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Thompson's Gazelle




http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/chordata/mammalia/carnivora


Superfamily Canoidea

    Family Canidae 
    Family Ursidae 
    Family Otariidae 
    Family Odobenidae 
    Family Procyonidae 
    Family Mustelidae 
    Family Phocidae 


Superfamily Feloidea

    Family Viverridae 
    Family Herpestidae 
    Family Hyaenidae 
    Family Felidae 


=====

Family Canidae 
       Family Ursidae 
       Family Otariidae 
       Family Odobenidae 
       Family Procyonidae 
       Family Mustelidae 
       Family Phocidae 


Canidae

(Canines)

This family is represented by 14 genera and 34 species. Canids are widely distributed, occurring on all continents except Antarctica. It is
the only member of the Order Carnivora that it represented in Australia (Canis familiaris dingo, the dingo; this species is thought to have
been introduced by humans during prehistoric times). Fossil records of the Canidae date back to the Oligocene and the Miocene, making
them one of the oldest extant groups of carnivores. Canids are probably an early offshoot of the caniform lineage (which includes
mustelids, procyonids, ursids, phocids, otariids, and odobenids).

Primarily medium-sized flesh eaters, canids are more omnivorous than many carnivores, taking as food invertebrates, plant matter, and
carrion as well as the prey they kill themselves. They are adapted more for endurance than for speed, and they catch prey by pursuit over
long distances in relatively open terrain until the prey tires. Kills are made by grabbing for the nape of neck and tackling the prey to the
ground. The neck grab is followed by a violent shake, which may dislocate the neck of the prey. Large prey may be immobilized by biting
into the soft parts of the underbelly, often resulting in disembowelment and death from shock. Sense of smell is acute and appears to be
critical to these animals, as is hearing, but sight is less developed. Canids have deep-chested bodies and a long muzzle.

The legs and feet of canids are moderately elongated, and their stance is digitigrade. Usually, five toes are found on the forefeet and four
on the hindfeet (one genus, Lycaon, has only 4 toes on the forefeet). The metapodials are long but not fused. Unlike the Felidae, canids
have non-retractile claws. This means that they are worn down by activity and are not the specialized weapons found in some other
carnivores. All male canids have a well-developed baculum.

The skulls of canids have an elongated facial region. An alisphenoid canal is present, and the paroccipital processes are long.

Canids have nearly a full set of teeth with the following dental formula: 3/3, 1/1, 4/4, 1-2/2-3 = 38-42 (members of the genus Otocyon
sometimes have additional molars). Canine teeth are large but unspecialized. Molars are of the crushing type. The carnassial pair is
strongly built.

Some species (generally ones with larger body sizes) form packs with strict social hierarchies and mating systems. Hunting in packs
allows canids to capture species much larger than themselves. In wolves, mating occurs only between the two dominant individuals in the
pack. Pack-forming species, as well as less gregarious species such as foxes, are very territorial. Territory marking occurs in many species
through repeated urination on objects on the periphery and within territories. Other scent glands are also important in the social behavior
of these species; these include anal glands and glands on the dorsal surface of the tail near the base.

Many species are viewed as pests to humans, and populations of many species have been decimated. Coyotes and wolves are both
persecuted by ranchers, who blame them for losses to sheep and cattle herds. Other species have been targeted as carriers of rabies (many
of the foxes) and likewise have been the target of hunting. Some foxes are valued for their pelts, which have been used in the fashion
industry. The domestic dog (C. lupus familiaris) has been domesticated for thousand of years and has been useful to humans in many
ways, such as transport, guarding of livestock, and protection, although many are used primarily for companionship.

Four species of wild canids can be found in Michigan. Their crania can easily be distinguished in both dorsal and ventral views.

Technical characters:


Species included in the Animal Diversity Web:

      Alopex lagopus (Arctic Fox) -pt- 
      Atelocynus microtis (Small-Eared Dog) -t- 
      Canis adustus -t- 
      Canis aureus (Golden Jackal, Common Jackal) -t- 
      Canis latrans (Coyote) -ptas- 
      Canis lupus -t- 
      Canis lupus dingo (Dingo) -t- 
      Canis lupus familiaris (Dog) -pt- 
      Canis lupus lycaon (Gray Wolf) -ptas- 
      Canis mesomelas (Black-Backed Jackal) -t- 
      Canis rufus (Red Wolf) -pt- 
      Canis simensis (Ethiopian Wolf, Simien Jackal, Simien Fox, or Abyssinian Wolf) -t- 
      Cerdocyon thous (Common Zorro (Crab-Eating Fox)) -ta- 
      Chrysocyon brachyurus (Maned Wolf) -pt- 
      Cuon alpinus (Dhole) -t- 
      Lycaon pictus (African Hunting Dog) -pt- 
      Nyctereutes procyonoides (Raccoon Dog) -pt- 
      Otocyon megalotis (Bat-Eared Fox) -pta- 
      Pseudalopex gymnocercus -a- 
      Pseudolopex culpaeus (Culpeo Fox) -t- 
      Speothos venaticus -t- 
      Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Grey Fox) -pta- 
      Urocyon littoralis (Channel Island Fox) -t- 
      Vulpes bengalensis -a- 
      Vulpes chama -a- 
      Vulpes corsac -t- 
      Vulpes macrotis (Kit Fox) -t- 
      Vulpes pallida (African Sand Fox, Pale Fox) -t- 
      Vulpes rueppelli -a- 
      Vulpes velox (Swift Fox) -t- 
      Vulpes vulpes (Red Fox) -pta- 
      Vulpes zerda (Fennec Fox) -pt- 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound
clips. 



