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LEARNING THE BASICS

OF

QUANTUM MECHANICS

VISUALLY

It has been said that most of quantum mechanics can not be understood visually, but only through mathematics.

To show how visual quantum mechanics (QM) works, you will need;

1.Two or three skipping ropes.

2.A ball.

3.Some stiff bendable wire about two feet long.

Quantum Numbers

1. The first quantum number (QN) is called the principal QN and is simply the amount of energy an electron has.

To show this principle, use two skipping ropes in a double Dutch style (the ropes will be parallel two each other, one in each hand), with both ropes turning at the same speed or turning with the same energy, you can see that both ropes are sharing the space in the center, but at slightly different times. Only two electrons or ropes can share the same space and have the same principal QN.

2. The second QN is the subsidiary or azimuth QN, this QN is simply the shape of the orbital of an electron, ether an (s), (p), (d), (f), orbital.

You can use a wire to show the shapes of each orbital.

A (s) orbital can be represented by shaping the wire into a circle, if you can imagine the electron is following the circular path of the wire, then spin the wire so now the electron is moving not only in a circle but the circle is also spinning to create a spherical shape.

A (p) orbital can be represented by shaping the wire into a dumbbell shape, and grabbing the long ends of the dumbbell shape with both hands and twist or turn it between your fingers.

A (d) orbital is made by shaping the wire into two dumbbell shapes.

A (f) orbital is made by shaping the wire into two (d) orbital shapes.

3,4. The third and fourth QN's are intimately related, the third is the magnetic QN and the fourth is the spin QN.

The magnetic QN is derived from the electrons spinning about their axis, an electron moving from the bottom of this page to the top would either spin to the left or right side of the page, this spin causes a magnetic field to be formed around the electron and this magnetic field orients the electrons relative to each other.

Using our two skipping ropes, the magnetic QN can be seen by both ropes being oriented parallel to each other, if they were not oriented in this way, they could not share the same space.

The spin QN is this same spinning that causes the magnetic effect, but is different because the spin can spin in opposite or different directions, + or -, or it can also be called left or right or up or down, however you wish to look at it.

This Can be represented with our two spinning skipping ropes, notice when you turn or spin one of the ropes in one direction, the other rope must turn or spin in the opposite direction. When the right hand turns in a anti-clockwise direction, the left hand turns in a clockwise direction. You can not have two electrons or ropes having the same energy, which can also be seen as speed, and also have the same spin in that same energy level, try turning both your ropes clockwise, you will find that the ropes or electrons will hit or interfere with each other instead of sharing the space.

This same interference will happen if you try to add another spinning skipping rope or electron to the to which are already sharing the same space, this is because electrons or ropes can also only spin in one of the same two directions, if we already have the two ropes or electrons spinning in each of the two directions in that space or energy level then a third added to that space would have to interfere with one of the electrons or ropes which would cause all the electrons or ropes to interfere with each other. What has just been described is what is known as the exclusion principle.

Exclusion Principle

Because their is only two possible spins, the exclusion principle says that know more than two electrons or ropes can share the same energy level and that the two electrons or ropes that do share the same space or energy level must have opposite spins.

Spinning

And

Orbital Angular Momentum

Spinning also causes the electrons to orbit in slightly different orbits each time it goes around the nucleus.

Electrons do not orbit like a planet does, in a circle but because of spin, it makes each circle in a slightly different place each time it goes around, so a (s) orbital is spiracle instead of simply round.

This can be represented with a ball. Rolling the ball straight across the floor would be the same as a round (s) orbital, but if you put some spin on the ball before you rolled it straight across the floor, the ball would curve while moving across the floor, which would be the same as a spherical (s) orbital, or round like a basket ball.

This is the basic foundation that quantum mechanics hinges on to build atoms and molecules, along with all the interactions of atoms and molecules come from this basic knowledge.

By: Ken Carmody.

