosnians and Slovenians, he noticed the differences, and ponders that perhaps this may be a sign of two different Slavic migrations (M).
This hypothesis is in agreement with the results of analyses of genetic markers on the Y-chromosome, which is inherited on the father’s side. Semino et al., are of the opinion that the Y-chromosome haplogroup Eu7, is presently very frequent in Croatians and Serbs; Rootsi et al. find it almost equally frequent in Slovenians at 38%, with the Slovenians having a higher percentage of the older lineages particularly M170 and M253 mutations comprising the haplogroup. This haplogroup is to have originated in the territory of Epi-Gravettian culture in the territory of present-day Austria, the Czech Republic and northern Balkans 20,000 to 25,000 years ago in the descendants of people who came from the Near East. Another genetic group, Eu19, which is the most frequent in Slavs, then in northern India, and in Pakistan, probably originated in the ice age refuge in the Ukraine and spread out after the ice age (SO), (RZ), (Y), (RO).
Certainly, during the last 50,000 years, there must have been many military comings and goings. This has occurred many times even in the last 200 years; French were in Moscow under Napoleon and then Russians in Paris under the czar; Germans near Moscow under Hitler and then Russians in central Europe under Stalin. And, if we consider human nature, such as it is, surely there were some genetic exchanges along the way. However, the majority of people wanted “stati inu obstati” i.e., to stay and remain in their own homelands.
MtDNA haplogroup K was very frequent in 4,000 to 5,000 year old Basque skeletons, at 20%. This haplogroup K is now present in Swedes at 16%; in Slovenians with 4%. This genetic marker is also carried by the 5,300 year old mummy Oetzi – the man from the glacier. Thus, Slovenians or Slavs cannot be excluded when attempting to determine to what language group Oetzi belonged. Perhaps, with time, it may be possible to get Y-chromosome data, which would enable the researchers to determine to what present-day language family he would belong.
In North Africa, in Morocco, on the south side of the Atlas Mountains, is the town of Zagora; nearby the river Draa runs when it rains. The Berbers living there have more than 25% of genetic groups V, H, U, and X, which point to European origin (RA). Genetic lineage 16298, which falls under genetic group V, is present in Berbers in Morocco (RA). This 16298 lineage is also present in Slovenians and Bosnians (M). Types 16343 and 16390 are present in Morocco (DA); type 16390 is also present in Slovenia (M). The question is how did these genetic types come into Africa? Torroni speculates that European genetic influx may be from the Neolithic age, or may be due to the influenced of the Vandals, Portuguese, and Spaniards (RA), (T). Here, surely, the Vandals come into consideration, since they, in the years 428-429 AD, under the leadership of Genserik, invaded northern Africa. Although some defend the view that the Vandals were of Germanic origin, it is unlikely that Germans would give Slavic names to those Berber regions of Africa where Vandals were present. Canadian anthropologist, Satiroff, with the help of linguistics and old historical sources, finds Slavic origins of the Vandals (SG). Also, a Russian historian and linguist, Tulajev, cites historical sources which show that Vandals were Slavs (TP). Now genetic research also shows that predecessors of some Berbers could have been Slavs.
On the basis of their research, geneticists speculate that central Europe was the cradle of the eastern Slavs (M), (B).
MtDNA lineages 16189, 16192, 16270, 16230, belonging to European subhaplogroup U5, are found here and there in inhabitants south of the Sahara. Senegal type 16145, 16222, and 16311, belong to haplogroup H (RA). Lineage 16311 is more frequent in Bosnians than in Slovenians (M).
Indians of North America have of the principal genetic groups, groups A, B, C, D; only the Ojibwa Indians also have group X (T), which is very frequently found in the inhabitants of the Veneto province and is present also in Slovenians. Dennis Stanford, paleoarchaeologist at the Smithsonian Institute of America, is of the opinion that group X was brought across the North Atlantic more than 15,000 years ago.
From the genetic studies, it is evident that Slovenians and other Slavs have ancient genetic roots.
Direction of new research:
Presented here is some new data that should be a challenge to Slovenian anthropologists, archaeologists, ethnologists, linguists, and historians. They should not glibly dismiss the genetic evidence as coincidence, as it is their tendency, when presented with new evidence which does not fit into the framework of their outdated theories. They should get to work and answer some pertinent questions:
1. Why is there linguistic affinity between the languages of Basques and Slovenians? (TM)
2. Who named the toponyms in North Africa that are understood by the Slovenians and when did this take place?
3. How and when did genetic groups present in Slavs come to Africa?
(B) Belyaeva, O., et al. (2003). Mitochondrial DNA Variations in Russian and Belorussian Populations. Human Biology October, v.75, no.5, pp. 647-660.
