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Chancroid
Haemophilis ducreyi

 

 

Intro:

This web page was created for anyone who's interested in sexually transmitted disease-Chancroid. Chancroid is a highly infected disease that has occurred in the United States and other foreign countries currently. Both men and women can be infected by sexual contact with or without any protections. The main purpose of this web page is to provide basic and specific information about Chancroid with graphics and bibliographies, which the reader can acquire more information presented in the website.

Quick Facts:

   -a sexually disease (STDs) which can be transmitted by any sexual contact

  -it's infected by the bacterium

  -have occurred in the United States in the late 1980s

  -It's common in tropical countries

  -It's endemic and sporadic in temperate countries

  -Highly contagious

  • In the U.S, the peak of incidence rate occurred in 1987 with 5035 cases reported to the Centers for Disease Controls Prevention (CDC), but the cases has declined steadily with 773 cases reported in 1994.
  • For the incidence rate in the U.S. of 15-25 year olds, primarily chancroid occur in young adults. the peak incident in both sexes in the 20-39 year age group. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 5:8:1.
  • The complications include phimosis, urethral stricture, urethral fistula, and severe tissue destruction. Usually, if the patient follow doctor's instruction with antibiotics, patients' conditions can be cured within one week.
  • Characteristics: difficult to grow on routine culture, and still need special media. The organism is transmitted by direct contact through the skin, presumably through minor abrasions. After an incubation period of 2-10 days, a papule or pustule erupts that erodes to form a painful ulcer with ragged margins. The ulcer may be quite deep, and more than one half of patients have multiple ulcers.
  • Bacteria: Haemophilis ducreyi     
  • The past infection with chancroid doesn't make a person immune. Re-infection can readily occur immediately after cure. There's no evidence of natural-resistance.
  • Common modes of transmission: oral, anal, and vaginal sex. The infection can spread to other part of body by minor abrasions, physical contact, rubbing, and scratching. Others are likes an uncircumcised man is more likely to contact the disease than a circumcised man; any sexual active person can be infected, and if a person does not practice personal hygiene it's easier for the infection to be transmitted.
  • The risk factors:
    • Contact between scraped or broken infected skin increases the likelihood of transmission.
    • Ejaculation is not necessary for the infection to be spread.
    • Even if using a condom, sores may be present on areas not protected by the latex and can cause infection anywhere they contact receptive tissue.
    • The bacteria are more likely to invade the sexual organs at the point of a pre-existing injury, such as a small cut or scratch.
  • First signs of infection appear from 3-5 days and up to 2 weeks after contact, and usually a tender, raised bump develops where the bacteria entered the body:
    • inside/outside the vagina or rectum
    • occasionally on hands, thighs or mouth
    • on the penis

      Within 1-4 days the bump transforms into one or more shallow sores which break open and deepen, becoming:

      • filled with pus
      • inflamed
      • painful
      • ruptured
  • Chancroid is usually diagnosed by:
    • Culture or biopsy
    • Gram Stain
    • Microscopic examination of a smear sample taken from the patient's sores
  • How this disease is most commonly treated:

           Chancroid is commonly treated with antibiotic with high percentage of               success and also it can be treated by dose therapy or drain saline with               a needle under local anesthetic. Antibiotics, such as erythromycin, trimethoprin, or ciprofloxacin, which are all given up for 2 weeks. And there's a drug treatment to treat this disease by following doctor's instructions.

  • Types of medication and vaccinations:

           Multi-doses therapy:

1) Erythromycin 500 mg qid x 1-2 weeks
2) Co-trimoxazole Tab. 2 bd x 1-2 weeks
3) Amoxicillin 500 mg + Clavulanic acid 125 mg tds x 1- 2 weeks
4) Ciprofloxacin 500 mg bd x 3 days

           Single-Dose therapy

1) Ceftriaxone 250 mg IMI
2) Spectinomycin 2 gm IMI
3) Co-trimoxazole eight tablets orally
4) Ofloxacin 400 mg orally

             


 Copyright Teresa Huang

Ms day Physiology Period 3
Last updated: 05/19/03.

 

 

ulcers