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB
McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Paradiso, J. L. 1975. Walker's Mammals of the World, Third Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Savage, R. J. G. and M. R. Long. 1986. Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide. Facts of File Publications, New York. 259 pp.

Stains, H. J. 1984. Carnivores. Pp. 491-521 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the
World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. Third Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth. vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.


======
Ursidae

(bears)

Nine species in 6 genera make up the bears. They are found on all continents except Australia, but they reach maximum diversity and
abundance in the northern hemisphere. In Africa, for example, they are known only from the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, and that
species is now extinct. Bears range from medium size (sun bears weigh less than 30 kg) to very large (brown bears can weigh up to 800
kg). The smallest member of the family, however, is the distinctive lesser or red panda (Ailurus fulgens), which weighs 3-5 kg. Ursids are
heavily and powerfully built. Their ears are small and rounded, their eyes are small, and they have very short tails. They have long, rough
fur, and the hairs that make it up are generally unicolored (rather than being agouti, the common pattern among mammals). Most bears
are brown, black, or white; some have white marks on the chest or face.

The feet of bears are plantigrade, and most have hairy soles (tree climbing bears such as Helarctos have naked soles). Forefeet and
hindfeet have 5 digits, and each digit ends in a strong, curved claw. The claws of bears cannot be retracted; those of lesser pandas are
semi-retractile. Males have a baculum.

The skulls of bears are elongated. They have an alisphenoid canal, and the paroccipital processes are large and not fused to the bullae,
which are not enlarged. Curiously, the lacrimal bone of bears is vestigial. Their cheekteeth are bunodont, and the carnassials are flattened
and specialized for crushing, not secodont. The incisors are unspecialized; the canines are long and slightly hooked; and the first three
premolars are small and weakly developed if present at all. The dental formula is 3/3, 1/1, 3-4/4, 2/3 = 40-42.

As their teeth suggest, bears are omnivorous, including fruit, insects, carrion, and other items besides meat in their diets. Their sense of
smell is excellent, but neither their eyesight nor hearing is especially good. Most species are solitary, shuffling relatively slowly through
their habitats in search of food and mates (but capable of moving very rapidly in a charge). Bears are able to walk bipedally. Many are
capable climbers. Most are nocturnal, but polar bears are often active during the day. Bears of some species put on considerable fat in the
fall, then den up and sleep through most of the winter. Their sleep is not true hibernation, because their body temperatures remain high,
and most body functions continue. Also, bears awaken readily if disturbed, and may be active during periods of mild weather.


=====


PINNIPEDIA; Family OTARIIDAE

                          Eared Seals, Fur Seals, and Sea Lions

                                      Geographic Distribution

This family of 7 Recent genera and 14 species occurs along the coasts of northeastern Asia, western North America, South America,
southern Africa, southern Australia, New Zealand, and many, predominantly southern, oceanic islands. The fur seals are in the genera
Callorhinus and Arctocephalus, and the sea lions are in Eumetopias, Zalophus, Otaria, Neophoca, and Phocarctos. According to
Repenning and Tedford (1977), the lineage of Callorhinus evidently separated from that of Arctocephalus in the late Miocene, while the
sea lions did not diverge from Arctocephalus until the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. Warneke and Shaughnessy (1985) suggested
that the species Arctocephalus pusillus is intermediate to the other fur seals and the sea lions. And Bonner (1984a) considered
Arctocephalus to be more closely related to the sea lions than to Callorhinus, despite its resemblance to the latter in certain characters.
These three viewpoints, along with J. E. King's (1983) arrangement of the sea lions, form the basis for the sequence of genera presented
herein. Berta and Dem*r* (1986) supported the affinity of Callorhinus and Arctocephalus and placed both in the subfamily
Arctocephalinae, while putting the sea lions in the subfamily Otariinae. They did indicate, however, that the latter is phylogenetically nearer
to the sea lions than is the former. Some other authorities, including Stains (1984), use these same subfamilial names. Hall (1981) did not
employ these terms but did regard the Odobenidae (walruses) as only a subfamily of the Otariidae and used the name Rosmarinae for this
subfamily. 

Total length in otariids is 120-350 cm and weight is about 27-1,100 kg, males always being much larger than females. Body form is
slender and elongated, and the tail is small but always distinct. External ears are present, but they are small and entirely cartilaginous. The
long, oarlike flippers bear rudimentary nails. The flippers, which are thick and cartilaginous, are thickest at the leading edge and have a
smooth, leathery surface. In both the Otariidae and the Odobenidae, the hind flippers can be turned forward to help support the body, so
that all four limbs can be used for traveling on land. Members of these two families walk or run on land in a somewhat doglike fashion. In
the Phocidae, the hind flippers cannot be moved ahead, and the animals must wiggle and hunch to travel on land. The swimming
mechanism of the Otariidae is centered near the forepart of the body, and locomotion in water is accomplished mainly by use of the
forelimbs. Phocids swim primarily by strokes of the hind flippers.

