Site hosted by Angelfire.com: Build your free website today!

http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/chordata/mammalia/



Order Primates

(primates)

The Primates are an ancient and diverse eutherian group, with around 233 living species placed in 13 families. Most dwell in tropical forests. The smallest living primate is the pygmy mouse lemur, which weighs around 30 g. The largest is the gorilla, weighing up to around 175 kg.

Primates radiated in arboreal habitats, and many of the characteristics by which we recognize them today (shortened rostrum and forwardly directed orbits, associated with stereoscopic vision; relatively large braincase; opposable hallux and pollex; unfused and highly mobile radius and ulna in the forelimb and tibia and fibula in the hind) probably arose as adaptations for life in the trees or are primitive traits that were retained for the same reason. Several species, including our own, have left the trees for life on the ground; nevertheless, we retain many of these features.

Primates are usually recognized based on a suite of primitive characteristics of the skull, teeth, and limbs. Some of these are listed above, including the separate and well-developed radius and ulna in the forearm and tibia and fibula in the hindleg. Others include pentadactyl feet and presence of a clavicle. Additional characteristics (not necessarily unique to primates) include first toe with a nail, while other digits bear either nails or claws, and stomach simple in most forms (sacculated in some leaf-eating cercopithecids). Within primates, there is a tendency towards reduction of the olfactory region of the brain and expansion of the cerebrum (especially the cerebral cortex), correlated with an increasing reliance on sight and increasingly complex social behavior.

The teeth of primates vary considerably. The dental formula for the order is 0-2/1-2, 0-1/0-1, 2-4/2-4, 2-3/2-3 = 18-36. The incisors are especially variable. In some forms, most incisors have been lost, although all retain at least 1 lower incisor. In others, the incisors are intermediate in size and appear to function as pincers or nippers, as they commonly do in other groups of mammals. In some, including most strepsirhines (see next paragraph), the lower incisors form a toothcomb used in grooming and perhaps foraging. In the aye-aye (Daubentoniidae), the incisors are reduced to 1 in each jaw and are rodent-like in form and function. Canines are usually (but not always) present; they vary in size, including within species between males and females. Premolars are usually bicuspid (bilophodont), but sometimes canine-like or molar-like. Molars have 3-5 cusps, commonly 4. A hypocone was added early in primate history, and the paraconid was lost, leaving both upper and lower teeth with a basically quadrate pattern. Primitively, primate molars were brachydont and tuberculosectorial, but they have become bunodont and quadrate in a number of modern forms.

Living primates are divided into two great groups, the Strepsirhini and the Haplorhini. Strepsirhines have naked noses, lower incisors forming a toothcomb, and no plate separating orbit from temporal fossa. The second digit on the hind foot of many strepsirhines is modified to form a "toilet claw" used in grooming. Strepsirhines include mostly arboreal species with many primitive characteristics, but at the same time, some extreme specializations for particular modes of life. Haplorhines are the so-called "higher" primates, an anthropocentric designation if ever there was one. They have furry noses and a plate separating orbit from temporal fossa, and they lack a toothcomb. Haplorhines include many more species, are more widely distributed, and in most areas play a more important ecological role. Haplorhines are further divided into two major groups, the Platyrrhini and the Catarrhini. Platyrrhines have flat noses, outwardly directed nasal openings, 3 premolars in upper and lower jaws, anterior upper molars with 3 or 4 major cusps, and are found only in the New World (families Cebidae and Callitrichidae). Catarrhines have paired downwardly directed nasal openings, which are close together; usually 2 premolars in each jaw, anterior upper molars with 4 cusps, and are found only in the Old World (Cercopithecidae, Hylobatidae, Hominidae).

Most primate species live in the tropics or subtropics, although a few, most notably humans, also inhabit temperate regions. Except for a few terrestrial species, primates are arboreal. Some species eat leaves or fruit; others are insectivorous or carnivorous.

Here, we follow Anderson and Jones (1984) in formally dividing living primates into two suborders, the Strepsirhini and the Haplorhini. We differ, however, in that we place humans and their close relatives, the chimpanzee, gorilla, and orang in the family Hominidae.

Technical characters (strepsirhines vs. haplorhines)

Technical characters (teeth)

Technical characters (strepsirhines)

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Literature and references cited



Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Thorington, R. W., Jr., and S. Anderson. 1984. Primates. Pp. 187-217 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Savage, R. J. G. and M. R. Long. 1986. Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide. Facts of File Publications, New York. 259 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. Third Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth. vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.

?
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Click on the name of a family below to learn more:



Suborder Strepsirhini

*	Family Lemuridae
*	Family Cheirogaleidae
*	Family Indridae
*	Family Daubentoniidae
*	Family Galagonidae
*	Family Loridae
*	Family Megaladapidae


====
Lemuridae

lemurs

Lemurs are found only in Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. There, however, they are a diverse group of 10 species placed in 4 genera. These small to medium-sized primates are herbivorous or omnivorous, arboreal, and diurnal. Members of the group vary considerably, however, in diet and habit. Some species, are frugivorous, some eat foliage, others include some insects in their diets, and some are even specialized to feed on the leaves of bamboo. All lemurs are at least partly arboreal, but a few spend considerable time on the ground. Lemurs move through the trees both by running along branches and by leaping from vertical stems or trunks ("vertical clingers and leapers").

