In my study Veneti, naši davni predniki (Veneti, Our Remote Ancestors, Vienna 1985), I explained the meaning of many place names which are still used today all over Central Europe, using the Slovenian (Slavic) language as a basis. Since according to traditional history the Slavs never settled the majority of this territory, the question arose as to which people left behind these names. Through an interdisciplinary study it was possible to find out that the people in question were the Veneti, the bearers of the Urnfield culture (after 1200 BC) and of the Hallstatt culture (after 800 BC). They obviously spoke a language, which was close to the modern Slavic languages, particularly the Slovenian language.
The study, through which the Veneti have been given their individuality, showed clearly that the modern Slavic peoples are not an ethnic group, but only a linguistic one, and that they could not have originated from the supposed "ancient Slavs" whose homeland has been searched behind the Carpathian mountains and never found even unto today. Thus, the "ancient Slavs" never existed as an ethnic group, and they must be regarded as an academic and ideologic construct only.
This ascertainment is very important for the correct explanation of the meaning of place names. Still today, this explanation is appropriated in the first line by the linguists and Slavists. They took the question under their exclusive competence, and they interpreted the meaning of the place names on the basis of linguistics only. There may be adduced several linguistic works as example. I have in hand the very interesting work called Die Slawen in Griechenland (The Slavs in Greece), written by Max Vasmer, the well-known German linguist and Slavist. The work was published by the Academy of Science (Berlin, 1941). Nevertheless, the place names examined in this study were explained mostly in the sense of the morphological forms of the superficies, i.e., after their visual appearance.
This Vasmer's work is an interesting study. The author reveals a very great number of place names found over a territory which extends from the Epirus region of northwestern Greece and Macedonia into the Peloponnesus. On the basis of these names the author supposes the settlements of the Slavs, which should have been carried out during the early Middle Ages. At the same time, he decisively rejects the possibility, that the Slavs in Greece, which he supposedly individuated, have been an autochthonous people there.
However, the density of the names in question, which are of a Slavic nature, is so great, that there is no possibility that they could have been a legacy of the supposed sporadic Slav incursions and settlements in this territory. The names could only pertain to an autochthonous people, very probably to the Pelasgians, who in the period of the ancient Greeks settled the inside of the Greek peninsula. Thus, it is not about the Slavic names as such, but of the names pertaining to a language, which after my studies was also spoken by the ancient Illyrians, Thracians, Dacians, as well as by the Veneti and the (continental) Celts, etc.
I think this language must have been, more or less, a continuity of the Indo-European and pre-Indo-European, and it was spoken by ethnologically very different peoples. The vocabulary of the modern Slavic languages, in particular the archaic Slovenian, is very close to this ancient language. But this fact does not predispose the existence of a common ancestral people, in this case the existence of the "ancient Slavs".
Explanation of Names
Indeed, Max Vasmer worked diligently collecting a great number of names in Greece which he considered to be of Slavic origin. In several cases his explanations are senseful and instructive. For example, I cite Provlakas, the name of the one-time Xerxes canal (Athos). Even today this name still says that at one time the ships were drawing through the canal (cf. pro-vleci, in Slav languages: draw through). A similar case is represented by the name Prevesa (preveza, Überfahrt, crossing) found at the sea strait in Aetolia. The name Volos is explained as "golos" (from gol, nude, i.e., an area with very scarce vegetation) which is a senseful explanation, and so on.
However, a problem of incorrect understanding arises in cases of place names which Max Vasmer interprets only in a linguistical way, i.e., by the meaning of an apparently closely related Slav etymon. For example, the name Avarikos (p. 10) should derive from Avorne, Ahorn-ort (in Slavic languages: javor) meaning a maple tree. In fact, it can only be explained with aur (sun) > jaur, i.e., a sunny site. It is only a coincidence, that the name is so similar to that of the maple tree. - The name Berstia (p. 146) does not derive from berst, in Slovenian: brest (Ulme, elm). It is certainly a form of the Indo-European *bhers (to rise sheerly). - The name Varen (cf. Varna, in Bulgaria, p. 234) certainly does not derive from vrana (Krähe, crow). It can be explained sensefully only through the Slovenian "v' ravnah" (in the plains).
