Place Names

not only a question concerning the ancient Veneti and Slavs

by Jožko Šavli

In my study Veneti, naši davni predniki (Veneti, Our Remote Ancestors, Vienna 1985), I explained the meaning of many place names which are still used today all over Central Europe, using the Slovenian (Slavic) language as a basis.  Since according to traditional history the Slavs never settled the majority of this territory, the question arose as to which people left behind these names.  Through an interdisciplinary study it was possible to find out that the people in question were the Veneti, the bearers of the Urnfield culture (after 1200 BC) and of the Hallstatt culture (after 800 BC).  They obviously spoke a language, which was close to the modern Slavic languages, particularly the Slovenian language.

The study, through which the Veneti have been given their individuality, showed clearly that the modern Slavic peoples are not an ethnic group, but only a linguistic one, and that they could not have originated from the supposed "ancient Slavs" whose homeland has been searched behind the Carpathian mountains and never found even unto today.  Thus, the "ancient Slavs" never existed as an ethnic group, and they must be regarded as an academic and ideologic construct only.

This ascertainment is very important for the correct explanation of the meaning of place names.  Still today, this explanation is appropriated in the first line by the linguists and Slavists.  They took the question under their exclusive competence, and they interpreted the meaning of the place names on the basis of linguistics only.  There may be adduced several linguistic works as example.  I have in hand the very interesting work called Die Slawen in Griechenland (The Slavs in Greece), written by Max Vasmer, the well-known German linguist and Slavist.  The work was published by the Academy of Science (Berlin, 1941).  Nevertheless, the place names examined in this study were explained mostly in the sense of the morphological forms of the superficies, i.e., after their visual appearance.

This Vasmer's work is an interesting study.  The author reveals a very great number of place names found over a territory which extends from the Epirus region of northwestern Greece and Macedonia into the Peloponnesus.  On the basis of these names the author supposes the settlements of the Slavs, which should have been carried out during the early Middle Ages.  At the same time, he decisively rejects the possibility, that the Slavs in Greece, which he supposedly individuated, have been an autochthonous people there.

However, the density of the names in question, which are of a Slavic nature, is so great, that there is no possibility that they could have been a legacy of the supposed sporadic Slav incursions and settlements in this territory.  The names could only pertain to an autochthonous people, very probably to the Pelasgians, who in the period of the ancient Greeks settled the inside of the Greek peninsula.  Thus, it is not about the Slavic names as such, but of the names pertaining to a language, which after my studies was also spoken by the ancient Illyrians, Thracians, Dacians, as well as by the Veneti and the (continental) Celts, etc.

I think this language must have been, more or less, a continuity of the Indo-European and pre-Indo-European, and it was spoken by ethnologically very different peoples.  The vocabulary of the modern Slavic languages, in particular the archaic Slovenian, is very close to this ancient language.  But this fact does not predispose the existence of a common ancestral people, in this case the existence of the "ancient Slavs".

Explanation of Names

Indeed, Max Vasmer worked diligently collecting a great number of names in Greece which he considered to be of Slavic origin.  In several cases his explanations are senseful and instructive.  For example, I cite Provlakas, the name of the one-time Xerxes canal (Athos).  Even today this name still says that at one time the ships were drawing through the canal (cf. pro-vleci, in Slav languages:  draw through).  A similar case is represented by the name Prevesa (preveza, Überfahrt, crossing) found at the sea strait in Aetolia.  The name Volos is explained as "golos" (from gol, nude, i.e., an area with very scarce vegetation) which is a senseful explanation, and so on.

However, a problem of incorrect understanding arises in cases of place names which Max Vasmer interprets only in a linguistical way, i.e., by the meaning of an apparently closely related Slav etymon.  For example, the name Avarikos (p. 10) should derive from Avorne, Ahorn-ort (in Slavic languages:  javor) meaning a maple tree.  In fact, it can only be explained with aur (sun) > jaur, i.e., a sunny site.  It is only a coincidence, that the name is so similar to that of the maple tree. - The name Berstia (p. 146) does not derive from berst, in Slovenian:  brest (Ulme, elm).  It is certainly a form of the Indo-European *bhers (to rise sheerly). - The name Varen (cf. Varna, in Bulgaria, p. 234) certainly does not derive from vrana (Krähe, crow).  It can be explained sensefully only through the Slovenian "v' ravnah" (in the plains).

Further on, Orehovo (p. 96) is not a Nußort (a place of nut trees), but evidently connected with "vrh" (summit, top). - The name Visentekon (p. 23) certainly is not connected with "višnja" (Kirsche, in fact Weichselkirsche, i.e., marasca ), but it derives from "visok, višji" (high, higher).  The explaining of the name Misina (p. 94) as Mäuserort (from miš, Maus, mouse) is certainly wrong.  I put near the name of Meißen - Mišin and its possible meaning, connected with its position in the valley chiselled in by the Elbe River.  Thus, from meißeln (chisel).  The name Svina (p. 172) Vasmer explained as Schweineort (a site of pigs).  But it derives very probably from "zviti" (to fold) and means very possibly a curved crest . . .

Linguists are making a great mistake when they imagine that the nomenclature is only a linguistic question.  Also the most important Slovenian linguist, France Bezlaj, in spite of his great knowledge, provided several wrong explanations concerning the meaning of the hydronyms and toponyms.  I adduce an example, of which I was advised by Vojko Rutar (Dobrovo, Slovenia).

It is about the name of the village Vipolže (close to Dobrovo), the meaning of which Bezlaj explains with the help of the Russian:  vypolzkovskije žiteli, i.e., "freemen", and he states:  »It is about the ancient-Slav dialectal juridical term, which was brought to us (i.e., in Slovenia) by the same migration wave, which formed the nucleus of Novgorod Russia« (Fr. Bezlaj, Eseji... p. 104).  But it is certainly that Fr. Bezlaj never saw the geographical position of Vipolže, a village situated on an incline which arises from the plain.  The meaning "vy polje" (out of the plain, field), in the older form "vy poljane" pl. (j > ž).  The supposed migration wave might have occurred, but the name Vipolže certainly is not a proof of it.

An interdisciplinary approach is needed

The existence of a one-time ethnic group in a certain territory cannot be individuated only on the basis of the preserved place names.  For this purpose an interdisiplinary method must be used.

So when I, for the first time, encountered in Swiss and other areas of Central Europe a multitude of place names, the meaning of which could have been clearly explained on the basis of the Slovenian language, I did not venture to say that one time this territory was populated by the Slovenians or Slavs.  From the interdisciplinary point of view, I searched to individuate the ethnic appurtenances of the people who left behind the aforesaid names.

So, I found out the presence of the linden as the tree of life in the villages (like in Slovenia), and not the oak, the tree of life of the Celts and Germans.  In the preserved social structure there were no traces of the Celtic clan or German kinship, but only the tradition of the village community.  This is the same community which has been preserved by the Slovenians and the other peoples of Central Europe, but not by other Slavs, the social organization of which was the great family (zadruga, rod).

The archaeological studies and finds showed that this population was the successor to the bearers of the Urnfield (after 1200 BC) and Halstatt cultures (ca. 800 – 400 BC), which many sholars like, G. Devoto, individuated as the ancient Veneti.  Their statement was confirmed by many names based upon Venet- or Wend- which still today are to be found in Tyrol, Switzerland, Germany, etc.  All these elements did not bear witness to the presence of the »ancient Slavs«, as a linguist would have concluded on the basis of the Slovenian or Slavic names preserved in this territory.

It was clear that these people were of an autonomous ethnicon whose name was Veneti (ancient).  I think they were clearly individuated as the bearers of the Urnfield and of the Hallstatt cultures for the first time.  Of course, scholars had already encountered this people.  But because of the names they would have had to have called them »Slavs«.  They could not have imagined them as such, and so in the scientific literature the Veneti appear only as »bearers« (of Urnfield and Hallstatt cultures).  In contrast to this, the later Celts, the bearers of the La Téne culture (ca. 400 – 15 BC), are called by their very name without any problem.

The very remote heritage

On the basis of the aforesaid facts, it is clear that the question of language must be considered apart from the question of ethnicity.  To illustrate, I would like to adduce some »Slovenian« names, which one can still encounter in Northern Africa to this day.

So, we find in Morocco the city called Zagora, which in Slovenian means »beyond the mountains«.  Indeed, this city is found beyond the Atlas mountain ridge.  In Algeria, we encounter the city Brèzina, in Slovenian meaning a »gentle incline of the mountain«.  It really has just such a position.  South of Tripoli, in Libya, the site Garian (717 m) is found at the edge of a plateau.  The corresponding Slovenian name (a > o) is Gorjane, a site on a higher position.  In the great desert, a lot of names with the root of Bir appear, like Bir Tarsin, Bir Iar . . .   In Slovenian the word »vir« (b > v, betatism) actually means a 'source'.

The famous oasis between Libya and Egypt is called Siwa, and it expresses the same meaning like in Slovenian »živa« for a source of fresh water.  Indeed, the oasis is full of such sources.  Near the Suez canal we find the name Gharib (1751 m), in Slovenian »hrib« means a middle high mountain.  The name Tabor in Palestine is equal to many Slovenian names, which mean a »fortress on a higher place«.  The name is also found in Ethiopia.  There, we encounter among other names also Gara Mullata (3381 m).  In Slovenian »gora« (a > o) means mountain, and the dialectal word »mulast« means nude.  Etc, etc.

In the sense of the method used until now by the linguists and Slavists, one must have concluded, that one-time the territory of Northern Africa was populated by Slovenians, too.  No one can imagine this, and he is right.  But the »Slovenian« names found there require an explication.

The only connection I find between North Africa and Slovenia is as follows.  In pre-Indo-European times during the mesolithic period, the same shepherd cultures extended from North Africa over to Europe up to the Ural mountains and over.  In this period, in Central Europe the agriculture of Band ceramics (ca. 4200 – before 2000 BC) arose.  It was based on the matriarchate.  The incursions from the east ca. 2000 BC brought the so-called Indo-Europeanization of Europe based on the patriarchate, in which the Band Ceramic people survived only as a substrate.  From this substrate, as one can conclude, the culture of Lusatia (after 1500 BC) arose followed by the Urnfield culture (after 1200 BC), in which the people of the Veneti were formed.

More elements can be adduced as proof of the cultural heritage, which followed from the Band Ceramics until the Urnfield culture and its Venetic people.  For example, the equipartite position of the wife in the social structure of the Veneti, which must be considered a heritage of the ancient matriarchate.  Such an equipartite position was characteristic also for the ancient family tradition of the Slovenians, that I consider to be the heirs of the Veneti.  In this way, the existence of »Slovenian« names in Northern Africa can be explained.  Anyway, their original Slovenian forms certainly present a significant surprise today!

Selected Bibliography:
Max Vasmer:  Die Slaven in Griechenland, Berlin 1941
France Bezlaj:  Slovenska vodna imena / Slovenian Water Names /, Lublana I (1956), II (1961)
France Bezlaj:  Eseji o slovenskem jeziku / Essays about the Slovenian Language /, Lublana 1967
Jožko Šavli:  Imena v Afriki / Names in Africa /, in: V nova slovenska obzorja z Veneti v Evropi 2000, Tretji venetski zbornik, Vienna 2000, p. 50 ff.
Jožko Šavli:  Veneti in vprašanje podstati / Veneti and the substrate Question /, in:  Veneti in Etruščani, Drugi venetski zbornik, Vienna 1995, p. 85 ff. (based on the Pokorny's substrate studies)


Page Created: August 2, 2004
Last Updated: August 14, 2004
©Copyright 2004 Gary L. Gorsha

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੻††††††桴獩氮捹獯慟孤汳瑯⁝‽摡杍⹲敧却潬⡴汳瑯㬩 †††素 †素ਊ †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䡲慥敤⡲㬩 †愠䵤牧爮湥敤䙲潯整⡲㬩紊⠨畦据楴湯⤨笠 †瘠牡眠㴠〠‬⁨‽ⰰ洠湩浩浵桔敲桳汯⁤‽〳㬰 †椠⁦琨灯㴠‽敳晬
੻††††敲畴湲琠畲㭥 †素ਊ††晩⠠祴数景眨湩潤⹷湩敮坲摩桴
㴽✠畮扭牥‧
੻††††⁷‽楷摮睯椮湮牥楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠眠湩潤⹷湩敮䡲楥桧㭴 †素 †攠獬⁥晩⠠潤畣敭瑮搮捯浵湥䕴敬敭瑮☠…搨捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮楗瑤⁨籼搠捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笠 †††眠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮楗瑤㭨 †††栠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潤畣敭瑮汅浥湥⹴汣敩瑮效杩瑨਻††੽††汥敳椠⁦搨捯浵湥⹴潢祤☠…搨捯浵湥⹴潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴簠⁼潤畣敭瑮戮摯⹹汣敩瑮效杩瑨⤩笠 †††眠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潢祤挮楬湥坴摩桴਻††††⁨‽潤畣敭瑮戮摯⹹汣敩瑮效杩瑨਻††੽ †爠瑥牵⠨⁷‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬
☦⠠⁨‾業楮畭呭牨獥潨摬⤩਻⡽⤩⤩਻ਊ眊湩潤⹷湯潬摡㴠映湵瑣潩⡮
੻††慶⁲⁦‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥䉴䥹⡤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁⤢਻††慶⁲⁢‽潤畣敭瑮朮瑥汅浥湥獴祂慔乧浡⡥戢摯≹嬩崰਻††⹢灡数摮桃汩⡤⥦਻††⹦瑳汹⹥楤灳慬⁹‽戢潬正㬢 †搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬潣䙳潯整䅲楤牆浡❥⸩牳⁣‽⼧摡⽭摡是潯整䅲⹤晩慲敭栮浴❬਻ †⼠ 汓摩牥䤠橮捥楴湯 †⠠畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡攠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴椧牦浡❥㬩 †††攠献祴敬戮牯敤⁲‽〧㬧 †††攠献祴敬洮牡楧‽㬰 †††攠献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥獣䙳潬瑡㴠✠楲桧❴਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥敨杩瑨㴠✠㔲瀴❸਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥癯牥汦睯㴠✠楨摤湥㬧 †††攠献祴敬瀮摡楤杮㴠〠਻††††⹥瑳汹⹥楷瑤⁨‽㌧〰硰㬧 †††攠献捲㴠✠愯浤愯⽤汳摩牥摁椮牦浡⹥瑨汭㬧 †††瘠牡猠楬敤䉲潬正㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬汳摩牥愭扤潬正眭慲灰牥⤧਻††††慶⁲汳摩牥潈摬牥㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬汳摩牥愭扤潬正栭汯敤❲㬩 †††瘠牡猠楬敤䍲潬敳㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉✨祬汳摩牥愭扤潬正挭潬敳⤧਻††††汳摩牥求捯⹫瑳汹⹥楤灳慬⁹‽戧潬正㬧ਊ††††汳摩牥汃獯⹥湯汣捩‽畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††††猠楬敤䉲潬正瀮牡湥乴摯⹥敲潭敶桃汩⡤汳摩牥求捯⥫਻††††††敲畴湲映污敳਻††††੽ †††瘠牡椠牦浡佥汮慯⁤‽畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††††猠瑥楔敭畯⡴昨湵瑣潩汳楩摩⡥
੻††††††††慶⁲⁳‽眨湩潤⹷敧䍴浯異整卤祴敬
‿慰獲䥥瑮木瑥潃灭瑵摥瑓汹⡥汳摩牥潈摬牥⸩楲桧⥴㨠瀠牡敳湉⡴汳摩牥潈摬牥挮牵敲瑮瑓汹⹥楲桧⥴਻††††††††晩⠠⁳㴼〠
੻††††††††††汳摩牥潈摬牥献祴敬爮杩瑨㴠⠠⁳‫⤶⬠✠硰㬧 †††††††††猠瑥楔敭畯⡴汳楩摩ⱥㄠ⤰਻††††††††੽††††††††汥敳笠 †††††††††猠楬敤䡲汯敤⹲瑳汹⹥楲桧⁴‽〧硰㬧 †††††††††猠楬敤䍲潬敳献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠汢捯❫਻††††††††੽††††††⥽‬〱〰㬩 †††素ਊ††††晩⠠⹥瑡慴档癅湥⥴笠 †††††攠愮瑴捡䕨敶瑮✨湯潬摡Ⱗ椠牦浡佥汮慯⥤਻††††੽††††汥敳笠 †††††攠愮摤癅湥䱴獩整敮⡲氧慯❤‬晩慲敭湏潬摡‬慦獬⥥਻††††੽ †††猠楬敤䡲汯敤⹲湩敳瑲敂潦敲攨‬汳摩牥潈摬牥昮物瑳桃汩⥤਻††⥽⤨਻੽ਊ⼼捳楲瑰ਾ㰊瑳汹㹥ऊ戣摯⁹愮䍤湥整䍲慬獳浻牡楧㩮‰畡潴੽⼼瑳汹㹥ਊ搼癩猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮⌺扡㙥㙦※潢摲牥戭瑯潴㩭瀱⁸潳楬⁤㔣㜰㡡㬷瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※⵺湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹∹ਾ††搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨ㄹ瀶㭸㸢 †††㰠⁡牨晥∽瑨灴⼺眯睷愮杮汥楦敲氮捹獯挮浯∯琠瑩敬∽湁敧晬物⹥潣㩭戠極摬礠畯⁲牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫映潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰※潢摲牥〺㸢 †††㰠浩⁧牳㵣⼢摡⽭摡愯杮汥楦敲昭敲䅥⹤灪≧愠瑬∽楓整栠獯整⁤祢䄠杮汥楦敲挮浯›畂汩⁤潹牵映敲⁥敷獢瑩⁥潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※潢摲牥〺•㸯 †††㰠愯ਾ††††猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴搾捯浵湥⹴牷瑩⡥祬潣彳摡❛敬摡牥潢牡❤⥝㰻猯牣灩㹴 †㰠搯癩ਾ⼼楤㹶ਊℼⴭ⼠⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯⼯ⴠ㸭㰊楤⁶摩∽祬汳摩牥愭扤潬正眭慲灰牥•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡渺湯㭥栠楥桧㩴〳瀰㭸漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※潰楳楴湯愺獢汯瑵㭥爠杩瑨〺※潴㩰㔱瀰㭸眠摩桴㌺〲硰※⵺湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹㤹※㸢㰊楤⁶摩∽祬汳摩牥愭扤潬正栭汯敤≲猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯⌺㠸㬸栠楥桧㩴㔲瀰㭸洠牡楧⵮潢瑴浯㈺瀵㭸瀠摡楤杮㐺硰※潰楳楴湯愺獢汯瑵㭥爠杩瑨ⴺ㈳瀰㭸琠灯ㄺ瀰㭸眠摩桴㌺〰硰※㸢㰊⁡摩∽祬汳摩牥愭扤潬正挭潬敳•牨晥∽∣猠祴敬∽慢正牧畯摮挭汯牯⌺㈲㬲戠瑯潴㩭ㄭ瀹㭸挠汯牯⌺晦㭦搠獩汰祡戺潬正※潦瑮ㄺ瀰⁸牁慩ⱬ䠠汥敶楴慣‬慓獮猭牥晩※慰摤湩㩧瀴㭸瀠獯瑩潩㩮扡潳畬整※楲桧㩴㬰琠硥⵴敤潣慲楴湯渺湯㭥稠椭摮硥㤺㤹㤹㤹㤹∹䌾潬敳䄠㱤愯ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾਊ搼癩椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁•瑳汹㵥戢捡杫潲湵㩤愣敢昶㬶戠牯敤⵲潴㩰瀱⁸潳楬⁤㔣㜰㡡㬷挠敬牡戺瑯㭨搠獩汰祡渺湯㭥瀠獯瑩潩㩮敲慬楴敶※⵺湩敤㩸㤹㤹㤹∹ਾ搼癩挠慬獳∽摡敃瑮牥汃獡≳猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯Ⅻ浩潰瑲湡㭴漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※楷瑤㩨㌹瀶㭸㸢ऊ搼癩椠㵤愢汦湩獫潨摬牥•瑳汹㵥昢潬瑡氺晥㭴眠摩桴ㄺ㘸硰∻ਾ††††愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯睷⹷湡敧晬物⹥祬潣⹳潣⽭•楴汴㵥䄢杮汥楦敲挮浯›畢汩⁤潹牵映敲⁥敷獢瑩⁥潴慤ⅹ•瑳汹㵥搢獩汰祡戺潬正※潢摲牥〺㸢 †††††㰠浩⁧牳㵣⼢摡⽭摡愯杮汥楦敲昭敲䅥㉤樮杰•污㵴匢瑩⁥潨瑳摥戠⁹湁敧晬物⹥潣㩭䈠極摬礠畯⁲牦敥眠扥楳整琠摯祡∡猠祴敬∽楤灳慬㩹汢捯㭫戠牯敤㩲∰⼠ਾ††††⼼㹡 †††㰠楤⁶瑳汹㵥琢硥⵴污杩㩮散瑮牥㸢 †††ठ猼慰瑳汹㵥挢汯牯⌺㤳㤳㤳椡灭牯慴瑮※潦瑮猭穩㩥㈱硰椡灭牯慴瑮※潰楳楴湯爺汥瑡癩㭥琠灯ⴺ瀶≸ਾ††††††匉潰獮牯摥戠੹††††††⼼灳湡ਾ†††††† †††††㰠⁡牨晥∽瑨灴⼺眯睷氮獩整⹮潣⽭楤瑳⽹湩敤⹸獪㽰牦浯氽捹獯•慴杲瑥∽扟慬歮㸢 †††††††㰠浩⁧牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯晡氮杹⹯潣⽭⽤潴汯慢⽲灳湯潳獲爯慨獰摯役潬潧樮杰•污㵴猢潰獮牯氠杯≯琠瑩敬∽桒灡潳祤⼢ਾ††††††⼼㹡 †††㰠搯癩ਾ††⼼楤㹶 †㰠晩慲敭椠㵤氢捹獯潆瑯牥摁䙩慲敭•瑳汹㵥戢牯敤㩲㬰搠獩汰祡戺潬正※汦慯㩴敬瑦※敨杩瑨㤺瀶㭸漠敶晲潬㩷楨摤湥※慰摤湩㩧㬰眠摩桴㜺〵硰㸢⼼晩慲敭ਾ⼼楤㹶㰊搯癩ਾ㰊潮捳楲瑰ਾ椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺眯睷愮杮汥楦敲挮浯搯捯椯慭敧⽳牴捡⽫瑯湟獯牣灩⹴楧㽦慲摮㌽㐶ㄷ∳愠瑬∽•楷瑤㵨ㄢ•敨杩瑨∽∱⼠ਾℼⴭ䈠䝅义匠䅔䑎剁⁄䅔⁇‭㈷‸⁸〹ⴠ䰠捹獯ⴠ䄠杮汥楦敲䘠污瑬牨畯桧ⴠ䐠⁏低⁔位䥄奆ⴠ㸭㰊晩慲敭映慲敭潢摲牥∽∰洠牡楧睮摩桴∽∰洠牡楧桮楥桧㵴〢•捳潲汬湩㵧渢≯眠摩桴∽㈷∸栠楥桧㵴㤢∰猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯⹤楹汥浤湡条牥挮浯猯㽴摡瑟灹㵥晩慲敭愦灭愻彤楳敺㜽㠲㥸☰浡㭰敳瑣潩㵮㠲㌰㌰㸢⼼晩慲敭ਾℼⴭ䔠䑎吠䝁ⴠ㸭㰊港獯牣灩㹴ਊℼⴭ匠慴瑲夠牢湡⁴牴捡敫⁲ⴭਾ椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯⹤楹汥浤湡条牥挮浯瀯硩汥椿㵤㤱㄰〶☰㵴∲眠摩桴∽∱栠楥桧㵴ㄢ•㸯㰊ⴡ‭†湅⁤扙慲瑮琠慲正牥ⴠ㸭ਊℼⴭ匠慴瑲䐠瑡湯捩⁳ⴭਾ猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴猠捲∽瑨灴⼺愯獤瀮潲洭牡敫⹴敮⽴摡⽳捳楲瑰⽳楳整ㄭ㈳㠷⸳獪㸢⼼捳楲瑰ਾℼⴭ†䔠摮䐠瑡湯捩⁳ⴭਾ㰊ⴡ‭瑓牡⁴桃湡潧ⴠ㸭㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢 †瘠牡张损潨彟㴠笠瀢摩㨢㘱㐹㭽 †⠠畦据楴湯⤨笠 †††瘠牡挠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴牣慥整汅浥湥⡴猧牣灩❴㬩 †††挠琮灹⁥‽琧硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㬧 †††挠愮祳据㴠琠畲㭥 †††挠献捲㴠搠捯浵湥⹴潬慣楴湯瀮潲潴潣‫⼧振⹣档湡潧挮浯猯慴楴⽣⹯獪㬧 †††瘠牡猠㴠搠捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭✨捳楲瑰⤧せ㭝 †††猠瀮牡湥乴摯⹥湩敳瑲敂潦敲挨‬⥳਻††⥽⤨਻⼼捳楲瑰ਾℼⴭ†䔠摮䌠慨杮ⴭਾ