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« Point of view matters | Main | How to create a non-fiction bestseller » Too Many Words A picture really is worth a thousand words, especially when you're trying to get information or knowledge to go from your head into someone else's. You can talk all day, but that sketch on the back of the napkin can suddenly make it all clear. When you're communicating, you have a thought bubble over your head with a representation of what you're trying to convey, and the listener/receiver has a thought bubble over his head with a representation of what he thinks about what you're saying. The big question is, do they match? If you use only words, there's a way better chance that the picture over the listener's head won't match. And sometimes even the subtlest difference is a deal-killer. But it's not just accuracy you get from using pictures... you get speed. This picture from our servlets book, for example, did in a two-page spread what would have taken me many pages and several thousand words to explain with the same depth of understanding. Pictures save time. And here's a third benefit: the brain likes them, so you have a better chance of getting past the brain's crap filter using pictures than words alone. For learning, there's a ton of research that supports using visuals. In one set of ten studies, people who learned from graphics and words together produced between 55 percent to 121 percent more correct solutions to transfer problems than people who learned from words alone (Ruth Clark and Richard Mayer). And I've talked before about how the effectiveness of words goes down as your audience gets younger, and/or has a brain raised in an increasingly visually rich environment. Remember, while those over 45 will generally say that pictures are used simply to support a text (but the text is primary), most twenty-somethings say that they'd be just as happy (or happier) if the text were there only when required to support the pictures. The pictures rule. If you're like me--a communicator/teacher/blogger who isn't necessarily a writer, make sure you spend more time figuring out how to incorporate visuals. Use a graphics program, or use a digital camera and a whiteboard to just put in drawings like this one (a mind-map we made while talking to book authors about how to choose what should go in a chapter): Consider this exercise we give our authors: before you write something, ask yourself "What could I do in a visual form (photo, illustration, cartoon, whatever) that would make this point?" and see if you can do it. If you don't know a graphics program, start learning. It's the 21st century, and I believe that skill with visual/graphic tools (you don't have to be a designer!) should be right up there with typing and writing. Just something everyone knows how to do. (Virtually all kids in US schools are getting some training in some form of computer graphics.) Not everyone who writes on a blog is expected to be Hemmingway, and not everyone who creates pictures is expected to be Picasso. Keep thinking back of the napkin sketch. If you're not used to thinking in pictures, it might take a little practice, but before long, you'll wonder how you got along with only words. : ) Posted by Kathy Sierra on February 22, 2005 | Permalink TrackBack TrackBack URL for this entry: Listed below are links to weblogs that reference Too Many Words: » Too Many Words from elearnspace Simplicity is one of the greatest approaches to learning design. As course designers/educators, saying something eloquently is often less effective than saying it simply. Incorporating visual elements like mind maps or diagrams can simplify even the mo... [Read More] Tracked on February 23, 2005 02:28 PM » Too Many Words (spoil the broth from the OTHER blog Sometimes I think as usability people, it's our job to mis-understand... [Read More] Tracked on February 24, 2005 03:19 AM » Too Many Words? from b.cognosco Here's a great idea for the graphics-challenged among us. I ran across it over on Creating Passionate Users (found via Innovation Weblog ). It's simple but helpful - if you can't use graphics programs, or don't want to shell out a few hundred dollars for [Read More] Tracked on March 8, 2005 10:59 AM » Thinking from berbs.us After recently listening to On Intelligence by Jeff Hawkins and Sandra Blakeslee and taking the Imagination course with Dr. Stamp here at UND, I've become fascinated with the human brain and how we actually think and work. Because of this,... [Read More] Tracked on April 28, 2005 10:40 AM Comments I agree a 100%. Some blog postings ago, I can't remember which post it was, I mentioned the fact elaborate documents (i.e. with well chosen pictures) that I like to write still needed to be 'digested' by the evaluating guys here at work. ...Well they like them more now :-), and the initial investment in making them visually appealing, proves it's value especially when the heat is on, and the grey cells are tuned to speed instead of processing masses of text. Additionally it gives great satisfaction when these documents are suited both for internal communication as well as for our customers. Visual representation/interpretation is less constrained than it's verbal counterpart. Posted by: Gian Franco Casula | February 23, 2005 03:29 AM I wonder if you can take it a small step further & say that