Further on, Orehovo (p. 96) is not a Nußort (a place of nut trees), but evidently connected with "vrh" (summit, top). - The name Visentekon (p. 23) certainly is not connected with "višnja" (Kirsche, in fact Weichselkirsche, i.e., marasca ), but it derives from "visok, višji" (high, higher). The explaining of the name Misina (p. 94) as Mäuserort (from miš, Maus, mouse) is certainly wrong. I put near the name of Meißen - Mišin and its possible meaning, connected with its position in the valley chiselled in by the Elbe River. Thus, from meißeln (chisel). The name Svina (p. 172) Vasmer explained as Schweineort (a site of pigs). But it derives very probably from "zviti" (to fold) and means very possibly a curved crest . . .
Linguists are making a great mistake when they imagine that the nomenclature is only a linguistic question. Also the most important Slovenian linguist, France Bezlaj, in spite of his great knowledge, provided several wrong explanations concerning the meaning of the hydronyms and toponyms. I adduce an example, of which I was advised by Vojko Rutar (Dobrovo, Slovenia).
It is about the name of the village Vipolže (close to Dobrovo), the meaning of which Bezlaj explains with the help of the Russian: vypolzkovskije žiteli, i.e., "freemen", and he states: »It is about the ancient-Slav dialectal juridical term, which was brought to us (i.e., in Slovenia) by the same migration wave, which formed the nucleus of Novgorod Russia« (Fr. Bezlaj, Eseji... p. 104). But it is certainly that Fr. Bezlaj never saw the geographical position of Vipolže, a village situated on an incline which arises from the plain. The meaning "vy polje" (out of the plain, field), in the older form "vy poljane" pl. (j > ž). The supposed migration wave might have occurred, but the name Vipolže certainly is not a proof of it.
An interdisciplinary approach is needed
The existence of a one-time ethnic group in a certain territory cannot be individuated only on the basis of the preserved place names. For this purpose an interdisiplinary method must be used.
So when I, for the first time, encountered in Swiss and other areas of Central Europe a multitude of place names, the meaning of which could have been clearly explained on the basis of the Slovenian language, I did not venture to say that one time this territory was populated by the Slovenians or Slavs. From the interdisciplinary point of view, I searched to individuate the ethnic appurtenances of the people who left behind the aforesaid names.
So, I found out the presence of the linden as the tree of life in the villages (like in Slovenia), and not the oak, the tree of life of the Celts and Germans. In the preserved social structure there were no traces of the Celtic clan or German kinship, but only the tradition of the village community. This is the same community which has been preserved by the Slovenians and the other peoples of Central Europe, but not by other Slavs, the social organization of which was the great family (zadruga, rod).
The archaeological studies and finds showed that this population was the successor to the bearers of the Urnfield (after 1200 BC) and Halstatt cultures (ca. 800 – 400 BC), which many sholars like, G. Devoto, individuated as the ancient Veneti. Their statement was confirmed by many names based upon Venet- or Wend- which still today are to be found in Tyrol, Switzerland, Germany, etc. All these elements did not bear witness to the presence of the »ancient Slavs«, as a linguist would have concluded on the basis of the Slovenian or Slavic names preserved in this territory.
It was clear that these people were of an autonomous ethnicon whose name was Veneti (ancient). I think they were clearly individuated as the bearers of the Urnfield and of the Hallstatt cultures for the first time. Of course, scholars had already encountered this people. But because of the names they would have had to have called them »Slavs«. They could not have imagined them as such, and so in the scientific literature the Veneti appear only as »bearers« (of Urnfield and Hallstatt cultures). In contrast to this, the later Celts, the bearers of the La Téne culture (ca. 400 – 15 BC), are called by their very name without any problem.
The very remote heritage
On the basis of the aforesaid facts, it is clear that the question of language must be considered apart from the question of ethnicity. To illustrate, I would like to adduce some »Slovenian« names, which one can still encounter in Northern Africa to this day.
