RADIANT VALLEY ASSOCIATION
WHAT IS MUSIC ART SCIENCES? It is an exact science of sounds, rythums, tones,forms and beats. It is the Divine created, melody and harmony of life itself. Allah created the universe, the earth and all its in habitants therein, andd all for Allah's own pleasures! As we humankind read and know before there was anything in existance, there was absolutely Nothing...NO...Light, dark, sound,ojects nor any movements...Like complete blank void! Then Allah spoke in many actions and so commanded...BE! And all things came into existance! AWESOME!
There was not one part of this great universal creation that is not an symphonic orchestra nor is without sound, motion, rythum, tones, beats and forms. All of them are syncronized for perfect melodious harmony in unison, pricisely, and perfectly composed, directed, and conducted by its Creator Almighty Allahu! The beautiful, melodious symphony of new birth of life, was entirely composed by its Creator Allah,and with many sounds, movements, rythums, and beats in specific arrangements in the various forms of nature, and the sounds are melodious harmonies which soothes one's soul. Music transcends; it does not shut out the very essence of Allahu's spirit-(dhat) The-Light-(en-Nur!) As The "Creator-Allahu" most infinite and very eternal existence.It is The Most Magnificent of any musical compositions,and is composed as a gift of Allahu's Great Love for mankind from Allahu Most Generous.
During the holy prophet Mohammad's (sws) time and after his death, there developed new Islamic art of musical styles in the Hijaz in the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, which were the centers of Islamic religious and political power. The activities of a rich art and musical foundation in regligious and secular life came into being, a tradition associated with celebrating life and it's given religious,and spiritual mystical dimensions. This occurred despite vehement attacks from strict " puritanical theologians". Envisage the transformation of explicit and systematic inference of the Great Traditions, as applicable to urban and non-urban cultures, emerging and meeting in new centers under new religion of Islam during prophet Mohammad's (sws)time and the succeeding caliphs. This synthesis, effected in sprited compromise, it resulted in an agreed successful arrangement of old and new, a representative of orthogenesis. A most important manifestation was a quest for linguistic purity, a concern shared equally by all reciters and chanters of the Holy Quran, grammarians,poets, and musicians alike,all for proper recitation of Quranic verses (suras) and stanzas (ayats).
The necessity of explaining the sacred Quranic text gave birth to the art of music science of grammar, musical modes,styles and lexicography. Philogists actually discovered that the best material was found in Islamic poetry; the same was found by musicians,poets, and specialist reciters-chanters (qir'at) of Quran, they made rules of solemn recitation-cantillation based on poetic musical language and its renditions. The ruling-authorities-(Alemas)accepted these musical recitations-cantillations. The poetic rythumic modes of phonic and tonal accentuation, and intensity of equlibrium between emotional values, became the models for both experts in Quranic cantillation (talhin), and also for the composers of poetic songs(gazels). They underlined the expressive , artistic manner of rythumic speech in many ways as a chant "combined recitation-cantillation" and emotional exression of song, sacred music and rhetoric.
No legist nor religious authority can either prohibit or authorize something a priori by a persoanl decision; as all or any authority are obligated to base arguments but, only from direct references in sacred writings, or by closely reasoned analogy. The first most sacred source is the Quran both for those opposed to music and those who are not. Although nothing specific in Quran is concerning music explicitly. Holy prophet Mohammad (sws) who liked to listened to his young wife Aisha(ra) and her friends while playing music and singing, he did favor some music, and he twice rebuked the reactions of his young wife's father Abu Bakr in two incidences. The holy prophet (sws) then declared that art, music, singing and playing of some specific instruments were permissable on occaisions of: birth, marriages, cultural folk festivites, funerals, and most of all for religious,spiritual occasions. (Transmitted by hazret Aisha(ra) in the "Sahih" collection of al-Bukhari).
There were three things the prophet Mohammad (sws) did not like or approve of at all: (1) was clapping of hands in public performances, of either religious or secular nature; however, (*he did allow artistic hand clappers.*) (2) He dissaproved of the "sensual" singing which was combined with "sensual" dancing in public taverns, by males and females alike.(Ahadith-"Sahih" collection of al-Bukhari and Muslim).(3) Holy prophet (sws) also declared that the selling , buying or teaching of performing girls (qaynat) is also unlawfull:-(transmitted by hazret Aisha(ra) in the( "Sahih collection of al-Bukhari).The great theologian Abu Hamid al-Ghazali , stated that : "those particular ahadith refers only to the girls dancing and singing in the taverns." Whereas, the traditional ahadith of the holy prophet Mohammad(sws)did approve of singing in one of his pertinent sayings: "Allah has not sent me as prophet except with a beautiful voice, and Allah listens more intently to one with a beautiful voice reciting Quran as dose the master of a singing girl (qayna) listens to her beautiful singing voice." Transmitted from ("Sahih" collections of al-Bukhari).