Some lemurs are brightly colored, with contrasting patches of black, white, brown, gray or rufous. Color patterns are sexually dimorphic in some members of the family. Lemurs have long, heavily furred tails, and slender bodies and limbs. The fur is soft and wooly. Their external ears are short or moderately long, and they are at least partially covered with fur. All species have tufts of fur on the tips of their ears. Both pollex and hallux are enlarged and opposable. Lemurs have relatively small eyes compared to other strepsirhines, and their rostrum is relatively long.

As strepsirhines, lemurs have the dental comb made up of lower incisors and canines that is typical of that group of primates. The second digit of the hind feet of most lemurs also has another general strepsirhine feature, an enlarged "toilet claw" used in grooming.

The skulls of lemurs are hard to diagnose. The cranium is usually elongate due largely to a long rostrum, but there is a good deal of variation among species. The bullae and carotid circulatory patterns are characteristic, but these characters are difficult to use. The frontal and palatine bones are in contact in the orbit. Crests for the origin of temporal muscles are not well developed. The foramen magnum is directed more-or-less downward. The dental formula is 2/2, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3 = 36. The upper first incisors are separated from each other by a wide space, and the first lower premolars are canine-like. Molars are tritubercular.

Some species of lemurs are social creatures, living in groups of up to 18 or 20 individuals. Others are usually solitary. Lemurs use scents from a variety of sources for marking their territories and each other, including urine and arm and anal glands.

The fossil record of lemurs extends to the Eocene.

Technical characters

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Species in the Animal Diversity Web:


  Eulemur coronatus -t- 
  Eulemur fulvus -ta- 
  Eulemur macaco (Black Lemur) -t- 
  Eulemur mongoz (Mongoose Lemur) -t- 
  Hapalemur aureus (Golden Bamboo Lemur) -t- 
  Hapalemur griseus (Gray Gentle Lemur) -t- 
  Lemur catta (Ring Tailed Lemur) -pt- 
  Varecia variegata (Ruffed Lemur) -pt- 

===

Cheirogaleidae

dwarf lemurs, mouse lemurs

The Cheirogaleidae is a small family of small (60 g to around 1 kg), mouse-like strepsirhines, sometimes considered to be a subfamily of the Lemuridae (although affinities with the lorids have also been suggested). Its members (4 genera and 7 species) are found only in Madagascar. They are omnivorous, feeding mostly on insects and fruit. They forage at night and are excellent leapers and climbers. Generally they live solitarily or in pairs.

In addition to being small, cheirogaleids are characterized by a an unusually long tail, ranging from about the length of the body to roughly half again as long; thin and membranous ears; and well developed facial and carpal vibrissae. Their hind foot has an elongated calcaneus and navicular. As with other strepsirhines, they have a distinctive "toilet claw" on the second digit of their hind feet. Their thumb (pollex) is not as conspicuously separated from the other digits as in lemurs; and the third and fourth digits of both feet are similar in length.

Cranially, cheirogaleids are defined by details of their cranial circulation and bullae. The frontal and palatal bones contact the orbit in most cheirogaleids. They have the typical strepsirhine tooth comb made up of lower incisors and canines, and their dental formula is 2/2, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3 = 36. In contrast to lemurs, their upper incisors are elongate. Hypocones are small are absent on the upper molars.

Cheirogaleids have no fossil record. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Species included in database:


  Subfamily Cheirogaleinae 
  Subfamily Phanerinae 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound clips. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Groves, C. P. 1989. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution. Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford. xii+375 pp.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fourth edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, London.

Szalay, F. S., and E. Dodson. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates. Academic Press, New York. xiv+580 pp.

Thorington, R. W., Jr., and S. Anderson. 1984. Primates. Pp. 187-216 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.?
=====

Indridae

indrisoids, avahis, sifakas, indris

The name of this family is usually spelled Indriidae; here, we follow Wilson and Reeder (1991) and sources cited therein in the spelling Indridae, and in using using the generic name Avahi rather than Lichanotus.

This small family of 3 genera and 5 species is restricted to Madagascar. Despite relatively few species, the Indridae are a diverse lot, ranging in body length from only about 300 mm in body length (excluding the tail) to almost a meter, and from around 1 kg weight to 10 kg (the largest strepsirhine). The tails of sifakis and avahis (Propithecus and Avahi) are relatively long, while that of indris (Indri) is merely a stump. The face of sifakis and avahis is much shortened compared to lemurs, while that of the indri is nearly as long. The external ears of indrids are small and buried in their fur. The pelage ranges in texture among species from woolly to silky, and coloration varies considerably.

All species are vertical clingers and leapers. Their hind limbs are about 1/3 longer than their forelimbs; their hands are long, slender, and strong; and they have nails on all digits of their forelimbs. Their hind feet are very large but also narrow, and their hallux is well developed and opposable. Hind toes 2-5 are connected at the base by a web of skin, which causes them to be used as a unit against the hallux. Indrids have a curious fold of skin that runs from their chests to their arms, which may represent a vestigial gliding membrane.

