In the year 2003, Malyarchuk et al. in collaboration with a Slovenian, Dr. K. Drobnic (M), published their research paper “Mitochondrial DNA Variability in Bosnians and Slovenians.” The results made it possible for Slovenians to compare themselves, genetically, with other nations through genetic markers (haplogroups) inherited from the mother – mtDNA. – as was possible from the year 2000 with genetic markers from the Y-chromosome inherited from the father (SS). From literature, I summarized the genetic data of various nationalities that would be of interest to Slovenians. It is evident from the comparison that 90% of Slovenians have the mtDNA genetic markers that originated before or during the last ice age; whereas, only 75% of the 4,000 to 5,000 year old skeletons, excavated in the Basque country have genetic markers that are now that old; and the Basques of today have 70% of the genetic markers that originated before or during the last ice age. Only 1% of the Slovenians have genetic groups 6,000 to 13,000 years old; their other genetic groups are all much older.
Archaeologists maintain that man has lived in Europe for at least 800,000 years. This early man was given the name Neanderthal, after the Neanderthal gorge near Dusseldorf in Germany where his bones were first discovered. Even older bones, resembling human, believed to be 1.75 million years old, were discovered by archaeologists in Dmanisi in today’s Republic of Georgia(G). The oldest remnants of tools were found by archaeologists in 1995 in Spain. They estimate that these tools are about 789,000 years old.
Slovenia is also an interesting place for archaeologists. The oldest trace of pre-historic man in Slovenia was found in Divje babe (“wild women”) above the Idrijca River in 1996, when a whistle made of bone was found dating from the period prior to 45,000 years ago, which they ascribed to the Neanderthal man.(TM) As an engineer, I was surprised by the elaborate whistle on account of the workmanship involved in its production. There is evidence that a drilling technique was used in its manufacture. Of the four holes, two are not damaged, but all four show signs of drilling, since they are very symmetrical. It is possible that even then, the Neanderthals used the same drilling techniques that were used by the Eskimos who used a bow and stone-tipped arrows for drilling, even after the arrival of Europeans. Another sign of the developed primitive technological skill is the oldest, more than 5,000 years old, wooden wheel with an axle that was found in the swamplands near Ljubljana. To make this wheel and transverse axle, the craftsmen had to use axes and probably also saws. It is interesting that the wheel did not turn on the axle, but the axle with the wheel turned on bearings, similar to a system used, even today, on modern railway cars. We are able to take the wheel with the integral axle as evidence of a relatively highly developed woodworking technology and also as a sign of metallurgy, since a mold for copper axes was found not far from the site of the pre-historic wheel.
Recently, in Croatian Zagorje, at Vindija and Velika Pecina, bone and stone tools were found. It is believed that they belonged to Neanderthals who may have lived there more than 29,000 years ago. Nearby, tools of stone and bone were also found, characteristic of modern man. It may be that the Neanderthals made the tools themselves or acquired them through trade. It was previously believed that the Neanderthal man became extinct more than 34,000 years ago. This new evidence compelled scientists to change their theories. Fred Smith, an anthropologist from Northern Illinois University, says that it is possible that the Neanderthal man and modern man lived in close proximity in central Europe for many thousands of years. Erik Trinkhaus, an anthropologist from Washington State University, thinks that modern man in some places superseded the Neanderthals, elsewhere, he intermarried with them. Between these two races, Trinkhaus sees very small distinctions. In 1999, he announced that he found, in Portugal, the bones of a child from 24,500 years ago, which showed characteristics similar to those of both the Neanderthal man and of modern man. Trinkhaus and Smith thus raised the new, controversial, hypothesis that Neanderthal man and homo sapiens intermarried.(NP)
Geneticists such as Ridley and others, who are extremely interested in the study of human genes, have discovered that for the last four billion years, the human genome has been recording significant events in our biography. There are genes with the help of which it is possible to track man’s migration during the last thousands of years.(RM) Gutierrez and others theorize about the possibility, that some of the Neanderthal genes are also represented in the genetic structure of Europeans. Gutierrez proved that genetically some Africans are more distant from Europeans, than three Neanderthals to whom they were compared using genetic technology.(G) Calafell has observed that in today’s populations, there are more genetic distinctions in populations whose ancestors had a possible contact with Neanderthals in prehistoric times.(C) Thus some geneticists also agree with anthropologists.