Sea lions have a blunt snout and a coat of short, coarse guard hairs covering only a small amount of underfur. Fur seals have a more
pointed snout and very thick underfur, which may be of considerable commercial value. The pelage of newborn otariids is silky, never
woolly. Adult coloration varies from yellowish or red-brown to black; there generally are no stripes or sharp markings. Females usually
have two pairs of mammae. In males the testes are scrotal and the baculum is well-developed.

The otariid skull is somewhat elongate and rounded, though rather bearlike in overall appearance. J. E. King (1983) pointed out a number
of distinguishing characters. For example, the otariid skull has supraorbital processes and only slightly inflated tympanic bullae, the
Odobenidae lack supraorbital processes and have moderately inflated bullae, and the Phocidae lack supraorbital processes and have
well-inflated bullae. The normal dental formula of the Otariidae is: (i 3/2, c 1/1, pm 4/4, m 1-2/1) ? 2 = 34-36. The first and second upper
incisors are small and divided by a deep groove into two cusps; the third (outer) upper incisor is caninelike, especially in the sea lions; the
canine teeth are large, conical, pointed, and recurved; and the premolars and molars are similar, with one main cusp. The number of upper
molars varies within and among genera. 

Eared seals inhabit arctic, temperate, and subtropical waters. Their breeding habitat is exclusively marine, never freshwater. They shelter
along sea coasts, in quiet bays, and on rocky, isolated islands. They may be active by both day and night. J. E. King (1983) explained that
like all pinnipeds, the Otariidae have acute vision and good hearing underwater and apparently depend on olfaction to distinguish
individuals. These seals protect themselves by tearing an adversary with their canine teeth, by hurling their weight against the adversary,
or by diving and swimming away. They feed mainly on fish but also eat cephalopods and crustaceans. Dominant bulls generally fast
during the breeding season.

Otariids are highly gregarious, especially during the reproductive season. The males arrive first on the breeding grounds, where dominant
individuals establish territories. The females come later. The males are polygamous and may associate with a group of over 50 females.
Mating occurs on land, soon after the females give birth to the young conceived during the previous season. The total time of pregnancy
thus lasts nearly a year, but in some species it is known to include a period of delayed implantation. There normally is a single pup, which
is cared for only by the mother. The young usually do not swim for at least two weeks; weaning occurs after 3-36 months.

The known geological range of this family is early Miocene to Recent in Pacific North America; Miocene to Recent in Europe and Asia;
Pliocene to Recent in South America; Pleistocene to Recent in Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan; and Recent in other parts of the
current range (Stains 1984).

Links to OTARIIDAE Genera

    Genus CALLORHINUS (Northern Fur Seal) 
    Genus ARCTOCEPHALUS (Southern Fur Seals) 
    Genus EUMETOPIAS (Northern Sea Lion, or Steller Sea Lion) 
    Genus ZALOPHUS (California Sea Lion) 
    Genus OTARIA (Southern Sea Lion, or South American Sea Lion) 
    Genus NEOPHOCA (Australian Sea Lion) 
    Genus PHOCARCTOS (Hooker's, New Zealand, or Auckland Sea Lion) 


========

Odobenidae

walrus

A single Recent species makes up this family, which was considerably more diverse in the past. Walruses are found in northern seas,
usually above 58 degrees latitude, but occasionally straying further south.

There's no mistaking a walrus. Males are huge (up to over 1200 kg), while females are somewhat smaller (up to over 850 kg). Their
bodies are heavy, appearing swollen. Their heads are round and they have broad muzzles, well endowed with thick vibrissae that appear
to form a moustache. They lack external ears. The skin is thick and wrinkled, with underlying blubber that may reach 15 cm in thickness.
The hide, usually brown or yellow brown in color, has scattered hairs. Walruses have large, paddle-like forelimbs, which extend about 1/4
the length of the body. Their hind limbs, like those of otariids, can be rotated under their bodies and are useful in locomotion on land. The
plantar surfaces of both limbs are roughened, probably to provide traction on ice. A large baculum is present in males. This structure,
which may exceed 60 cm in length, is said to frequently show signs of healed fractures.

The most conspicuous features of walruses are their tusks. These teeth are canines, which grow continuously and which may exceed 100
cm in length in males (60 cm in females). Enamel is present only at the tip of the tusk, and usually only for a brief time after it erupts. Most
of the exposed tooth is dentine. The dental formula is 1/0, 1/1, 3/3, 0/0 = 18, but much variation exists among individuals. The cheek teeth
are conical or flattened, perhaps specialized for crushing the mollusks and other marine invertebrates on which walruses feed.

The skulls of walruses have alisphenoid canals and enormous mastoid processes. These processes support the powerful neck muscles that
pull the head downward. Walruses lack the prominent supraorbital prcoesses seen in otariids. The occipital condyles flare widely and are
placed low along the foramen magnum. The bony eustachian tube is large. Walruses also have an unusually strongly developed symphysis
joining the lower jaws. 

