The Veneti are again amongst us. During the last year, 2007, Father Ivan Tomažič published a booklet in Slovenian, German and Italian languages on the subject of Veneti, titled God Bless the Land Under Mount Triglav. The title is a paraphrase of a Venetic inscription from the Carnic Alps, and this article is the translation of the review of the booklet. Last year also saw a new, improved and enlarged edition of Dr. Jožko Šavli’s Slovenska država Karantanija/The Slovenian State of Carantania. The two publications appeared in time to coincide with the renewed interest among us Slovenians in our past.
Ivan Tomažič speaks of himself: “I left home in my childhood [age 13] in September 1932, not knowing that I would not see it again for 23 years. I lived all the intervening years in foreign countries. Other nations and languages became part of my life to the point that I nearly forgot my mother tongue, which I never really knew well; the elementary schools in our part of Slovenia were at that time Italian. When after many years I arrived in Vienna, Austria, my interest in everything Slovenian awakened in me…
“Among these interests were also questions about our past. The official theory states that we Slovenians arrived in our traditional lands in the 6th century AD; however, I found no evidence for this arrival. The simple question, ‘Where were we before?’ could not be answered. Although I was very occupied with the building of the student residence Korotan, I continued the search through history books. Later, Jožko Šavli arrived in Vienna. We had many discussions about Slovenian history, and we both wrote in the periodical Glas Korotana/Voice of Carinthia. After our first public appearances the poet and academician Matej Bor took courage and published in Slovenia’s leading daily Delo his deciphering of Venetic inscriptions. The three of us then together developed the arguments and substantiations about uninterrupted developments of the Slovenian nation from the distant past to the present day.
“Our collaboration was crowned in 1988 with the publication of the book Unsere Vorfahren die Veneter/Veneti: Our Ancestors and its presentation in the prestigious Beethoven Hall in the centre of Vienna. The musical contribution for the occasion was provided by the Slovenian Octet. In June 1989, we made one of our largest presentations of the Slovenian edition of the book Veneti naši davni predniki/Veneti: Our Distant Ancestors in the Union Hall, Ljubljana, Slovenia. The crowd was too big to be accommodated in the large hall. There, too, we experienced an unforgettable occasion, a national celebration…”
Ivan Tomažič was, and—in spite of his advanced age—still is the chaplain in one of Vienna’s hospitals. In those earlier years, he also looked after the large Slovenian student residence, but even so, his concerns about Veneti were ever present. His latest booklet reflects his tireless research: “Up till now we held the view that Slavs originated in the Lusatian culture. We also placed the origins of the Veneti there, that is, in the 2nd millennium BC. However, the new discoveries, strongly defended by Italian linguist Mario Alinei and the Belgian archaeologist Marcel Otte, state that the Slavic languages and nations also originated in the Late Stone Age [Neolithic]. According to Alinei, the Slavs were then the oldest and largest population, and he assigns to them the entire area from the Baltic Sea to the Balkans, almost half of Europe.” And what is the latest view of the Veneti? “Veneti are part of this wide Slavic—albeit not densely populated—territory, but they originate in the Lusatian culture, with its religious significance of the Urnfields. People later named Veneti spread the religious concept of Urnfields [burial of urns with ashes in open fields] with a missionary zeal far and wide in the Slavic territory.
“In my view, the name Veneti originates in the ethnonym Slovani (Slavs) from its root slovo, meaning word. Its adjective is sloven, and its noun is slovenet. Inasmuch as the Greek and the Latin languages did not have the consonant group sl, the first syllable was dropped, and the Sloveneti became Veneti. This is also evident from Mario Alinei’s book Origini dele Lingue Europee, Bologna 1996, of almost one thousand pages, in which he speaks about the original languages of Europe. Clearly emphasized is also the Venetic language.” The inscription found in the Carnic Alps, “Bug oša so višad,” is in modern Slovenian: “Naj bi Bog obšel to višavo/May God visit this highland.” We find in the booklet interpretations of other Venetic inscriptions from northern Italy, present-day Slovenia, and Carinthia, Austria.