incorporation of video can often help clarify difficult concepts at a level *beyond* static pictures. This would have been especially true for me in physics & math. BTW, I love the head-first books (and this blog). Posted by: P-daddy | February 23, 2005 07:15 AM Working in an academic environment has had its challenges for those of us into the betterment of 'systems' - committees, how to enter marks into the student database etc. We are still currently in the over 45 environment, where the flowcharts (or whatever visual we are using) are supplementary to the primary text to the extent that the text is the 'paper' and the visuals are the appendicies. It had never occurred to me before that this was largely an age thing. It is also somewhat of an academia thing, but age plays a great part. We are trying to move to an environment where the flowcharts and the paper and the explanatory text (which I think will be needed for quite a while yet in our slow moving sphere)is the appendix. I'm still in the land of people wanting me to order the pages with the text first, but I think with a little patience and learning how best to diagram for best understanding, we will get there. I wanted to say that this blog has revitalised my work ethic. Despite working in different sectors, you guys think like I do - it is great. Keep up the good work. Posted by: Kitty | February 23, 2005 07:33 AM Agreed! Visuals are also useful when you want to scan things for something interesting. Majority of your posts begin with cartoon and it lets me know in 3 seconds what the post is about and whether I want to read it right away or not. This is the reason I try to begin my post on my blog [ http://jdk.phpkid.org ] with a picture whenever I can! JD Posted by: JD | February 23, 2005 08:34 AM Using images is a great way to enhance communications but, my biggest problem with images is; where to find the ones I want? Could you do an article on where to get some good images to work with? Google is sort-of-helpful but most of results are not very good quality or the images I am looking for. Posted by: Stephan F | February 23, 2005 10:57 AM Something that isn't adequately touched on here is that there could be more than one reason that visuals are becoming more popular. I suspect one reason is that many people cannot read and write as well as they should. I doubt that schools are adequately teaching logic and essay writing (let alone spelling and grammar). They probably haven't for several decades. My boyfriend's little brother is a good example of this. Currently his essays are terrible -- a mishmash of confused thoughts over far too wide a scope, whose logic is unclear. I'm coaching him on how to write essays, and his teacher says that he's improved markedly after a single evening teaching him about focus and structure. He's had 4 years of highschool English, and grade school English before that, and nobody has taught the kid how to write an essay or the fundamentals of logic required to do so successfully. He's applying for university and he can't express himself clearly and effectively in writing. That's all too common. Words and pictures each have their own strengths. While I don't want the return of books without pictures, neither do I want books where the text is reduced to captioning the pictures. How about having words and pictures working in equal partnership, folks? Posted by: Bronwyn Boltwood | February 23, 2005 11:34 AM I agree 100%, but I've always been visually oriented! I even have an example for you ... I used Seth Godin's "Edgecraft" process from his book, "Free Prize Inside", and created a visual presentation of an "Edgecraft Analysis". It is listed in my blog, www.theshot92.blogspot.com, or downloadable from www.notewordy.com/DWheelerVPedgecraft.pdf From a competitive analysis or positioning point of view, a picture is definitely worth 1000 words - and sometimes more! Posted by: Dave Wheeler | February 23, 2005 12:48 PM Kathy, I have been using mind maps for about 15 years for all sorts of things like preparing for presentations, writing technical documents, filtering information, brainstorming and more recently as a means of presenting my resume. Last week I introduced my eldest daughter, Grace, who is 11 years old to mind maps and she used it to put together a 5 minute talk about herself. She has printed out the mind map and will present it to the teacher as part of her assignment. Grace mastered the concepts in minutes and could organize her random thoughts into a cohesive piece using something like MindMapper. One day I will put together a technical book, which consists solely of mind maps on the subject. How do you compare the information resolution of a mind map with other visual techniques? Posted by: Jim Alateras | February 27, 2005 06:00 PM Just an observation: Most (all?) graphics I saw in this book have words in them. Maybe the a picture is worth more than thousand words, but what would these pictures be worth without the words? (Kind of the music score thing for movies you wrote about.) Jens P.S.: A word can be worth a thousand pictures - just listen to a good storyteller! Bøndene i Preussen 1760-1810. Skrevet av Tor Førde. Innhold: Bøndene og markedet. Bondeuro i Preussen. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Kilder for dette kapitlet er: Hartmut Harnisch: "Peasants and Markets: The Background to the Agrarian Reforms in Feudal Prussia East of the Elbe, 1760-1807." fra "The German Peasantry," redigert av Richard J. Evans og W. R. Lee. William H. Hagen: "The Junkers' Faithless Servants: Peasant Insubordination and the Breakdown of Serfdom in Brandenburg-Prussia, 1763-1811" fra "The German Peasantry," redigert av Richard J. Evans og W. R. Lee. Jeg har i kapitlet "Den Prøyssiske Militærstaten" skrevet om bøndenes kår i Preussen. I dette kapitlet vil jeg gå mer detaljert inn på deres situasjon, og bringe inn flere momenter og synspunkter. (Jeg har blant annet i kapitlene om de frie kommunene, om Hohenlohe og om Øvre Østerrike skrevet om bøndenes situasjon andre steder og andre tider i Imperiet.) Som nevnt i kapitlet om "Det Hellige Imperiet" er det historikere i dag som trekker fram materiale som gir grunnlag for å tvile på etablerte forestillinger om den prøyssiske Militærstaten. Dette kapitlet inneholder fakta som gir et mer nyansert bilde av bøndenes situasjon enn det som har vært vanlig i forestillingene om den prøyssiske Militærstaten. Faktamaterialet som ligger til grunn for dette kapitlet er hentet fra Brandenburg. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bønder og markeder. For bøndene i Preussen ble de føydale bandene fjernet gjennom politiske reformer som også ga kompensasjoner til godseierne. Blant disse kompensasjonene var overføring av store landområder fra bøndene til godseierne. De store og mellomstore bøndene greide å betale kompensasjonene til godseierne, men antallet fattige økte sterkt i Preussen fra jordreformene rundt år 1800 og fram til 1840. Det har vært gjort mange studier av situasjonen som førte fram til jordreformene i Preussen. De aller fleste studiene har vært av lover, kontrakter og forordninger og av bøndenes juridiske status. Færre studier har vært gjort av hvordan gods og gårder ble drevet og av deres forhold til markedet og dette forholdets virkning på jordbrukssamfunnet. I de studiene som presenteres her blir det trukket fram momenter av betydning for de avgjørelsene som ledet fram til de reformene som avskaffet de føydale forholdene. Den etablerte orden. Godsdrift (Gutsherrschaft) var den dominerende landbruksformen i Tyskland øst for Elben, så vel som i store deler av Øst-Europa i den perioden vi her behandler. Vest for Elben var det mer vanlig at bøndene leide jorda fra godseierne, og drev den på selvstendig basis (Grundherrschaft). De store godsene øst for Elben ble drevet med tvangsarbeid. Bøndene måtte arbeide gratis for godseierne en stor del av året, og bøndene måtte også stille med trekkdyr til pløying og transport. Bøndenes forhold til jorda de drev varierte. Det kan deles i to hovedgrupper. Det ene hovedgruppa bønder hadde eiendomsrett til gården de drev, og den andre hadde det ikke. Begge disse to hovedgruppene var underlagt den lokale jordherren. I tillegg til de to hovedgruppene var det et mindre antall bønder som var direkte underlagt kurfyrsten, og ikke noen lokal adelsmann. De hadde store gårder og ei fri stilling. Øst for Elben fant man i Brandenburg bønder med eiendomsrett til gårdene i Prignitz og Zauche. Også i Neumark og nedre Schlesien var det bønder med eiendomsrett til gårdene, og naturligvis vest for Elben. I alle andre deler av deler av de østlige og sentrale delene av Brandenburg-Preussen var majoriteten av bøndene uten eiendomsrett til jorda som de drev. Bøndene som ikke hadde eiendomsrett til jorda kunne ha gode eller dårlige kontrakter. De som hadde livsvarige og arvelige leieretter til gårdene stod sterkere i forhold til jordherren enn de bøndene som hadde oppsigelige eller tidsbegrensede og midlertidige kontrakter. Bortsett fra et mindre antall frie bønder og en privilegert klasse landsbyordførere hadde bøndene ikke lov til å reise bort fra gården uten tillatelse, og barna deres pliktet å utføre tvangsarbeid for godseieren. Dette systemet ble til arvelig livegenskap i Øst-Preussen og Pommern og i de områdene av Brandenburg som grenset til Pommern. I de andre områdene ble ikke livegenskapen utviklet. I Mark Brandenburg begynte avhengighetsforholdet mellom bonde og jordherre når bonden inngikk leiekontrakten, og det opphørte når denne ble oppsagt. Bonden kunne flytte dersom han fant en annen jordherre, som ble godkjent av den jordherren bonden flyttet fra. Bønder uten eiendomsrett kunne tvinges til å utføre mer pliktarbeid enn tradisjonelt. Nektet de kunne de jages fra godset og erstattes med mer føyelige bønder. Preussens Bauernschutz beskyttet bare gårdene, de kunne ikke innlemmes i godsene, men ikke bøndene som bodde på gårdene. Opprørske bønder med eiendomsrett kunne bare vises bort fra godset etter dom, og godseieren måtte da kjøpe, og betale, bondens gård. Disse rettssakene ble avgjort høyt oppe i rettsapparatet. Bønder uten eiendomsrett måtte ofte utføre fem eller seks dager pliktarbeid hver veke med trekkdyr (Spanndienst) for godseieren. For å greie dette måtte bøndene ha et ekstra sett med trekkdyr bare for pliktarbeidet. Så mye pliktarbeid var ikke vanlig i de områdene der bønder hadde eiendomsrett. En tredjedel av Kurmark Brandenburg, Altmark ikke medregnet, bestod i 1797 av store gods. I Prignitz øst for Elben utgjorde godsene 27,7% av den dyrkede jorda, og i Uckermark, på grensen mot Pommern, inngikk 43,3% av den dyrkede jorda i storgodsene. I Teltow sør for Berlin inngikk 27% av jorda i godsene, og i Niederbarnim nord for