Indrids have a globular braincase. The bullae overgrows and incorporates the tympanic ring. The two dentaries are joined by a long and oblique symphysis, and each is characterized by an enlarged angular process. Their dental formula is 2/1, 1/1, 2/2, 3/3 = 30, and the toothcomb includes 4 lower teeth (incisors and canines) rather than the usual 6 of most strepsirhines. The upper incisors are enlarged, the upper canine is elongate, and the first lower premolar is canine-like.

Indrids are strict vegetarians. They feed on leaves, fruits, bark, and flowers. Their stomachs are simple but large, their intestinal tracts are unusually long (in part due to an elongated caecum), and they have especially well developed salivary glands (apparently an adaptation to feeding on leaves, also seen in leaf-eating cercopithecid monkeys).

Avahis are nocturnal, sifakis and indris are diurnal. Avahis and indris are found usually in smaller groups of 2-5; sifakis often congregate in larger groups of around 10 individuals. Groups of indris communicate with mournful and distinctive howls. Scent marking and facial expressions are also important to these species.

The fossil record of indrids extends only to the Pleistocene.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Species included in the Animal Diversity Web:



Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound clips. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------



Literature and references cited

Groves, C. P. 1989. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution. Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford. xii+375 pp.

Napier, J. R., and P. H. Napier. 1985. The Natural History of Primates. British Museum (Natural History), London. 200pp.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fourth edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, London.

Szalay, F. S., and E. Dodson. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates. Academic Press, New York. xiv+580 pp.

Thorington, R. W., Jr., and S. Anderson. 1984. Primates. Pp. 187-216 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. 3rd Edition. Saunders College Publishing.vii+576 pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.?
====

Daubentoniidae

aye-aye

This family contains a single species, the highly distinctive aye-aye. These animals are around 400 mm long excluding the bushy tail, which more than doubles the body length. The fur is long, woolly, and dark brown in color. The combination of bushy tail and woolly fur gives the animal a sort of unkempt, shaggy appearance. Aye-ayes have large, naked, mobile ears, a muzzle that is shorter than that of most lemurs but longer than lorises, and large eyes with yellowish brown irises.

The forefeet of aye-ayes are unique. All foretoes are long and thin, but the third is extraordinarily so due to an especially elongated metacarpal. It and all other toes except the hallux bear claws; the hallux has a nail.

Aye-ayes also have an unmistakeable skull and teeth. Unlike all other strepsirhines, they lack a toothcomb. The adult dental formula is 1/1, 0/0, 1/0, 3/3 = 18 (the deciduous dentition includes extra upper and lower incisors, premolars, and an upper canine). The adult incisors are tremendously enlarged and evergrowing. Only their anterior surface bears enamel, so they self-sharpen as they wear in the same manner as rodent incisors. Posterior to the incisors is a diastema. The cheekteeth are flattened and have indistinct cusps. The skulls are rounded and the facial region is reduced. An interparietal is present. The postorbital bar is complete, and the foramen magnum is shifted well beneath the skull. The bullae are large and enclose the tympanic ring. The dentary is also distinctively shaped, broad, with a relatively small coronoid process but a large articular process and condyle. The condyle is shifted ventrally relative to the dentary toothrow.

Aye-ayes eat insect larvae, which they retrieve from bark and wood by gnawing holes with their rodent-like incisors, then hooking the larvae out with their enlarged third forefingers. They locate wood-boring larvae by tapping on branches with the third finger and listening for movement. They also feed on fruit, eggs, and bamboo shoots.

These animals are quadrupedal. They do not use the "vertical clinging and leaping" style of locomotion common to many other strepsirhines. Little is known about their social behavior; aye-ayes are usually seen singly or in pairs. They occasionally emit brief cries but are usually silent.

The fossil record of aye-ayes extends to the Pleistocene.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Species included in the Animal Diversity Web:


  Daubentonia madagascariensis (Aye-Aye) -t- 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound clips. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Groves, C. P. 1989. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution. Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford. xii+375 pp.

Napier, J. R., and P. H. Napier. 1985. The Natural History of Primates. British Museum (Natural History), London. 200pp.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fourth edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, London.

Szalay, F. S., and E. Dodson. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates. Academic Press, New York. xiv+580 pp.

Thorington, R. W., Jr., and S. Anderson. 1984. Primates. Pp. 187-216 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. 3rd Edition. Saunders College Publishing.vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.?

====

Galagonidae

galagos, bushbabies

These African primates are small, quick animals that are still relatively common in many areas. The family contains 4 genera and 11 species. It is often associated with -- and sometimes included as a subfamily within -- the Loridae (which, to make matters more confusing, is also sometimes known as the Lorisidae).

Galagos have long hindlegs (noticeably longer than their forelimbs) and a long tail. Their bodies are lightly built compared to the heavier lorids. The ears are large and mobile. Their fingers are well developed but more slender than in lorids. They have terminal disk-pads, and the pollux (thumb) is not opposable. In contrast to lorids, galagos do not have retia mirabilia in their hind limbs. As in most other strepsirhines, their hind feet include a modified "toilet claw." Galagos move rapidly through the trees, leaping from branch to branch (up to 12 meters!). This also contrasts with lorids, which move slowly and rarely leap.