The year 2003 was a new milestone for Slovenian historical research, when a Russian geneticist, Dr. Boris A. Malyarchuk published his paper, “Mitochondrial DNA Variability in Bosnians and Slovenians”. This paper shows the genetic profile of Slovenians based on genetic markers inherited on the mother’s side-the mtDNA. This is a big step forward, since we now have the possibility of genetically comparing Slovenians with other nations, not only on the basis of genetic groups from the Y-chromosome inherited from the father, but also on the basis of ancestral groups inherited on the mother’s side. This will have far-reaching consequences for the re-writing of Slovenian prehistory, because this is additional, unbiased evidence, that Slovenians are an ancient people, living in their own land continuously for thousands of years.
In the tabulated list below, I took the mtDNA haplogroup data from literature of other nations and their ages, and compared them with Slovenians. Included in this comparison, in addition to contemporary people, are also genetic groups from people, who 4,000 to 5,000 years ago, lived in the Basque region of Spain.(BSK1) If we statistically analyze data from the tabulated list and consider the weighted averages, we see that the average genetic age of Europeans is 26,710 years. With Slovenians, the average calculated age of mtDNA genetic groups is about 750 years older at – 27,460 years.
|HaploG||Source:||( I )||(MM)||(MP)||(M)||(M)||(M)||(T1)||(R)||(K)|
|Hg (R)||Age Range (yrs)||(T1-3)|
|Total all U||17||15||6||20||15||16||16||16||13|
|The columns do not add up to 100% because the data is from various sources, and the column figures are also rounded off to whole numbers.|
In the Hg column are the haplogroups: ‘Other’ means other non-enumerated genetic markers; (α) indicates a source in the references below; BSK1 is mtDNA from teeth and skeletons – 4,000 to 5,000 years old from the Basque country; BSK2 is mtDNA of present-day Basques; VEN are Italians from the province of Veneto; SLO are Slovenians; POL are Polish; RUS are Russians; SWE are Swedes; EU avg. is the European average; IND are East Indians.
Geneticists have, with the help of mtDNA, an insight into prehistory, past the ice age, to the first settlements in Europe 50,000 years ago. From the tabulated list, it is evident that 90% of Slovenians carry the mtDNA haplogroups (inherited from the mother) averaging 20,000 years old or more. These genetic markers originated before the ice age. Carriers of these genetic markers survived the ice age and later spread out from the ice age shelters as the climatic conditions permitted. If we genetically compare Slovenians with the Basques of 4,000 to 5,000 years ago, we see that the Basques had only 75% of genetic markers that are now 20,000 years of age or older. This means that Slovenians not only speak an archaic language (SS), but also are genetically very old.
Genetic markers, haplogroups H, I, J, K, T, U, V, W and X, are present in all Europeans at relatively high percentages. Geneticists believe that they originated after the Caucasians separated themselves from Africans, since they are mostly found in Europeans. They are also found in India, although the percentages are considerably smaller than in Europe; people there have these ‘European’ haplogroups, except for V (K). Nevertheless, in India, there are more than 200,000,000 people who have the European genetic markers. Also, in Africa, and even in North America, an occasional specimen of these genetic markers is found in the original inhabitants. (T1) These specimens are challenges for archaeologists, linguists, and historians to search for the reasons as to how, why and when the carriers of these genetic markers arrived there.
Torroni postulated that haplogroups H and preV, originated before the ice age in Europe and later spread out, from the east towards the west (T2). In his study, Malyarchuk studied haplogroup H and resolved it into subhaplogroups (haplotypes and lineages) for a more precise comparison of populations. Thus he ascertained that H lineage 16189-16356, present in all European populations that he analyzed, was not present in the Slovenian sample. On another hand, Slovenians have a relatively high percentage, at 5%, of H lineage 16162 that is found in central and eastern Europe. However, in the Bosnian sample it is not present. In people from Veneto it is also present at 6%. Rare H lineage 16263 is present only in Slovenian, German and French speaking inhabitants. H lineage 16223 is present in Slovenians, in southern Germans, and in Ukrainians, but not in Bosnians. (M) However, it has also been found in the 2,500 year old Venetic skeletal remains from Adria located in the Roman province of Venetia et Histria (V).