The Importance of correct, careful and solemn recitation-(Qir'a)of Quran, from Islamic teachings established were of an urgent task. The term for ebellishment (tajwid) in recitation of Quran became the art of music science. A remarkable system regulated cantillation (talhin) with respect to the law of phonetics and prefered diction of musical aspects in recitation-(Qir'a) of sacred texts. Prophet Mohammad (sws) recommended reciting/cantillation of Quran in musical melodies of the the people from Nejd reagion of Arabia,as he prefered the pre-Islamic simple musical forms of huda and rakbani, with pauses which became a major trait of Quranic cantillation (talhin). Holy prophet(sws) had recourse to old Arabic tunes used in classical recitation/cantillation of poetry,together with classical poetic rules of parosody which was a transvaluation expressed by Ibn al-Arabi: "The prophet Mohammad (sws) wanted Quran to be an exclusive passion to replace styles that all chanters were accustomed to singing during that period in time.
The call to prayer (adhan-azan), was instituted by prophet Mohammad himself between (622-624), and the first muezzin who was Bilal an Abyssinian maula, also one of the first martyrs in Islam. Originally the call to prayer (adhan-azan) was a simple anouncement in the streets or from roof tops. It quickly grew ornate, as a moving chant issued five times per day from height of a mineret of a mosque. Call to prayer (adhan-azan) was composed of short phrases sung in chanting tunes that varied in all countries, and in some regions the melodic tunes beacame archlike, with maximum densities at its peak. These two types of musical cantillation (talhin) effectively made it known as "compulsory" religious mosque music known as hymns. Many hymns were and are used on festive occaisons and one in particular on celebration of : "Maulid-en Nabavi/Milad-en Nabi", the birthday aniversry of holy prophet(sws). All mysitcal dimensions in art and music stem from sacred Quranic spiritual mysticism, which was adhered too and are follwed by many mystical orders-(tariqats)which was instituted originally by prophet Muhammad (sws) to his companions (awliya), and was used and known at that period in time as spiritual mystical devotional music.
In Islam's art of music sciences, include some aspects in Islam which are in accordance with the teachings of a great theologian Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (1058-1111), an exceptional religious reformer, and a devout spiritual mystic. In his great authoritative work: "The Rivival of Religious Sciences"-"Ihya ulum al -Din", he integrated mystical Sufism and Orthodoxy. Ghazali's importance dealing with laws of "listening- Sama/Sema" and the music of ecstasy analysed the main cruz of controversiality. Ghazali came to an important conclusion that both statuatory and analgous evidence indicatively shows the admissability of art and music science in Islam. A major point in Ghazali's findings is that music and singing are a spiritual evoking of the truth in one's heart and soul. It influences the heart and soul which reveals itself and its contents to only Allah. This elaboration was also a prouncement made by another famous authority also a devout spiritual mystic al-Darani who said:"Music does not provoke in the heart or soul that which is not there." In those words the nature of music's influence on mankind very much depends on the basic intentions of the listener, and the purpose for which music is used. Ghazali clearly defines seven purposes for which music is allowed-(halal)and five cases in which it is forbidden-(haram) as follows:
MUSIC ALLOWED - HALAL
1)To evoke and invoke the love of Allah.
2)To elicit love and longing for Allah in circumatances that permit singing, playing of permittied instruments
3)To evoke lamentation and sorrow-the latter being of two kinds: (a) blameworthy (b) praisworthy.
4) to arouse joy.
5)To encourage pilgrimage, and only for those it is permissable
6)To incite for battle
7)To inspire courage on the day of battle
1) When music is produced by singing and dancing of men and women in taverns and in other public places.
2) If certain instruments are used for only"secular" purposes, they are strictly forbidden for use for only"religious" purposes.
3) When the song's contents are not compatible with spiritual concepts and precepts of religion.
4) When the listener is ruled by thoughts of lust and lustful actions.
5) When a person listens to music for inviting sensuality for sexual reasons only.
The relations in dicussion between music and religious doctrine in the course of those controversies an ideological system or systems evolved, and has been the focus of numerous debates on technicalities of lexicography in texts. Music and religious doctrine consider the fact of concept of art and music are integrated into relavant system of thought. The inference is that music does not act independantly of its own fundamentals, nor is art and music to pursue the dictates of imagination. Religous art and music are subordinate too, and interacts with legitimate mankind's orientation to the universe of The Creator and to various wordly goals in life.
