On February 7 you printed an interesting article "Kranj's Khislstein Castle." The article tells us about the archeological findings which tell us when the area was first settled. The settlement goes way back into history, all the way to the Old Stone Age.
The article, however, claims that . . . Its name (Carnium), as well as the name of the region (Carniola) and its inhabitants, and some rivers like the Sava (Savus) or the Kokra (Corkas) originate from the times of the Roman settlement. A reader could conclude from these examples that the names were brought by Romans and are of Latin origin, and may attempt to look for their meanings in a Latin dictionary. Unfortunately, the reader will be disappointed because no meaningful interpretation of these names will be found there.
To the above mentioned names, additional names that were also recorded during the Roman occupation about 2000 years ago, can be added. Let us look at the names of some of the rivers: Drava (Dravus), Kolpa (Kolapis), Mura (Murius), Nadrza (Natiso), Soca (Sontius), and city names such as Trst (Tergeste), and Ptuj (Poetovio) and mountains: Karavanke (Caravanca Mons) and Karniške Alpe (Alpes Carnicae).
Archeologists tell us that Slovenia was inhabited continuously for thousands of years. Even during the Ice Age, it provided a refuge for the inhabitants. After the Ice Age, the inhabitants spread north and east, according to geneticists who have studied the genetic makeup of peoples around the world. Later when the territory of the present day Slovenia became part of the Roman empire about 2000 years ago, the land was already inhabited. The inhabitants would have had names for the rivers, towns and mountains. In North America we are made aware of the indigenous peoples by the names of the rivers that they gave them and that have not been renamed by the white man. Names like Niagara, Mississauga, Ontario, Toronto, Canada, Mississippi, Temagami, etc., tell us that previous inhabitants were Indians. The present inhabitants for the most part do not understand the meanings of these names, but the North American Indians still do.
Many present day Slovenian names recorded by the Romans have no real meaning in Latin, but are meaningful, for the most part, in Slovenian. But if we cannot decipher the meaning of a name using Slovenian, the name can usually be deciphered using Sanskrit – the ancient language of India.
This may be surprising to some, but new studies have revealed that there are definite genetic and linguistic affinities between Slavs, especially Slovenians, in Europe and Indo-Aryans on the Indian sub-continent.
Let us see what the names, as transcribed by the Romans, mean by using Slovenian and Sanskrit by starting with the river names, since these are usually the most ancient:
Drava (Dravus) – Slo: drveša flowing fast. In Skt: running fast.
Kolpa (Colapis) – Skt: kala of a dark color & apas water.
Krka (Colapis) – Skt: krka white (the Krka is known for its white rapids; Karkari is a river in India).
Mura (Murius) – Skt: mura rushing, impetuous.
Nadiza (Natissa) – Slo: large spring; Skt: queen of rivers (Nadiza was once the largest river of the region in Venezia, until an earthquake changed the course of its tributaries, see Verbovšek).
Sava (Savus) – Skt: sava: water, juice of flowers, libation.
Savinja – Skt: savini a river.
Soča (Sontius) – Slo: sočna luscious; Skt: suca: pure, clear, clean.
Similarly, place names that date to Roman and pre-Roman times have meaning in Slovenian and Sanskrit, but not in Latin:
Kranj (Carnium) – Slo: krn mountain top, ship's end; Skt: karna the ear, helm of a ship.
The old part of the city is built at the confluence of the rivers Sava and Kokra. This part of the city is built on a triangular rock formation above the confluence, and this rock does resemble an end of a ship. The mountain to the west of the city resembles an ear when looking at it from Senčur, situated east of Kranj.
Ptuj (Poetovino) – Slo: potovje crossroads; Skt: patha road, vaya branch. (In Roman days, one road split to go north, while the other continued southeast).
Trst (Tergeste) – Slo: trzišče market place; Skt: durga citadel.
The names of the mountains were also recorded by the Romans, but their meanings are best deciphered with the use of Slovenian and Sanskrit. For example:
Karniske Alpe (Alpes Carnicare) – Slo: krn mountain top; Skt: karnika central mountain.