Walruses are highly gregarious, forming herds of hundreds and sometimes more than 2000 individuals. They usually stay close to land or
to ice masses, and they migrate seasonally as the position of the ice pack changes. Walruses are polygamous, but copulation takes place
exclusively in the water. They are rapid, efficient swimmers and good divers, foraging at depths up to 90 m. Their senses of smell and
hearing are poorly developed, but they have excellent vision, and the vibrissae on their snouts also provide tactile information. They are
noisy animals out of water, bellowing and trumpeting, and it has been suggested that rasping and clicking noises made while swimming
may indicate some use of echolocation. 


Species included in the Animal Diversity Web:

      Odobenus rosmarus (Walrus) -pt- 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound
clips. 



Literature and references cited

Paradiso, J. L. 1975. Walker's Mammals of the World, Third Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Savage, R. J. G. and M. R. Long. 1986. Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide. Facts of File Publications, New York. 259 pp.

Stains, H. J. 1984. Carnivores. Pp. 491-521 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the
World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. Third Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth. vii+576 pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.


=======

Procyonidae

raccoons, cacomistles, coatimundis, kinkajous, olingos

The raccoon family includes 18 species in 6 genera. We follow Wilson and Reeder (1993) in placing red pandas, Ailurus, in the Ursidae
rather than in this family. Thus restricted, the Procyonidae is restricted to the New World, from southern Canada to northern Argentina.
Procyonids can be found in a wide variety of habitats, including desert, northern forests, tropical rainforest, and wetlands.

Procyonids are generally small to medium-sized animals, ranging from slightly less than 1 kg to over 20 kg in weight. Some species have
slender bodies, while others are stocky. All have medium or long tails. The pelage is gray or brown, sometimes with contrasting markings
on the face and light and dark rings around the tail. Most species have relatively short, broad faces; and short but erect ears, which may be
rounded or pointed. Forefeet and hindfeet have 5 digits, and procyonids are plantigrade, often walking with a bear-like shuffle. The claws
are short and curved. In some species they can be partially retracted. The tail of of species, the kinkajou, is prehensile, and that of coatis is
very mobile and is used for balancing during climbing. Males have a well-developed, bilobed baculum.

Procyonid skulls have relatively short rostrums (shorter than canids, longer than felids). They lack alisphenoid canals, but they have
well-developed paroccipital processes. Their incisors are unspecialized, and their canines are moderately long and ovate (not round) in
cross section. The molars are wide and at least somewhat bunodont. Most species lack secodont carnassials. The dental formula is 3/3,
1/1, 3-4/3-4, 2/2-3 = 36-42.

Procyonids are omnivorous. They consume both plant and animal material, including small mammals and birds. Some species are social,
living in family groups or bands containing a number of families. Others are solitary. All species are to some degree arboreal, often seeking
refuge in the trees when pursued by predators. Most are nocturnal, often denning in hollow trees during the day.

The Procyonidae is a member of the canoid subgroup of carnivores. Their geologic history is old, going back to the late Eocene.

Technical characters


Species included in the Animal Diversity Web:

      Subfamily Potosinae 
      Subfamily Procyoninae 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound
clips. 





Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB
McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Paradiso, J. L. 1975. Walker's Mammals of the World, Third Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Savage, R. J. G. and M. R. Long. 1986. Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide. Facts of File Publications, New York. 259 pp.

Stains, H. J. 1984. Carnivores. Pp. 491-521 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the
World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. Third Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth. vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.


=========

Mustelidae

weasels, stoats, polecats, ferrets, mink, marten, fishers, tayras, wolverines, grisons, badgers, skunks, otters, and
others

This is by far the largest family of Carnivora, containing nearly twice as many species (65, in 25 genera) as the next most speciose group
(the Herpestidae). Mustelids are found are found on all continents except Antarctica and Australia.

These carnivores range from very small (the least weasel is the smallest member of the order Carnivora, weighing 35-70 gms) to medium
(a large sea otter weighs around 35-40 kg). Their body shapes vary greatly; many, however, are elongate and have relatively short legs.
The tail is usually long, the ears small and rounded, and the eyes may be small. All mustelids have well-developed anal glands; these are
potent weapons of defense in some species such as skunks.

Mustelids are plantigrade or digitigrade, and their feet have five toes. The claws can be partially retracted in some species. Claws are
developed in some, but generally they are short, laterally compressed, and curved. In otters, the hands and feet are webbed. Male
mustelids have a well-developed baculum.

The skulls of mustelids are generally not long, and the rostrum is especially short. They lack an alisphenoid canal, but they have prominent
paroccipital processes. A large, curved postglenoid process often locks the lower jaw to the upper, so that even in a cleaned skull the two
cannot be separated. This restricts the motion of the lower jaw to simple opening and closing. The bite is powerful.

The teeth of mustelids are sometimes reduced in number; the dental formula is 3/3, 1/1, 2-4/2-4, 1/1-2 = 28-38 (one species, the sea otter,
has 3/2 incisors). The upper molars are often constricted in the middle, giving them a dumbbell or hourglass shape. In some species, such
as skunks and sea otters, the upper molars lack this characteristic profile; instead, they are expanded and flattened. The canines are long
and sharp, the carnassials are usually well developed (but not secodont in a few species), and the incisors are unspecialized.