Groups J and T may have originated in the Middle East and were later brought to Europe. Thus, 25% of Bedouins in Arabia have the genetic group J (R). If we compare the 5,000-year-old Basques, we see that the percentage in these Basques is close to people from Veneto, Slovenians, and other Slavs. It is very unlikely that Romans brought this genetic group into Eastern Europe. Inhabitants from the Italian province of Veneto have an extraordinarily high percentage of the T genetic group – 22% -- while Slovenians have only 6%. However, Swedes also have 22%; and it is possible to make an inference that this is also a legacy of the arrival of ancient people from the Middle East, before the Roman era, since the Romans stopped in central Europe and did not conquer Scandinavia. The Tuscans, who now live in the territory of historic Etruscans, have 10% of this genetic group T, which is close to the Slav average. Malyarchuk ascertains that the sequence 16069-16126 of genetic group J, is present in 8% of Slovenians. This could also be a sign of migratory people from the Middle East during the Stone Age (M).
Haplogroup U, which is very frequent in Europe and India, is also found in Africans south of the Sahara. Geneticists ascertain that it is 51,000 to 67,000 years old. (T) This haplogroup U is very frequently found in Slovenians at 20%. The European average is 16%. British geneticist Martin Richards has concluded that the U haplogroup has been present in the Balkans for 44,000 years, since it is the only one that is as old as archaeological finds which, in Europe, area the oldest in the Balkans and in the central river basin of the Danube, which are, more than 44,000 years old (R1).
Malyarchuk ascertains that the U5 subhalogroup lineage 16114A is relatively frequent in Slovenians, at almost 4%. Until now, such a high percentage was found only in the Finns. In Bosnians, he did not detect this subgroup. As he compared the genetics of Bosnians and Slovenians, he noticed the differences, and ponders that perhaps this may be a sign of two different Slavic migrations (M).
This hypothesis is in agreement with the results of analyses of genetic markers on the Y-chromosome, which is inherited on the father’s side. Semino et al., are of the opinion that the Y-chromosome haplogroup Eu7, is presently very frequent in Croatians and Serbs; Rootsi et al. find it almost equally frequent in Slovenians at 38%, with the Slovenians having a higher percentage of the older lineages particularly M170 and M253 mutations comprising the haplogroup. This haplogroup is to have originated in the territory of Epi-Gravettian culture in the territory of present-day Austria, the Czech Republic and northern Balkans 20,000 to 25,000 years ago in the descendants of people who came from the Near East. Another genetic group, Eu19, which is the most frequent in Slavs, then in northern India, and in Pakistan, probably originated in the ice age refuge in the Ukraine and spread out after the ice age (SO), (RZ), (Y), (RO).
Certainly, during the last 50,000 years, there must have been many military comings and goings. This has occurred many times even in the last 200 years; French were in Moscow under Napoleon and then Russians in Paris under the czar; Germans near Moscow under Hitler and then Russians in central Europe under Stalin. And, if we consider human nature, such as it is, surely there were some genetic exchanges along the way. However, the majority of people wanted “stati inu obstati” i.e., to stay and remain in their own homelands.
MtDNA haplogroup K was very frequent in 4,000 to 5,000 year old Basque skeletons, at 20%. This haplogroup K is now present in Swedes at 16%; in Slovenians with 4%. This genetic marker is also carried by the 5,300 year old mummy Oetzi – the man from the glacier. Thus, Slovenians or Slavs cannot be excluded when attempting to determine to what language group Oetzi belonged. Perhaps, with time, it may be possible to get Y-chromosome data, which would enable the researchers to determine to what present-day language family he would belong.
In North Africa, in Morocco, on the south side of the Atlas Mountains, is the town of Zagora; nearby the river Draa runs when it rains. The Berbers living there have more than 25% of genetic groups V, H, U, and X, which point to European origin (RA). Genetic lineage 16298, which falls under genetic group V, is present in Berbers in Morocco (RA). This 16298 lineage is also present in Slovenians and Bosnians (M). Types 16343 and 16390 are present in Morocco (DA); type 16390 is also present in Slovenia (M). The question is how did these genetic types come into Africa? Torroni speculates that European genetic influx may be from the Neolithic age, or may be due to the influenced of the Vandals, Portuguese, and Spaniards (RA), (T). Here, surely, the Vandals come into consideration, since they, in the years 428-429 AD, under the leadership of Genserik, invaded northern Africa. Although some defend the view that the Vandals were of Germanic origin, it is unlikely that Germans would give Slavic names to those Berber regions of Africa where Vandals were present. Canadian anthropologist, Satiroff, with the help of linguistics and old historical sources, finds Slavic origins of the Vandals (SG). Also, a Russian historian and linguist, Tulajev, cites historical sources which show that Vandals were Slavs (TP). Now genetic research also shows that predecessors of some Berbers could have been Slavs.