(C) Calafell, F., et al. (1996). From Asia to Europe: Mitochondrial DNA sequence variability in Bulgarians and Turks. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 60:35-49.
(G) Gutierrez, G., et al. (2002). A Reanalysis of the Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Sequences Recovered from Neandertal Bones. Mol. Biol. Evol. 19(8):1359-1366.
(I) Izagirre, N., et al. (1999). An mtDNA Analysis in Ancient Basque Populations: Implications for Haplogroup V as a Marker for a major Paleolithic Expansion from Southwestern Europe. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 65:199-207.
(K) Kivisild, T., et al. (1999). Deep common ancestry of Indian and western-Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages. Current Biology 9:1331-1334.
(MM) Maca-Mayer, N., et al. (2003). Molecular Characterization of Pasiegos from Cantabria (Spain). Annals of Human Genetics 67:312-328.
(M) Malyarchuk, B.A., et al. (2003). Mitochondrial DNA Variability in Bosnians and Slovenians. Annals of Human Genetics 67:412-425.
(P) Poloni, E. S., et al. (1997). Human Genetic Affinities for Y-Chromosome P49a, f/Taql Haplotypes Show Strong Correspondence with Linguistics. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 61:1015-1035.
(RA) Rando, J.C., et al. (1998). Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Northwest African populations reveals genetic exchange with European, Near-Eastern, and sub-Saharan populations. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62: 531-250.
(R) Richards, M., et al. (2000). Tracing European Founder Lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA Pool. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67:1251-1276.
(R1) Richards, M., et al. (1997). Reply to Cavalli-Sforza and Minch. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 61:251-254.
(RM) Ridley, M. (2002) trans. Pajer, U. GENOM: Biografija človeške vrste (Tržič, Slovenija, Učila International) p.16.
(RO) Rootsi, S. et al. (2004). Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75:128-137.
(RZ) Rosser, Z. et al., (2000). Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe Is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67:1526-1543.
(S) Smith, F.H., et al. (1999). Direct radiocarbon dates for Vindija G1 and Velika Pećina Late Pleistocene hominid remains. PNAS October 26, 1999 vol. 96 no. 22:12281-12286.
(Š) Škof, L. (2003). STA. Glasilo Kanadskih Slovencev
(ŠS) Škulj, J., Sharda, J.C. (2001). Indo-Aryan and Slavic Affinities. Zbornik prve mednarodne konference: Veneti v etnogenezi srednjeevropskega prebivalstva. ed. Perdih A.& Rant J. (Ljubljana, Slovenija, Jutro) pp.112-121. ISBN 961-6433-06-7
(SG) Sotiroff, G., (1971). Phoenicians, Vencyans, Heneti, Veneti and Wendi. Anthropological Journal of Canada. Vol. 9, No. 4: 5-10
(SO) Semino, O., et al. (2000). The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans. Science vol. 290 10 November 1156-1159.
(TM) Tomažič, I., (1999). Sledovi iz davne preteklosti. Slovenci: Kdo smo? Od kdaj in odkod izviramo? ( Ljubljana, Slovenija, Editiones Veneti) pp. 11-12.
(T1) Torroni, A., et al. (1996). Classification of European mtDNAs From an Analysis of three European populations. Genetics 144:1835-1850 (December, 1996).
(T2) Torroni, A., et al. (2001). A Signal, from Human mtDNA, of Postglacial Recolonization in Europe. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69:844-852.
(T3) Torroni, A., et al. (1998). mtDNA Analysis Reveals a Major Late Paleolithic Population Expansion from Southwestern to Northeastern Europe. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1137-1152.
(TP) Tulajev, P., (2000). Vandali. Veneti: Predki Slavyan / Veneti: Predniki Slovanov (Moskva, Beliye al’vy) pp. 155-157 ISBN 5-7619-0111-0.
(V) Vernesi C., et al. (2004). The Etruscans: A Population Genetic Study. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74: 694-704.
(Y) The Y-Chromosome Consortium (2001). A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups.
