When we speak of Slovenian history, we must understand that there are in reality two histories—the official and the unofficial. The official history, disseminated in the 19th century by dominant history schools in central Europe, rests on two theories, both of which lack archaeological and documentary evidence. The first is that Slovenians settled in their traditional lands in the 6th century A.D., and the second, that they are South Slavs. Inasmuch as both of these theories are without scientific foundation, they survived only by reason of a variety of political controls.
All other aspects of Slovenian history were formulated to meet the requirements of the above two-pronged official framework. This contrived account of our past was largely accepted as if it were scientifically proven, and although badly outdated, it remains part of educational systems everywhere.
There were at the same time a few people who came to different conclusions. They understood that our forbears did not come from somewhere else in the 6th century—that they were an ancient, indigenous people in central Europe. This is the so-called autochthonous theory. A number of Slovenian scholars contributed to it: grammarian Adam Bohorič (born 1520); historian Martin Baucer; historian, ethnologist Janez V. Valvasor; Dr. Janko Grampovčan; Davorin Žunkovič; Henrih Tuma, and others. We must include here also the findings of the Italian researcher Guiseppe Sergi, who considered Slovenians as indigenous and descendents of the Veneti. Along these lines gradually developed what we could now call the unofficial history.
That the Veneti were part of Slovenian history came into sharp focus in 1989 when three Slovenian researchers, Dr. Jožko Šavli, academician Matej Bor, and Father Ivan Tomažič published their findings in the book Veneti: naši davni predniki. The gist of their positions is as follows: 1) Slovenians lived in their lands long before the presumed settlement in the 6th century, 2) the name Veneti relates to the West Slavs, 3) Slovenians are their descendants and 4) Venetic and Slovenian languages were related.
The above theses accord with the Greek and Roman writers (Homer, Herodotus, Tacitus, Pliny) who used names Henetoi, Uenetoi, Enetoi and Veneti for Slavs. Several more synonyms developed later: Vinidi, Venedi, Vinedi, Winidi, Wendische, Windische.
The Venetic studies were considerably advanced in 1996, when the book Veneti: naši davni predniki appeared in Canada in the English language under the title Veneti: First Builders of European Community. Its publisher was Father Tomažič. It has been distributed among English speakers far and wide. Many universities with Slavic Studies and Departments of Genetics now have Veneti; it is also available in many public libraries and libraries of some associations, also in the National Library of Canada and the Library of Congress in the USA.
Within its pages are many references to Veneti in relation to Slovenians. Here are a few examples, “Fredegarii Chronicon (year 623) uses the name Winidi for Slovenians, ‘Sclavi coinomento Winidi,’ also ‘Venetii’ and ‘Vinidi,’ even ‘Vandali’ and ‘gens Wandalorum,’ their land is named ‘marca Winidorum’” (page 9). Slovenian Prince Valuk is “Walucus dux Winedorum”(page 144). There is also the often-cited equation of Slovenians with the Veneti by the author of Vitae S. Columbani, where he speaks about the “land of Veneti who are also called Slavs (Termini Venetiorum qui et Sclavi dicuntur).” He did not know these Slavs as recent settlers (page 464). Around the year 600 St. Columban wanted to spread the Christian faith among the Veneti in Noricum, present-day Austria. This alone is a strong indication that Veneti were of Slavic origin, regardless of where they lived—in the Alps, the Pannonian plain, the Adriatic or elsewhere.
Primož Trubar was a Slovenian preacher and writer. In 1551 he published a Slovenian catechism entitled Catechismus in der Windischenn Sprach / Catechism in the Windisch Language, which means that among speakers of German, the name Slowenen for Slovenians came into use later, probably in the 19th century.
Official historians maintain that the territory of present-day Austria was populated by Latinized Celts before the presumed arrival of Slavs. But they do not say why the Celts, who had already been for several centuries under Roman rule and were therefore on an appreciably higher level of culture and defence skills, would have accepted the Slavic multitudes as its own ruling class, and adopted their language and their customs without going to war. This is improbable. To take the entire territory from the Adriatic Sea to the Danube River without major battles would have been impossible. Yet no ancient writer mentions battles. Why? Probably because there were none. The native village population was not the Latinized Celts, but Slovenians; that is, their ancestors. Germans called them Windische.