Berlin var 25,5% av jorda godsjord. I prøyssisk Pommern inngikk 48% av jorda i godsene. Den resterende delen av jorda eides ikke av bøndene, men mye av den ble drevet som leilendingsbruk. Bønder med eiendomsrett til jorda utførte pliktarbeid to eller tre dager i veka, mens det for bønder uten eiendomsrett til jord var dobbelt så mye. Siden mesteparten av bøndene var uten eiendomsrett til jorda var 5-6 dager pliktarbeid hver veke vanlig. Dette var for hver gård, og det betydde at gårdene måtte ha ekstra tjenestehjelp for å ha mannskap som utførte pliktarbeidet. På godsene som ble drevet ved pliktarbeid ble størst mulig del av utgiftene med godsdrifta overført til bøndene. Bøndene måtte derfor også holde trekkdyrene og redskapene som ble brukt, og godsets driftsbygninger var det ofte bøndene som måtte bekoste, bygge og vedlikeholde. Derfor ble godsene enormt lønnsomme, med minimale driftsutgifter, siden bøndene ikke bare utførte arbeidet på godsene gratis, men også måtte betale en stor del av godsenes driftsutgifter. Bøndene og markedet. Likevel greide bøndene å produsere mer på sin egen gård enn de selv spiste, og hadde derfor et overskudd å selge. Det var de nødt til for å kunne betale skatter. For det var bøndene som bar skattebyrdene i Brandenburg-Preussen. I landsbyene øst for Elben var mange bønder fullbønder (Haufenbauern), og de drev for egen regning gårder som var mellom 200 og 700 mål, altså store gårder. I tillegg hadde de tilgang til landsbyenes fellesbeiter. Det klassiske trefelts systemet, med vinteravling, våravling og brakklegging kunne ikke gjennomføres konsekvent i Brandenburg. Jorda var for dårlig og tilgangen på gjødsel for dårlig til at to tredjedeler av jorda kunne være tilsådd til enhver tid. Bare halvparten av jorda var tilsådd, og resten lå brakk. Den åkerjorda som lå brakk ble brukt som beitemark. Fullbøndene hadde vanligvis fra to til fem tjenere på fullgården, iberegnet de som utførte de føydale pliktene. Etter at føydale avgifter og skattene var betalt ser det ut til at det gjennomsnittlige matvareoverskuddet for gårdene var mellom to og fire tonn korn årlig. Småbrukerne (Kossäten) hadde fra 50 til 100 mål jord hver. I normalår fikk de også fram et overskudd som kunne selges. Først inn på syttenhundretallet ble det større grupper på landsbygda i Preussen som ikke tilhørte ei av de ovenfor nevnte gruppene, i det det da ble fattige grupper av dagarbeidere og husmenn. Men ved slutten av århundre var disse to gruppene de største i de fleste landsbyene. Den omlegginga og intensiveringa av godsdrifta som foregikk skaffet arbeid til disse fattigere gruppene. Husmennene ble først etablert på kongens godseiendommer. Husmennene hadde et hus og fra 10 til 30 mål jord. Den aller fattigste gruppa hadde hverken jord eller hus, men losjerte hos de hadde hus. De gruppene som hadde mindre jord enn småbrukerne måtte kjøpe maten sin. Om vinteren kunne husmennene og dagarbeiderne treske på godsene, og de fikk da korn som betaling for arbeidet. Selv om fullbøndene produserte betydelige mengder korn var skattene og avgiftene som lå på dem så store at det knapt var noe overskudd igjen når alt var betalt. Wilhelm Abel skrev at bøndene balanserte alltid på en knivsegg. De var derfor opptatte av alle muligheter til å tjene penger utenfor gården. En mulighet lå i å utføre transporttjenester, som å kjøre tømmer. Kornmarkedet utvides: nye muligheter. Bortimot 1770 begynte kornprisene å stige. På denne tida begynte Preussen å eksportere korn til England. At England etter hvert ble en betydelig importør av korn påvirket hele det europeiske kornmarkedet. Samtidig økte bybefolkninga i Preussen sterkt. Befolkninga i Berlin økte fra 55.000 innbyggere i 1709 til 178.308 innbyggere i 1803. Berlins kornkonsum er beregnet å ha økt fra 36.300 tonn i 1777 til 53.400 tonn i 1802/3. Også andre byer i Brandenburg-Preussen vokste sterkt. Også på landsbygda hadde markeder for korn vokst fram. Dette voksende markedet førte både til stigende kornpriser og til økt interesse for å øke produksjonen av korn, og til økt kornproduksjon. England ville først og fremst importere hvete, og betalte godt for hvete. Hvete krever rik og godt gjødslet jord, og dette førte til at interessen for å skjøtte jorda vokste. Dette krevde at godseierne skaffet seg mer kunnskap om stell av jorda enn de tidligere hadde hatt, og førte til økende interesse for agrarvitenskap og jordbruksteknologi. Nye avlingstyper, som kløver og andre forplanter ble dyrket, og også nye matplanter, som potet, ble dyrket på åkerland som tradisjonelt hadde ligget brakk. Potet hadde vært kjent i Tyskland i hundre år, men ble først på den tida som jeg her skriver om en viktig plante. Ved økt forproduksjon kunne husdyrholdet økes, og dermed økte også mengden gjødsel, og med bedre gjødsling av åkrene kunne de gi større avlinger. Denne utviklinga førte til at mer arbeid måtte utføres på godsene. Men det var ikke mulig å tvinge mer pliktarbeid ut av bøndene. Bøndene uten eiendom utførte allerede 5-6 dager pliktarbeid i veka for hver gård. Og bøndene med eiendom fikk støtte fra myndighetene mot godseiernes trusler. Derfor måtte godseierne ansette flere arbeidere og installere husmenn på godsene for å øke den tilgjengelige arbeidsstokken. Det viste seg at betalte arbeidere arbeidet mer effektiv enn tvangsarbeidere. For bøndene som utførte pliktarbeid var oppgaven å slå i hjel tida på den