The booklet contains also many other explanations on the subject of Veneti and Slovenians, among them the example of the great religious teacher St. Jerome, who is at times mistakenly called St. Hieronim: “He was born in 347 to Roman parents in the now unknown Stridon, which could be the old Slovenian village Starod near Podgrad between Trst/Trieste and Reka, and could have been a Roman outpost. He studied in Oglej/Aquileia. He had connection to Ljubljana/Emona but spent most of his life in Rome and Bethlehem. In his Commentary to Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians, Jerome refers to the name Tychicus and gives an explanation in the following words: ‘Tychicus enim silens interpretatur/Tychicus actually means silent.’ How would St. Jerome know if he did not understand the Slovenian language, which he could have learned among the children of his birthplace, or in Oglej.” The reports of Gothic historian Jordanes similarly show the presence of Slovenians, and so do the travel accounts through Slovenian territory by the grandfather of Paulus Diaconus, and the Slovenian name Zaloka on the Roman road map called Tabula Peutingeriana, etc. Tomažič also touches on Carantania about which Dr. Šavli wrote Slovenska država Karantanija. Tomažič writes: “The most important historical documentation for Slovenians is the report about two Bavarian attacks on the Slovenian state in the years 593 and 595 with the intention to plunder. That means that the Slovenians had at that time an independent state in Noricum [present-day Austria], later named Carantania. The exact translation from the Latin says: ‘In those days, Hildepart, the king of Franks, installed Tasilo as the king of Bavaria. Who soon thereafter invaded the province of Slavs, overpowered them and returned to his homeland with much loot.’ (HL, IV, 7) In the second attack the Bavarians were defeated. This is an important documentation of Slovenian presence in their traditional lands before the year 593, even though the historians, who are defending the late arrival of Slovenians, are trying in every way to give the text a completely false meaning. They say that this is a report about a battle between the arriving Slovenians and the Bavarians, which is completely at odds with the words of the text, which state clearly that the Bavarians attacked the Slovenian state. Paulus Diaconus uses the term provincia, just as the Langobards did in regard to their own country in Italy.”
Another detail that is not commonly known is that the name Slovenia was recorded very early. “The name Slovenia is found as early as the year 837 in the inscription: ‘territorium in Slavinia in loco nuncupato Ipusa/district in Slovenia, in the place called Ipuža’ (Enss in German), located in Inner Noricum [approx. the southern two thirds of present-day Austria] (Kos II. no. 21).”
Alinei says: “One of the most absurd results of the traditional chronology is the arrival of the Slavs—during historical times—to the immense territory such as it is, on which they dwell to this day” (Origini dele Lingue Europee, p. 183). About Slovenians he says (ibid., pp. 745–747) that they took part during the 3rd millennium BC in the creation of Ladins (from Friuli in Italy to Switzerland) with the introduction of metallurgy from the Ljubljana moor in Slovenia. As evidence he presents the development of cultures and various linguistic specialties in the Slovenian and Ladin languages, and also some toponyms; for example, Gardena (the older Gradina) from the Slovenian word grad/castle, fortification (ibid., pp. 748–752). To this we could add hundreds of Slovenian place-names in the entire northern Italy and Switzerland. Also the situla art with its centre in Slovenian provinces, the central Alps, and Bologna is not without importance. “Slovenians are not from yesterday, our roots reach into the distant past.”
Devoted to the Veneti theory [Slovenian version of the Theory of Continuity], Ivan Tomažič says at the end of this chapter: “How different, the findings of the Italian scientist compared to the self-deprecating explanations of Slovenian historians about the late arrival of Slavs and even later formation of Slovenians!”
In the booklet God Bless the Land Under Mount Triglav, there are also a number of interesting details about the language and ethnogenesis of Slovenians, including the chapter “From the Times of the Veneti to These Days.” At the end there is a noteworthy bibliography showing the tireless efforts of the authors.
