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SPACE STATION WITH GRAVITY                          


This paper will discuss the need for and manufacture of rotating space stations with artificial gravity.  This paper also examines the construction of industrial capacity in earth orbit and beyond.   


The need for artificial gravity recuperation:


Colonizing, mining, manufacturing and other activities in space will require a large workforce in space.  The provision of an artificial gravity recuperation habitat for these space employees will be an essential part of an employer’s responsibility to it’s employees in the colonization of Earth orbit and beyond.  Space business, to be profitable, must have manned space stations to take advantage of extraterrestrial space resources such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), and destinations of great distance, such as Mars.


Zero gravity and artificial gravity rotating working shifts:


Launch costs for workers to get into space, make long duration (months to years) working shifts inevitable in the colonization of space.  Space employees will work rotating shifts in zero-G and artificial gravity environments.  In space, employees who have worked in zero gravity (G) for extended periods (a few weeks or more) will need recuperation (a few weeks) in artificial gravity conditions to reverse decalcification and other physiological degradations of zero gravity exposure. 


Raw materials brought from Earth in the beginning, then mined from asteroids, comets and debris in space:


In the beginning, we will produce space station components and industrial capacity with materials brought from the Earth into orbit.  The dependence on supplies from Earth will diminish as the industrial-infrastructure / space-mining infrastructure becomes a reality in space.  The long-term supply of raw materials in space involves Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) rendezvous, landing, mining and resource utilization to produce pressure vessels (cylindrical and spherical habitats), tethers, mirrors, framing networks and other components.


Artificial gravity and space station design:


Space station rotation will provide artificial gravity.  The initial space station consists of two or three cylindrical habitats, symmetrically attached to and rotating about a central hub. Artificial gravity within the cylindrical habitats results from rotation about the central hub.  Tethers, structural mesh and framing networks attach the habitats to the central hub.


Examples of space station dimensions and rotation rates are given here in order to give the reader an idea of the radius versus revolution per minute (RPM) rotation rates of rotating wheel space stations.


These dimensions and rotation rates are for near 1G (9.8m/sec2) accelerations:

100 meters radius @ 2.96 RPM

200 meters radius @ 2.1 RPM

400 meters radius @ 1.5 RPM

600 meters radius @ 1.24 RPM

800 meters radius @ 1.05 RPM

1000 meters radius @ 0.95 RPM


Various sources set 2.5 RPM as the maximum rotation rate acceptable to personnel, while the lower 1 RPM is superior for the comfort of the crew.


Manufacturing in space:


We will be using carbonyl digestion-deposition processes to produce custom shaped components.   Metals deposited on the inner surfaces of cylindrical and spherical inflatables produce the cylindrical and spherical habitats.  Kevlar/graphite cables are coated with metals to produce the tethers.  Framing networks, mirrors and other custom shaped components are produced using custom shaped inflatables and other form surfaces.


Financing the colonization of space:


Telepossession of resources will be employed to leverage financing for Space Station construction.  For information on Telepossession of space resources, please go to  .  Telepossession of resources is absolutely essential for the commercial development of space.  Establishing free markets and trade in space will require the same type of ownership/property rights laws we use on the Earth.


Growth of the space station:


The Space Station will grow through the addition of new sets of cylindrical habitats and other equipment/facilities. Eventually a continuous ring of cylindrical habitats forms a wheel.




Space mining and industrial capacity produced from extraterrestrial resources will facilitate the colonization of space by humanity.




1. Artificial Gravity and the Architecture of Orbital Habitats,

Theodore W. Hall, .



Richard Westfall

Galactic Mining Industries, Inc.

4838 Stuart Street

Denver, Colorado 80212-2922