The smallest member of this family, the dwarf bushbaby, weighs only around 60 g, while the largest, the thick-tailed bushbaby, may weigh up to around 1.2 kg. Their fur is soft and wooly, darker on the dorsal surface than the ventral, and ranging from gray to brown.

The skulls of galagos are lightly built with a globular braincase and without strongly developed temporal ridges. The facial region is reduced. The orbits are directed more to the sides than in lorids. Their postorbital processes and zygomatic arches are slender, and the bullae are considerably inflated. Unlike lorids, the zygomatic branch of the squamosal lies entirely anterior to the external auditory meatus; and the palate usually ends behind the second rather than the third upper molar.

As in the case of most other strepsirhines, galagos have a toothcomb made up of lower incisors and canines. Their molars are similar to those of lorids. The dental formula of bushbabies is 2/2, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3 = 36.

Male galagos have a baculum, a structure that male lorids lack.

Galago species vary in food habits from being highly insectivorous to eating leaves, fruit, or gums secreted by trees. Some forage low in undergrowth; others are seen mainly in the canopy. The hands and feet of some species appear to be specialized for grasping small twigs and branches, but one species (Galago elegantulus) climbs mostly on large branches and the trunks of trees. Most of their activity is nocturnal; during the day, they can be found in thick vegetation or hollow trees.

As far as is known, bushbabies live in small groups of 7 to 9 individuals, but only a few species have been studied. Scent, vocalizations, and facial expressions all play a role in social communication.

Technical characters

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Species in database:


  Galago alleni (Allen's Bush Baby) -t- 
  Galago moholi (Lesser Bushbaby) -t- 
  Galago senegalensis (Lesser Bush Baby) -pt- 
  Otolemur crassicaudatus (Thick-Tailed Galago Or Bushbaby) -ta- 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound clips. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Groves, C. P. 1989. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution. Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford. xii+375 pp.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fourth edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, London.

Szalay, F. S., and E. Dodson. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates. Academic Press, New York. xiv+580 pp.

Thorington, R. W., Jr., and S. Anderson. 1984. Primates. Pp. 187-216 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.?
=======

Loridae

lorises, slow lorises, pottos, angwantibos

Lorises and pottos are small (85 g - 1.5 kg), arboreal primates of Africa and Asia. Six species placed in 4 genera make up the family (which is also known as the Lorisidae). They are small animals, stealthily stalking insects or seeking fruit at night and spending the day in hollow trees or clinging to branches. Lorids climb with deliberate, hand-over-hand movements, never leaping between branches. While their actions are usually slow and deliberate, they are capable of moving rapidly if necessary. The hands and feet of lorids are capable of powerful grasping, and these animals travel along the underside of branches as easily as along the top. Their tails are very short, seemingly absent in some species.

Lorids have thick, wooly pelage, darker on the back than the venter. Their eyes are large and directed forward.

Lorids are probably closely related to the the Galagonidae, and sometimes that family is considered to be a subfamily within the Loridae. Here, we follow current practise and record them as separate.

Lorids have strongly constructed skulls with well-defined temporal ridges. The braincase is rounded and the anterior (rostral) parts of the skull reduced. Their orbits are directed forward. Postorbital processes are present and wide, and the zygomatic arches are broad. The bullae are only moderately inflated, and the external auditory meatus is continuous with the zygomatic branch of the squamosal. The palate ends behind the last molar.

The teeth of lorids are diverse and variously specialized. As in other strepsirrhines, the lower incisors and canines form a comb-like structure. The most anterior lower premolars are canine-like. Upper canines are long and well-developed, and the molars have three or four cusps. The dental formula is 2/2, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3 = 36.

The postcranial anatomy of lorids is also rather highly specialized. Their wrists appear modified for "armswinging" locomotion, similar to hominoids. Fore and hind limbs are approximately equal in length. On the feet, the hallux and pollex are well developed and strongly opposed to the remaining digits, more so than in the related galagos. All digits have nails except the second of the hind foot, which has a typical strepsirrhine "toilet claw." The arterial and venous circulation of the arms and legs is much subdivided to form networks of intertwining vessels (retia mirabilia), which facilitate the exchange of oxygen and waste materials and help the muscles remain contracted over long periods.

The fossil record of the lorids extends back to the Early Miocene.

Technical characters

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Species included in database:


  Loris tardigradus (Slender Loris) -t- 
  Nycticebus coucang (Slow Loris) -pta- 
  Nycticebus pygmaeus -t- 
  Perodicticus potto (Potto) -pt- 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound clips. 

------------------------------------------------------------------------



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Groves, C. P. 1989. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution. Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford. xii+375 pp.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fourth edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, London.

Szalay, F. S., and E. Dodson. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates. Academic Press, New York. xiv+580 pp.

Thorington, R. W., Jr., and S. Anderson. 1984. Primates. Pp. 187-216 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.?

