Explain the classification of behavioral influences on consumer decisions.
influences in consumer decisions are classified
as either personal or
interpersonal. These categories&-resulted from the work of Kurt Lewin, who
developed a general model of behavior that has been adapted to consumer
Identify the interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior.
These are three
interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior: cultural influences, social influences,
and family influences. Culture, the broadcast of these influences, refers to
behavioral values that are created and inherited by a society. The work ethic
and the desirability of accumulating wealth were the original determinants of
American culture. Some cultural norms change over time while others endure.
Cultural influences are
particularly significant in international marketing, but they are also crucial
factors in domestic marketing. Increased attention is being devoted to the
consumption behavior patterns of the U.S. subcultures of blacks, Hispanics, and
Asians, which are rapidly growing market segments.
concern the nonfamily group influences on consumer behavior. Some marketers
take into consideration the social influences of the class system in the United
States that was postulated by W. Lloyd Warner years ago. Opinion leaders, or
trendsetters, are another important social influence on consumer behavior.
Marketers must make special efforts to appeal to these flagships of consumer
Family influences are
the third interpersonal determinant of consumer behavior. FamiLy purchasing
patterns vary. In some, cases the female is dominant, in others the male, and
in still others, decisions are made jointly or separately. The traditional role
for the female was that of family purchasing agent, but this situation is now
in flux. For example, more teenagers are doing the household's shopping.
Identify the personal determinants of consumer behavior
determinants of consumer behavior are needs and motives, perceptions, attitudes
learning and self&-concept. A need is the lack of something useful.
Motives are the inner states that direct individuals to satisfy needs. A.H.
Maslow proposed a hierarchy of needs that starts with basic physiological needs
and proceeds to progressively higher need levels&-safety, social, esteem,
Perception is the
meaning that a person assigns to stimuli received through the five senses.
Because most incoming stimuli are screened or filtered out, the marketer's task
is to break through these perceptual screens, in order to effectively present
the sales message.
Attitudes are a person's
evaluations and feelings toward an object or idea. There are three components
of attitudes: cognitive (what the person knows), affective (what the person
feels about something), and behavioral (how the person tends to act).
Learning refers to
changes in behavior, immediate or expected, as a result of experience. The
learning&-theory concept can be useful in building consumer loyalty for a
particular brand. The self&-concept theory has other important
implications for marketing strategy, such as in the case of targeting
advertising messages to agree with the ideal self&-image of various groups
Outline the steps in the consumer decision process.
The consumer decision
process consists of six steps: problem or opportunity recognition, search,
evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, purchase act, and post&-purchase
evaluation. The time involved in each stage of the decision process is
determined by the nature of individual purchases.
Differentiate among routinized response behavior, limited problem solving,
and extended problem solving.
response behavior, limited problem solving, and extended problem solving are
the three categories of problem&-solving behavior. Routinized response
behavior refers to purchase situations based on selection of a preferred brand
or from a group of acceptable brands. When the alternative criteria are set but
a new brand is encountered, limited problem solving takes place. Extended
problem solving occurs when a new brand is difficult to evaluate or categorize
Extended problem&-solving efforts are lengthy and involve considerable