So, we find in Morocco the city called Zagora, which in Slovenian means »beyond the mountains«. Indeed, this city is found beyond the Atlas mountain ridge. In Algeria, we encounter the city Brèzina, in Slovenian meaning a »gentle incline of the mountain«. It really has just such a position. South of Tripoli, in Libya, the site Garian (717 m) is found at the edge of a plateau. The corresponding Slovenian name (a > o) is Gorjane, a site on a higher position. In the great desert, a lot of names with the root of Bir appear, like Bir Tarsin, Bir Iar . . . In Slovenian the word »vir« (b > v, betatism) actually means a 'source'.
The famous oasis between Libya and Egypt is called Siwa, and it expresses the same meaning like in Slovenian »živa« for a source of fresh water. Indeed, the oasis is full of such sources. Near the Suez canal we find the name Gharib (1751 m), in Slovenian »hrib« means a middle high mountain. The name Tabor in Palestine is equal to many Slovenian names, which mean a »fortress on a higher place«. The name is also found in Ethiopia. There, we encounter among other names also Gara Mullata (3381 m). In Slovenian »gora« (a > o) means mountain, and the dialectal word »mulast« means nude. Etc, etc.
In the sense of the method used until now by the linguists and Slavists, one must have concluded, that one-time the territory of Northern Africa was populated by Slovenians, too. No one can imagine this, and he is right. But the »Slovenian« names found there require an explication.
The only connection I find between North Africa and Slovenia is as follows. In pre-Indo-European times during the mesolithic period, the same shepherd cultures extended from North Africa over to Europe up to the Ural mountains and over. In this period, in Central Europe the agriculture of Band ceramics (ca. 4200 – before 2000 BC) arose. It was based on the matriarchate. The incursions from the east ca. 2000 BC brought the so-called Indo-Europeanization of Europe based on the patriarchate, in which the Band Ceramic people survived only as a substrate. From this substrate, as one can conclude, the culture of Lusatia (after 1500 BC) arose followed by the Urnfield culture (after 1200 BC), in which the people of the Veneti were formed.
More elements can be adduced as proof of the cultural heritage, which followed from the Band Ceramics until the Urnfield culture and its Venetic people. For example, the equipartite position of the wife in the social structure of the Veneti, which must be considered a heritage of the ancient matriarchate. Such an equipartite position was characteristic also for the ancient family tradition of the Slovenians, that I consider to be the heirs of the Veneti. In this way, the existence of »Slovenian« names in Northern Africa can be explained. Anyway, their original Slovenian forms certainly present a significant surprise today!
Max Vasmer: Die Slaven in Griechenland, Berlin 1941
France Bezlaj: Slovenska vodna imena / Slovenian Water Names /, Lublana I (1956), II (1961)
France Bezlaj: Eseji o slovenskem jeziku / Essays about the Slovenian Language /, Lublana 1967
Jožko Šavli: Imena v Afriki / Names in Africa /, in: V nova slovenska obzorja z Veneti v Evropi 2000, Tretji venetski zbornik, Vienna 2000, p. 50 ff.
