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Precious Opal is a gemstone highly prized for its "fire" or color flashes.  It's best known as coming from Australia, it can come from almost anywhere in the world, some has been found in Mexico, the United States,
and most recently in Ethiopia. 
The Aztecs called it "Hummingbird Stone".  The word "opal" comes from the Sanskrit work "upala" meaning "precious stone".

Used extensively in ancient cultures, the name comes from the French word for "Turkish", because most of the gem came to Europe through Turkey.  It forms in desert regions during the weathering and oxidation of other  copper-sulfide minerals.  It usually fills or encrusts  cavities and veins in igneous rock.