minst ubehagelige måten de dagene de var på godset for å utføre pliktarbeid. Ved en arbeidslov fra 1769 (Gesindeordnung) hadde dagarbeidernes lønner blitt frosset. Dette skjedde omtrent samtidig med at kornprisene begynte å vokse. I 1797 ble denne loven bekreftet, selv om kornprisene og godsenes lønnsomhet hadde økt kraftig. Det var derfor lett for godseierne å gå over fra tvangsarbeid til lønnet arbeid. Det var mindre enkelt for bøndene å tilpasse seg de nye markedsforholdene og å legge om produksjonen. I det tradisjonelle trefelts systemet hadde alle bøndene i landsbyen og også godset rett til å bruke den delen av åkerjorda som lå brakk som beitemark. Derfor hadde alle en interesse i dette systemet, og det var ikke mulig for en enkelt bonde å legge driftsmåten om på egen hand. Bøndene hadde bare mulighet til å prøve ut nye planter i sin egen hage og på det jordstykket (Wörde) de hadde rundt det huset som de bodde i. Og de gjorde dette. Bøndene prøvde å få de føydale autoritetene til å la åkerjord ble tatt ut av trefelts systemet for å bli tilplanta med forplanter. Bøndene forstod godt sammenhengen mellom økt tilgang på for, som førte til at større buskap kunne holdes, som ga mer gjødsel som kunne brukes på åkeren og som førte til større åkeravlinger. For å oppnå forbedringer måtte alle bøndene i landsbyen være enige om de forandringene som skulle gjøres. Og denne enigheten var de ofte i stand til å komme fram til i områder som hadde god tilgang til markeder, som i området rundt Berlin. Landsbykommunen begynte ofte arbeidet på et område der det ikke var nødvendig med endringer i trefelts systemet, som i et område avsatt til utelukkende korndyrking, og økte mengden gjødsel som ble tilført dette øremerkede området, eller ved å dyrke de ytre markene som sjelden ble tilsådd mer intenst. Samtidig spesialiserte landsbykommunene produksjonen mer. Fra 1749/55 til 1805 økte de fire landsbyene på det kongelige godset Gramzow i Uckermark nordøst for Berlin den mengden korn de sådde med 130%, mens hveten ble økt med 183%. Også i mange andre landsbyer økte bøndene innsatsen sin betydelig og la om til bedre betalte kornsorter. Noen av de best dokumenterte eksemplene på produksjonsomlegging er på det kongelige godset Löcknitz i nordre Uckermark. Jorda er god og det ble mest dyrket hvete. På de ti årene fra 1794 til 1804 økte de seks landsbyene Bergholz, Bagemühl, Fahrenwalde, Grimme, Wallmow og Zerrentin tilsåinga av hvete med 158%. I Wallmow produserte bøndene så mye hvete, og så lite rug, at de måtte begynne å kjøpe rug for å dekke sitt eget konsum av rug. Men rug var så mye billigere enn hvete at dette lønte seg. Bøndene begynte også å produsere andre produkter enn korn for salg. I de to store områdene Prignitz, øst for Elben, og Lebus, øst for Berlin, økte bøndene produksjonen av frukt så mye at de hadde betydelige overskudd som kunne selges både frisk og tørket i Berlin og i Potsdam. Dette viser klart at bøndene utnyttet de mulighetene som endringer i tilgangen til markedene ga dem, og dette var bønder som enda levde under føydale forhold. De store og mellomstore bøndene var i stand til å tjene på den forbedrede markedsadgangen og de stigende prisene. I avsidesliggende områder fant tilsvarende forandringer som de som er referert ovenfor ikke sted. Skattene økte ikke i takt med kornprisene, og derfor ble skattene lettere å bære. Og i hvertfall i noen områder økte heller ikke jordleiene og de føydale avgiftene i takt med kornprisene. Bøndene hadde vært vant til å leve fra hand til munn, og nå var de i stand til å legge seg opp et overskudd. Hva gjorde bøndene med pengene? Mange sparte, men man vet at rundt Magdeburg begynte en konsumboom blant de bøndene som tjente på de stigende prisene. De kjøpte klær, kaffe, sukker og øl. Bøndenes motstand mot det føydale systemet økte. Denne motstanden hadde alltid vært tilstede, og bønder hadde ofte rømt fra umulige godseiere, og streiker hadde ikke vært uvanlige. Arrestasjon og mishandling av bøndene hadde også vært vanlig. De økende prisene gjorde bøndene mer oppmerksomme på de hindringene som det føydale systemet la i veien for at de skulle kunne utnytte de nye mulighetene. I 1774 hadde kong Fredrik II av Preussen foreslått ved en kabinettordre til Generaldirektoratet, som var et innenriksdepartement, at føydale forpliktelser ikke lenger skulle være fastsatt til et bestemt antall arbeidsdager med pliktarbeid, men kunne omgjøres til plikt til å bearbeide et jordstykke av fastsatt størrelse. Det kom ingenting ut av dette forslaget. I kabinettordren skrev kongen også at han ville gjøre noe med alle de klagene som stadig kom inn om harde arbeidsplikter. I 1796 skrev presidenten for provinsstyret for krig og kongelige domener i Pommern, Herr von Schütz: Nå føler bonden den ulikheten som han må leve under, han kjenner det onde som avholder ham fra å dyrke jorda si mer effektivt; han forstår at han kan ikke gå i gang med det på grunn av de store summene som må til for å betale de føydale avgifter og siden han må bruke mye tid til pliktarbeidet. Dette er grunnen til at det er så mange klager fra kongens undersåtter. På denne tida begynte bøndene i Preussen å få kjennskap til den franske revolusjon og avskaffelsen av det føydale systemet i Frankrike. Men lederne i Preussen ville på dette tidspunktet ikke avskaffe det gamle systemet. Etter at noen landsbyer i Altmark hadde holdt et møte for