GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE PROVINCE
1. CULTURAL OVERVIEW
The name Ifugao is derived from the word "ipugo". "PUGO" means
"hill" while the prefix "I" means "from". The Spaniards
changed Ipugo to IFUGAW and the Americans made the last change in the word to the current name IFUGAO.
The Ifugaos are one of the different tribes that inhabited the old Mountain Province.
Their culture and tradition, being
unique and striking, have made them the subject of many studies by foreign scholars.
For the Ifugaos, custom is the basis of all laws. But these customs would mean nothing if these were not supported by ancestry knowledge. Among the Ifugaos, extensive pedigrees exist. They are the graphic representation that puts in evidence one of the most basic principles of the Ifugao culture. "We cannot but do what our ancestors told us". (Lambretch CICM 1964).
2. POLITICAL HISTORY
During the Spanish regime, the Spaniards confined their activities in Kiangan (Quiangan at that time) but it was the cross, not the sword that conquered the people. During their brief stay in Ifugao, the Spaniards were able to organize "pueblos" (towns) headed by the "Alcalde Municipal" and barangays (barrios) headed by a "Cabesa de Barangay". In 1888, the Spanish rule and influence ended with the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution.
During the American regime, a civil government was established in the Philippines in 1901. The municipal and barrio governments were reorganized. When Ifugao was separated from Nueva Vizcaya in 1905, Captain Jeff Gallman of the American Army was appointed as the Lieutenant Governor of Ifugao and was Succeeded by J. Jamilinsen. William Dosser served as the last American Lieutenant Governor of Ifugao. A significant accomplishment made wa the setting of boundaries of the five (5) ethnic groups in the Mountain Province in 1920 namely: Benguet, Bontoc, Kalinga, Apayao and Ifugao. The main thrust of the American rule in the region was the development of the natural resources. Farming and industries were developed. The construction of schools and roads were also built all over the province.
During the Japanese occupation, Ifugao became the center of warfare during the last stages of World War II. It was in Ifugao, particularly Mt. Napulawan in the municipality of Hungduan, where General Yamashita known as "The Tiger of Malaya" decided to put his last stand against the Filipino and American forces. He informally surrendered to Captain Grisham of the US 6th Army in the Philippines based in Kiangan, Ifugao before he was flown to Camp John Hay where he formally surrendered.
Ifugao as Sub-province:
Ifugao was once a part of the province of Nueva Vizcaya. It was in 1905 that Ifugao was made a sub-province of the old Mountain Province. The sub-province was administered by a Lt. Governor, which was later changed to Deputy Governor of Ifugao. Captain Pedro Bulan was the first native to assume the office of Deputy Governor of Ifugao. Hon. Luis Pawid of Kiangan became the first deputy governor during the Commonwealth regime. Succeeding him were the following:
- Jose Dulinayan
- Valerio Famorca
- Alejandro Fontanilla
- Alexander Lanag
- Alfredo Cappleman
- Leopoldo Culhi
- Nicolas Liangna
- Raymundo Baguilat
- Santiago Habawel
- Jose Guinid
- Victor Codamon
At the outbreak of the 2nd World War in 1942, five (5) municipal districts were created in Ifugao namely: Burnay (later changed to Lagawe by virtue of RA 3380), Kiangan, Banaue, Hungduan and Mayoyao. After the war, the municipalities of Potia and Lamut were created.
A bill was filed in congress which was approved into law as RA No. 4695 which provide for the creation of four independent provinces, namely: Benguet, Mountain Province, Ifugao and Kalinga-Apayao. The bill was passed by the three (3) congressman from the three congressional districts of the old Mountain Province in the person of Andres Cosalan, Luis Hora and Juan Duyon.
Ifugao as a Province:
Ifugao finally gained status as a province on June 18, 1966 with the signing into law of House Bill No. 4695 or known as the "Division Law of Mountain Province".
Ifugao then started its operation as a distinct province on April 1, 1967 a few days after the first provincial officials were inducted into office on March 26, 1967 by His Excellency, Ferdinand E. Marcos, at La Trinidad, Benguet. The first provincial officials appointed by the President were:
- Governor Gualberto B. Lumauig
- Vice Governor Manuel Tuguinay
- Napoleon Hangdaan
- Gaspar Ponchinlan
Then came the November local election of 1967, incumbent Governor Gualberto Lumauig ran as the official candidate of the Nationalista party and won. Elected with him were: Carlos Luglug as vice governor, Dominador Famorca and Esteban Cutiyog as board members.
In the 1969 congressional election, many Ifugaos aspired and ran as candidates for the lone district of Ifugao. Atty. Romulo Lumauig, the candidate of the Nationalista party, won and became the first elected congressman of the province.
In the 1971 local election, Governor Gualberto Lumauig ran for re-election and was given the mandate for a second term. Other elected officials were John Langbayan vice governor, Dominador M. Famorca and Napoleon Hangdaan board members.
Following the local election was the 1972 election of delegates to the Philippine Constitutional Convention. The elected delegates to represent Ifugao were Atty. Raymundo Baguilat and Mr. Gaspar Ponchinlan. These two delegates participated in the deliberation that finally resulted in the drafting and approval of the 1973 Philippine Constitution.
In June 1976, Governor Gualberto Lumauig was recalled by President Ferdinand E. Marcos to report in Manila, thus terminating his term as provincial governor. Retired Brigadier General Zosimo J. Paredes, Sr. was then appointed by the President to take his place as Governor of Ifugao.