The above booklet is available in the stated languages from:
Sp. Škofije 39 A
Transcribed for the web by Gary L. Gorsha
Page Created: February 17, 2008
Last Updated: February 17, 2008
©Copyright 2008 Gary L. Gorsha
ℼⴭ∧⼼楴汴㹥⼼敨摡ⴾ㸭ਊ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴ਾ⼯⼯⼯䌠浯数整⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯弊损浯数整损摯‽㘧㜶㡦昹㘲㥤挶〳㥥㜹㠲敦愶〶㠸㐰❤昨湵瑣潩⤨笠 †瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴Ⱙ †††搠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨敨摡⤧せ⁝籼 †††††搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨潢祤⤧せⱝ †††琠㴠✠瑨灴㩳‧㴽搠捯浵湥潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣‿ †††††✠瑨灴㩳⼯潣灭瑥潣⽭潢瑯瑳慲⽰‧› †††††✠瑨灴⼺振挮浯数整挮浯戯潯獴牴灡✯††牳‽⁴彟潣灭瑥彥潣敤⬠✠戯潯獴牴灡樮❳††祴数㴠✠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴††獡湹‽愧祳据㬧ਠ††晩⠠⥤笠搠愮灰湥䍤楨摬猨㬩素紊⠩㬩ਊ⼊⼯⼯ 畑湡捴獡⁴⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯昊湵瑣潩档湡噮污摩瑡牯挨慨湮 ††敲畴湲⠠祴数景挨慨湮 㴽✠瑳楲杮‧☦挠慨湮℠‽✧㬩紊ਊ畦据楴湯氠捹獯畑湡捴獡⡴笩 †瘠牡氠‽∢††晩琨灹潥⡦浣桟獯⥴℠㴽✠湵敤楦敮❤☠…档湡噮污摩瑡牯挨彭潨瑳⤩††††扬⬠‽浣桟獯灳楬⡴⸧⤧せ⁝⸧㬧 †素ਊ††晩琨灹潥⡦浣瑟硡摩 㴡‽甧摮晥湩摥‧☦挠慨湮慖楬慤潴⡲浣瑟硡摩⤩††††扬⬠‽浣瑟硡摩††††扬㴠氠敲汰捡⡥⼧Ⱗ✧㬩 †素攠獬††††扬㴠氠敲汰捡⡥⸧Ⱗ✧㬩 †素 †爠瑥牵扬瘊牡张敱敶瑮‽煟癥湥獴簠⁼嵛⠊畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡攠敬‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨捳楲瑰⤧††汥浥献捲㴠⠠潤畣敭瑮氮捯瑡潩牰瑯捯汯㴠‽栢瑴獰∺㼠∠瑨灴㩳⼯敳畣敲•∺瑨灴⼺支杤≥ ⸢畱湡獴牥敶挮浯焯慵瑮樮≳††汥浥愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †攠敬祴数㴠∠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴††慶捳瑰㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝 †猠灣慰敲瑮潎敤椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥汥浥捳瑰㬩紊⠩㬩ਊ煟癥湥獴瀮獵⡨††慱捣㩴瀢㘭入来摥㙮戲潓Ⱒ †氠扡汥㩳祬潣关慵瑮慣瑳⤨紊㬩ਊ⼯⼯⼯ 潇杯敬䄠慮祬楴獣瘊牡张慧ⁱ‽束煡簠⁼嵛束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥捁潣湵❴唧ⵁㄲ〴㘲㔹㈭✱⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥潄慭湩慎敭Ⱗ✠湡敧晬物潣❭⥝束煡瀮獵⡨❛獟瑥畃瑳浯慖❲ⰱ✠敭扭牥湟浡❥挧畯瑮祲瘯湥瑥❩崳㬩弊慧異桳嬨弧牴捡偫条癥敩❷⥝昨湵瑣潩⡮ †慶慧㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴㬩朠祴数㴠✠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩❴※慧愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 朠牳‽✨瑨灴㩳‧㴽搠捯浵湥潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣‿栧瑴獰⼺猯汳‧›栧瑴㩰⼯睷❷ ⸧潧杯敬愭慮祬楴獣挮浯术獪㬧 瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝猠瀮牡湥乴摯湩敳瑲敂潦敲木ⱡ猠㬩紊⠩㬩ਊ⼯⼯⼯䰠捹獯䤠楮楴污穩瑡潩⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ਯ慶祬潣彳摡㴠䄠牲祡⤨慶祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㴠∠㬢瘊牡氠捹獯潟汮慯彤楴敭㭲ਊ慶浣牟汯‽氢癩≥慶浣桟獯⁴‽愢杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡挠彭慴楸‽⼢敭扭牥浥敢摤摥㬢瘊牡愠杮汥楦敲浟浥敢彲慮敭㴠∠潣湵牴⽹敶敮楴㬢瘊牡愠杮汥楦敲浟浥敢彲慰敧㴠∠潣湵牴⽹敶敮楴匯癩捥潇䉤敬獳慌摮牔杩慬剶癥敩瑨汭㬢瘊牡愠杮汥楦敲牟瑡湩獧桟獡‽ㄢㄴ㠶㐶ㄱ㨱ㅡ戴㙢扡㔶㠷㝤扡昷㑣挸㥢㔴摥摥慡㬢ਊ慶祬潣彳摡损瑡来牯⁹‽≻浤穯㨢猢捯敩祴⽜敧敮污杯≹∬湯慴杲瑥㨢☢䅃㵔慦業祬㈥愰摮㈥氰晩獥祴敬≳∬楦摮睟慨≴∺畂汩潹牵圠扥楳整索瘊牡氠捹獯慟彤敲潭整慟摤‽㔢⸴㈲⸷㜱⸱㘱∳慶祬潣彳摡睟睷獟牥敶‽眢睷愮杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯㬢瘊牡攠楤彴楳整畟汲㴠∠睷湡敧晬物祬潣潣⽭慬摮湩⽧慬摮湩浴汰甿浴獟畯捲㵥潨獵♥瑵彭敭楤浵氽湡楤杮慰敧甦浴损浡慰杩㵮潴汯慢汲湩≫⼊⼯⼯ 牃瑩潥⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯瘊牡挠潴损湯‽⁻㩡牴敵㩩∠㤲∴㩣椢杭Ⱒ欠㩷∠•⁽昨湵瑣潩⤨††慶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮∨捳楲瑰⤢※祴数㴠∠整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴※獡湹‽牴敵††牳‽栢瑴㩰⼯睷湡敧晬物潣⽭摡⽭獪瀯牡湴牥振楲整彯摬歟獪㬢 †瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝猠愮灰湥䍤楨摬挨㬩紊⠩㬩ਠ㰊猯牣灩㹴㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰•牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯捳楲瑰祬潣潣⽭慣浴湡椯楮獪㸢⼼捳楲瑰ਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴ਾ昨湵瑣潩⡮獩⥖笠 †椠ℨ獩⥖笠 †††爠瑥牵㭮 †素ਊ††⼯桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⁹‽祬潣彳敧彴敳牡档牟晥牥敲⡲㬩 †瘠牡愠䵤牧㴠渠睥䄠䵤湡条牥⤨††慶祬潣彳牰摯獟瑥㴠愠䵤牧挮潨獯健潲畤瑣敓⡴㬩 †瘠牡猠潬獴㴠嬠氢慥敤扲慯摲Ⱒ∠敬摡牥潢牡㉤Ⱒ∠潴汯慢彲浩条≥琢潯扬牡瑟硥≴猢慭汬潢≸琢灯灟潲潭Ⱒ∠潦瑯牥∲∬汳摩牥崢††慶摡慃⁴‽桴獩氮捹獯慟彤慣整潧祲††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨慰敧Ⱗ⠠摡慃⁴☦愠䍤瑡搮潭⥺㼠愠䍤瑡搮潭⁺›洧浥敢❲㬩ਊ††晩⠠桴獩氮捹獯獟慥捲彨畱牥⥹笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欢祥潷摲Ⱒ琠楨祬潣彳敳牡档煟敵祲㬩 †素ਠ††汥敳椠愨䍤瑡☠…摡慃楦摮睟慨⥴笠 †††愠䵤牧献瑥潆捲摥慐慲⡭欧祥潷摲Ⱗ愠䍤瑡昮湩彤桷瑡㬩 †素ਊ††潦瘨牡猠椠汳瑯⥳笠 †††瘠牡猠潬⁴‽汳瑯孳嵳††††晩⠠摡杍獩汓瑯癁楡慬汢⡥汳瑯⤩笠 †††††琠楨祬潣彳摡獛潬嵴㴠愠䵤牧朮瑥汓瑯猨潬⥴††††††ਊ††摡杍敲摮牥效摡牥⤨††摡杍敲摮牥潆瑯牥⤨⡽昨湵瑣潩⡮ ††慶⁷‽ⰰ栠㴠〠業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬㴠㌠〰††晩⠠潴⁰㴽猠汥⥦笠 †††爠瑥牵牴敵†† †椠琨灹潥⡦楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤⥨㴠‽渧浵敢❲⤠笠 †††眠㴠眠湩潤湩敮坲摩桴††††‽楷摮睯椮湮牥效杩瑨††††汥敳椠搨捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⁴☦⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴ ††††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥坴摩桴††††‽潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴 †素 †攠獬晩⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯⁹☦⠠潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮楗瑤籼搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧⥴ ††††⁷‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥䡴楥桧㭴 †素ਊ††敲畴湲⠠眨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤☠…栨㸠洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⥤㬩紊⤨⤩㬩ਊਊ楷摮睯漮汮慯‽畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡映㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉∨祬潣䙳潯整䅲≤㬩 †瘠牡戠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝 †戠愮灰湥䍤楨摬昨㬩 †映献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠∠汢捯≫††潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氧捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭⤧献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤潦瑯牥摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧ਊ††⼯匠楬敤湉敪瑣潩੮††昨湵瑣潩⡮ ††††慶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††瑳汹潢摲牥㴠✠✰††††瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††攠献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽爧杩瑨㬧 †††攠献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††攠献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮††††瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸††⥽⤨ਊ††⼯䈠瑯潴摁䤠橮捥楴湯 †⠠映湵瑣潩⡮ ††††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰 †††瘠牡椠晩㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††椠晩献祴敬戮牯敤‽〧㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††椠晩献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫††††楩瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴††††楩瑳汹敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸††††楩瑳汹癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠††††楩瑳汹楷瑤‽㌧〰硰㬧 †††椠晩献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤湩敪瑣摁椮牦浡瑨汭㬧 †††ਠ††††慶摣癩㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴搧癩⤧††††摣癩献祴敬㴠∠楷瑤㩨〳瀰㭸慭杲湩ㄺ瀰⁸畡潴∻††††摣癩愮灰湥䍤楨摬 楩㬩 †††椠⡦戠⤠ †††笠 †††††戠椮獮牥䉴晥牯⡥摣癩慬瑳桃汩⥤††††††⥽⤨紊ਊ㰊猯牣灩㹴ਊ猼祴敬ਾ⌉潢祤⸠摡敃瑮牥汃獡筳慭杲湩〺愠瑵絯㰊猯祴敬ਾ㰊楤⁶瑳汹㵥戢捡杫潲湵㩤愣敢昶㬶戠牯敤潢瑴浯ㄺ硰猠汯摩⌠〵愷㜸※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹㤹㸢 †㰠楤⁶汣獡㵳愢䍤湥整䍲慬獳•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮眠摩桴㤺㘱硰∻ਾ††††愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯睷湡敧晬物祬潣潣⽭•楴汴㵥䄢杮汥楦敲挮浯›畢汩潹牵映敲敷獢瑩潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※汦慯㩴敬瑦※楷瑤㩨㠱瀶㭸戠牯敤㩲∰ਾ††††椼杭猠捲∽愯浤愯⽤湡敧晬物ⵥ牦敥摁樮杰•污㵴匢瑩潨瑳摥戠⁹湁敧晬物潣㩭䈠極摬礠畯牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫戠牯敤㩲∰⼠ਾ††††⼼㹡 †††㰠捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢潤畣敭瑮眮楲整氨捹獯慟孤氧慥敤扲慯摲崧㬩⼼捳楲瑰ਾ††⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ㰊ⴡ⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ ⴭਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛汳摩牥崧㬩⼼捳楲瑰ਾਊ搼癩椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁•瑳汹㵥戢捡杫潲湵㩤愣敢昶㬶戠牯敤潴㩰瀱⁸潳楬㔣㜰㡡㬷挠敬牡戺瑯㭨搠獩汰祡渺湯㭥瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹∹ਾ搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨㌹瀶㭸㸢ऊ搼癩椠㵤愢汦湩獫潨摬牥•瑳汹㵥昢潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰∻ਾ††††愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯睷湡敧晬物祬潣潣⽭•楴汴㵥䄢杮汥楦敲挮浯›畢汩潹牵映敲敷獢瑩潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※潢摲牥〺㸢 †††††㰠浩牳㵣⼢摡⽭摡愯杮汥楦敲昭敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴匢瑩潨瑳摥戠⁹湁敧晬物潣㩭䈠極摬礠畯牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫戠牯敤㩲∰⼠ਾ††††⼼㹡 †††㰠楤⁶瑳汹㵥琢硥污杩㩮散瑮牥㸢 †††ठ猼慰瑳汹㵥挢汯牯⌺㤳㤳㤳椡灭牯慴瑮※潦瑮猭穩㩥㈱硰椡灭牯慴瑮※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥琠灯ⴺ瀶≸ਾ††††††匉潰獮牯摥戠††††††⼼灳湡ਾ†††††† †††††㰠牨晥∽瑨灴⼺眯睷氮獩整潣⽭楤瑳⽹湩敤獪㽰牦浯氽捹獯•慴杲瑥∽扟慬歮㸢 †††††††㰠浩牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯晡氮杹潣⽭⽤潴汯慢⽲灳湯潳獲爯慨獰摯役潬潧樮杰•污㵴猢潰獮牯氠杯≯琠瑩敬∽桒灡潳祤⼢ਾ††††††⼼㹡 †††㰠搯癩ਾ††⼼楤㹶 †㰠晩慲敭椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭•瑳汹㵥戢牯敤㩲㬰搠獩汰祡戺潬正※汦慯㩴敬瑦※敨杩瑨㤺瀶㭸漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※慰摤湩㩧㬰眠摩桴㜺〵硰㸢⼼晩慲敭ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ㰊潮捳楲瑰ਾ椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺眯睷愮杮汥楦敲挮浯搯捯椯慭敧⽳牴捡⽫瑯湟獯牣灩楧㽦慲摮ㄽ㤹ㄶ∴愠瑬∽•楷瑤㵨ㄢ•敨杩瑨∽∱⼠ਾℼⴭ䈠䝅义匠䅔䑎剁⁄䅔⁇㈷‸⁸〹ⴠ䰠捹獯ⴠ䄠杮汥楦敲䘠污瑬牨畯桧ⴠ䐠⁏低⁔位䥄奆ⴠ㸭㰊晩慲敭映慲敭潢摲牥∽∰洠牡楧睮摩桴∽∰洠牡楧桮楥桧㵴〢•捳潲汬湩㵧渢≯眠摩桴∽㈷∸栠楥桧㵴㤢∰猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯楹汥浤湡条牥挮浯猯㽴摡瑟灹㵥晩慲敭愦灭愻彤楳敺㜽㠲㥸☰浡㭰敳瑣潩㵮㠲㌰㌰㸢⼼晩慲敭ਾℼⴭ䔠䑎吠䝁ⴠ㸭㰊港獯牣灩㹴ਊℼⴭ匠慴瑲夠牢湡⁴牴捡敫ⴭਾ椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯楹汥浤湡条牥挮浯瀯硩汥椿㵤㤱〶☰㵴∲眠摩桴∽∱栠楥桧㵴ㄢ•㸯㰊ⴡ†湅扙慲瑮琠慲正牥ⴠ㸭ਊℼⴭ匠慴瑲䐠瑡湯捩ⴭਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯獤瀮潲洭牡敫敮⽴摡⽳捳楲瑰⽳楳整ㄭ㈳㠷⸳獪㸢⼼捳楲瑰ਾℼⴭ†䔠摮䐠瑡湯捩ⴭਾ㰊ⴡ瑓牡⁴桃湡潧ⴠ㸭㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢 †瘠牡张损潨彟㴠笠瀢摩㨢㘱㐹㭽 †⠠畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡挠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴㬩 †††挠琮灹‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧 †††挠愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †††挠献捲㴠搠捯浵湥潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣⼧振档湡潧挮浯猯慴楴⽣獪㬧 †††瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝 †††猠瀮牡湥乴摯湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨⥳††⥽⤨⼼捳楲瑰ਾℼⴭ†䔠摮䌠慨杮ⴭਾ