THE BULGARIAN RACIAL TYPE
Modern Bulgarian population includes all anthropological types characteristic of people lived and spread over Bulgarian lands from deep antiquity as from Neolithic times through middle ages to modern days. Socio-economic and political development, historical fate, natural-geographical factors on the Balkan peninsula and biological differentiation are connected with formation of contemporary Bulgarian racial type.
The Mediterranean racial type accounts for the greatest part of modern Bulgarian. Its individuals have the following main features: light to dark, even brown skin of the face with strongly developed beard and moustache in men. The hair on head is dark brown to black with straight to slightly wavy form. The eyelids are wide open, iris is dark colored. Facial outline is fine, projects rather strongly but cheekbones are not prominent. The nose is fairly narrow with low bridge. The lips are slightly developed, medium thick. The body is gracile, agile but with smaller trunk compared to Nordic or Dinaric racial types. The height is short to middle. The head is dolichocephalous to mesocephalous with a rounded, convex occiput. Within Bulgarian population Mediterranean race is distributed in its classical form – i.e. pure types, as well as mixed varieties. The proper type distinguishes three forms – protomediterranean, gracile and medium. These anthropological types are characteristic of the Thracian ethnos with contributing role of the Protobulgarians coming from their homeland in Altai. Today Mediterranean race can be found in every part of the country.
The Dinaric racial type can be described with a tall, slim body having long extremities. Face has elongated chin and a narrow breadth mandible. With the face as a referent there is a nose with huge dimensions regarding length of the spine and height of the bridge. Pigmentation of the skin varies – from dark tones to light yellowish. The head is brachycephalous. Representatives of Dinaric race can be found predominantly in the mountainous regions of the country. They have autochthonic, Balkan origin. There are also varieties of the type concerning admixtures from Mediterranean or Nordic races.
The representatives of the Nordic race in Bulgarian population are characterized with tall stature, long head, light blue eyes, blond undulating hair, elongated face with slight cheekbones, strongly developed straight nose line. The chin is well formed and protruded. Skin is white to pinkish with considerable density of body hair in man. Often together with the Nordic proper race there are encountered the representatives of the Baltic racial type. The latter has also very light skin but the face is broad with relatively prominent cheekbones. The nose has concave profile, pointed upwards – so called snub nose. The head is moderately brachycephalous. Height is middle, body is stout. Nordic and/or Baltic races on the Balkan Peninsula resulted from the migration of Slavs and a smaller part – attribute of Protobulgarians. These are the most populous racial element in the formation of Bulgarian nation and are dispersed on the territory of the country.
Considerably rare are representatives of the Alpine racial type. Body is fat, height is middle, extremities are short. The head is definitely brachycephalous. Face is broad, rounded with prominent cheekbones. Chin is rounded, fairly developed. Hair is straight with brown to light-brown color. Eyes are brown to mixed. Nose is not big but rather broad at the base with low bridge. Alpine anthropological type has also autochthonic origin and is dispersed in the country.
The Bulgarian population has also admixture of other racial types different from Europeoid, mainly, people with Mongoloid traits. They are characterized with broad, flat face with projecting cheekbones and an epicantus with well developed fold on the upper eyelid. A significant percentage of this racial type is found in Northeastern and Northwestern Bulgaria.
Finally a statement can be made concerning the described racial types in the country that its population is of Europeoid race with slight Mongoloid admixture.