å diskutere muligheten for å avskaffe de føydale pliktene, kom den prøyssiske høyesteretten (Kammergericht) den 4. september 1794 med en skarp advarsel om at slike møter ikke måtte holdes noe sted i landet. Det eneste møtet i Altmark hadde spurt om var å få rett til å omgjøre føydale plikter til pengebeløp. Det var først etter Fredrik Wilhelm III tiltrådte som konge i 1797 at de øverste kretsene i Preussen begynte å interessere seg for å reformere eller oppheve føydalismen. Man var blitt klar over at det føydale godssystemet hadde blitt mer og mer ineffektivt. Og man ble også klar over at spenningene mellom bøndene og de føydale myndighetene var i ferd med å nå et krisenivå. Den 14. mai 1798 skrev Friedrich von Schroetter, provinsminister for øst og vest Preussen, et brev til kabinettkansler Beyme, en av kongens mest innflytelsesrike rådgivere. Schroetter fortalte Beyme at det gikk rykter om aktivitetene til en spesiell finanskommisjon som kongen hadde satt ned i 1797 for å utarbeide forslag til reformer. Landsbygdbefolkninga forventet avskaffelse av det arvelige livegenskapen og de føydale ytelsene. Schroetter var bekymret over ei "mørk ramling" blant befolkninga. I Øst-Preussen var befolkninga på adelsgodsene fortsatt underlagt arvelig livegenskap, og der var det et klart krav at dette måtte avskaffes. To måneder senere, 23. juli 1798, skrev Beyme til justisråd von Goldbeck der han la vekt på at noe måtte gjøres for å forbedre bøndenes situasjon. Eller så kunne det gå riktig galt... Under godssystemet var ei forutsetning for å modernisere jordbruket at de føydale forholdene ble avskaffet. Ikke bare bøndene, men et økende antall filantroper og embetsmenn og intellektuelle og eksperimenterende godseiere og godsbestyrere kom til å se at dette burde gjøres. Agrarreformene etter 1799 viser ikke bare hvordan myndighetene så på situasjonen på landsbygda, men også grensene for deres myndighet. De hadde i virkeligheten bare makt til å forbedre situasjonen for bøndene på de kongelige godsene. For å forbedre situasjonen for bøndene på adelsgodsene var det nødvendig med adelens samtykke og samarbeid. På de kongelige godsene fikk bøndene mulighet til å kjøpe seg fri fra de føydale forpliktelsene. Videre fikk de bøndene i Kurmark, Neumark og Pommern som ikke hadde noen eiendomsrett til gårdene de drev rett til å kjøpe gårdene ved å betale Erbstandsgeld. I andre provinser var dette ikke tillatt. Den 14. oktober 1807 begynte Baron von Steins reformer. Reformene fra 1797 var da enda ikke ferdig gjennomført. Godt og vel 30.000 bønder hadde da fått sine føydale forpliktelser omgjort til pengeytelser, og 6.000 bønder og 2.000 småbrukere hadde kjøpt gårdene sine. Dette medførte ikke fullstendig avskaffelse av de føydale forholdene. Pengeytelsene var ikke satt i forhold til markedsforholdene eller til bøndenes inntekt, men de var ei beregning og oppsummering av verdien av de tidligere ytelsene og ei påplussing av det man regnet det ville koste å erstatte disse ytelsene med leid hjelp. De bøndene som kjøpte gårdene sine fikk heller ikke ubegrenset disposisjonsrett over dem. De kunne ikke selge gården til hvem de måtte ønske, og de kunne ikke legge ned produksjonen. Barna deres kunne heller ikke arbeide utenfor landbruket uten tillatelse fra myndighetene. I 1807, etter nederlaget ved Jena, kom mer radikal reformer. Reformene fra 1799 ser ut til å ha hatt som hensikt å stabilisere det føydale systemet, ikke å avskaffe det. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bondeuro i Preussen. I juli i 1787 ble en kongelig proklamasjon som skulle lese spesielt til de lavere klasser (niedere Volks-Classen) sendt ut i Preussen: Vi er tvunget til å observere, med den største ulyst, at i det siste har rettssaker og krangler mellom jordherrer og deres undersåtter øket sterkt i mange av våre provinser. .... Men om noen godseier misbruker sine rettigheter og sin jurisdiksjon til å forulempe sine undersåtter med urettmessige krav om arbeidstjenester større enn det de rettelig skylder ham; eller om han på noen måte forgriper seg på deres eiendom eller rettigheter, eller om han gjør seg skyldig i overtredelser mot eller mishandling av sine undersåtter, så vil slike brudd på vår tillit til adelen ikke bare bli straffet av landets lover, men det vil også komme bestemte uttrykk for vår dypeste mishag og unåde fra våre egne hender. Friedrich Wilhelm tok med dette den økende misnøyen som bøndene ga uttrykk for alvorlig. Mange historikere har sett på reformprosessen i Preussen rundt år 1800 først og fremst som en diskusjon som foregikk i byråkratiet i og overklassen. William H. Hagen nevner spesielt Otto Hintze, Hans Rosenberg og Meinecke i denne forbindelsen. I følge dette synet var det som skjedde at det foregikk et ideologisk og sosialt skifte innen den styrende klassen. Den misnøyen som var tilstede utover landsbygda var av liten betydning for de avgjørelsene som ble truffet. Knapps historiske verk fra 1887 har fått mange historikere til å understreke junkernes økte utbytting av sine undersåtter i siste del av 1700-tallet. Dette undergravde statens forsøk på å bedre befolkningas kår. Det finnes flere forskjellige måter å forstå krisen og reformene omkring og etter 1800 på. William H. Hagen mener at det er mulig å se bondeemansipasjonen og overgangen fra godsdrift ved tvangsarbeid til godsdrift med lønnet arbeidskraft som et resultat av bøndenes