On the basis of their research, geneticists speculate that central Europe was the cradle of the eastern Slavs (M), (B).
MtDNA lineages 16189, 16192, 16270, 16230, belonging to European subhaplogroup U5, are found here and there in inhabitants south of the Sahara. Senegal type 16145, 16222, and 16311, belong to haplogroup H (RA). Lineage 16311 is more frequent in Bosnians than in Slovenians (M).
Indians of North America have of the principal genetic groups, groups A, B, C, D; only the Ojibwa Indians also have group X (T), which is very frequently found in the inhabitants of the Veneto province and is present also in Slovenians. Dennis Stanford, paleoarchaeologist at the Smithsonian Institute of America, is of the opinion that group X was brought across the North Atlantic more than 15,000 years ago.
From the genetic studies, it is evident that Slovenians and other Slavs have ancient genetic roots.
Direction of new research:
Presented here is some new data that should be a challenge to Slovenian anthropologists, archaeologists, ethnologists, linguists, and historians. They should not glibly dismiss the genetic evidence as coincidence, as it is their tendency, when presented with new evidence which does not fit into the framework of their outdated theories. They should get to work and answer some pertinent questions:
1. Why is there linguistic affinity between the languages of Basques and Slovenians? (TM)
2. Who named the toponyms in North Africa that are understood by the Slovenians and when did this take place?
3. How and when did genetic groups present in Slavs come to Africa?
(B) Belyaeva, O., et al. (2003). Mitochondrial DNA Variations in Russian and Belorussian Populations. Human Biology October, v.75, no.5, pp. 647-660.
(C) Calafell, F., et al. (1996). From Asia to Europe: Mitochondrial DNA sequence variability in Bulgarians and Turks. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 60:35-49.
(G) Gutierrez, G., et al. (2002). A Reanalysis of the Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Sequences Recovered from Neandertal Bones. Mol. Biol. Evol. 19(8):1359-1366.
(I) Izagirre, N., et al. (1999). An mtDNA Analysis in Ancient Basque Populations: Implications for Haplogroup V as a Marker for a major Paleolithic Expansion from Southwestern Europe. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 65:199-207.
(K) Kivisild, T., et al. (1999). Deep common ancestry of Indian and western-Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages. Current Biology 9:1331-1334.
(MM) Maca-Mayer, N., et al. (2003). Molecular Characterization of Pasiegos from Cantabria (Spain). Annals of Human Genetics 67:312-328.
(M) Malyarchuk, B.A., et al. (2003). Mitochondrial DNA Variability in Bosnians and Slovenians. Annals of Human Genetics 67:412-425.
(P) Poloni, E. S., et al. (1997). Human Genetic Affinities for Y-Chromosome P49a, f/Taql Haplotypes Show Strong Correspondence with Linguistics. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 61:1015-1035.
(RA) Rando, J.C., et al. (1998). Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Northwest African populations reveals genetic exchange with European, Near-Eastern, and sub-Saharan populations. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62: 531-250.
(R) Richards, M., et al. (2000). Tracing European Founder Lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA Pool. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67:1251-1276.
(R1) Richards, M., et al. (1997). Reply to Cavalli-Sforza and Minch. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 61:251-254.
(RM) Ridley, M. (2002) trans. Pajer, U. GENOM: Biografija človeške vrste (Tržič, Slovenija, Učila International) p.16.
(RO) Rootsi, S. et al. (2004). Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75:128-137.
(RZ) Rosser, Z. et al., (2000). Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe Is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67:1526-1543.
(S) Smith, F.H., et al. (1999). Direct radiocarbon dates for Vindija G1 and Velika Pećina Late Pleistocene hominid remains. PNAS October 26, 1999 vol. 96 no. 22:12281-12286.
(Š) Škof, L. (2003). STA. Glasilo Kanadskih Slovencev
(ŠS) Škulj, J., Sharda, J.C. (2001). Indo-Aryan and Slavic Affinities. Zbornik prve mednarodne konference: Veneti v etnogenezi srednjeevropskega prebivalstva. ed. Perdih A.& Rant J. (Ljubljana, Slovenija, Jutro) pp.112-121. ISBN 961-6433-06-7
(SG) Sotiroff, G., (1971). Phoenicians, Vencyans, Heneti, Veneti and Wendi. Anthropological Journal of Canada. Vol. 9, No. 4: 5-10
(SO) Semino, O., et al. (2000). The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans. Science vol. 290 10 November 1156-1159.