===





=====
Suborder Haplorhini

*	Family Tarsiidae
*	Family Cebidae
*	Family Cercopithecidae
*	Family Callitrichidae
*	Family Hylobatidae
*	Family Hominidae

=====


Megaladapidae

sportive lemurs or weasel lemurs

Until recently, the sportive lemurs, the only living members of this family, were placed in the lemur family (Lemuridae). Recent research has suggested, however, a close relationship to the extinct giant lemur genus Megaladapis, which is in a separate family, the Megaladapidae. Seven living species are included in 1 genus, Lepilemur, which is found only in Madagascar.

Megaladapis was a very large and unusual animal, weighing 40-80 kg and with a highly elongate skull, more like a pig than any primate. The foramen magnum was rotated back onto the posterior surface of the skull, rotating the head so that it faced forward when the animal stood on four feet. Megaladapis probably fed on leaves; its upper incisors were replaced by a horny pad as in some ungulate herbivores. It may also have had a mobile snout. Zygomatic arches were massive, the braincase was small, and the auditory bullae were flat. Its hands and feet were extraordinarily long, but its legs were relatively short. This suggests it was probably a good climber, but not good at the vertical clinging and leaping style of locomotion common among strepsirhines. It has been suggested that its style of feeding and locomotion was similar to that of a koala.

Superficially, sportive lemurs appear very unlike Megaladapis. They are small to medium sized, weighing 500 - 900 gms. Most are brown or gray dorsally and whitish ventrally. The have relatively short, pointed heads with large rounded ears. Unlike Megaladapis, their feet are only slightly elongated. Their hind limbs are especially long and powerful, and they are adept vertical clingers-and-leapers. Sportive lemurs feed mostly on leaves, also including some flowers, fruit, and bark in their diets. They are basically solitary in their habits, but their densities can be surprisingly high. Males have larger territories than females, and the territory of a male overlaps that of several females. Members of the same sex defend territories against one another, using vocalizations, chases, and even fighting to drive trespassers out. Despite their densities in some areas, sportive lemurs are endangered. 

The primary threats to sportive lemurs come from habitat loss and hunting.
?
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Literature and references cited



Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Groves, C. P. 1989. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution. Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford. xii+375 pp.

Mittermeier, R. A., I. Tattersall, W. R. Constant, D. M. Meyers, and R. B. Mast. 1994. Lemurs of Madagascar. Conservation International, Washington, D.C.

Napier, J. R., and P. H. Napier. 1985. The Natural History of Primates. British Museum (Natural History), London. 200pp.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fourth edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, London.

Szalay, F. S., and E. Dodson. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates. Academic Press, New York. xiv+580 pp.

Thorington, R. W., Jr., and S. Anderson. 1984. Primates. Pp. 187-216 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. 3rd Edition. Saunders College Publishing.vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.?

=============NNNNNNNNN


Suborder Haplorhini

*	Family Tarsiidae
*	Family Cebidae
*	Family Cercopithecidae
*	Family Callitrichidae
*	Family Hylobatidae
*	Family Hominidae

===

Tarsiidae

tarsiers

The family Tarsiidae contains one genus and five species. Tarsiers are found in the islands of southeastern Asia, including Borneo, Sumatra, some East Indian islands and some Philippine islands.

They are species of secondary forest.

Tarsiers are small haplorhine primates, weighing 80-150g. Their fur is silky and buff, grayish brown, or dark brown on the back and grayish or buffy on the underside. They have round heads and remarkably large eyes that are directed forward. Their ears are nearly hairless and seemingly membranous in texture. Their muzzle is short, and they seem to have almost no neck (although they are capable of turning their head over 180 degrees!). Like all haplorhines, tarsiers have hairs on their nose pads. Their forelimbs are short and their hindlimbs elongated. They are unique among mammals in that the elongation of their hindlimbs is the result of lengthening of the tarsals (especially the calcaneum and navicular) rather than the metatarsals. The digits are long and tipped with soft, rounded toe pads. The pollex is not opposable, but the hallux is. All digits have flattened nails except the second and third hind toes, which have claw-like nails used for grooming. The tail is naked except for a few hairs at the tip.

The skulls of tarsiers are unmistakeable due to the huge, forward-directed orbits. These have expanded rims and are separated by a thin interorbital septum. The dental formula is 2/1, 1/1, 3/3, 3/3 = 34. The upper medial incisors are large and pointed; the upper canines are small; and the upper molars are tritubercular.

Tarsiers are species of secondary forest. They are active at night and highly arboreal. During the day, they sleep in dense vegetation, usually on a vertical branch; occasionally, they use a hollow tree. They feed on insects and small vertebrates, which they capture by leaping on their prey and grabbing it with their hands.

Tarsiers are usually found in family groups or by themselves. Family groups are based on a stable pair bond. They are not sexually dimorphic.

The family has no fossil record.

Technical characters

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Species included in database:


  Tarsius bancanus (Western Tarsier) -pt- 
  Tarsius pumilus -t- 
  Tarsius spectrum (Spectral Tarsier, Celebes, Sulawesi Tarsier) -t- 
  Tarsius syrichta (Philippine Tarsier) -ta- 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound clips. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Groves, C. P. 1989. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution. Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford. xii+375 pp.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fourth edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, London.