One wonders why historians always look to the Celts for answers, and never to the indigenous Slovenians. If the Celts were the original population of present-day Austria, why would there not be Celtic instead of Slovenian place-names? One of the few Austrian professors, who is treating this subject states, “All place-names as far as the line between Linz and the eastern Tyrol, which bear any Slavic element — and there are exceptionally many of them — are by origin not ‘Slavic’ but Carinthian, that is, Slovenian . . . In truth these are Slovenian names, and there are an enormous number of them, as far as the Danube River in the north.”
Important contributions to the unofficial history are being made by genetics. Unfortunately, this science, although a very precise and reliable tool, is not yet utilized in either archaeology or history. If historians used it freely, without political interference, they would soon recognize that the history of Europe needs to be rewritten. It is noteworthy that the book Veneti: First Builders…has been cited several times in genetic publications such as “Annals of Human Genetics,” University College, London.
For many years Jože Škulj from Toronto, Canada, has been researching Sanskrit and genetics. He has accumulated a large amount of data that also concerns Slovenians. In his paper Etruscans, Veneti and Slovenians he states, “There is a genetic continuity between ancient Etruscans and Veneti and present-day Slovenians. Genetic information makes it evident, that Slovenians are indigenous in their traditional lands as indicated by the mtDNA relationship with the 2,500-years-old skeletal remains of the Etruscans, particularly those of Adria. Synthesizing the results of Vernesi et al and Malyarchuk et al, it becomes obvious that the present-day Slovenians carry more ‘Etruscan’ mtDNA HVS1 haplotypes than Tuscans [the presumed descendants of Etruscans]. Twice as many ‘Etruscan’ haplotypes are present in Slovenians than in Tuscans, namely: CRS, 16261, 16223, 16311. These were found in skeletal remains from Adria, Magliano/Marsiliana and also from Volterra.”
Venetic studies received additional support, when in 1999 a book appeared in Canada entitled Adieu to Brittany. The author, Anthony Ambrozic, presents his work on the inscriptions of ancient Gaul, mainly from the provinces where Veneti lived and ruled before the Roman occupation. The first and second parts of the book include more than forty inscriptions. They are interpreted with the help of Slovenian, its dialects, and other Slavic languages. The third part includes a review of a large number of toponyms with Slavic elements, names of islands, rivers, mountains, plains and so on. His second book on this subject, Journey Back to the Garumna, appeared in 2000, where he continues the same theme, but with a much wider selection of details. His third book, Gordian Knot Unbound, published in 2002, includes his work on Phrygian inscriptions from Asia Minor, inscriptions from Thrace, decipherment of the inscriptions “Spada di Verona,” “Plumergat” and others.