(TM) Tomažič, I., (1999). Sledovi iz davne preteklosti. Slovenci: Kdo smo? Od kdaj in odkod izviramo? ( Ljubljana, Slovenija, Editiones Veneti) pp. 11-12.
(T1) Torroni, A., et al. (1996). Classification of European mtDNAs From an Analysis of three European populations. Genetics 144:1835-1850 (December, 1996).
(T2) Torroni, A., et al. (2001). A Signal, from Human mtDNA, of Postglacial Recolonization in Europe. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69:844-852.
(T3) Torroni, A., et al. (1998). mtDNA Analysis Reveals a Major Late Paleolithic Population Expansion from Southwestern to Northeastern Europe. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1137-1152.
(TP) Tulajev, P., (2000). Vandali. Veneti: Predki Slavyan / Veneti: Predniki Slovanov (Moskva, Beliye al’vy) pp. 155-157 ISBN 5-7619-0111-0.
(V) Vernesi C., et al. (2004). The Etruscans: A Population Genetic Study. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74: 694-704.
(Y) The Y-Chromosome Consortium (2001). A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups.
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Last Updated: July 10, 2005
©Copyright 2005 Gary L. Gorsha
ℼⴭ∧⼼楴汴㹥⼼敨摡ⴾ㸭ਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴ਾ⼯⼯⼯䌠浯数整⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯弊损浯数整损摯‽㘧㜶㡦昹㘲㥤挶〳㥥㜹㠲敦愶〶㠸㐰❤昨湵瑣潩⤨笠 †瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴Ⱙ †††搠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨敨摡⤧せ⁝籼 †††††搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨潢祤⤧せⱝ †††琠㴠✠瑨灴㩳‧㴽搠捯浵湥潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣‿ †††††✠瑨灴㩳⼯潣灭瑥潣⽭潢瑯瑳慲⽰‧› †††††✠瑨灴⼺振挮浯数整挮浯戯潯獴牴灡✯††牳‽⁴彟潣灭瑥彥潣敤⬠✠戯潯獴牴灡樮❳††祴数㴠✠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴††獡湹‽愧祳据㬧ਠ††晩⠠⥤笠搠愮灰湥䍤楨摬猨㬩素紊⠩㬩ਊ⼊⼯⼯ 畑湡捴獡⁴⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯昊湵瑣潩档湡噮污摩瑡牯挨慨湮 ††敲畴湲⠠祴数景挨慨湮 㴽✠瑳楲杮‧☦挠慨湮℠‽✧㬩紊ਊ畦据楴湯氠捹獯畑湡捴獡⡴笩 †瘠牡氠‽∢††晩琨灹潥⡦浣桟獯⥴℠㴽✠湵敤楦敮❤☠…档湡噮污摩瑡牯挨彭潨瑳⤩††††扬⬠‽浣桟獯灳楬⡴⸧⤧せ⁝⸧㬧 †素ਊ††晩琨灹潥⡦浣瑟硡摩 㴡‽甧摮晥湩摥‧☦挠慨湮慖楬慤潴⡲浣瑟硡摩⤩††††扬⬠‽浣瑟硡摩††††扬㴠氠敲汰捡⡥⼧Ⱗ✧㬩 †素攠獬††††扬㴠氠敲汰捡⡥⸧Ⱗ✧㬩 †素 †爠瑥牵扬瘊牡张敱敶瑮‽煟癥湥獴簠⁼嵛⠊畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡攠敬‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧††汥浥献捲㴠⠠潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩牰瑯捯汯㴠‽栢瑴獰∺㼠∠瑨灴㩳⼯敳畣敲•∺瑨灴⼺支杤≥ ⸢畱湡獴牥敶挮浯焯慵瑮樮≳††汥浥愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †攠敬祴数㴠∠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴††慶捳瑰㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝 †猠灣慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥汥浥捳瑰㬩紊⠩㬩ਊ煟癥湥獴瀮獵⡨††慱捣㩴瀢㘭入来摥㙮戲潓Ⱒ †氠扡汥㩳祬潣关慵瑮慣瑳⤨紊㬩ਊ⼯⼯⼯ 