Szalay, F. S., and E. Dodson. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates. Academic Press, New York. xiv+580 pp.

Thorington, R. W., Jr., and S. Anderson. 1984. Primates. Pp. 187-216 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. 3rd Edition. Saunders College Publishing.vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.?

====

Cebidae

cebids, including capuchin monkeys, howlers, wooly monkeys, squirrel monkeys, night monkeys, titis, uakaris, and others

The family Cebidae contains 11 genera 58 species (following most recent authors, we exclude the marmosets and tamarins and place them in their own family, the Callitrichidae). Cebids are a strictly American group, currently found from southern Mexico south to northern Argentina. They have been in South America since at least the early Oligocene, when they probably arrived via overwater rafting from Africa.

Externally, cebids are characterized by long limbs, digits with curved nails (not claws), pollex not opposable and in some cases small or absent, in contrast to a hallux that is large and strongly opposable. These monkeys range in size from small (275g) to moderately large (10kg). They have long and well-furred tails. In some species the tails are prehensile, lacking fur on the underside at the tip and covered with soft, pliable skin. These monkeys are able to use their tails as an "extra arm," hanging by it while they feed or groom with their fore or hind limbs. Cebids lack the ischial callosities that are so prominent in the African cercopithecids. They also lack cheek pouches. Their pelage is usually brown, gray, or reddish; a few species have striking markings, especially on the head.

The skulls of cebids appear globular due to their high braincase and short rostrum. The orbits face forward, corresponding to a high degree of binocular vision. Their bullae lack any bony tube surrounding the auditory meatus. Cebids and related callitrichids are "platyrrhine," meaning that their nostrils are separated by broad internarial pad and face to the side. This contrasts with the catarrhine condition of cercopithecids.

The dental formula of cebids is 2/2 1/1 3/3 3/3 = 36. The presence of a third premolar is a primitive character compared to cercopithecids. The molars have a depression that separates the labial cusps from the lingual ones, which appears to run continuously from tooth to tooth along the toothrow. Cebids also lack a hypoconulid on lower M3; this feature is believed to be a derived condition (synapomorphy).

These monkeys are mostly diurnal, but members of one genus, Aotus, are active primarily at night. Most cebids dwell in tropical forests, where they confine almost all of their activity to the canopy or at least well above the forest floor. Cebids are basically omnivorous, feeding most heavily on fruit and insects, but also taking meat when they can get it. One genus, Alouatta, is folivorous.

These are extremely active, intelligent animals with fantastic climbing ability. Most are vocal to some extent, and many are gregarious, with the social unit usually a family group.

Technical characters 1

Technical characters 2

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Species included in the Animal Diversity Web:


  Subfamily Alouattinae 
  Subfamily Aotinae 
  Subfamily Atelinae 
  Subfamily Callicebinae 
  Subfamily Cebinae 
  Subfamily Pitheciinae 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound clips. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Groves, C. P. 1989. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution. Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford. xii+375 pp.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fourth edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, London.

Szalay, F. S., and E. Dodson. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates. Academic Press, New York. xiv+580 pp.

Thorington, R. W., Jr., and S. Anderson. 1984. Primates. Pp. 187-216 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. 3rd Edition. Saunders College Publishing.vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.?

====

Cercopithecidae

Old World monkeys and baboons, including macaques, rhesus, mangabeys, mandrills, guenons, patas monkeys, langurs, proboscis monkeys, colubus, and many others

The family Cercopithecidae includes 18 genera and 81 species. These monkeys are widely distributed in the Old World from southern Europe (Gibraltar) into NW Africa; throughout Africa south of the Sahara; and through central and SE Asia, including southern China and most of Japan. Some cercopithecids show greater tolerance for cold than any other non-human primates; one macaque inhabits the cold and snowy regions of northern Japan. The earliest records of cercopithecids are from the Oligocene of Egypt. All fossil records are from the Old World, matching the distribution of modern species. Some extinct species were huge; one nearly reached the size (but not the robustness) of a gorilla.

Cercopithecids are divided into two ecologically and morphologically distinct subfamilies. The cercopithecines are omnivorous, have cheek pouches, and simple stomachs; while the colobines are folivorous, lack cheek pouches, and have complex stomachs.

Cercopithecids are medium to large size, ranging from around 1.5kg to over 50 kg. Many have a stocky build. Their nostrils are close together and face downward, a condition known as catarrhine. The forelimbs generally are shorter than the hindlimbs. All digits have nails; these are flat, not curved as in cebids. The pollex and hallux are opposable except the genus Colobus, in which the pollex is nearly absent. The palms and soles are naked. A tail is present and may be long or vestigial, but it is never fully prehensile as in many cebids. Many cercopithecids have ischial callosities, brightly colored patches of skin on their rumps. These are used in dominance and sexual displays. The facial muscles or cercopithecids are well developed, and facial expressions play an important role in social behavior. The fur of these monkeys is usually gray or brown, but some are brightly marked. The fur is never wooly and rarely silky.