Since 2001 there have been in Slovenia four conferences in the series The Origins of Slovenians. Many papers were presented by Slovenian and foreign researchers: Contemporary Theory of Continuity (Slovenia); Veneti, Ancestors of Slavs (Russia); Linguistic and Genetic Correspondences Between Slavs and Indo-Aryans (Canada); Veneti in Pannonia (Slovenia); Linguistic Connections Between Basques and Slavs (USA). The fifth conference is in preparation for summer 2005.
Boswell, British Columbia, Canada – email@example.com
Page Created: February 5, 2005
Last Updated: February 12, 2005
©Copyright 2005 Gary L. Gorsha
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†攠獬晩⠠摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡 ††††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨敫睹牯❤摡慃楦摮睟慨⥴†† †映牯⠠慶湩猠潬獴 ††††慶汳瑯㴠猠潬獴獛㭝 †††椠愨䵤牧椮即潬䅴慶汩扡敬猨潬⥴ ††††††桴獩氮捹獯慟孤汳瑯⁝‽摡杍敧却潬⡴汳瑯㬩 †††素 †素ਊ †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䡲慥敤⡲㬩 †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䙲潯整⡲㬩紊⠨畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡眠㴠〠‽ⰰ洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯‽〳㬰 †椠琨灯㴠‽敳晬 ††††敲畴湲琠畲㭥 †素ਊ††晩⠠祴数景眨湩潤湩敮坲摩桴 㴽✠畮扭牥‧ ††††⁷‽楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠眠湩潤湩敮䡲楥桧㭴 †素 †攠獬晩⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮☠…搨捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤籼搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笠 †††眠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨††††汥敳椠搨捯浵湥潢祤☠…搨捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笠 †††眠㴠搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴††††‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨†† †爠瑥牵⠨⁷‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬 ☦⠠‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬⤩⡽⤩⤩ਊ眊湩潤湯潬摡㴠映湵瑣潩⡮ ††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁⤢††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰††灡数摮桃汩⡤⥦††瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戢潬正㬢 †搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡❥⸩牳‽⼧摡⽭摡是潯整䅲晩慲敭栮浴❬ †⼠ 汓摩牥䤠橮捥楴湯 †⠠畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡攠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††攠献祴敬戮牯敤‽〧㬧 †††攠献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫††††瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴††††瑳汹敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸††††瑳汹癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††攠献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠††††瑳汹楷瑤‽㌧〰硰㬧 †素⠩㬩ਊ †⼠ 潂瑴浯䄠湉敪瑣潩੮†† 畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡戠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝ਊ††††慶楩‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††楩瑳汹潢摲牥㴠✠✰††††楩瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††楩瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽爧杩瑨㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮††††楩瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††椠晩献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸††††楩牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬†††† †††瘠牡挠楤⁶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨楤❶㬩 †††挠楤瑳汹‽眢摩桴㌺〰硰活牡楧㩮〱硰愠瑵㭯㬢 †††挠楤灡数摮桃汩⡤椠晩⤠††††晩 ††††††††††湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †素⠩㬩ਊਊ⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊瑳汹㹥ऊ戣摯⁹愮䍤湥整䍲慬獳浻牡楧㩮‰畡潴⼼瑳汹㹥ਊ搼癩猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺扡㙥㙦※潢摲牥戭瑯潴㩭瀱⁸潳楬㔣㜰㡡㬷瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹∹ਾ††ℼⴭ匠慥捲潂⁸ⴭਾ††††††昼牯慮敭∽敳牡档•湯畓浢瑩∽敲畴湲猠慥捲楨⡴∩椠㵤栧慥敤彲敳牡档‧ਾ††††††椼灮瑵琠灹㵥琢硥≴瀠慬散潨摬牥∽敓牡档•楳敺㌽‰慮敭∽敳牡档∲瘠污敵∽㸢 †††††㰠湩異⁴祴数∽畢瑴湯•慶畬㵥䜢Ⅿ•湯汃捩㵫猢慥捲楨⡴∩ਾ††††††⼼潦浲ਾ††††††猼祴敬ਾ††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档笠 †††††††眠摩桴›ㄹ瀶㭸 †††††††洠牡楧㩮〠愠瑵瀸㭸 †††††††瀠獯瑩潩㩮爠汥瑡癩㭥 †††††素ਊ †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異⁴††††††††敨杩瑨›〴硰††††††††潦瑮猭穩㩥ㄠ瀴㭸 †††††††氠湩ⵥ敨杩瑨›〴硰††††††††慰摤湩㩧〠㠠硰††††††††潢楳楺杮›潢摲牥戭硯††††††††慢正牧畯摮›䘣䘴䔲㬹 †††††††戠牯敤㩲ㄠ硰猠汯摩⌠䉂㡂㡂††††††††牴湡楳楴湯›慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯㌠〰獭攠獡ⵥ畯ⱴ †††††††††††††挠汯牯㌠〰獭攠獡㭥 †††††素ਊ††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴⁝††††††††楷瑤㩨ㄠ〰㬥 †††††素 †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵笠 †††††††戠牯敤潣潬㩲⌠㉁い㐵††††††††慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯›昣晦††††††††潢桳摡睯›‰瀰⁸㈱硰ⴠ瀴⁸䄣䐲㔰㬴 †††††素ਊਊ††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戢瑵潴≮⁝††††††††潰楳楴湯›扡潳畬整††††††††潴㩰ㄠ硰††††††††楲桧㩴ㄠ硰††††††††灯捡瑩㩹ㄠ††††††††慢正牧畯摮›䐣䑆䍃㭆 †††††††挠汯牯›㐣㌶㌷㬴 †††††††眠摩桴›㈱瀵㭸 †††††††挠牵潳㩲瀠楯瑮牥††††††††敨杩瑨›㠳硰††††††††潢摲牥›潮敮††††††††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴㩝潦畣⁾湩異孴祴数✽畢瑴湯崧栺癯牥ਬ††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮㩝潨敶††††††††慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯›䄣䌵㕅㬶 †††††††挠汯牯›昣晦††††††††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴㩝潦畣⁾湩異孴祴数✽畢瑴湯崧笠 †††††††戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠㈵䕁䙄††††††††潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦 †††††素ਊ††††††⼼瑳汹㹥ਊ††††††猼牣灩㹴 †††††映湵瑣潩敳牡档瑩⤨†††††††† †††††††⼠ 敤整浲湩湥楶潲浮湥⁴ †††††††瘠牡猠慥捲彨湥⁶ †††††††椠氨捹獯慟彤睷彷敳癲牥椮摮硥晏∨瀮⤢㸠ⴠ⤱笠 †††††††††敳牡档敟癮㴠✠瑨灴⼺猯慥捲㕨⸲摰氮捹獯挮浯愯✯††††††††⁽汥敳椠氨捹獯慟彤睷彷敳癲牥椮摮硥晏∨焮⤢㸠ⴠ⤱笠 †††††††††敳牡档敟癮㴠✠瑨灴⼺猯慥捲㕨⸲慱氮捹獯挮浯愯✯††††††††⁽汥敳笠 †††††††††敳牡档敟癮㴠✠瑨灴⼺猯慥捲㕨⸲祬潣潣⽭⽡㬧 †††††††素ਊ††††††慶敳牡档瑟牥‽湥潣敤剕䍉浯潰敮瑮搨捯浵湥敳牡档献慥捲㉨瘮污敵††††††慶敳牡档畟汲㴠猠慥捲彨湥⭶敳牡档瑟牥㭭 †††††眠湩潤灯湥猨慥捲彨牵⥬ †††††爠瑥牵慦獬††††††††††††⼼捳楲瑰ਾ††††ℼⴭ湥敳牡档戠硯ⴠ㸭ਊ †㰠楤⁶汣獡㵳愢䍤湥整䍲慬獳•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮眠摩桴㤺㘱硰∻ਾ††††愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯睷湡敧晬物祬潣潣⽭•楴汴㵥䄢杮汥楦敲挮浯›畢汩潹牵映敲敷獢瑩潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※汦慯㩴敬瑦※楷瑤㩨㠱瀶㭸戠牯敤㩲∰ਾ††††椼杭猠捲∽愯浤愯⽤湡敧晬物ⵥ牦敥摁樮杰•污㵴匢瑩潨瑳摥戠⁹湁敧晬物潣㩭䈠極摬礠畯牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫戠牯敤㩲∰⼠ਾ††††⼼㹡 †††㰠捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢潤畣敭瑮眮楲整氨捹獯慟孤氧慥敤扲慯摲崧㬩⼼捳楲瑰ਾ††⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ㰊ⴡ⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ ⴭਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛汳摩牥崧㬩⼼捳楲瑰ਾਊ搼癩椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁•瑳汹㵥戢捡杫潲湵㩤愣敢昶㬶戠牯敤潴㩰瀱⁸潳楬㔣㜰㡡㬷挠敬牡戺瑯㭨搠獩汰祡渺湯㭥瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹∹ਾ搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨㌹瀶㭸㸢ऊ搼癩椠㵤愢汦湩獫潨摬牥•瑳汹㵥昢潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰∻ਾ††††愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯睷湡敧晬物祬潣潣⽭•楴汴㵥䄢杮汥楦敲挮浯›畢汩潹牵映敲敷獢瑩潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※潢摲牥〺㸢 †††††㰠浩牳㵣⼢摡⽭摡愯杮汥楦敲昭敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴匢瑩潨瑳摥戠⁹湁敧晬物潣㩭䈠極摬礠畯牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫戠牯敤㩲∰⼠ਾ††††⼼㹡 †††㰠楤⁶瑳汹㵥琢硥污杩㩮散瑮牥㸢 †††ठ猼慰瑳汹㵥挢汯牯⌺㤳㤳㤳椡灭牯慴瑮※潦瑮猭穩㩥㈱硰椡灭牯慴瑮※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥琠灯ⴺ瀶≸ਾ††††††匉潰獮牯摥戠††††††⼼灳湡ਾ†††††† †††††㰠牨晥∽瑨灴⼺眯睷氮獩整潣⽭楤瑳⽹湩敤獪㽰牦浯氽捹獯•慴杲瑥∽扟慬歮㸢 †††††††㰠浩牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯晡氮杹潣⽭⽤潴汯慢⽲灳湯潳獲爯慨獰摯役潬潧樮杰•污㵴猢潰獮牯氠杯≯琠瑩敬∽桒灡潳祤⼢ਾ††††††⼼㹡 †††㰠搯癩ਾ††⼼楤㹶 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