For the first time in Islamic history, the language , sound, and form was known as music art science, and it became its vehicle as Islamic music art science which was born in Arabia, and became an universal art, and has an intrinsic persona of its own esthetics. The sciences of art and beautiful music, did not exist in Orthodox Islam's concepts. The main reason was that ancient legists-puritan believers put great trust in the doctrine of influence (tahir)instead of Allah's creation. In the musical dogma of art and music,so theses beliefs is in an acretion of anthrophorphism which is supreme. Music is a part of the macrocosmic system of creation accepted by many Islamic philosophers, astronomers, mathematicians, and physcians. And by metaphysical reasoning melodic modes -(maqmat) and rythumic modes (iqa'at) were closely linked to the universe and so recognized by the holy prophet Mohammad (sws) himself.
The that was music practiced in religious ceremonials in ancient Arabia were practiced by believers who where encirling the (Ka'ba)"house of worship" and the "Black Stone"-"Seat Of Mankind" housed therein, and chanted a musical cantillation (talhin) as used a transmitted-(talbiyya) from Adam and Noah. These modes of musical chant were practiced during pilgrimage-(hajj) accompanied with fife/flute (shahin) and drum (bandir/tablah) during circumnabulation (raqs) around the "Ka'ba" and the "Black Stone" therein. Islam thus has its own specific religious art of music, incomparable to the smililarity of Christianity's church chants which have originally been borrowed from the religious chants of Islam's music art sciences.
The music hymns are in forms called praises (Illahis-nasha'ids) and has its place both inside and outside mosques, and along with recitation (Qira'a) of Quran and cantillation (talhin) , call to prayer (adhan-azan),and listening -(Sama/Sema) music of the Sufi-Dervishes fraternal/Maternal orders-(tariqats) with their many varied spiritual religious chants and ecstatic spiritual dances. The mode of recitation (Qir'a) and cantillation (talhin) lent itself to Quran because of its prosodic structure, it's content consists of rhymed prose (saj-gazal) making the voice modulate in recitation and cantillation-(talhin). Ibn Qutaiba (d.889) relates of an early chanter who practiced melodies for 'call to prayer'-(adhan-azan) as related by Ubaidallah b.Abu Bakr (559).Defitions of modes of Islamic art and music sciences: Cantillation was (lahn)- a dirge-like melody,and the lamentation is incomparable to any ordinary secular singing (ghina).
The "puritan legists"(fuqaha) who were in opposition to any music and looked upon all chanters and singers as "improper"- "(makruh)," so they discriminated between holy Quran's "cantillation (talhin)"religious chants, and the "secular" singng voice-(ghina), and so banned all music of that period in time. However, by the 9th.,century many melodies of popular ballads were being used in recitation- (Qir'a) and cantillation-(talhin)of Quran, despite the vehement opposition of some of the "puritan- legists." Recitation (Qir'a)and cantillation-(talhin) of Quran became one of Islam's most elite art of music science, and the greatest religious and cultural accomplishments, in its prosodic vocalization, perfect grammar, punctuation, with strictly governed rules laid down by Ibn al-Jazari (d.1429). Cantillation (talhin) was not confined to any fixed melodic sounds , it is found from Morroco to the Oxus, with many patterns and syles as there are mosques in the world.
During the time of the Orthodox Caliphs (A.D.632-61) at the close of the reign of caliph Othman (d.646), male musicians (mughanis) and instrumentalists (mitribs) came to the forefront in the person of one man Tuwais (d.710), who was acclaimed the first male musician under the banner of Islam. This musician copied from Nasht a Persian musician, who was compelled to include Arabian melodies in their music repertory. The Arabian music became well known, and a century later Ibahim al-Mausil an Arabian musician came to Persia, and he studied Persian styles of music there.
When the incomparable Zitiab peformed before Abd al-Rashman II (d.852), all who had proceeded him went into oblivion. There never was another male musician performer more admired. The Arabian school of music flourished in forms created by Ibn Mishah and Ishaq al-Masuli.The last periods of the Caliphate(1045-1258) heralded the decline of greatness. Political control went to the Turkish Seljuqs in (1037)and then Ottomans in(1453),and they became the new masters and brought a fresh cultural environment into the aforementioned lands.
Islamic art and music were born in Arabia, and was nurtured under Persian, Syrian, Turkish and Greek tuteledge and became a universal art of music science. Its intrinsic persona was changed by Safi al-Din (d.1294) who composed the Korasani scale of music, under Mughal and Turkish influences, which were followed into the 14th., century by the Pyhthagorean music scale which then spread elsewhere in the world. Finally with the adoption of the modern scales from period of Islam's "Goldenage," and al-Andalus into the West,and there where those who did preserve their art and music, which is still played in Morroco and other parts of North Africa -(al-Magrib,) and farther on into the modern contemporary world times.
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