Cranially, cercopithecids have a robust and heavily ridged skull compared to cebids, and the rostrum of some species (baboons) is rather long. The palate is long and concave, extending beyond last molar. The bullae are small but a bony eustachian tube is present (formed from the ectotympanic). The dental formula is 2/2, 1/1, 2/2, 3/3 = 32. The medial incisors are often broad and spoon-shaped; the upper canines are usually large and separated from incisors by a small diastema; the first lower premolar is enlarged and its edge shears against the sharp posterior edge of upper canine; the molars quadrate and bilophodont. On the lower molars, a hypoconulid is present.

Cercopithecids are almost exclusively diurnal. They exhibit a great variety of social behavior. Most can be found in groups of varying size, and interactions among individuals may be complex. The basic unit seems to be a family group, but sometimes much larger bands form. Most cercopithecids are arboreal, but baboons are primarily terrestrial.

Many cercopithecids show pronounced sexual dimorphism. This may be in body size (males are up to twice the weight of females in some species), color, or in the degree of development of the canines.

Technical characters 1

Technical characters 2

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Species included in database:


  Subfamily Cercopithecinae 
  Subfamily Colobinae 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound clips. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Groves, C. P. 1989. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution. Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford. xii+375 pp.

Nowak, Ronald M., 1994. Walker's Bats of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Szalay, F. S., and E. Delson. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates. Academic Press, New York. xiv+580 pp.

Thorington, R. W., Jr., and S. Anderson. 1984. Primates. Pp. 187-216 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. 3rd Edition. Saunders College Publishing.vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.?
====

Callitrichidae

marmosets, tamarins

This family, containing 5 genera and 26 species, is found only in the tropical forests of Central and South America. It includes the marmosets and tamarins.

Marmosets and tamarins are among the smallest primates, with head and body lengths as small as 130 mm and tails of 150 mm. Adults of the pygmy marmoset weigh a mere 100 grams! The face is very sparsely furred or naked. The pelage is soft and silky, and often includes characteristic tufts of hair on the head. Coloration is variable and in some cases quite striking to the human eye. Unlike many other New World primates, marmosets do not have a prehensile tail.

In form, callitrichids resemble other primates that cling vertically to trees. The forelimbs are shorter than the hind limbs, but most locomotion is quadrupedal. The hands and feet resemble those of squirrels. The thumb and big toe are not opposable. The surfaces of the hands and feet are long relative to the digits. Additionally, all of the digits except the hallux have sharp claws, not the flattened nails found in many other primates. Callitrichids use these claws to dig into the bark of trees.

Marmosets generally have triangular upper molars, and they lack the third molar found in cebids. Their dental formula is 2/2, 1/1, 3/3, 2/2 = 32. Otherwise, the skull of callitrichids resembles that of a small cebid or cercopithecid, with a large braincase, short rostrum, and large, forward-directed orbits.

Callitrichids are diurnal and live in family groups. The general pattern of association between males and females is monogamy or polyandry, a mating system where one female has more than one mate. Females produce one to three young annually. Young are often carried on the parents' backs. In species where twins are produced, the male often carries the young while the mother forages, transferring them back to their mother only long enough for the offspring to nurse. In the saddle-backed tamarin, a species where polyandry occurs, a female associates with two males only temporarily. When the young from the first litter mature and are able to help carry their siblings, the "extra" adult male is expelled from the social group.

Like most small primates, members of this family are primarily insectivorous, although small birds, fruits and seeds, and even gum or sap may be eaten at times.

Technical characters 1

Technical characters 2

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Species included in database:


  Callimico goeldii -t- 
  Callithrix argentata (Silvery Marmoset) -ta- 
  Callithrix aurita -t- 
  Callithrix jacchus -t- 
  Callithrix pygmaea (Pygmy Marmoset) -t- 
  Leontopithecus chrysomela -t- 
  Leontopithecus rosalia (Golden Lion Tamarin) -t- 
  Saguinus fuscicollis (Saddle-Backed Tamarins) -t- 
  Saguinus geoffroyi -t- 
  Saguinus imperator (Emperor Tamarin) -pt- 
  Saguinus labiatus (Red-Chested Moustached Tamarin) -t- 
  Saguinus midas (Red-Footed Tamarin) -ta- 
  Saguinus mystax -t- 
  Saguinus oedipus (Cotton-Top Tamarin) -pt- 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound clips. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Groves, C. P. 1989. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution. Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford. xii+375 pp.

Napier, J.R. and P.H. Napier. 1985. The Natural History of the Primates. The MIT Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fourth edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, London.

Szalay, F. S., and E. Dodson. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates. Academic Press, New York. xiv+580 pp.

Thorington, R. W., Jr., and S. Anderson. 1984. Primates. Pp. 187-216 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.?

===

Hylobatidae

gibbons and siamangs

This family contains 1 genus, Hylobates, and approximately 11 species (some authorities recognize a second genus, Symphalangus) . They are found only in the tropical forests of southeastern Asia, including on Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and other islands as well as the mainland. These apes are of medium size (3.9-12.7 kg). They lack tails. Their forearms are remarkably long, and both forefeet and hindfeet are long and thin. The forefeet have a deep cleft between first and second digits. The pelage of these apes is usually black, gray, or brownish, often with white markings on hands, feet, and facial region. Ischial callosities are present. Some gibbons and siamangs have an enlarged throat sac, which inflates and serves as a resonating chamber when the animals call. This structure is enormous in a few species, equalling the size of the animal's head.