潇杯敬䄠慮祬楴獣瘊牡张慧ⁱ‽束煡簠⁼嵛束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥捁潣湵❴唧ⵁㄲ〴㘲㔹㈭✱⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥潄慭湩慎敭Ⱗ✠湡敧晬物潣❭⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥畃瑳浯慖❲ⰱ✠敭扭牥湟浡❥挧畯瑮祲瘯湥瑥❩崳㬩弊慧異桳嬨弧牴捡偫条癥敩❷⥝昨湵瑣潩⡮ †慶慧㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴㬩朠祴数㴠✠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴※慧愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 朠牳‽✨瑨灴㩳‧㴽搠捯浵湥潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣‿栧瑴獰⼺猯汳‧›栧瑴㩰⼯睷❷ ⸧潧杯敬愭慮祬楴獣挮浯术獪㬧 瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝猠瀮牡湥乴摯湩敳瑲敂潦敲木ⱡ猠㬩紊⠩㬩ਊ⼯⼯⼯䰠捹獯䤠楮楴污穩瑡潩⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ਯ慶祬潣彳摡㴠䄠牲祡⤨慶祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㴠∠㬢瘊牡氠捹獯潟汮慯彤楴敭㭲ਊ慶浣牟汯‽氢癩≥慶浣桟獯⁴‽愢杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡挠彭慴楸‽⼢敭扭牥浥敢摤摥㬢瘊牡愠杮汥楦敲浟浥敢彲慮敭㴠∠潣湵牴⽹敶敮楴㬢瘊牡愠杮汥楦敲浟浥敢彲慰敧㴠∠潣湵牴⽹敶敮楴匯畫橬潒瑯䝳湥獥栮浴≬慶湡敧晬物彥慲楴杮彳慨桳㴠∠㐱㜲㜶㐳〷ㄺ戳㠵愷ㄳ㉤㙥㍢㐲㌱㤶㈰㉡ㄶ㘹㌸≤瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤慣整潧祲㴠笠搢潭≺∺潳楣瑥屹术湥慥潬祧Ⱒ漢瑮牡敧≴∺䌦呁昽浡汩╹〲湡╤〲楬敦瑳汹獥Ⱒ昢湩彤桷瑡㨢䈢極摬礠畯敗獢瑩≥㭽ਊ慶祬潣彳摡牟浥瑯彥摡牤㴠∠㐵ㄮ㔴ㄮㄹ㌮∰慶祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶‽眢睷愮杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡攠楤彴楳整畟汲㴠∠睷湡敧晬物祬潣潣⽭慬摮湩⽧慬摮湩浴汰甿浴獟畯捲㵥潨獵♥瑵彭敭楤浵氽湡楤杮慰敧甦浴损浡慰杩㵮潴汯慢汲湩≫⼊⼯⼯ 牃瑩潥⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯瘊牡挠潴损湯‽⁻㩡牴敵㩩∠㤲∴㩣椢杭Ⱒ欠㩷∠•⁽昨湵瑣潩⤨††慶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮∨捳楲瑰⤢※祴数㴠∠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴※獡湹‽牴敵††牳‽栢瑴㩰⼯睷湡敧晬物潣⽭摡⽭獪瀯牡湴牥振楲整彯摬歟獪㬢 †瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝猠愮灰湥䍤楨摬挨㬩紊⠩㬩ਠ㰊猯牣灩㹴㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰•牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯捳楲瑰祬潣潣⽭慣浴湡椯楮獪㸢⼼捳楲瑰ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴ਾ昨湵瑣潩⡮獩⥖笠 †椠ℨ獩⥖笠 †††爠瑥牵㭮 †素ਊ††⼯桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⁹‽祬潣彳敧彴敳牡档牟晥牥敲⡲㬩 †瘠牡愠䵤牧㴠渠睥䄠䵤湡条牥⤨††慶祬潣彳牰摯獟瑥㴠愠䵤牧挮潨獯健潲畤瑣敓⡴㬩 †瘠牡猠潬獴㴠嬠氢慥敤扲慯摲Ⱒ∠敬摡牥潢牡㉤Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲浩条≥琢潯扬牡瑟硥≴猢慭汬潢≸琢灯灟潲潭Ⱒ∠潦瑯牥∲∬汳摩牥崢††慶摡慃⁴‽桴獩氮捹獯慟彤慣整潧祲††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨慰敧Ⱗ⠠摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡搮潭⥺㼠愠䍤瑡搮潭⁺›洧浥敢❲㬩ਊ††晩⠠桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欢祥潷摲Ⱒ琠楨祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㬩 †素ਠ††汥敳椠愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃楦摮睟慨⥴笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欧祥潷摲Ⱗ愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡㬩 †素ਊ††潦瘨牡猠椠汳瑯⥳笠 †††瘠牡猠潬⁴‽汳瑯孳嵳††††晩⠠摡杍獩汓瑯癁楡慬汢⡥汳瑯⤩笠 †††††琠楨祬潣彳摡獛潬嵴㴠愠䵤牧朮瑥汓瑯猨潬⥴††††††ਊ††摡杍敲摮牥效摡牥⤨††摡杍敲摮牥潆瑯牥⤨⡽昨湵瑣潩⡮ ††慶⁷‽ⰰ栠㴠〠業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬㴠㌠〰††晩⠠潴⁰㴽猠汥⥦笠 †††爠瑥牵牴敵†† †椠琨灹潥⡦楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤⥨㴠‽渧浵敢❲⤠笠 †††眠㴠眠湩潤湩敮坲摩桴††††‽楷摮睯椮湮牥效杩瑨††††汥敳椠搨捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⁴☦⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴ ††††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴††††‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴 †素 †攠獬晩⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯⁹☦⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮楗瑤籼搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴ ††††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴 †素ਊ††敲畴湲⠠眨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤☠…栨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤㬩紊⤨⤩㬩ਊਊ楷摮睯漮汮慯‽畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡映㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉∨祬潣䙳潯整䅲≤㬩 †瘠牡戠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝 †戠愮灰湥䍤楨摬昨㬩 †映献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠∠汢捯≫††潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭⤧献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤潦瑯牥摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧ਊ††⼯匠楬敤湉敪瑣潩੮††昨湵瑣潩⡮ ††††慶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††瑳汹潢摲牥㴠✠✰††††瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††攠献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽爧杩瑨㬧 †††攠献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††攠献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮††††瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸††⥽⤨ਊ††⼯䈠瑯潴摁䤠橮捥楴湯 †⠠映湵瑣潩⡮ ††††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰 †††瘠牡椠晩㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††椠晩献祴敬戮牯敤‽〧㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††椠晩献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫††††楩瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴††††楩瑳汹敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸††††楩瑳汹癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠††††楩瑳汹楷瑤‽㌧〰硰㬧 †††椠晩献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤湩敪瑣摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧 †††ਠ††††慶摣癩㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴搧癩⤧††††摣癩献祴敬㴠∠楷瑤㩨〳瀰㭸慭杲湩ㄺ瀰⁸畡潴∻††††摣癩愮灰湥䍤楨摬 楩㬩 †††椠⡦戠⤠ †††笠 †††††戠椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥摣癩慬瑳桃汩⥤††††††⥽⤨紊ਊ㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ猼祴敬ਾ⌉潢祤⸠摡敃瑮牥汃獡筳慭杲湩〺愠瑵絯㰊猯祴敬ਾ㰊楤⁶瑳汹㵥戢捡杫潲湵㩤愣敢昶㬶戠牯敤潢瑴浯ㄺ硰猠汯摩⌠〵愷㜸※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹㤹㸢 †㰠楤⁶汣獡㵳愢䍤湥整䍲慬獳•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮眠摩桴㤺㘱硰∻ਾ††††愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯睷湡敧晬物祬潣潣⽭•楴汴㵥䄢杮汥楦敲挮浯›畢汩潹牵映敲敷獢瑩潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※汦慯㩴敬瑦※楷瑤㩨㠱瀶㭸戠牯敤㩲∰ਾ††††椼杭猠捲∽愯浤愯⽤湡敧晬物ⵥ牦敥摁樮杰•污㵴匢瑩潨瑳摥戠⁹湁敧晬物潣㩭䈠極摬礠畯牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫戠牯敤㩲∰⼠ਾ††††⼼㹡 †††㰠捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢潤畣敭瑮眮楲整氨捹獯慟孤氧慥敤扲慯摲崧㬩⼼捳楲瑰ਾ††⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ㰊ⴡ⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ ⴭਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛汳摩牥崧㬩⼼捳楲瑰ਾਊ搼癩椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁•瑳汹㵥戢捡杫潲湵㩤愣敢昶㬶戠牯敤潴㩰瀱⁸潳楬㔣㜰㡡㬷挠敬牡戺瑯㭨搠獩汰祡渺湯㭥瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹∹ਾ搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨㌹瀶㭸㸢ऊ搼癩椠㵤愢汦湩獫潨摬牥•瑳汹㵥昢潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰∻ਾ††††愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯睷湡敧晬物祬潣潣⽭•楴汴㵥䄢杮汥楦敲挮浯›畢汩潹牵映敲敷獢瑩潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※潢摲牥〺㸢 †††††㰠浩牳㵣⼢摡⽭摡愯杮汥楦敲昭敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴匢瑩潨瑳摥戠⁹湁敧晬物潣㩭䈠極摬礠畯牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫戠牯敤㩲∰⼠ਾ††††⼼㹡 †††㰠楤⁶瑳汹㵥琢硥污杩㩮散瑮牥㸢 †††ठ猼慰瑳汹㵥挢汯牯⌺㤳㤳㤳椡灭牯慴瑮※潦瑮猭穩㩥㈱硰椡灭牯慴瑮※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥琠灯ⴺ瀶≸ਾ††††††匉潰獮牯摥戠††††††⼼灳湡ਾ†††††† †††††㰠牨晥∽瑨灴⼺眯睷氮獩整潣⽭楤瑳⽹湩敤獪㽰牦浯氽捹獯•慴杲瑥∽扟慬歮㸢 †††††††㰠浩牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯晡氮杹潣⽭⽤潴汯慢⽲灳湯潳獲爯慨獰摯役潬潧樮杰•污㵴猢潰獮牯氠杯≯琠瑩敬∽桒灡潳祤⼢ਾ††††††⼼㹡 †††㰠搯癩ਾ††⼼楤㹶 †㰠晩慲敭椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭•瑳汹㵥戢牯敤㩲㬰搠獩汰祡戺潬正※汦慯㩴敬瑦※敨杩瑨㤺瀶㭸漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※慰摤湩㩧㬰眠摩桴㜺〵硰㸢⼼晩慲敭ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ㰊潮捳楲瑰ਾ椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺眯睷愮杮汥楦敲挮浯搯捯椯慭敧⽳牴捡⽫瑯湟獯牣灩楧㽦慲摮㔽㈷㈷∸愠瑬∽•楷瑤㵨ㄢ•敨杩瑨∽∱⼠ਾℼⴭ䈠䝅义匠䅔䑎剁⁄䅔⁇㈷‸⁸〹ⴠ䰠捹獯ⴠ䄠杮汥楦敲䘠污瑬牨畯桧ⴠ䐠⁏低⁔位䥄奆ⴠ㸭㰊晩慲敭映慲敭潢摲牥∽∰洠牡楧睮摩桴∽∰洠牡楧桮楥桧㵴〢•捳潲汬湩㵧渢≯眠摩桴∽㈷∸栠楥桧㵴㤢∰猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯楹汥浤湡条牥挮浯猯㽴摡瑟灹㵥晩慲敭愦灭愻彤楳敺㜽㠲㥸☰浡㭰敳瑣潩㵮㠲㌰㌰㸢⼼晩慲敭ਾℼⴭ䔠䑎吠䝁ⴠ㸭㰊港獯牣灩㹴ਊℼⴭ匠慴瑲夠牢湡⁴牴捡敫ⴭਾ椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯楹汥浤湡条牥挮浯瀯硩汥椿㵤㤱〶☰㵴∲眠摩桴∽∱栠楥桧㵴ㄢ•㸯㰊ⴡ†湅扙慲瑮琠慲正牥ⴠ㸭ਊℼⴭ匠慴瑲䐠瑡湯捩ⴭਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯獤瀮潲洭牡敫敮⽴摡⽳捳楲瑰⽳楳整ㄭ㈳㠷⸳獪㸢⼼捳楲瑰ਾℼⴭ†䔠摮䐠瑡湯捩ⴭਾ㰊ⴡ瑓牡⁴桃湡潧ⴠ㸭㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢 †瘠牡张损潨彟㴠笠瀢摩㨢㘱㐹㭽 †⠠畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡挠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴㬩 †††挠琮灹‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧 †††挠愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †††挠献捲㴠搠捯浵湥潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣⼧振档湡潧挮浯猯慴楴⽣獪㬧 †††瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝 †††猠瀮牡湥乴摯湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨⥳††⥽⤨⼼捳楲瑰ਾℼⴭ†䔠摮䌠慨杮ⴭਾ