Most mustelids consume flesh. Some include a high proportion of insects or other invertebrates in their diets, others feed primarily on fruit
or honey. The carnivores are often quick, agile, and extremely effective predators. Most use scent to track their prey. Their sense of
hearing is also well developed.

Mustelids belong to the canoid group of the order Carnivora. They are known from the Early Oligocene.

Technical characters 1

Technical characters 2


Species included in the Animal Diversity Web:

      Subfamily Lutrinae 
      Subfamily Melinae 
      Subfamily Mellivorinae 
      Subfamily Mephitinae 
      Subfamily Mustelinae 
      Subfamily Taxidiinae 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound
clips. 



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB
McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Paradiso, J. L. 1975. Walker's Mammals of the World, Third Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Savage, R. J. G. and M. R. Long. 1986. Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide. Facts of File Publications, New York. 259 pp.

Stains, H. J. 1984. Carnivores. Pp. 491-521 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the
World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. Third Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth. vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.


=======

Phocidae

(earless seals)

This diverse group contains 19 species in 10 genera. Phocids are broadly distributed along coastlines above 30 degrees N latitude and
south of 50 degree S latitude. Some species are also found at intermediate tropical localities, and in a few freshwater lakes and rivers.

Members of this family vary tremendously in size, from small ringed seals, which weigh around 90 kg, to massive elephant seals, the
males of which weigh up to 3600 kg and are the largest of the pinnipeds. Their bodies are streamlined ("fusiform"). They lack any
external ear. Forelimbs are relatively short, less than 25% of the length of the body and smaller than the hind flippers. They have well
developed claws. The large hind flippers extend straight backward and cannot be brought under the body. On land, earless seals are
awkward, moving by a combination of sliding and flexing their spines from side to side. Even so, some species are capable of moving
faster than a human. Phocids have a short, stubby tail, and males have a well-developed baculum.

Young of many phocids are covered with dense, soft, often white coats. In adults, the fur is often stiff and short, without an appreciable
undercoat. A few species are nearly naked. Some have spotted or banded color patterns. A thick, insulating layer of blubber lies beneath
the skin; the weight of the blubber may amount to more than 25% of the entire weight of the animal.

The skulls of phocids nearly or completely lack postorbital processes, and the alisphenoid canal is also absent. The bullae are somewhat
inflated. The dental formula is 2-3/1-2, 1/1, 4/4, 0-2/0-2 = 26-36. The upper incisors have simple, pointed crowns. The canines are long
and pointed, and the cheek teeth usually have 3 cusps, but their structure varies considerably among species. In crab-eating seals, for
example, the cheek teeth have complex cusps that make them into sort of a sieve, used for straining plankton.

Most seals feed on fish, squid, octopus, and shellfish, but some take plankton, and one species catches penguins and small seals.

The social structure of phocids varies from species to species. Some are monogamous or associate in small groups, while elephant seals
are highly gregarious and polygamous. Most seals differ from sea lions, however, in that they do not congregate in the huge rookeries.
Some species are migratory. Seals are accomplished divers. Their ability to reach great depths and stay under water for prolonged
periods varies considerably from species to species. The champion diver may be the Weddell seal, which is known to reach depths of
600 m and to stay submerged for more than an hour.

Technical characters


Species included in the Animal Diversity Web:

      Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal) -t- 
      Erignathus barbatus -ta- 
      Halichoerus grypus -t- 
      Hydrurga leptonyx (Leopard Seal) -t- 
      Leptonychotes weddellii (Weddell Seal) -t- 
      Lobodon carcinophagus (Crabeater Seal) -pta- 
      Mirounga angustirostris (Northern Elephant Seal) -pt- 
      Monachus monachus (Mediterranean Monk Seal) -t- 
      Monachus schauinslandi (Hawaiian Monk Seal) -t- 
      Phoca caspica -t- 
      Phoca fasciata -t- 
      Phoca groenlandica (Harp Seal) -pt- 
      Phoca hispida (Ringed Seal) -ta- 
      Phoca largha (Spotted Seal) -t- 
      Phoca sibirica (Baikal Seal) -t- 
      Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal) -pta- 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound
clips. 



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB
McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Paradiso, J. L. 1975. Walker's Mammals of the World, Third Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Savage, R. J. G. and M. R. Long. 1986. Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide. Facts of File Publications, New York. 259 pp.

Stains, H. J. 1984. Carnivores. Pp. 491-521 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the
World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. Third Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth. vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.



=======



http://vicuna.us.itd.umich.edu:8080/chordata/mammalia/carnivora.html


Felidae 

(cats)

Felids are perhaps the most specialized hunters of the carnivores, relying almost exclusively on prey that they have killed themselves.
Their distribution includes every continent except for Australia and Antarctica, with the exception of the domestic cat which has now been
transported to just about everywhere humans have gone. Cats are also not native to the island of Madagascar. Felids use a diversity of
habitats, from desert to forest to mountain.