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©Copyright 2005 Gary L. Gorsha
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†††樠畑牥⁹‽汯彤煪敵祲††⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊ⴡ呓剁⁔婅䕈䑁ⴠ㸭㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸧瘊牡猠捯慟灰楟‽〧㬧瘊牡搠摩㴠㈠㠴㐶慶穥潤慭湩㴠✠湡敧晬物潣❭慶穥楯卣慥捲慨汢‽㬱㰊猯牣灩㹴㰊ⴡⴭ㸭ℼⴭ䔠䑎䔠䡚䅅⁄ⴭਾ猼牣灩⁴牳㵣⼢眯睷愮杮汥楦敲挮浯甯楴捬癡彥潣⽭整灭慬整⽳獪支橺畱牥潮潣普楬瑣樮≳㰾猯牣灩㹴⼼敨摡ⴾ㸭ਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴ਾ⼯睏敮䥲ੑ慶彟楯影捰⁴‽〵晩 彟楯影捰㹴ㄽ〰簠⁼慍桴昮潬牯䴨瑡慲摮浯⤨ㄪ〰⠯〱ⴰ彟楯影捰⥴ ‾‰ 慶潟煩ⁱ‽潟煩ⁱ籼嬠㭝弊楯煱瀮獵⡨❛楯影摡偤条䉥慲摮Ⱗ䰧捹獯崧㬩弊楯煱瀮獵⡨❛楯影摡偤条䍥瑡Ⱗ䤧瑮牥敮⁴‾敗獢瑩獥崧㬩弊楯煱瀮獵⡨❛楯影摡偤条䱥晩捥捹敬Ⱗ䤧瑮湥❤⥝潟煩異桳嬨漧煩摟呯条崧㬩⠊畦据楴湯⤨笠瘊牡漠煩㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴㬩漠煩琮灹‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧漠煩愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥漊煩献捲㴠搠捯浵湥潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣⼧瀯睯敮楲敮⽴瑳獡猯氯捹獯獪㬧瘊牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝猠瀮牡湥乴摯湩敳瑲敂潦敲漨煩⥳⥽⤨⼊⼯⼯⼯䜠潯汧湁污瑹捩ੳ慶束煡㴠张慧ⁱ籼嬠㭝弊慧異桳嬨弧敳䅴捣畯瑮Ⱗ✠䅕㈭㐱㈰㤶ⴵㄲ崧㬩弊慧異桳嬨弧敳䑴浯楡乮浡❥愧杮汥楦敲挮浯崧㬩弊慧異桳嬨弧敳䍴獵潴噭牡Ⱗㄠ洧浥敢彲慮敭Ⱗ✠潣湵牴⽹敶敮楴Ⱗ㌠⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛瑟慲正慐敧楶睥崧㬩⠊畦据楴湯⤨笠 瘠牡朠‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧※慧琮灹‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧朠獡湹‽牴敵†慧献捲㴠⠠栧瑴獰✺㴠‽潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩牰瑯捯汯㼠✠瑨灴㩳⼯獳❬㨠✠瑨灴⼺眯睷⤧⬠✠朮潯汧ⵥ湡污瑹捩潣⽭慧樮❳†慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥猧牣灩❴嬩崰※慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥慧⥳⥽⤨⼊⼯⼯ 祌潣湉瑩慩楬慺楴湯⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯瘊牡氠捹獯慟‽牁慲⡹㬩瘊牡氠捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⁹‽∢慶祬潣彳湯潬摡瑟浩牥瘊牡挠彭潲敬㴠∠楬敶㬢瘊牡挠彭潨瑳㴠∠湡敧晬物祬潣潣≭慶浣瑟硡摩㴠∠洯浥敢敲扭摥敤≤慶湡敧晬物彥敭扭牥湟浡‽挢畯瑮祲瘯湥瑥≩慶湡敧晬物彥敭扭牥灟条‽挢畯瑮祲瘯湥瑥⽩歓汵剪潯獴敇敮瑨汭㬢瘊牡愠杮汥楦敲牟瑡湩獧桟獡‽ㄢ㜴㤴㤲㌸㨶㝤〲晡㘶ㅦ摥敦㐲㐵㝡搰㤰慤ㄷ㕤搳㬢ਊ慶祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯⁹‽≻浤穯㨢猢捯敩祴⽜敧敮污杯≹∬湯慴杲瑥㨢☢䅃㵔慦業祬㈥愰摮㈥氰晩獥祴敬≳∬楦摮睟慨≴∺畂汩潹牵圠扥楳整索瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤敲潭整慟摤‽㔢⸴〸ㄮ㜳㌮∰慶祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶‽眢睷愮杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡攠楤彴楳整畟汲㴠∠睷湡敧晬物祬潣潣⽭慬摮湩⽧慬摮湩浴汰甿浴獟畯捲㵥潨獵♥瑵彭敭楤浵氽湡楤杮慰敧甦浴损浡慰杩㵮潴汯慢汲湩≫㰊猯牣灩㹴㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰•牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯捳楲瑰祬潣潣⽭慣浴湡椯楮獪㸢⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸧 慶潧杯敬慴‽潧杯敬慴籼笠㭽 潧杯敬慴浣‽潧杯敬慴浣籼嬠㭝 昨湵瑣潩⡮ †瘠牡朠摡‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧†朠摡獡湹‽牴敵†朠摡祴数㴠✠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴†瘠牡甠敳卓⁌‽栧瑴獰✺㴠‽潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩牰瑯捯汯†朠摡牳‽用敳卓⁌‿栧瑴獰✺㨠✠瑨灴✺ ਫ††✠⼯睷潧杯敬慴獧牥楶散潣⽭慴⽧獪术瑰樮❳†瘠牡渠摯‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥猧牣灩❴嬩崰†渠摯慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥慧獤潮敤㬩 ⥽⤨⼼捳楲瑰ਾਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数✽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴ਾ朠潯汧瑥条挮摭瀮獵⡨畦据楴湯⤨笠 †潧杯敬慴敤楦敮汓瑯✨㤯㤵㌶㤵⼶乁彇〳砰㔲弰晤❰㍛〰㔲崰搧癩札瑰愭ⵤ㐱〵〲㐷㐸㜰ⴰ✰⸩摡卤牥楶散木潯汧瑥条瀮扵摡⡳⤩†朠潯汧瑥条攮慮汢卥牥楶散⡳㬩 ⥽⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸧 潧杯敬慴浣異桳昨湵瑣潩⡮ †朠潯汧瑥条搮晥湩卥潬⡴⼧㔹㘹㔳㘹䄯䝎慟潢敶㝟㠲㥸弰晤❰㝛㠲〹ⱝ✠楤灧摡ㄭ㔴㈰㜰㠴〴〷ㄭ⤧愮摤敓癲捩⡥潧杯敬慴異慢獤⤨㬩 †潧杯敬慴湥扡敬敓癲捩獥⤨素㬩㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数✽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴ਾ朠潯汧瑥条挮摭瀮獵⡨畦据楴湯⤨笠 †潧杯敬慴敤楦敮汓瑯✨㤯㤵㌶㤵⼶乁彇敢潬彷㈷堸〹摟灦Ⱗ嬠㈷ⰸ㤠崰搧癩札瑰愭ⵤ㐱〵〲㐷㐸㜰ⴰ✲⸩摡卤牥楶散木潯汧瑥条瀮扵摡⡳⤩†朠潯汧瑥条攮慮汢卥牥楶散⡳㬩 ⥽⼼捳楲瑰ਾਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴ਾ昨湵瑣潩⡮獩⥖笠 †椠ℨ獩⥖笠 †††爠瑥牵㭮 †素ਊ††⼯桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⁹‽祬潣彳敧彴敳牡档牟晥牥敲⡲㬩 †瘠牡愠䵤牧㴠渠睥䄠䵤湡条牥⤨††慶祬潣彳牰摯獟瑥㴠愠䵤牧挮潨獯健潲畤瑣敓⡴㬩 †瘠牡猠潬獴㴠嬠氢慥敤扲慯摲Ⱒ∠敬摡牥潢牡㉤Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲浩条≥琢潯扬牡瑟硥≴猢慭汬潢≸琢灯灟潲潭Ⱒ∠潦瑯牥∲∬汳摩牥崢††慶摡慃⁴‽桴獩氮捹獯慟彤慣整潧祲††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨慰敧Ⱗ⠠摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡搮潭⥺㼠愠䍤瑡搮潭⁺›洧浥敢❲㬩ਊ††晩⠠桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欢祥潷摲Ⱒ琠楨祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㬩 †素ਠ††汥敳椠愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃楦摮睟慨⥴笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欧祥潷摲Ⱗ愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡㬩 †素ਊ††潦瘨牡猠椠汳瑯⥳笠 †††瘠牡猠潬⁴‽汳瑯孳嵳††††晩⠠摡杍獩汓瑯癁楡慬汢⡥汳瑯⤩笠 †††††琠楨祬潣彳摡獛潬嵴㴠愠䵤牧朮瑥汓瑯猨潬⥴††††††ਊ††摡杍敲摮牥效摡牥⤨††摡杍敲摮牥潆瑯牥⤨⡽昨湵瑣潩⡮ ††慶⁷‽ⰰ栠㴠〠業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬㴠㌠〰††晩⠠潴⁰㴽猠汥⥦笠 †††爠瑥牵牴敵†† †椠琨灹潥⡦楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤⥨㴠‽渧浵敢❲⤠笠 †††眠㴠眠湩潤湩敮坲摩桴††††‽楷摮睯椮湮牥效杩瑨††††汥敳椠搨捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⁴☦⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴ ††††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴††††‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴 †素 †攠獬晩⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯⁹☦⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮楗瑤籼搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴ ††††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴 †素ਊ††敲畴湲⠠眨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤☠…栨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤㬩紊⤨⤩㬩ਊਊ楷摮睯漮汮慯‽畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡映㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉∨祬潣䙳潯整䅲≤㬩 †瘠牡戠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝 †戠愮灰湥䍤楨摬昨㬩 †映献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠∠汢捯≫††潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭⤧献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤潦瑯牥摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧ਊ††⼯匠楬敤湉敪瑣潩੮††昨湵瑣潩⡮ ††††慶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††瑳汹潢摲牥㴠✠✰††††瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††攠献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽爧杩瑨㬧 †††攠献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††攠献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮††††瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸††⥽⤨ਊ††⼯䈠瑯潴摁䤠橮捥楴湯 †⠠映湵瑣潩⡮ ††††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰 †††瘠牡椠晩㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††椠晩献祴敬戮牯敤‽〧㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††椠晩献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫††††楩瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴††††楩瑳汹敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸††††楩瑳汹癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠††††楩瑳汹楷瑤‽㌧〰硰㬧 †††椠晩献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤湩敪瑣摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧 †††ਠ††††慶摣癩㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴搧癩⤧††††摣癩献祴敬㴠∠楷瑤㩨〳瀰㭸慭杲湩ㄺ瀰⁸畡潴∻††††摣癩愮灰湥䍤楨摬 楩㬩 †††椠⡦戠⤠ †††笠 †††††戠椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥摣癩慬瑳桃汩⥤††††††⥽⤨紊ਊ㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ猼祴敬ਾ⌉潢祤⸠摡敃瑮牥汃獡筳慭杲湩〺愠瑵絯㰊猯祴敬ਾ㰊楤⁶瑳汹㵥戢捡杫潲湵㩤愣敢昶㬶戠牯敤潢瑴浯ㄺ硰猠汯摩⌠〵愷㜸※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹㤹㸢 †㰠ⴡ敓牡档䈠硯ⴠ㸭㰊ⴡ㰭潦浲渠浡㵥猢慥捲≨漠卮扵業㵴爢瑥牵敳牡档瑩⤨•摩✽敨摡牥獟慥捲❨㸠 †††††㰠湩異⁴祴数∽整瑸•汰捡桥汯敤㵲匢慥捲≨猠穩㵥〳渠浡㵥猢慥捲㉨•慶畬㵥∢ਾ††††††椼灮瑵琠灹㵥戢瑵潴≮瘠污敵∽潇∡漠䍮楬正∽敳牡档瑩⤨㸢 †††††㰠是牯㹭 †††††㰠瑳汹㹥 †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲††††††††楷瑤㩨㤠㘱硰††††††††慭杲湩›‰畡潴㠠硰††††††††潰楳楴湯›敲慬楴敶††††††ਊ††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵笠 †††††††栠楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †††††††映湯楳敺›㐱硰††††††††楬敮栭楥桧㩴㐠瀰㭸 †††††††瀠摡楤杮›‰瀸㭸 †††††††戠硯猭穩湩㩧戠牯敤潢㭸 †††††††戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠㑆㉆㥅††††††††潢摲牥›瀱⁸潳楬䈣䉂䈸㬸 †††††††琠慲獮瑩潩㩮戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬〳洰慥敳漭瑵ਬ††††††††††††††潣潬〳洰慥敳†††††† †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢笠 †††††††眠摩桴›〱┰††††††††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴㩝潦畣††††††††潢摲牥挭汯牯›䄣䐲㔰㬴 †††††††戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦 †††††††戠硯猭慨潤㩷〠〠硰ㄠ瀲⁸㐭硰⌠㉁い㐵††††††ਊ †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽畢瑴湯崢笠 †††††††瀠獯瑩潩㩮愠獢汯瑵㭥 †††††††琠灯›瀱㭸 †††††††爠杩瑨›瀱㭸 †††††††漠慰楣祴›㬱 †††††††戠捡杫潲湵㩤⌠䙄䍄䙃††††††††潣潬㩲⌠㘴㜳㐳††††††††楷瑤㩨ㄠ㔲硰††††††††畣獲牯›潰湩整㭲 †††††††栠楥桧㩴㌠瀸㭸 †††††††戠牯敤㩲渠湯㭥 †††††素 †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮㩝潨敶Ⱳ †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数✽畢瑴湯崧栺癯牥笠 †††††††戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠㕁䕃㘵††††††††潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦 †††††素 †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵縠椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮⁝††††††††慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯›㔣䄲䑅㭆 †††††††挠汯牯›昣晦†††††† †††††㰠猯祴敬ਾ †††††㰠捳楲瑰ਾ††††††畦据楴湯猠慥捲楨⡴笩 †††††††ਠ††††††††⼯搠瑥牥業敮攠癮物湯敭瑮ਠ††††††††慶敳牡档敟癮ਠ††††††††晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶湩敤佸⡦⸢摰∮ ‾ㄭ †††††††††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档㈵瀮祬潣潣⽭⽡㬧 †††††††素攠獬晩⠠祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶湩敤佸⡦⸢慱∮ ‾ㄭ †††††††††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档㈵焮祬潣潣⽭⽡㬧 †††††††素攠獬†††††††††猠慥捲彨湥⁶‽栧瑴㩰⼯敳牡档㈵氮捹獯挮浯愯✯†††††††† †††††瘠牡猠慥捲彨整浲㴠攠据摯啥䥒潃灭湯湥⡴潤畣敭瑮献慥捲敳牡档⸲慶畬⥥ †††††瘠牡猠慥捲彨牵‽敳牡档敟癮猫慥捲彨整浲††††††楷摮睯漮数⡮敳牡档畟汲㬩ਊ††††††敲畴湲映污敳 †††††素 †††††㰠猯牣灩㸭 †††㰠ⴡ攭摮猠慥捲潢⁸ⴭਾਊ††搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨ㄹ瀶㭸㸢 †††㰠牨晥∽瑨灴⼺眯睷愮杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯∯琠瑩敬∽湁敧晬物潣㩭戠極摬礠畯牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢 †††㰠浩牳㵣⼢摡⽭摡愯杮汥楦敲昭敲䅥灪≧愠瑬∽楓整栠獯整祢䄠杮汥楦敲挮浯›畂汩潹牵映敲敷獢瑩潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※潢摲牥〺•㸯 †††㰠愯ਾ††††搼癩椠㵤愢彤潣瑮楡敮≲猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴㜺㠲硰∠ਾ††††††猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛敬摡牥潢牡❤⥝㰻猯牣灩㹴 †††㰠搯癩ਾ††⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ㰊ⴡ⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ ⴭਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛汳摩牥崧㬩⼼捳楲瑰ਾਊ搼癩椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁•瑳汹㵥戢捡杫潲湵㩤愣敢昶㬶戠牯敤潴㩰瀱⁸潳楬㔣㜰㡡㬷挠敬牡戺瑯㭨搠獩汰祡渺湯㭥瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹∹ਾ搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨㌹瀶㭸㸢ऊ搼癩椠㵤愢汦湩獫潨摬牥•瑳汹㵥昢潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰∻ਾ††††愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯睷湡敧晬物祬潣潣⽭•楴汴㵥䄢杮汥楦敲挮浯›畢汩潹牵映敲敷獢瑩潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※潢摲牥〺㸢 †††††㰠浩牳㵣⼢摡⽭摡愯杮汥楦敲昭敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴匢瑩潨瑳摥戠⁹湁敧晬物潣㩭䈠極摬礠畯牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫戠牯敤㩲∰⼠ਾ††††⼼㹡 †㰠搯癩ਾ††椼牦浡摩∽祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡≥猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫映潬瑡氺晥㭴栠楥桧㩴㘹硰※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮瀠摡楤杮〺※楷瑤㩨㔷瀰≸㰾椯牦浡㹥㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶ਊਊ