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                                                           Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp

                                                         March 19, 1848- Janurary 13, 1929

                                                                 Wyatt Earp

The majority of the following was taken from: Wyatt Earp: The Life Behind The Legend, 1997, Casey Tefertiller, Wiley and Sons publishing.

On March 19, 1848, in Illinois, Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp was born to parents, Nicholas Porter Earp and Virginia Cooksey Earp. He was the fourth son of the couple. Nicholas Earp had enlisted in the military around the start of the Mexican war. He served under the command of Wyatt Berry Stapp. His military career ended abruptly with a kick in the groin from a mule. He would return to Monmouth as a farmer, harness maker, and sometimes justice of the peace, never finding any contentment while all that land in the West seemed to be calling as his family continued to grow. In honor of his captain, he named his fourth son after him.

In 1864, Wyatt, now 16 years old, moved with his family to California. Wyatt's brother, Virgil, was fighting in the Civil War and brother James had returned from the war injured. Wyatt would thus assume a man's role on the trip, serving as a hunter and helping to fend off two Indian raids on the train of forty wagons as various families traveled together for protection. (1) Wyatt was not able to receive formal schooling, although he did learn reading and writing along the trip.

Virgil returned from the Civil War and joined the family in southern California, where Wyatt learned to hate plowing, hoeing, and everything else connected to farming. He would join Virgil in working on freight wagons. He worked as a swamper, helped with loading, and a few turns at driving the teams. (2)

Nicholas decided to once again move his family. In 1868, he took the family back to Iowa and then on to Lamar, Missouri. In this midwestern farm town he found a job more to his liking than farming was. For the first time, he pinned on a badge. On March 3, 1870, he received the appointment of constable. Two months earlier, he had married a local woman named Urilla Sutherland, whose father owned the hotel in Lamar. (3)

Less than a year after his marriage- the exact date is unknown- Urilla died suddenly. She is thought to have died of typhoid. Within a few months, Wyatt would leave town. He would leave behind a mystery. James Cromwell charged that he had paid Wyatt $75 for an execution of the court, and that Wyatt erased the "7" and replaced it with a "5". The implication being that Wyatt pocketed $20, a significant sum in those days. Cromwell brought charges against Wyatt and his bondsman, James Maupin. When the court ordered the new town constable to find Wyatt for a hearing, the family had sold their property and left Lamar, never to return.

Maupin and brother James Earp, who also was charged, did show at the hearing, and both were found not guilty. It has never been established whether the legendary lawman was guilty or innocent of the charge. Wyatt never discussed his Lamar days very much, even going to the extent of writing relatives not to talk to biographer Stuart Lake about the events. He had a secret, and he succeeded in keeping it. (4)

Wyatt Earp, now 22, left Lamar, grief-stricken over the loss of his wife, and wound up in Indian Territory, now eastern Oklahoma. He would become entangled in an incident that would trouble generations of researchers with the question of whether or not the future lawman had stolen a horse. A warrant was issued on March 28, 1871, charging that Earp, Edward Kennedy, and John Shown had stolen two horses from the Key family. The three were arraigned April 14. Earp and Kennedy would be indicted; kennedy stood trial and was acquitted. Earp never went to trial. After Kennedy's acquital, the law lost interest in prosecuting Earp. Wyatt may very well have engaged in certain dubious activities after his wife's death.

The records are too ambiguous to be conclusive, and Earp never discussed the incidents, but it seems likely that 23-year-old Wyatt Earp nearly found himself bound for a career that would have landed him inside a jail cell instead of guarding one. (5)

Wyatt would journey on to the Salt Fork of the Arkansas River in 1871, where he met two young brothers, Ed and Bat Masterson, both future lawmen, and began a friendship that would last for years to come. The three would hunt buffalo for a season.

Wyatt would move on to Ellsworth, Kansas. Trouble would break out in Ellsworth when Ben Thompson's brother Billy, shot Sheriff Chauncey Whitney. Whitney would die from the wound. Ben, who was also armed, was told by Mayor James Miller to surrender his arms as Billy was riding away to advoid arrest. Ben kept his arms and the streets filled with armed Texans ready to defend him. What happened next, is a great murky point in history. Stuart Lake would tell a huge tale about Wyatt saving the day and facing off all the men. While Lake no doubt added to the story, there is evidence to support that Wyatt was indeed named a marshal of the town on the spot and disarmed Thompson and defused the situation. The previous town marshal was discharged from duty when he refused to confront Thompson and disarm him. (6)

By 1874, Wyatt and his older brother Jim along with Jim's wife, Bessie had settled into Wichita, Kansas. Wichita deputy Jimmy Cairns would recall that town marshal Bill Smith saw Earp and chose him for an officer because of his physique and appearance. (7) The town had been having problems with the tough, hard-nosed cattle herders and ranch hands coming into town.

As told by Wichita deputy Jimmy Cairns, Wyatt would meet a major test when as a peacekeeper when a few cattle drovers decided to take out their revenge on the town. Earp's attitude had angered the drunken Texans over a piano purchased by brothel owner Ida May. After Ida May declined to pay off the debt owed on the instrument, Wyatt and 4 other tough men had went to repossess the piano and chastized the Texans for being too cheap to help their hostess pay the debt. This lead to the patrons collecting the money and turning it over to Wyatt. They decided to make Wyatt and the town regret them doing so. A mob of nearly fifty men, cattle bosses and their men, banded together

in Delano, across the bridge from Wichita, while Earp and other officers led a group of citizens to the bridge to protect Wichita. Mannen Clements, a cousin of gunman John Wesley Hardin, served as leader of the cattlemen. Clements was not known as a 'bad man', but was like most of the early day cattle handlers who would use violence at times to get what they wanted. Both sides spread out.

Any wrong move could have caused an all out deadly battle. Earp stood in the center line of the defenders and calmly called for Clements to put away his guns. When Clements failed to comply, Earp said, " Mind me now, Mannen, put up those guns and go on home." Clements paused for a few moments, then slipped his pistol in his belt and turned his horse around back across the bridge.

The situation had been defused by Wyatt's steadiness under pressure and calm in a tense situation. "Wyatt certainly had a way with men," Cairns would say. Wyatt understood his job was to keep the peace and prevent trouble, not ignite it. (8)

Deputy Earp piled up an impressive list of achievements during his tenure as a Wichita lawman; and, most importantly, there were no major outbreaks of violence or rowdyism. For the most part, cowtown violence flared up after too much whiskey and too liberal a use of six-shooters. In May of 1875, Deputy Earp called the bluff of a horse thief.

While making his usual nightly rounds, Earp ran across a man who he thought fit the description of W.W. Compton, wanted for stealing two horses. Wyatt questioned the man as to who he was, and Compton gave a fake name. Wyatt took the man who called himself Jones, to a saloon to get a better look under lamplight. The stranger turned and ran out. Earp paused and fired a warning shot. The stranger stopped and gave up. He the admitted to being W.W. Compton. (9)

Wyatt earp's stint as a Wichita lawman had been impressive. Dick Cogdell, who would later become police chief, said twenty one years later: " Earp is a man who never smiled or laughed. He was the most fearless man I ever saw.....He is an honest man. All officers here who were associated with him declare he is honest, and would have decided according to his belief in the face of an arsenal." (10)

Wyatt had proven to be tough and fearless in Wichita. And he never took a life while enforcing the law in Wichita.

In 1876, Wyatt would head on to Dodge City, Kansas. Dodge was at this point a lawless town. The police force had been weak. Mayor George Hoover, intent on installing a tough, competant police force named 300 pound Larry Deger as town marshal and Wyatt Earp as assistant town marshal. Deger seems to have handled things on the political side, while Wyatt was the enforcer of the town's laws. Earp said he insisted on the right to name his own deputies for the cattle season and chose Jim Masterson, Bat's brother and retained Joe Mason. About a week later, Bat Masterson arrived in town and had already received some degree of fame for his role in the 1874 Indian battle at Adobe Walls, where about twenty-eight buffalo hunters and traders held off the onslaught of a combined force of Kiowas, Cheyenne, and Comanches at a small trading post about 150 miles from Dodge City on the Texas Panhandle. (11)

In September of 1876, Wyatt says he left the force and traveled to Deadwood with his brother Morgan. (12) By June, Dodge had a new assistant marshal- Ed Masterson, another of Bat's brothers, had become Deger's enforcer. Earp returned to Dodge City in July of 1877 to an endorsement by the Times:

Wyatt earp, who was on our city police force last summer, is in town again. We hope he will accept a position on the force once more. He had a quite way of taking the most desperate characters into custody which invariably gave one the impression that the city was able to enforce her mandates and preserve her dignity. It wasn't considered policy to draw a gun on Wyatt unless you got the drop and meant to burn powder without any preliminary talk. (13)

By October, Earp was once again gone from Dodge. He left to chase train robbers Mike Roarke and Dave Rudabaugh, perhaps as a free lance bounty hunter, perhaps at the request of the Santa Fe Railroad. His exact role during this period is unclear, but he did engage in hunting fugitives. The chase took Earp into a little town called Ft. Griffin in Texas. Earp asked an old acquaintance, John Shanssey, a saloon keeper, about Rudabaugh. Shanssey directed Wyatt to a slender man, a dentist who spent more time at the card table than over a dental chair. This would be the first meeting between Wyatt Earp and Dr. John Henry Holliday. "Doc" Holliday would emerge as a legend even in his own lifetime. Doc could be a gentleman one moment and then fly into a rage that would climax in gunfire.

" Holliday had a mean disposition and an ungovernable temper, and under the influence of liquor was a most dangerous man," Bat Masterson wrote in 1907. (14)

Holliday asked Wyatt many questions about Dodge City and seemed to consider moving there.

Soon after Earp left town, Doc and his companion, Kate Elder, would head on to Dodge City following some trouble Doc got into that ended with him knifing Ed Bailey.

Wyatt had rode on in pursuit of the robbers. Wyatt followed the robbers to Joplin, Missouri. Earp said he found a telegram waiting for him there from Dodge City, Kansas. He was asked to return to the town that was being overrun by lawless elements. Wyatt headed back to the call of the badge.

Dodge City had banned the carrying of firearms in the town limits to try and get a hold on the violence in the town. Ed Masterson was shot and killed by a drunken drover named Jack Wagner. Wagner's cattle boss, Alf Walker, had also joined in with Wagner on the shooting. Wagner and Walker were both badly wounded in the shootout as well. Wagner would die the next day while Walker survived his injury. The shootout, happened between Bat Masterson and some townsfolk after Ed stumbled into the saloon dying. Bat would later testify: " I shot those parties who killed my brother there in 1878-in the spring of 1878." (15)

The town council quickly approved Charlie Bassett to take over the marshal's office. Wyatt would arrive shortly afterward. He was immediately appointed asst. marshal by the mayor. Earp, Bat Masterson, and other officers in Dodge developed the not so gentle art of head banging violaters in the head with the blunt end of their six-shooter handle. They called it "buffaloing". It would prove to be very effective and Wyatt would master the art. Wyatt and the Masterson's were able to once again get the order restored in Dodge City by being tough and fair. Earp met all challenges without blood shed and rarely by drawing a pistol. He always had a way of calmly taking a situation and cooling tempers before the situations exploded. By early June of 1878, Doc Holliday was in town.

Earp would later say that Holliday saved his life after his arrival in Dodge City. As the story can be pieced together, in late August a Texas herder named Tobe Driskill, known to Earp in Wichita, and his partner, Ed Morrison, got drunk and started making trouble. The two tried to take over the bar when when Earp and another officer entered and began pistol-whipping the Texans. One of them drew a gun and pointed it at Earp's back. Holliday yelled, "Look out, Wyatt, " while drawing his own gun and fired. This scared the Texan who then backed down. (16) This would begin a loyal friendship between Doc and Wyatt that would last a lifetime.

That summer of 1878 would be the most memorable of Earp's Kansas cow-town days. For the first and only time in Kansas, he may have drawn blood with his pistol. On July 26, the usual nightly celebrations were in full swing. George Hoy and some other Texans had began shooting and causing panic in the town. Wyatt and Jim Masterson ran into the street with the Texans firing while riding away. The two officers returned fire and young George Hoy was hit in the arm. His wound would prove to be fatal. He hung on until August 27, when he then passed away from the wound in the arm received that night of July 26. There is no certainty whether it was the bullet of Earp or Masterson that landed in Hoy's right arm. This was probably the first time, since the Indian raids as a boy, that Wyatt Earp had shot a man. He had always found other ways to deal with troublemakers, usually talking someone down and defusing tense situations with calmness. This time, however, the shooting was unavoidable and Wyatt's name would appear in the National Police Gazette. The paper which printed stories and incidents involving law officers, gave an account of the shooting of Hoy by Wyatt.

Just past his thirtieth birthday, Wyatt Earp had a touch of national praise and attention. This would not be the last time that eastern readers would find the name of Wyatt Earp in print. (17)

The next attempt on Earp's life, according to Wyatt, came when notorious Texas gunman Clay Allison arrived, probably in early September, shortly after Hoy's death. Allison was known as a killer, making him just the right man to come and throw a scare into an overeager assistant marshal. It did not quite work out that way. Earp said Allison arrived in town and behaved well for the first day, but the next morning a policeman came and woke Wyatt up with the word that Allison was carrying two six-shooters and was making threats against him. Earp picked up his gun and located Bat Masterson, who retrieved a shotgun he kept at the district attorney's office, near Wright's store. Masterson stayed across the street, hiding the weapon and appearing unconcerned. Other Earp allies stood casually in doorways, guns ready. Earp began his search of the saloon's, first heading to Ab Webster's place. When he came out, he stepped face to face with Clay Allison, perhaps the most dangerous gun-thrower of the frontier. Allison said, "So, your the man that my friend Hoy." Earp responded, "Yes, I guess I'm the man your looking for." Allison noticed Earp's hand in his pocket where he was holding the tip of his six-shooter and then noticed Bat in the doorway and said, "Well, I guess I'll step around the corner." "I guess you better, " Earp replied, then watched the gunman turn the corner. Masterson could see that twelve tough Texans had gathered to cover Allison's escape. Bat signaled Wyatt who stepped back as Allison rode up on horseback. "Come over here, Wyatt, I want to talk to you, " "I can hear you fine from here," Earp responded. "I think you came here to make a fight with me, and if you did, you can have one here right now." Earp said.

Bob Wright, who had brought Allison in to challenge Wyatt, came suddenly running down the street. He had changed his mind after Bat quitely said to him, " If this fight comes up, your the first person I'm going to kill." Wright decided he had better call off Allison rather than be filled with lead. Allison didn't care for Wright backing down and said to Wyatt, "These (Wright and others) men brought here to make a fight with you and kill you. They have backed down. I'm going to ride out of town and I wish you good luck." The situation ended without incident.

Allison would return 10 days laterand sent a messenger to town asking Wyatt's permission to come into town and attend to business. Wyatt allowed Allison to do so. (18)

It is believed in 1879, in Dodge City, Wyatt settled in with a woman named Celia Blaylock who would live with Wyatt as his common law wife. While in Dodge, Earp forged friendships with Luke Short, the Masterson's, and Doc Holliday. Wyatt was often excessively rough when keeping the peace, but keeping the peace he did. In 1879, Dodge had begun to loose some of it's "snap" as Wyatt would recall. Wyatt, bored again and ready to move on, as his father had done so often, decided to head to Tombstone, Arizona. Tombstone was just beginning to build a reputation as an exciting boom town.

In the final weeks of 1879, Wyatt and his brothers would arrive in Tombstone. Wyatt was now 31 years old and had filled out into a lean, powerful man with sandy blond hair. Before leaving Prescott, Arizona to join Wyatt in Tombstone, Virgil Earp had received the commission of United States deputy Marshal. Wyatt would become employed by Wells, Fargo inc. riding shotgun on the stage coaches to protect the shipments. The Earp's set up residence on Freemont and First Streets in three houses. James and Bessie Earp, Virgil and Allie Earp, and Morgan and Louisa Earp all gathered in Tombstone seeking their fortune. Younger brother Warren would arrive later.

As Arizona grew into more of a town, a new breed of badmen in the Arizona backcountry grew into more of a problem. They were a loosely banded outfit of cow herders and hands that would come to be known in Tombstone as "cow-boys". Honest ranchers and respected men were refered to as ranchers. The word "cow-boy" was only used for the rustler/criminal element. Among this element of rustlers was such notable outlaws as Ike Clanton, Johnny Ringo, Curley Bill Brocius and Pony Deal and the McLaury brothers, Tom and Frank.

In July of 1880, Pima County Sheriff Charlie Shibell, made Wyatt a deputy. Wyatt covered the area around Tombstone. With brother Virgil holding the U.S. deputy marshal appointment, the Earps were again back in law enforcement. Wyatt would often assist Tombstone town marshal, Fred White with law enforcement duties in town. Wyatt also dealt in faro, a popular card game, and kept purchasing interests in mines and land around the area with his brothers and other associates.

In September of 1880, an old friend from Dodge City would arrive in Tombstone. Doc Holliday had come to seek his fortunes in the boomtown after Wyatt had told him the place was "buzzing" and that his services as a dentist were needed there. On Oct. 10, 1880 Doc made his first trouble in town by arguing with Johnny Tyler. They were gambling in the Oriental Saloon when the argument broke out. Several men stepped between the two and Tyler left. Doc demanded to be given his guns from behind the bar. Owner Milt Joyce declined to do so. Doc left and then returned with a weapon and fired his pistol at Joyce from about 10 feet away. Joyce leapt over the counter and crashed a pistol into Doc's head. Marshal Fred White ran in and pulled Joyce off the fragile, sickly dentist turned gunman. Doc had shot Joyce through the hand. Holliday received a $20 fine. (19)

Johnny Behan had arrived in town in 1880 not long after the Holliday/Joyce fight. He would become sheriff of the newly created Cochise County that included Tombstone within it's county limits. Behan was more of a politician than a law enforcer. He would befriend the rustler/outlaw element in town.

On Oct.28, 1880, just past midnight, a few rowdy sorts had gotten drunk and began shooting up the town. City marshal Fred White went out to put a stop to the shooting. White chased one of the shooters into a vacant lot. The man turned out to be Curley Bill Brocius, a leader of the cow-boy crowd and known as a dangerous man with a gun.

Wyatt Earp, unarmed as usual, had been at Billy Owen's saloon when he heard three to four shots fired. Earp dashed into the street and saw the flash of the gun. He found Morgan, his brother, and Fred Dodge. Wyatt borrowed Dodge's pistol and chased toward the shooters. As Wyatt approached he heard Fred White say. "I am an officer. Now give me your pistol." Curley Bill pulled his gun from it's holster, and White grabbed the barrel. Earp said he threw his arms around Bill to check for other weapons. White yelled out, "I'm shot!" and clothes caught fire from the muzzle blast. Earp immediately crashed his pistol into Curley Bill's head, knocking him to the ground. He stepped over Curley grabbed Curley's gun, then grabbed Curley by the collar and ordered him to get up. Wyatt would place Curley in jail to stand trial for the shooting. This rough man-handling of Curley Bill is what sparked the first tensions between the outlaw/cow-boy element, and the Earps.

It had been known by many that Curley had perfected a technique of twirling a pistol around on his finger after presenting it to someone handle first. While White stated before dying that it was an accident, many believed that Curley had used this technique on marshal White and killed him. But, due to the statements made by White himself before dying, Curley Bill was set free and the charges dismissed.

Behan's finance, Sadie Marcus, would catch Wyatt's eye. He in turn would catch hers. Although Wyatt and "Mattie" Blaylock still were living as husband and wife, at some point, Wyatt and Sadie would nurture a friendship that would grow into much more. This again created more tension between Behan and the rustlers and the Earps and Holliday.

The rustler's continued to cause problems along the Mexican/ U.S. border as well as in town. The political tensions between the Democratic rustlers and Behan against the Republican Earps and law and order crowds grew more each day.

These growing and mounting tensions would finally culminate in the shootout near the O.K. Corral where Virgil, Wyatt, Morgan and Doc Holliday killed rusler/outlaw's , Tom and Frank McLaury, and Billy Clanton. Ike who had started the trouble by running around all over town threatening to kill the Earps and Holliday on sight, ran away as soon as the fighting started. Ike always talked too much and then ran fast and scared. His running would be the last thing brother Billy ever saw of Ike as Billy was shot and killed by Morgan Earp and Doc Holliday. (For a complete detailed account of the O.K. Corral shootout, go to: )

Following the O.K. Corral shootout, Morgan would be killed and Virgil wounded. Wyatt would band together a posse behind the authority of his U.S. marshal deputy badge, and hunt down and kill those he deemed responsible for Morgan's death. (For more info on Wyatt's Tombstone vendetta and the aftermath of the O.K. Corral gunfight go to:

After the vendetta, Earp and Sadie Marcus would travel as husband and wife. Mattie died some years later of a drug overdose. (For more info on Wyatt's wives and all the Earp women, go to:

John Henry "Doc" Holliday would travel on to Colorado where he eventually would die of his illness. Doc and Wyatt remained devoted to their friendship throughout their days. For an indepth biography about Doc Holliday go to:

Wyatt and Sadie would travel and find adventures in Alaska, and Las Vegas as well as southern California. Wyatt Earp died in 1929 in Los Angeles, California.

Wyatt had served as a lawman most of his career. While he had a reputation for being tough and aggressive, Wyatt got the job done. While one may not always agree with everything Wyatt did, he usually followed his morals and beliefs. Wyatt Earp never believed he had killed the cow-boys in Tombstone for anything other than a noble reason. To protect the town and avenge his brother.

During the vendetta, the cow-boy element was put down. Wyatt killed Curley Bill, Ike would once again run away and Johnny Ringo was found dead not long after Wyatt left Arizona.Wyatt Earp had faced the first symbol of organized crime in the U.S. along with his friend, Doc Holliday and supporters Turkey Creek Jack Johnson, Texas Jack Vermillion, and Sherman McMaster and younger brother Warren. It's safe to say, tough law enforcement won. It's leader, Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp would become a legend. Movies, books and tv shows would eventually tell the story of Wyatt Earp and his adventures. Often telling more myth than fact.

In 1993, another movie about Wyatt was released. Tombstone starred Kurt Russell as Wyatt and Val Kilmer as Doc Holliday. Six months later, Wyatt Earp, with Kevin Costner was released in 1994. After the old t.v. shows of the 40's and 50's and the movies of then and now had returned Earp's name to prominence once again, a plaque was placed at the site of Earp's former residence in Los Angeles in 1994, and city councilman Nate Holden served as the main speaker. " Frankly, we could use Wyatt Earp in America today. He was an incredible tall-in-the-saddle hero, a mixture of great myth and fact, who should never be forgotten," Holden told the crowd.

John Clum, George Parsons, Clara Brown, Bat Masterson, and Florence Finch Kelly might all say the same thing. In fact, they did.

Primary Source: Wyatt Earp: The Life Behind The Legend, 1997, Casey Tefertiller, Wiley and Sons publishing. To Purchase This Book:

Other Notes and Sources cited:
1). Mrs. J.A. Rousseau, "Rousseau Diary: Across The Desert to California From Salt Lake City To San Bernardino in 1864," San Bernardino County Museum Association Quarterly, 1958

2). Stuart Lake's notes, 1928-1931, Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.

3). Gary L. Roberts, "Wyatt Earp In Kansas," p. 18 (quotes from June 16,1870, Southwest Missourian).

4). Ibid.

5). Richard Erwin, The Truth About Wyatt Earp ( Carpenteria, Calif. : The O.K. Press, 1992), pp. 24-26

6). Bertha Hancock, " William Box Hancock Ms.," University Of Oklahoma History Collection, 1934 and Mabel Earp Cason, " She Married Wyatt Earp," C. Lee Simmons Collection, Az. undated

7). Maurice Benfer, " Early Day Law Enforcement Problems In Wichita," Wichita Eagle Sunday Magazine, Jan. 21, 1929, p.4, Gary L. Roberts collection.

8). Ibid.

9). Miller and Snell, Why The West Was Wild, pp. 146-148

10). Los Angeles Times, Dec. 4, 1896

11). Robert K. DeArment, Bat Masterson: The Man And The Legend ( Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1979), p. 9

12). Stuart Lake's notes, 1928-1931, Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.

13). Miller and Snell, Why The West Was Wild, p. 153

14). Bat Masterson and Jack DeMattos, Famous Gunfighters Of The Western Frontier ( Monroe, Wash: Weatherford, 1982), p. 76

15). Bob Palmquist, " Who Killed Jack Wagner ? " True West ( October 1993), p. 14

16). Miller and Snell, Why The West Was Wild, pp. 154-155

17). National Police Gazette, August 10, 1878

18). San Francisco Examiner, Aug. 16, 1896.

19). Tombstone Nuggett, Oct. 18, 1880