(Karnika is also another name for Meru. Meru is a name of a fabulous mountain regarded as Olympus of Hindu mythology and said to form the central point; all the planets revolve around it, and it is compared to the cup or seed vessel of a lotus. The river Ganges falls from heaven on its summit and flows thence to the surrounding worlds in four streams. The regents of the four quarters of the compass occupy the corresponding faces of the mountain, the whole of which consists of gold and gems. Its summit is the residence of Brahma and a place of meeting for the gods.)
For more information on the meaning of place names in and around Slovenia and the pre-history of Slovenia, I recommend for English readers: VENETI: First Builders of European Community by Šavli, Bor and Tomažič, which can be purchased from Mr. Anton Skerbinc, Site 1, Box 17, RR1, Boswell, BC, Canada V0B-1A0. Slovenian readers will find KOMU (NI)SMO TUJCI by Leopold Verbovšek and V SENCI ZGODOVINE by Davorin Zunkovič very informative. They can be purchased from JUTRO Crnuška c3, pp4986, 1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia or by phone 386 1 374 334
– Joze Skulj
Page Created: November 25, 2003
Last Updated: November 26, 2003
©Copyright 2003 Gary L. Gorsha
ℼⴭ∧⼼楴汴㹥⼼敨摡ⴾ㸭ਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴ਾ⼯⼯⼯䌠浯数整⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯弊损浯数整损摯‽㘧㜶㡦昹㘲㥤挶〳㥥㜹㠲敦愶〶㠸㐰❤昨湵瑣潩⤨笠 †瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴Ⱙ †††搠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨敨摡⤧せ⁝籼 †††††搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨潢祤⤧せⱝ †††琠㴠✠瑨灴㩳‧㴽搠捯浵湥潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣‿ †††††✠瑨灴㩳⼯潣灭瑥潣⽭潢瑯瑳慲⽰‧› †††††✠瑨灴⼺振挮浯数整挮浯戯潯獴牴灡✯††牳‽⁴彟潣灭瑥彥潣敤⬠✠戯潯獴牴灡樮❳††祴数㴠✠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴††獡湹‽愧祳据㬧ਠ††晩⠠⥤笠搠愮灰湥䍤楨摬猨㬩素紊⠩㬩ਊ⼊⼯⼯ 畑湡捴獡⁴⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯昊湵瑣潩档湡噮污摩瑡牯挨慨湮 ††敲畴湲⠠祴数景挨慨湮 㴽✠瑳楲杮‧☦挠慨湮℠‽✧㬩紊ਊ畦据楴湯氠捹獯畑湡捴獡⡴笩 †瘠牡氠‽∢††晩琨灹潥⡦浣桟獯⥴℠㴽✠湵敤楦敮❤☠…档湡噮污摩瑡牯挨彭潨瑳⤩††††扬⬠‽浣桟獯灳楬⡴⸧⤧せ⁝⸧㬧 †素ਊ††晩琨灹潥⡦浣瑟硡摩 㴡‽甧摮晥湩摥‧☦挠慨湮慖楬慤潴⡲浣瑟硡摩⤩††††扬⬠‽浣瑟硡摩††††扬㴠氠敲汰捡⡥⼧Ⱗ✧㬩 †素攠獬††††扬㴠氠敲汰捡⡥⸧Ⱗ✧㬩 †素 †爠瑥牵扬瘊牡张敱敶瑮‽煟癥湥獴簠⁼嵛⠊畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡攠敬‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧††汥浥献捲㴠⠠潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩牰瑯捯汯㴠‽栢瑴獰∺㼠∠瑨灴㩳⼯敳畣敲•∺瑨灴⼺支杤≥ ⸢畱湡獴牥敶挮浯焯慵瑮樮≳††汥浥愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †攠敬祴数㴠∠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴††慶捳瑰㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝 †猠灣慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥汥浥捳瑰㬩紊⠩㬩ਊ煟癥湥獴瀮獵⡨††慱捣㩴瀢㘭入来摥㙮戲潓Ⱒ †氠扡汥㩳祬潣关慵瑮慣瑳⤨紊㬩ਊ⼯⼯⼯ 