motstand mot de føydale forholdene. Han gir et konkret eksempel på det som vi skal følge her: Uro på Godset Stavenow. Godset Stavenow lå ved Elben i Prignitz i Brandenburg nordvest for Berlin. Det var ei samling på fire gods, og hadde 13.200 mål åker. Engene og beitemarkene utgjorde 5.600 mål og det hadde 6.800 mål skog. Godset var altså bortimot 26 kvadratkilometer stort. Sju landsbyer lå under godset, og 60 store og 25 små bønder skyldte godset abeidstjenester. Fullbøndene (Vollbauern) skyldte godset i noen få tilfeller to, men for de flestes vedkommende tre dager arbeid i veka, med spann av trekkdyr. I tillegg måtte de betale avgift i form av rug. Småbrukerne som var underlagt godset arbeidet tre dager i veka på godset og betalte betydelige avgifter i form av korn. Det var ved det arbeidet som disse bøndene utførte at godset tradisjonelt ble dyrket, og avlinga ble også fraktet til markedet av bøndene. Bøndene hadde arvelige leiekontrakter på gårdene sine. De store bøndene hadde gårder på 300-350 mål dyrbar jord som ikke var inngjerdet og som ble drevet etter trefelts systemet. De hadde også beiterett i landsbyenes fellesjord og landsbyenes felles skogsområder. Småbøndene drev knapt halvparten så mye jord som fullbøndene gjorde. Stavenow var større enn de fleste junkergodsene. Men med hensyn til undersåttenes forpliktelser var det typisk for Brandenburg. I 1717 kom godset i hendene på løytnant-oberst Andreas Joachim von Kleist, en karriereoffiser som viste aktiv interesse for drifta av godset. Han døde i 1738, og de neste tjue årene ledet enka etter ham godsets virksomhet, mens hun oppdro ti sønner og fem døtre. Ni av de ti sønnene ble offiserer. Enka døde i 1758, under sjuårskrigen. Sønnene ble enige om at de ikke ville dele opp godset, men la det gå til en av dem. Major Friedrich Joachim von Kleist overtok, og da han trakk seg tilbake fra hæren i 1763 slo han seg ned på godset. Han og brødrene hans var blitt enige om å fastsette verdien på godset til 127.483 førkrigs taler. Av dette skulle hver av brødrene ha ti prosent. Godset hadde ingen annen gjeld da majoren overtok det. Majoren begynte å arbeide for å gjøre godset mer lønnsomt. Det var et arbeid som han fortsatte etter foreldrene. De hadde økt verdien av godset fra 54.000 taler i 1717 til de 127.483 taler som brødrene hadde blitt enige om i 1763. Og dette var ei reell verdistigning. Korndyrkinga var blitt betydelig forbedret, og en ny landsby med åtte fullbønder og åtte små bønder var blitt opprettet. Her ble det opprettet et nytt gods underlagt Stavenow. Kornavlingene hadde økt med 60% fra 1717 til 1763. Beitemarkene var også blitt forbedret, og kvegflokkene var økt med mer enn 50%. Siden prisene hadde steget var godsets inntekter blitt mer enn fordoblet. Fra årene 1746-1759 er godsets regnskaper bevart for åtte av årene. De viser at gjennomsnittlig var de årlige inntektene på 5717 taler, og utgiftene til godsets drift var på 1764 taler. Iberegnet i disse 1764 taler var lønn til mer enn tretti ansatte ved godset og lønn til ekstra onnearbeidere og utgifter til såkorn etc og 28 trekkhester. Lønnsutgiftene var på 1236 taler, mens andre driftsutgifter var på 528 taler, hvorav 313 taler til trekkhestene. Bøndene som var underlagt godset hadde i hele det attende århundret mulighet til å kjøpe seg fri fra arbeidsplikta. Fullstendig frikjøp var verdsatt til tjue taler årlig. De fleste valgte å kjøpe seg fri for en dag i veka, og arbeidet to dager og betalte 6,67 taler for den dagen som de hadde kjøpt seg fri fra arbeidsplikta. I 1763 innrømmet Kleist at et års arbeidsplikt bare var verdt 15 taler. Når man legger sammen verdien av arbeidsplikta og verdien av det kornet bøndene betalte i avgifter kom det i 1763 på 1556 taler. Altså bidrog bøndene med verdier som tilsvarte driftsutgiftene til godset. Kornavlingenes gjennomsnittlige foldighet var utilfredsstillende. For rug og havre var det 1:3,5 og for bygg 1:4. For å øke inntektene fra godset begynte major von Kleist å hogge ned skogen, både for å selge tømmer og for å utvide åkrene. I 1766 krevde han av fullbøndene at de skulle bruke den regulære arbeidstjenesten sin til å frakte tømmeret til Elben som ligger 20-25 kilometer fra skogen. Dette nektet bøndene, siden de ikke hadde tradisjon for det, og fordi det ville utmatte hestene. Dermed begynte en bitter og til dels voldsom konflikt mellom majoren og bøndene hans. Konflikten ble utvidet til å omfatte alle føydale plikter. Først prøvde von Kleist å få sin vilje ved å ta i bruk godsets domstol. Der vant han også i 1766. Men bøndene nektet å rette seg etter dommen, selv om noen av dem ble slått og satt i fengsel i kortere tid. Siden godsdomstolens dom ikke kunne effektueres, førte von Kleist saken til Brandenburgs høyesterett (Kammergericht) i Berlin. Bøndene hyret en advokat, og en serie rettssaker om dette spørsmålet fulgte, og de varte i tretti år, til i 1797. I disse tretti årene nektet bøndene, for det meste vellykket, men også ulovlig, å utføre de nye pliktene som godseieren ville pålegge dem. Kleist prøvde å avskaffe bøndenes rett og mulighet til å kjøpe seg fri fra arbeidsplikten. Dette ville ha økt bøndenes byrder betydelig, siden verdien av den tradisjonelle summen de betalte for dette frikjøpet etter hvert ble sterkt redusert av prisstigning. De kjøpte seg altså etter hvert fri den ene av de tre vekedagene for en billig penge. Videre ville von