In January 1980 came the local elections. Governor Zosimo J. Paredes, Sr. ran un-opposed thus given a unanimous mandate by the people to continue his term. Elected with him were Carlos Luglug Vice Governor, Juan B. Dait, Jr., Julian Dulawan, Sr., Pio Changiwan, Larry Dunuan, Esteban Cutiyog and Manuel Gaudencio Board Members. The elected assemblyman in 1980 was them Gualberto B. Lumauig.
In February 11, 1981 the municipality of Aguinaldo was created by virtue of House Bill No. 963 otherwise known as RA 86.
In September 12, 1982 the municipality of Hingyon was created by virtue of House Bill No. 1757 while in March 16 of the same year, the municipality of Tinoc was created under House Bill No. 1428 or RA 184.
In 1984, a new assemblyman was elected into office. He was Zosimo J. Paredes, Jr. who replace incumbent assemblyman Gualberto B. Lumauig.
After the EDSA Revolution in 1986, a transitory government was set-up which ended the tenure of the above-named elected local officials. Local officials were appointed all over the country and for Ifugao, the following were appointed as provincial officials:
- Governor Juan B. Dait, Jr.
- Vice Governor Evelyn S. Dunuan
- Ramon Bulayungan
- Albert Pawingi
- Felipe Lacbawan
- Angelito Mon-alon
- Ricardo Buduhan
- Jose Albano
- Pedro Chuchana (ABC President)
- Buena Uyami (KB Chairman)
However, when Atty. Evelyn S. Dunuan ran in the 1988 congressional election, Mr. Napoleon B. Hangdaan replaced her as OIC Vice Governor of the province.
With the January 18, 1988 local election, the elected officials who took their oath of office on February 2, 1988 were:
- Governor Benjamin B. Cappleman
- Vice Governor Atty. Alberto D. Pawingi
- Herman Dinumla
- Juan Dacawe
- Alfredo Mendoza
- Geraldo Luglug
- Salcedo Likiyan
- Corazon Montinig
Likewise, in the 1988 congressional election, Gualberto B. Lumauig ran for congress and won over former Governor Zosimo J. Paredes, Sr.
In mid 1987, Executive Order 220 was issued which resulted to the creation of the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR). During the January 30, 1990 plebiscite, it was only Ifugao which voted favorably for the ratification of the organic act creating the Cordillera Autonomous Region or RA 6766. Since then Ifugao remains under the jurisdiction of the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) together with the four provinces and the city of Baguio.
In January 13, 1992, President Corazon C. Aquino signed into law the creation of Asipulo as a municipality under Republic Act No. 7173.
During the May 11, 1992 synchronized National and Local election, Benjamin B. Cappleman resigned as Governor and filed his candidacy for the congressional position and won over his two opponents, incumbent Gualberto Lumauig and Atty. Denis Habawel. Albert D. Pawingi, the incumbent Vice Governor, took his place as Governor and Senior Board Member Herman Dinumla automatically became the Vice Governor.
In 1992, the province of Ifugao was divided into two dostricts namely: District 1 and District 2. District 1 is composed of Lagawe, Lamut, Kiangan, Hingyon, Hungduan and Asipulo while Distrct 2 covers Mayoyao, Banaue, Tinoc, Aguinaldo and Lista. The elected local officials in the 1992 election were:
Governor Atty. Albert D. Pawingi
Vice Governor Herman B. Dinumla
District 1: Juan Dacawe
District 2: Gaspar Langbayan
The May 11, 1995 local elections showed a major change in the roster of pronvincial officials. Elected into office were:
- Governor B/Gen. Ildeffonso N. Dulinayan (Ret.)
- Vice Governor Juan Dacawe
- Dominga Bella G. Takinan
- Robert Mangyao
- James Tayaban
- James Bayer
- Gaspar Langbayan
- Paterno Buya-ao
In the recent May 11, 1998 local election, Governor Ildefonso N. Dulinayan ran for re-election and was given the mandate for a second term. Elected with him were:
- Governor B/Gen. Ildefonso N. Dulinayan (Ret.)
- Vice Governor Robert Mangyao
- Dominga Bella G. Takinan
- Jose Guyguyon
- Miguel Dimalnat, Jr.
- Antonio P. Dumanop
- Abriol Chulipa
- John Langbayan
- Esther Licnachan
- Benjamin Tugguin
For the congressional position, incumbent congressman Benjamin. B. Cappleman ran for re-election and was given the mandate for a third term.
1.3 Political Sub Division
1.3.1 Municipalities and Barangays
Presently, Ifugao is politically sub-divided into eleven (11) municipalities and (179) barangays with Lagawe serving as the provincial capital town. The four additional barangays of Natcak, Liwon, Ibayong and Mappit were created by virtue of Resolution Nos. 97-107, 97-136, 98-20, 98-21 and Ordinance Nos. 97-03, 97-04, 98-01 and 98-02. Of these municipalities, Mayoyao has the highest number of barangays (27) followed by Lagawe and LIsta with (20) each, Banaue (19), Lamut (18), Aguinaldo (16), Kiangan (15), Tinoc and Hingyon with (12) each, Asipulo (11)and Hungduan (9).
|Municipality||No. of Brgys.||Name of Barangay|
Salamague Sanafe Umilag