潇杯敬䄠慮祬楴獣瘊牡张慧ⁱ‽束煡簠⁼嵛束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥捁潣湵❴唧ⵁㄲ〴㘲㔹㈭✱⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥潄慭湩慎敭Ⱗ✠湡敧晬物潣❭⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥畃瑳浯慖❲ⰱ✠敭扭牥湟浡❥挧畯瑮祲瘯湥瑥❩崳㬩弊慧異桳嬨弧牴捡偫条癥敩❷⥝昨湵瑣潩⡮ †慶慧㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴㬩朠祴数㴠✠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴※慧愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 朠牳‽✨瑨灴㩳‧㴽搠捯浵湥潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣‿栧瑴獰⼺猯汳‧›栧瑴㩰⼯睷❷ ⸧潧杯敬愭慮祬楴獣挮浯术獪㬧 瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝猠瀮牡湥乴摯湩敳瑲敂潦敲木ⱡ猠㬩紊⠩㬩ਊ⼯⼯⼯䰠捹獯䤠楮楴污穩瑡潩⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ਯ慶祬潣彳摡㴠䄠牲祡⤨慶祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㴠∠㬢瘊牡氠捹獯潟汮慯彤楴敭㭲ਊ慶浣牟汯‽氢癩≥慶浣桟獯⁴‽愢杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡挠彭慴楸‽⼢敭扭牥浥敢摤摥㬢瘊牡愠杮汥楦敲浟浥敢彲慮敭㴠∠潣湵牴⽹敶敮楴㬢瘊牡愠杮汥楦敲浟浥敢彲慰敧㴠∠潣湵牴⽹敶敮楴匯畫橬慎敭㉳〰〲㈲⸸瑨汭㬢瘊牡愠杮汥楦敲牟瑡湩獧桟獡‽ㄢㄴ㈴㠷㠵㨳昹ㄸ扦㡣愳㙦愳㜱㡡㥣㥣慣㥡㈴愲㤴㬢ਊ慶祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯⁹‽≻浤穯㨢猢捯敩祴⽜敧敮污杯≹∬湯慴杲瑥㨢☢䅃㵔慦業祬㈥愰摮㈥氰晩獥祴敬≳∬楦摮睟慨≴∺畂汩潹牵圠扥楳整索瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤敲潭整慟摤‽㔢⸴ㄸㄮ㐲ㄮ㠹㬢瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤睷彷敳癲牥㴠∠睷湡敧晬物祬潣潣≭慶摥瑩獟瑩彥牵‽眢睷愮杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯氯湡楤杮氯湡楤杮琮灭㽬瑵彭潳牵散栽畯敳甦浴浟摥畩㵭慬摮湩灧条♥瑵彭慣灭楡湧琽潯扬牡楬歮㬢ਊ⼯⼯⼯䌠楲整⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ਯ慶瑣彯潣普㴠笠愠琺畲ⱥ椠›㈢㐹Ⱒ挠∺浩≧睫›∢素㬠⠊畦据楴湯⠠笩 †瘠牡挠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猢牣灩≴㬩挠琮灹‽琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬢挠愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †挠献捲㴠∠瑨灴⼺眯睷愮杮汥楦敲挮浯愯浤樯⽳慰瑲敮⽲牣瑩潥江彤睫樮≳††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰※灡数摮桃汩⡤⥣⥽⤨※ਊ⼼捳楲瑰ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴猠捲∽瑨灴⼺猯牣灩獴氮捹獯挮浯振瑡慭⽮湩瑩樮≳㰾猯牣灩㹴㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢⠊畦据楴湯椨噳 ††晩⠠椡噳 ††††敲畴湲†† †⼠琯楨祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㴠氠捹獯束瑥獟慥捲彨敲敦牲牥⤨††慶摡杍‽敮⁷摁慍慮敧⡲㬩 †瘠牡氠捹獯灟潲彤敳⁴‽摡杍档潯敳牐摯捵却瑥⤨††慶汳瑯‽≛敬摡牥潢牡≤氢慥敤扲慯摲∲琢潯扬牡楟慭敧Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲整瑸Ⱒ∠浳污扬硯Ⱒ∠潴彰牰浯≯昢潯整㉲Ⱒ猢楬敤≲㭝 †瘠牡愠䍤瑡㴠琠楨祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯㭹 †愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭瀧条❥愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃浤穯 ‿摡慃浤穯㨠✠敭扭牥⤧ †椠琨楨祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲 ††††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡∨敫睹牯≤桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹††⁽ †攠獬晩⠠摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡 ††††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨敫睹牯❤摡慃楦摮睟慨⥴†† †映牯⠠慶湩猠潬獴 ††††慶汳瑯㴠猠潬獴獛㭝 †††椠愨䵤牧椮即潬䅴慶汩扡敬猨潬⥴ ††††††桴獩氮捹獯慟孤汳瑯⁝‽摡杍敧却潬⡴汳瑯㬩 †††素 †素ਊ †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䡲慥敤⡲㬩 †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䙲潯整⡲㬩紊⠨畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡眠㴠〠‽ⰰ洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯‽〳㬰 †椠琨灯㴠‽敳晬 ††††敲畴湲琠畲㭥 †素ਊ††晩⠠祴数景眨湩潤湩敮坲摩桴 㴽✠畮扭牥‧ ††††⁷‽楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠眠湩潤湩敮䡲楥桧㭴 †素 †攠獬晩⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮☠…搨捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤籼搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笠 †††眠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨††††汥敳椠搨捯浵湥潢祤☠…搨捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笠 †††眠㴠搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴††††‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨†† †爠瑥牵⠨⁷‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬 ☦⠠‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬⤩⡽⤩⤩ਊ眊湩潤湯潬摡㴠映湵瑣潩⡮ ††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁⤢††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰††灡数摮桃汩⡤⥦††瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戢潬正㬢 †搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡❥⸩牳‽⼧摡⽭摡是潯整䅲晩慲敭栮浴❬ †⼠ 汓摩牥䤠橮捥楴湯 †⠠畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡攠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††攠献祴敬戮牯敤‽〧㬧 †††攠献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫††††瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴††††瑳汹敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸††††瑳汹癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††攠献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠††††瑳汹楷瑤‽㌧〰硰㬧 †素⠩㬩ਊ †⼠ 潂瑴浯䄠湉敪瑣潩੮†† 畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡戠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝ਊ††††慶楩‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††楩瑳汹潢摲牥㴠✠✰††††楩瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††楩瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽爧杩瑨㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮††††楩瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††椠晩献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸††††楩牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬†††† †††瘠牡挠楤⁶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨楤❶㬩 †††挠楤瑳汹‽眢摩桴㌺〰硰活牡楧㩮〱硰愠瑵㭯㬢 †††挠楤灡数摮桃汩⡤椠晩⤠††††晩 ††††††††††湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †素⠩㬩ਊਊ⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊瑳汹㹥ऊ戣摯⁹愮䍤湥整䍲慬獳浻牡楧㩮‰畡潴⼼瑳汹㹥ਊ搼癩猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺扡㙥㙦※潢摲牥戭瑯潴㩭瀱⁸潳楬㔣㜰㡡㬷瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹∹ਾ††搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨ㄹ瀶㭸㸢 †††㰠牨晥∽瑨灴⼺眯睷愮杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯∯琠瑩敬∽湁敧晬物潣㩭戠極摬礠畯牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢 †††㰠浩牳㵣⼢摡⽭摡愯杮汥楦敲昭敲䅥灪≧愠瑬∽楓整栠獯整祢䄠杮汥楦敲挮浯›畂汩潹牵映敲敷獢瑩潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※潢摲牥〺•㸯 †††㰠愯ਾ††††猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛敬摡牥潢牡❤⥝㰻猯牣灩㹴 †㰠搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶ਊℼⴭ⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ⴠ㸭㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢潤畣敭瑮眮楲整氨捹獯慟孤猧楬敤❲⥝㰻猯牣灩㹴ਊ㰊楤⁶摩∽祬潣䙳潯整䅲≤猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺扡㙥㙦※潢摲牥琭灯ㄺ硰猠汯摩⌠〵愷㜸※汣慥㩲潢桴※楤灳慬㩹潮敮※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹㤹㸢㰊楤⁶汣獡㵳愢䍤湥整䍲慬獳•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮眠摩桴㤺㘳硰∻ਾ㰉楤⁶摩∽晡楬歮桳汯敤≲猠祴敬∽汦慯㩴敬瑦※楷瑤㩨㠱瀶㭸㸢 †††㰠牨晥∽瑨灴⼺眯睷愮杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯∯琠瑩敬∽湁敧晬物潣㩭戠極摬礠畯牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫戠牯敤㩲∰ਾ††††††椼杭猠捲∽愯浤愯⽤湡敧晬物ⵥ牦敥摁⸲灪≧愠瑬∽楓整栠獯整祢䄠杮汥楦敲挮浯›畂汩潹牵映敲敷獢瑩潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※潢摲牥〺•㸯 †††㰠愯ਾ††††搼癩猠祴敬∽整瑸愭楬湧挺湥整≲ਾ††††㰉灳湡猠祴敬∽潣潬㩲㌣㌹㌹ℹ浩潰瑲湡㭴映湯楳敺ㄺ瀲ⅸ浩潰瑲湡㭴瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※潴㩰㘭硰㸢 †††††ठ灓湯潳敲祢 †††††㰠猯慰㹮 †††††ਠ††††††愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯睷楬瑳湥挮浯搯獩祴椯摮硥樮灳昿潲㵭祬潣≳琠牡敧㵴弢汢湡≫ਾ††††††††椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯祬潧挮浯搯琯潯扬牡猯潰獮牯⽳桲灡潳祤江杯灪≧愠瑬∽灳湯潳潬潧•楴汴㵥刢慨獰摯≹㸯 †††††㰠愯ਾ††††⼼楤㹶 †㰠搯癩ਾ††椼牦浡摩∽祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡≥猠祴敬∽潢摲牥〺※楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫映潬瑡氺晥㭴栠楥桧㩴㘹硰※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮瀠摡楤杮〺※楷瑤㩨㔷瀰≸㰾椯牦浡㹥㰊搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶ਊ渼獯牣灩㹴㰊浩牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯睷湡敧晬物潣⽭潤⽣浩条獥琯慲正漯彴潮捳楲瑰朮晩爿湡㵤㘱㘵∳愠瑬∽•楷瑤㵨ㄢ•敨杩瑨∽∱⼠ਾℼⴭ䈠䝅义匠䅔䑎剁⁄䅔⁇㈷‸⁸〹ⴠ䰠捹獯ⴠ䄠杮汥楦敲䘠污瑬牨畯桧ⴠ䐠⁏低⁔位䥄奆ⴠ㸭㰊晩慲敭映慲敭潢摲牥∽∰洠牡楧睮摩桴∽∰洠牡楧桮楥桧㵴〢•捳潲汬湩㵧渢≯眠摩桴∽㈷∸栠楥桧㵴㤢∰猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯楹汥浤湡条牥挮浯猯㽴摡瑟灹㵥晩慲敭愦灭愻彤楳敺㜽㠲㥸☰浡㭰敳瑣潩㵮㠲㌰㌰㸢⼼晩慲敭ਾℼⴭ䔠䑎吠䝁ⴠ㸭㰊港獯牣灩㹴ਊℼⴭ匠慴瑲夠牢湡⁴牴捡敫ⴭਾ椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯楹汥浤湡条牥挮浯瀯硩汥椿㵤㤱〶☰㵴∲眠摩桴∽∱栠楥桧㵴ㄢ•㸯㰊ⴡ†湅扙慲瑮琠慲正牥ⴠ㸭ਊℼⴭ匠慴瑲䐠瑡湯捩ⴭਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯獤瀮潲洭牡敫敮⽴摡⽳捳楲瑰⽳楳整ㄭ㈳㠷⸳獪㸢⼼捳楲瑰ਾℼⴭ†䔠摮䐠瑡湯捩ⴭਾ㰊ⴡ瑓牡⁴桃湡潧ⴠ㸭㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢 †瘠牡张损潨彟㴠笠瀢摩㨢㘱㐹㭽 †⠠畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡挠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴㬩 †††挠琮灹‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧 †††挠愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †††挠献捲㴠搠捯浵湥潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣⼧振档湡潧挮浯猯慴楴⽣獪㬧 †††瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝 †††猠瀮牡湥乴摯湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨⥳††⥽⤨⼼捳楲瑰ਾℼⴭ†䔠摮䌠慨杮ⴭਾ