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Learning Quantum Mechanics

Change the background color by selecting a color in the dropdown box;
LEARNING THE BASICS

OF

QUANTUM MECHANICS

VISUALLY

It has been said that most of quantum mechanics can not be understood visually, but only through mathematics.

To show how visual quantum mechanics (QM) works, you will need;

1.Two or three skipping ropes.

2.A ball.

3.Some stiff bendable wire about two feet long.

Quantum Numbers

1. The first quantum number (QN) is called the principal QN and is simply the amount of energy an electron has.

To show this principle, use two skipping ropes in a double Dutch style (the ropes will be parallel two each other, one in each hand), with both ropes turning at the same speed or turning with the same energy, you can see that both ropes are sharing the space in the center, but at slightly different times. Only two electrons or ropes can share the same space and have the same principal QN.

2. The second QN is the subsidiary or azimuth QN, this QN is simply the shape of the orbital of an electron, ether an (s), (p), (d), (f), orbital.

You can use a wire to show the shapes of each orbital.

A (s) orbital can be represented by shaping the wire into a circle, if you can imagine the electron is following the circular path of the wire, then spin the wire so now the electron is moving not only in a circle but the circle is also spinning to create a spherical shape.

A (p) orbital can be represented by shaping the wire into a dumbbell shape, and grabbing the long ends of the dumbbell shape with both hands and twist or turn it between your fingers.

A (d) orbital is made by shaping the wire into two dumbbell shapes.

A (f) orbital is made by shaping the wire into two (d) orbital shapes.

3,4. The third and fourth QN's are intimately related, the third is the magnetic QN and the fourth is the spin QN.

The magnetic QN is derived from the electrons spinning about their axis, an electron moving from the bottom of this page to the top would either spin to the left or right side of the page, this spin causes a magnetic field to be formed around the electron and this magnetic field orients the electrons relative to each other.

Using our two skipping ropes, the magnetic QN can be seen by both ropes being oriented parallel to each other, if they were not oriented in this way, they could not share the same space.

The spin QN is this same spinning that causes the magnetic effect, but is different because the spin can spin in opposite or different directions, + or -, or it can also be called left or right or up or down, however you wish to look at it.

This Can be represented with our two spinning skipping ropes, notice when you turn or spin one of the ropes in one direction, the other rope must turn or spin in the opposite direction. When the right hand turns in a anti-clockwise direction, the left hand turns in a clockwise direction. You can not have two electrons or ropes having the same energy, which can also be seen as speed, and also have the same spin in that same energy level, try turning both your ropes clockwise, you will find that the ropes or electrons will hit or interfere with each other instead of sharing the space.

This same interference will happen if you try to add another spinning skipping rope or electron to the to which are already sharing the same space, this is because electrons or ropes can also only spin in one of the same two directions, if we already have the two ropes or electrons spinning in each of the two directions in that space or energy level then a third added to that space would have to interfere with one of the electrons or ropes which would cause all the electrons or ropes to interfere with each other. What has just been described is what is known as the exclusion principle.

Exclusion Principle

Because their is only two possible spins, the exclusion principle says that know more than two electrons or ropes can share the same energy level and that the two electrons or ropes that do share the same space or energy level must have opposite spins.

Spinning

And

Orbital Angular Momentum

Spinning also causes the electrons to orbit in slightly different orbits each time it goes around the nucleus.

Electrons do not orbit like a planet does, in a circle but because of spin, it makes each circle in a slightly different place each time it goes around, so a (s) orbital is spiracle instead of simply round.

This can be represented with a ball. Rolling the ball straight across the floor would be the same as a round (s) orbital, but if you put some spin on the ball before you rolled it straight across the floor, the ball would curve while moving across the floor, which would be the same as a spherical (s) orbital, or round like a basket ball.

This is the basic foundation that quantum mechanics hinges on to build atoms and molecules, along with all the interactions of atoms and molecules come from this basic knowledge.

By: Ken Carmody.

 Search the Web:

Top Of Page

Mail Us

Kenlab