Physical features characterizing felids are a short rostrum, a vestigial or absent baculum, and retractable claws. Distal segments of digits in
the relaxed position are pulled back and up into a sheath by an elastic segment, which prevents claws from getting blunt. The cheetah is
an exception; it cannot retract its claws, and when attacking it tends to bowl over prey much like many canids. Cats have five toes on
their forefeet and four on their hindfeet. They are digitigrade, and their metapodials are moderately long but never fused.

Besides having a short rostrum, the skulls of cats have bullae that are large and divided by a septum; no alisphenoid canal, and paroccipital
processes flattened against the bullae.

Dentition is reduced in felids; shortening the jaw results in increased force at the bite point. The dental formula is 3/3, 1/1, 2-3/2, 1/1 =
28-30. The incisors are small and chisel-like. The canines vary from medium-sized to enormous in the extinct sabertooth cats. The upper
canine is larger than the lower. The first premolar is absent; the second, when present, is atrophied. The molar is small and simple in
structure. Carnassials are very well developed and cheek teeth are exclusively of the shearing type; cats do not crush or grind their food.

The hunting method of felids consists of a preliminary stalk followed by a final quick rush. Cats aim for the neck and usually sever the
cervical vertebrae with their sharp, pointed canines. They rely on their sense of sight; their eyes are relatively large compared to other
carnivores. They also have well-developed senses of smell and hearing, and at close range, their long whiskers provide an acute sense of
touch.

Felids are usually solitary. An exception is the African lion, which forms prides centered around maternal descent. Males fight with each
other for acceptance into these prides. The size of a lion pride is determined by resource availability. Lion females hunt cooperatively for
the whole pride. Males are the main defenders of territories, keeping out foreign males and females. Males are driven from their natal
prides at around three years of age and often spend time as nomads before they are able to defend their own pride.

The fossil record of the Felidae extends to the Late Eocene. No description of fossil felids is complete without some mention of the
sabretooth cats. In these forms (and there were a number of species in at least two lineages of feloids involved), the upper canines
elongate tremendously to form stabbing, sabre-like weapons. These teeth curve backward, flatten to become triangular in cross section,
and sometimes develope a serrated edge. It seems clear that they are adaptations for stabbing prey, but exactly how they were used
remains a mystery.

Two species of felids in Michigan, bobcat (Lynx rufus) and lynx (Lynx canadensis), can be distinguished by the shape of their presphenoid
and the openings to hypoglossal and jugular foramina in the base of the cranium.

Technical characters


Species included in the Animal Diversity Web:

      Subfamily Acinonychinae 
      Subfamily Felinae 
      Subfamily Pantherinae 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound
clips. 



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB
McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Paradiso, J. L. 1975. Walker's Mammals of the World, Third Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Savage, R. J. G. and M. R. Long. 1986. Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide. Facts of File Publications, New York. 259 pp.

Stains, H. J. 1984. Carnivores. Pp. 491-521 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the
World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. Third Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth. vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.



=======

Herpestidae

mongooses, meerkats, suricats, fossas

Mongooses are mainly African, with one genus also widespread in Asia and southern Europe (and it has been widely introduced
elsewhere). Several genera are restricted to Madagascar; these are placed in their own subfamily, Galidiinae. Overall, 34 species are found
in about 20 genera.

Mongooses are small carnivores. Their body lengths vary from around 230 mm to over 750 mm, and their weights range from less than 1
kg to around 5 or 6 kg. Most are brown or gray. A few species are striped, but most are not. A very few species have banded tails. The
claws are not retractile. Herpestids tend to have small heads, pointed snouts, and short, rounded ears that are not as conspicuously erect or
pointed as those of viverrids. Many have anal (not perianal, as in viverrids) glands that secrete a foul-smelling substance. Male herpestids
have a baculum.

The skull of most herpestids is long and flattened. One pair of lower incisors appears to be slightly out of (raised above) the line defined by
the incisor row. The carnassials are well developed. The last upper molar is not constricted in the middle. The dental formula is 3/3, 1/1,
3-4/3-4, 1-2/1-2 = 32-40. In the auditory bullae, the demarcation between ectotympanic and entotympanic parts of the bullae is clear, and
in this family it is perpendicular to the long axis of the skull (it is oblique to that axis in members of the family Viverridae). The
ectotympanic part of the bullae is approximately equal in size to the entotympanic part, or larger. A median lacerate foramen is present.

Most herpestids are predators, feeding on a wide range of animals including small mammals and birds (including bird eggs), reptiles
(especially snakes), a wide variety of insects, and crabs. Their ability to kill poisonous snakes such as cobras and adders is legendary. Their
success is due to speed and agility, for they are not immune to the snake's poison. Some species also include vegetable material in their
diets, feeding on tubers, fruits, and berries.

Some herpestids are gregarious, occurring in colonies that sometimes include more than 50 individuals. Others are solitary. Most species
are terrestrial, often making complex burrow systems, but a few include arboreal habitats in their foraging. Herpestids are found in a wide
variety of habitats, ranging from desert to tropical forest. Some species are semiaquatic, readily entering the water to feed on fish, crabs
and other aquatic organisms.

Mongooses have been introduced to a number of places, usually to help control snakes and rodent pests. Unfortunately, this has rarely, if
ever worked, and the the introduced mongooses have generally been a worse problem than the creatures they were introduced to control.