The skulls of hylobatids resemble those of hominids, with very short rostra, enlarged braincases, and large orbits that face forward.

Hylobatds are catarrhine primates; that is, their nostrils are close together and face forward and slightly downward. They lack cheek pouches and their stomach is not sacculated. Their teeth are similar to those of hominids. The molars are bunodont and lack lophs. The upper molars usually have a cingulum, which is sometimes large. The canines are prominent (more so than in most hominids) but not sexually dimorphic. The dental formula is 2/2, 1/1, 2/2, 3/3 = 32.

Gibbons and siamangs are monogamous, living in small family troops of usually 2-6 related individuals. These groups are territorial, maintaining their territories partly by conspicuous vocalization, which may involve loud duetting by group members. They are primarily vegetarian, feeding on figs and other fruit, leaves and shoots. They are remarkably active and agile brachiators, capable of exceeding 3m in a swing. Gibbons leap from branch to branch, sometimes travelling more than 9 m in a single leap. They also sometimes walk on large branches or on ground, assuming a bipedal stance with their arms raised for balance. Gibbons are active during the day.

Fossil hylobatids are known from the Miocene.

Technical characters

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Species included in the Animal Diversity Web:


  Hylobates agilis -t- 
  Hylobates concolor -t- 
  Hylobates hoolock (Hoolock Gibbon) -t- 
  Hylobates lar (White-Handed Gibbon, Lar Gibbon) -t- 
  Hylobates moloch -t- 
  Hylobates muelleri (Gray Gibbon) -t- 
  Hylobates pileatus (Pileated Gibbon) -t- 
  Hylobates sp. -a- 
  Hylobates syndactylus (Siamang, Great Gibbon) -t- 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound clips. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Groves, C. P. 1989. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution. Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford. xii+375 pp.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fourth edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, London.

Szalay, F. S., and E. Dodson. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates. Academic Press, New York. xiv+580 pp.

Thorington, R. W., Jr., and S. Anderson. 1984. Primates. Pp. 187-216 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.?

=====

Hominidae

chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, humans

Until recently, most classifications included only humans in this family; other apes were put in the family Pongidae (from which the gibbons were sometimes separated as the Hylobatidae). The evidence linking humans to gorillas and chimps has grown dramatically in the past two decades, especially with increased use of molecular techniques. It now appears that chimps, gorillas, and humans form a clade of closely related species; orangutans are slightly less close phylogenetically, and gibbons are a more distant branch. Here we follow a classification reflecting those relationships. Chimps, gorillas, humans, and orangutans make up the family Hominidae; gibbons are separated as the closely related Hylobatidae.

Thus constituted, the Hominidae includes 4 genera and 5 species. Its nonhuman members are restricted to equatorial Africa, Sumatra and Borneo. Hominid fossils date to the Miocene and are known from Africa and Asia.

Hominids range in weight from 48 kg to 270 kg. Males are larger than females. Hominids are the largest primates, with robust bodies and well-developed forearms. Their pollex and hallux are opposable except in humans, who have lost opposability of the big toe. All digits have flattened nails. No hominid has a tail, and none has ischial callosities. Numerous skeletal differences between hominids and other primates are related to their upright or semi-upright stance.

All members of this family have large braincase. Most have a prominent face and prognathous jaw; again, humans are exceptional. All are catarrhine, with nostrils close together and facing forward and downward. The dental formula is the same for all members of the group: 2/2, 1/1, 2/2, 3/3 = 32. Hominids have broad incisors and their canines are never developed into tusks. The upper molars are quadrate and bunodont; the lowers are bunodont and possess a hypoconulid. The uppers lack lophs connecting labial and lingual cusps and thus, in contrast to cercopithecids, are not bilophodont.

Hominids are omnivorous, primarily frugivorous or folivorous. All but humans are good climbers, but only the orangutan is really arboreal.

Members of this family are well-known for the complexity of their social behavior. Facial expression and complex vocalizations play an important role in the behavior of hominids. All make and use nests. Hominids generally give birth to a single young, and the period of parental care is extended.

Technical characters

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Species included in database:


  Gorilla gorilla -t- 
  Gorilla gorilla beringei (Mountain Gorilla) -t- 
  Gorilla gorilla gorilla (Western Lowland Gorilla) -pta- 
  Homo sapiens -a- 
  Pan paniscus (Bonobo Or Pygmy Chimpanzee) -t- 
  Pan troglodytes (Chimpanzee) -pta- 
  Pongo pygmaeus (Orangutan) -pta- 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound clips. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Groves, C. P. 1989. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution. Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, Oxford. xii+375 pp.

Nowak, R.M. and J.L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World, Fourth edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, London.

Szalay, F. S., and E. Dodson. 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates. Academic Press, New York. xiv+580 pp.

Thorington, R. W., Jr., and S. Anderson. 1984. Primates. Pp. 187-216 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. 3rd Edition. Saunders College Publishing.vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.?