Jožko Šavli: Veneti in vprašanje podstati / Veneti and the substrate Question /, in: Veneti in Etruščani, Drugi venetski zbornik, Vienna 1995, p. 85 ff. (based on the Pokorny's substrate studies)
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††††摡杍敳䙴牯散偤牡浡✨敫睹牯❤摡慃楦摮睟慨⥴†† †映牯⠠慶湩猠潬獴 ††††慶汳瑯㴠猠潬獴獛㭝 †††椠愨䵤牧椮即潬䅴慶汩扡敬猨潬⥴ ††††††桴獩氮捹獯慟孤汳瑯⁝‽摡杍敧却潬⡴汳瑯㬩 †††素 †素ਊ †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䡲慥敤⡲㬩 †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䙲潯整⡲㬩紊⠨畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡眠㴠〠‽ⰰ洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯‽〳㬰 †椠琨灯㴠‽敳晬 ††††敲畴湲琠畲㭥 †素ਊ††晩⠠祴数景眨湩潤湩敮坲摩桴 㴽✠畮扭牥‧ ††††⁷‽楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠眠湩潤湩敮䡲楥桧㭴 †素 †攠獬晩⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮☠…搨捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤籼搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笠 †††眠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠搠捯浵湥潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥汣敩瑮效杩瑨††††汥敳椠搨捯浵湥潢祤☠…搨捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笠 †††眠㴠搠捯浵湥潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴††††‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯汣敩瑮效杩瑨†† †爠瑥牵⠨⁷‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬 ☦⠠‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬⤩⡽⤩⤩ਊ眊湩潤湯潬摡㴠映湵瑣潩⡮ ††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁⤢††慶‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰††灡数摮桃汩⡤⥦††瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戢潬正㬢 †搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡❥⸩牳‽⼧摡⽭摡是潯整䅲晩慲敭栮浴❬ †⼠ 汓摩牥䤠橮捥楴湯 †⠠畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡攠㴠搠捯浵湥牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††攠献祴敬戮牯敤‽〧㬧 †††攠献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫††††瑳汹獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴††††瑳汹敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸††††瑳汹癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††攠献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠††††瑳汹楷瑤‽㌧〰硰㬧 †素⠩㬩ਊ †⼠ 潂瑴浯䄠湉敪瑣潩੮†† 畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡戠㴠搠捯浵湥敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭∨潢祤⤢せ㭝ਊ††††慶楩‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨晩慲敭⤧††††楩瑳汹潢摲牥㴠✠✰††††楩瑳汹慭杲湩㴠〠††††楩瑳汹楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬挮獳汆慯⁴‽爧杩瑨㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬栮楥桧⁴‽㈧㐵硰㬧 †††椠晩献祴敬漮敶晲潬⁷‽栧摩敤❮††††楩瑳汹慰摤湩‽㬰 †††椠晩献祴敬眮摩桴㴠✠〳瀰❸††††楩牳‽⼧摡⽭摡椯橮捥䅴晩慲敭栮浴❬†††† †††瘠牡挠楤⁶‽潤畣敭瑮挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮✨楤❶㬩 †††挠楤瑳汹‽眢摩桴㌺〰硰活牡楧㩮〱硰愠瑵㭯㬢 †††挠楤灡数摮桃汩⡤椠晩⤠††††晩 ††††††††††湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨楤ⱶ戠氮獡䍴楨摬㬩 †††素 †素⠩㬩ਊਊ⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊瑳汹㹥ऊ戣摯⁹愮䍤湥整䍲慬獳浻牡楧㩮‰畡潴⼼瑳汹㹥ਊ搼癩猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺扡㙥㙦※潢摲牥戭瑯潴㩭瀱⁸潳楬㔣㜰㡡㬷瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹∹ਾ††ℼⴭ匠慥捲潂⁸ⴭਾ††††††昼牯慮敭∽敳牡档•湯畓浢瑩∽敲畴湲猠慥捲楨⡴∩椠㵤栧慥敤彲敳牡档‧ਾ††††††椼灮瑵琠灹㵥琢硥≴瀠慬散潨摬牥∽敓牡档•楳敺㌽‰慮敭∽敳牡档∲瘠污敵∽㸢 †††††㰠湩異⁴祴数∽畢瑴湯•慶畬㵥䜢Ⅿ•湯汃捩㵫猢慥捲楨⡴∩ਾ††††††⼼潦浲ਾ††††††猼祴敬ਾ††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档笠 †††††††眠摩桴›ㄹ瀶㭸 †††††††洠牡楧㩮〠愠瑵瀸㭸 †††††††瀠獯瑩潩㩮爠汥瑡癩㭥 †††††素ਊ †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異⁴††††††††敨杩瑨›〴硰††††††††潦瑮猭穩㩥ㄠ瀴㭸 †††††††氠湩ⵥ敨杩瑨›〴硰††††††††慰摤湩㩧〠㠠硰††††††††潢楳楺杮›潢摲牥戭硯††††††††慢正牧畯摮›䘣䘴䔲㬹 †††††††戠牯敤㩲ㄠ硰猠汯摩⌠䉂㡂㡂††††††††牴湡楳楴湯›慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯㌠〰獭攠獡ⵥ畯ⱴ †††††††††††††挠汯牯㌠〰獭攠獡㭥 †††††素ਊ††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴⁝††††††††楷瑤㩨ㄠ〰㬥 †††††素 †††††映牯⍭敨摡牥獟慥捲湩異孴祴数∽整瑸崢昺捯獵笠 †††††††戠牯敤潣潬㩲⌠㉁い㐵††††††††慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯›昣晦††††††††潢桳摡睯›‰瀰⁸㈱硰ⴠ瀴⁸䄣䐲㔰㬴 †††††素ਊਊ††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戢瑵潴≮⁝††††††††潰楳楴湯›扡潳畬整††††††††潴㩰ㄠ硰††††††††楲桧㩴ㄠ硰††††††††灯捡瑩㩹ㄠ††††††††慢正牧畯摮›䐣䑆䍃㭆 †††††††挠汯牯›㐣㌶㌷㬴 †††††††眠摩桴›㈱瀵㭸 †††††††挠牵潳㩲瀠楯瑮牥††††††††敨杩瑨›㠳硰††††††††潢摲牥›潮敮††††††††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴㩝潦畣⁾湩異孴祴数✽畢瑴湯崧栺癯牥ਬ††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥戧瑵潴❮㩝潨敶††††††††慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯›䄣䌵㕅㬶 †††††††挠汯牯›昣晦††††††††††††潦浲栣慥敤彲敳牡档椠灮瑵瑛灹㵥琢硥≴㩝潦畣⁾湩異孴祴数✽畢瑴湯崧笠 †††††††戠捡杫潲湵ⵤ潣潬㩲⌠㈵䕁䙄††††††††潣潬㩲⌠晦㭦 †††††素ਊ††††††⼼瑳汹㹥ਊ††††††猼牣灩㹴 †††††映湵瑣潩敳牡档瑩⤨†††††††† †††††††⼠ 敤整浲湩湥楶潲浮湥⁴ †††††††瘠牡猠慥捲彨湥⁶ †††††††椠氨捹獯慟彤睷彷敳癲牥椮摮硥晏∨瀮⤢㸠ⴠ⤱笠 †††††††††敳牡档敟癮㴠✠瑨灴⼺猯慥捲㕨⸲摰氮捹獯挮浯愯✯††††††††⁽汥敳椠氨捹獯慟彤睷彷敳癲牥椮摮硥晏∨焮⤢㸠ⴠ⤱笠 †††††††††敳牡档敟癮㴠✠瑨灴⼺猯慥捲㕨⸲慱氮捹獯挮浯愯✯††††††††⁽汥敳笠 †††††††††敳牡档敟癮㴠✠瑨灴⼺猯慥捲㕨⸲祬潣潣⽭⽡㬧 †††††††素ਊ††††††慶敳牡档瑟牥‽湥潣敤剕䍉浯潰敮瑮搨捯浵湥敳牡档献慥捲㉨瘮污敵††††††慶敳牡档畟汲㴠猠慥捲彨湥⭶敳牡档瑟牥㭭 †††††眠湩潤灯湥猨慥捲彨牵⥬ †††††爠瑥牵慦獬††††††††††††⼼捳楲瑰ਾ††††ℼⴭ湥敳牡档戠硯ⴠ㸭ਊ †㰠楤⁶汣獡㵳愢䍤湥整䍲慬獳•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正椡灭牯慴瑮※癯牥汦睯栺摩敤㭮眠摩桴㤺㘱硰∻ਾ††††愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯睷湡敧晬物祬潣潣⽭•楴汴㵥䄢杮汥楦敲挮浯›畢汩潹牵映敲敷獢瑩潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※汦慯㩴敬瑦※楷瑤㩨㠱瀶㭸戠牯敤㩲∰ਾ††††椼杭猠捲∽愯浤愯⽤湡敧晬物ⵥ牦敥摁樮杰•污㵴匢瑩潨瑳摥戠⁹湁敧晬物潣㩭䈠極摬礠畯牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫戠牯敤㩲∰⼠ਾ††††⼼㹡 †††㰠捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢潤畣敭瑮眮楲整氨捹獯慟孤氧慥敤扲慯摲崧㬩⼼捳楲瑰ਾ††⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ㰊ⴡ⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ 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