Technical characters


Species included in the Animal Diversity Web:

      Subfamily Galidiinae 
      Subfamily Herpestinae 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound
clips. 



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB
McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Paradiso, J. L. 1975. Walker's Mammals of the World, Third Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Savage, R. J. G. and M. R. Long. 1986. Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide. Facts of File Publications, New York. 259 pp.

Stains, H. J. 1984. Carnivores. Pp. 491-521 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the
World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. Third Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth. vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.



=========

Hyaenidae

The family Hyaenidae contains four species, each in its own genus, found in Africa, SW Asia, and India. Three species, which include the
animals we usually think of as hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta, Hyaena hyaena, and Parahyaena brunnea), hunt and scavenge large vertebrate
prey. The fourth species, the aardwolf (Proteles cristata), subsists almost exclusively on termites.

Hyaenas are medium to large in size, 10-80 kg. They have a bushy tail, rounded ears, and three of the four species have stripes or spots on
their coats (the brown hyaena, Parahyaena, is unmarked). A mane may be present. A striking feature is the disparity in length between the
front and rear limbs. This disparity, plus large head and forequarters relatively larger than hindquarters, makes them seem like they're
always running uphill. Their stance is digitigrade and their claws are blunt and non-retractile. A unique feature of Crocuta is the enlarged
clitoris and 2 scrotal pouches of the female, which are externally indistinguishable from the penis and scrotum of the male. This
morphological characteristic led to the belief that hyaenas were hermaphroditic (definitely not true!). Another unique character is the anal
pouch, which the animals evert to mark objects within their territories with odoriferous secretions. Anal pouches are also well developed
in the related viverrids and herpestids. Hyaenids lack a baculum.

Hyaenas are characterized by massive jaws (except for Proteles) and large premolars and molars used to crush bone. The cheekteeth of
Proteles are reduced in size, although its canines are sharp and fairly large. The incisors of hyaenids are unspecialized, except that the third
incisor on each side is larger than the others. The dental formula of Proteles is 3/3, 1/1, 3/2-1, 1/1-2 = 28-32; that of other hyaenas is 3/3,
1/1, 4/3, 1/1 = 34. Their skulls lack alisphenoid canals, their auditory bullae are divided like those of other feloids (but the septum is not
easily visible), and their parocciptial processes lie against their bullae, also resembling cats.

Although hyaenas are commonly thought of as scavengers, they are also skilled hunters that are able to take down quite large prey,
especially when they hunt cooperatively. They seem to rely primarily on their sense of smell. In times of scarce resources, hyaenas forage
individually, covering large distances in search of food. A large foraging range is beneficial in finding carrion, which is generally
unpredictably located both in space and time. Another foraging trait is the ability to cue on other species, such as lions, cheetahs, and
vultures, to locate possible sources of food. At a kill, a group of hyaenas can often give lions a run for their money. In a conflict between
lions and hyaenas, the winner is usually the species with the most individuals.

Hyaena clans are centered around females, which are dominant to and larger than the males. Males disperse, whereas females generally
stay with natal groups. Each clan usually defends a territory, which contains the foraging and denning areas. Some clans do not have fixed
territories, but follow migratory ungulates such as wildebeest. Other clans are migratory for parts of the year but have fixed territories
other parts of the year. Hyaenas usually den in the abandoned burrows of other animals, caves or thick brush.

Phylogenetically, the Hyaenidae are most closely related to the viverrids, herpestids, and cats. Their fossil record goes back to the
Miocene.

Technical characters 1

Technical characters 2


Species included in database:

      Subfamily Hyaeninae 
      Subfamily Protelinae 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound
clips. 



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB
McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Paradiso, J. L. 1975. Walker's Mammals of the World, Third Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Savage, R. J. G. and M. R. Long. 1986. Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide. Facts of File Publications, New York. 259 pp.

Stains, H. J. 1984. Carnivores. Pp. 491-521 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the
World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. Third Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth. vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.





======

Viverridae

civets, linsangs, genets, palm civets,toddy cats, binturong, fossas

This family is native to southern Europe, Africa and Asia, including Indonesia and the Philippines. Viverrids apparently radiated on
Madagascar, where there are a number of endemic genera. The family includes 34 species currently placed in 20 genera.

Viverrids are medium-sized carnivores with long bodies and relatively short legs. Their bodies range from around 300 mm in length
(excluding the tail, which is usually moderately long) to 1000 mm in length. Weights range from slightly less than 1 kg to 14 kg. Most
species have relatively small heads with short, pointed or semipointed, erect ears and a relatively long, pointed muzzle. Their eyes are of
medium size. Most species have stripes, spots, or bands on their bodies, and their tails are often ringed with contrasting colors. Their claws
can be retracted. Most have perianal (not anal) glands that produce a strong-smelling substance; in some species the odor is sufficiently
potent to ward off predators. The secretion of these glands, called civet, is used as a perfume base and medicine. Male viverrids have a
baculum.

The skull of most viverrids is long and flattened. The second lower incisor appears to be slightly out of (raised above) the line defined by
the incisor row. The carnassials are well developed. Their last upper molar is not constricted in the middle, as it is in most members of the
family Mustelidae. The dental formula is 3/3, 1/1, 3-4/3-4, 1-2/1-2 = 32-40. In the auditory bullae, the demarcation between ectotympanic
and entotympanic parts of the bullae is clear, and in this family it is oblique to the long axis of the skull (it is perpendicular to that axis in
members of the family Herpestidae). The ectotympanic part of the bullae is much smaller than the entotympanic part. Unlike the condition
in herpestids, a median lacerate foramen is absent.

Most viverrids are nocturnal hunters, feeding on small vertebrates (including carrion), insects, and other invertebrates including worms,
crustaceans, and molluscs. Some species are probably strictly carnivorous and have the reputation of fierce and effective predators; others
also include fruit and roots in their diets. Sightings of most species usually involve one or at most two individuals; viverrids generally do
not associate in larger groups. Most are strongly arboreal, but a few species seldom climb. One, the binturong, has a prehensile tail. Their
senses of sight, smell, and hearing are all well developed.

While this is a large group with many species, the habits of a surprising number are poorly known.

Technical characters 1

Technical characters 2


Species included in the Animal Diversity Web:

      Subfamily Cryptoproctinae 
      Subfamily Euplerinae 
      Subfamily Hemigalinae 
      Subfamily Nandiniinae 
      Subfamily Paradoxurinae 
      Subfamily Viverrinae 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound
clips. 



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB
McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Paradiso, J. L. 1975. Walker's Mammals of the World, Third Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Savage, R. J. G. and M. R. Long. 1986. Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide. Facts of File Publications, New York. 259 pp.

Stains, H. J. 1984. Carnivores. Pp. 491-521 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the
World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. Third Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth. vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.

========

Felidae 

(cats)

Felids are perhaps the most specialized hunters of the carnivores, relying almost exclusively on prey that they have killed themselves.
Their distribution includes every continent except for Australia and Antarctica, with the exception of the domestic cat which has now
been transported to just about everywhere humans have gone. Cats are also not native to the island of Madagascar. Felids use a
diversity of habitats, from desert to forest to mountain.

Physical features characterizing felids are a short rostrum, a vestigial or absent baculum, and retractable claws. Distal segments of digits
in the relaxed position are pulled back and up into a sheath by an elastic segment, which prevents claws from getting blunt. The cheetah
is an exception; it cannot retract its claws, and when attacking it tends to bowl over prey much like many canids. Cats have five toes on
their forefeet and four on their hindfeet. They are digitigrade, and their metapodials are moderately long but never fused.

Besides having a short rostrum, the skulls of cats have bullae that are large and divided by a septum; no alisphenoid canal, and
paroccipital processes flattened against the bullae.

Dentition is reduced in felids; shortening the jaw results in increased force at the bite point. The dental formula is 3/3, 1/1, 2-3/2, 1/1 =
28-30. The incisors are small and chisel-like. The canines vary from medium-sized to enormous in the extinct sabertooth cats. The upper
canine is larger than the lower. The first premolar is absent; the second, when present, is atrophied. The molar is small and simple in
structure. Carnassials are very well developed and cheek teeth are exclusively of the shearing type; cats do not crush or grind their food.

The hunting method of felids consists of a preliminary stalk followed by a final quick rush. Cats aim for the neck and usually sever the
cervical vertebrae with their sharp, pointed canines. They rely on their sense of sight; their eyes are relatively large compared to other
carnivores. They also have well-developed senses of smell and hearing, and at close range, their long whiskers provide an acute sense of
touch.

Felids are usually solitary. An exception is the African lion, which forms prides centered around maternal descent. Males fight with each
other for acceptance into these prides. The size of a lion pride is determined by resource availability. Lion females hunt cooperatively for
the whole pride. Males are the main defenders of territories, keeping out foreign males and females. Males are driven from their natal
prides at around three years of age and often spend time as nomads before they are able to defend their own pride.

The fossil record of the Felidae extends to the Late Eocene. No description of fossil felids is complete without some mention of the
sabretooth cats. In these forms (and there were a number of species in at least two lineages of feloids involved), the upper canines
elongate tremendously to form stabbing, sabre-like weapons. These teeth curve backward, flatten to become triangular in cross section,
and sometimes develope a serrated edge. It seems clear that they are adaptations for stabbing prey, but exactly how they were used
remains a mystery.

Two species of felids in Michigan, bobcat (Lynx rufus) and lynx (Lynx canadensis), can be distinguished by the shape of their
presphenoid and the openings to hypoglossal and jugular foramina in the base of the cranium.

Technical characters


Species included in the Animal Diversity Web:

      Subfamily Acinonychinae 
      Subfamily Felinae 
      Subfamily Pantherinae 

Accounts marked with a p contain pictures, t contain narrative text (student authored), a contain anatomical still/QTVR images, and s contain digitized sound
clips. 



Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB
McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Paradiso, J. L. 1975. Walker's Mammals of the World, Third Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Savage, R. J. G. and M. R. Long. 1986. Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide. Facts of File Publications, New York. 259 pp.

Stains, H. J. 1984. Carnivores. Pp. 491-521 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the
World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. Third Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth. vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd edition.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.