Kleist øke arbeidsmengden som ble utført hver pliktige arbeidsdag. Tradisjonelt møtte bøndene med en mann og hestespann fra hver gård, med unntak for under pløyinga og gjødslinga da to mann møtte fra hver gård sammen med hestespannet. Kleist ville at hver gård skulle stille med to mann og hestespann hver eneste pliktige arbeidsdag hele året gjennom. Grunnen til dette var at godset ble drevet mer intenst, og åkrene ble utvidet. Kleist prøvde også å forlenge bøndenes arbeidsdag. Alle disse økte arbeidskravene satte naturligvis bøndene seg mot. Kleist søkte å øke den mengden transporttjenester som bøndene utførte for ham. Han forlangte at de skulle møte med større vogner enn de var vante til og at de skulle transportere mer korn enn før og over større avstander. Nye rettssaker oppstod, og partene ble stadig mer forbitret på hverandre. I 1771 hadde von Kleist vunnet tre rettssaker mot bøndene om deres plikt til å transportere tømmer. Likevel nektet bøndene å påta seg denne transporten, selv om lederne deres ble satt i fengsel i flere veker i 1769 og på nytt i 1771. Den høgste appellinstansen i denne konflikten var Ober-Appellations-Gericht. Der vant bøndene. Og det fikk dem til å nekte å innfri nye krav fra Kleist, som han stadig kom med. Og det førte til nye rettssaker. I 1775 sendte kammerretten en mekler til Stavenow. Det førte ikke fram. I 1777 foreslo kammerretten overfor Kleist at han fikk opprette et godspoliti som kunne handheve domskjennelser. Kleist ville at lensmannen (Landreiter) i Prignitz skulle handheve domskjennelser. Til dette kravet svarte dommeren i kammerretten: Det nytter ikke å prøve å tvinge disse urolige folkene til å gjøre pliktene sine ved å fengsle dem på Stavenow. De sitter bare inne i fengsel ei stund, mens gårdene blir ruinert, og så fortsetter de med ulydigheten når de slipper ut. Og det er ingen slutt på dette. I 1785 klaget Kleist enda over at bøndene nektet å transportere korn over lange avstander enda kammerretten hadde kommet fram til at dette kravet hadde Kleist rett til å få innfridd. I 1780 hadde Kleist krevd at bøndene skulle betale bygging av en ny låve til ham, men bøndene nektet og sa at de var for fattige til å gjøre dette. I årene 1781-85 foregikk det en ny serie rettssaker i det bøndene nektet å betale for frikjøp fra arbeidsplikten. Senere betalte de disse pengene. Kleinst satte tre av bøndene i fengsel fordi de nektet å betale for frikjøp fra arbeidstjenesten, men de brøt seg ut av fengslet og red til Berlin. Der leverte de inn de lenkene som de var blitt låst fast i til Kammerretten. Domstolen dømte at Kleist hadde fengslet bøndene uten rettskjennelse, men dømte likevel bøndene til ei kort fengselsstraff for å ha rømt fra fengslet. At bøndene nektet å betale den gamle erstatningssummen for å slippe en av dagene med arbeidstjeneste tyder på at også de hadde bestemt seg for å gå offensivt til verk. Derfor var situasjonen fra 1780 at begge parter prøvde å forandre det gamle systemet. Ikke bare bøndene på Stavenow kjempet for å motstå hardere krav. I Schlesien var det en flod av rettssaker mellom bøndene og godseierne, og også sporadiske oppstander. I 1783 bestemte Friedrich II at provinsbyråkratiet skulle sette opp registre (Urbaria) over alle føydale forpliktelser for hvert eneste gods. I 1784 ble denne bestemmelsen utvidet til også å gjelde for Brandenburg. Bøndene på Stavenow ba med en gang om å få satt opp et slikt register. Dette irriterte Kleist, men han satte seg ikke mot det. I 1790 var registret for Stavenow ferdig. Det hadde 191 paragrafer der alle forpliktelser mellom godseieren og bøndene var fastsatt. Men hverken Kleist eller bøndene aksepterte alle formuleringene. I 1797 bestemte Kammerretten at begge parter skulle signere et revidert register, som stod ved lag i noen år, men ikke svært lenge. Registret fastsatte i detalj bøndenes arbeidsplikt. Det arbeidet som skulle utføres på hvert jordstykke ble fastsatt med tidsangivelser, og arbeidsdagens lengde ble fastsatt. Også transporttjenestene ble detaljert fastsatt. Kleist hadde under forhandlingene om registret prøvd å få rett til å jage bønder fra godset. Dette hadde han ikke oppnådd. Han hadde også prøvd å få rett til å legge tyngre arbeidstjeneste på eventuelle nye bønder enn det som hvilte på de nåværende, men heller ikke det oppnådde han. Kleist ville også ha avskaffet at leiekontraktene var arvelige; heller ikke det oppnådde han. Men heller ikke bøndene nådde fram med alle sine krav. I 1803 døde major von Kleist. Den økonomiske utviklinga av Stavenow. Selv om major von Kleist ikke fikk viljen sin med bøndene, greide han likevel å drive godset slik at det økonomiske resultatet var svært godt. Da majoren døde i 1803 begynte brødrene hans å krangle med enka om eiendomsretten til godset. I 1808 ble salg av godset til baron Otto Karl Friedrich von Voss avtalt. Han betalte 280.855 taler. Dette representerte ei verdistigning, med konstant pengeverdi, på 120% fra 1763. Majoren hadde skilt ut åkrene sine fra trefelts rotasjonssystemet, og økt foldigheten med 40%, og godset sådde 75% mer korn ved Kleists død i 1803 enn da han overtok godset i 1763. I løpet av disse førti årene hadde prisen på rug steget med 40%, bygg hadde steget meg 25% og havre med hele 180%. Godsets netto fortjeneste hadde blitt nesten seksdoblet, nettofortjenesten hadde økt fra 1266 taler årlig til 7133 taler. Kleist hadde utvidet bryggeriet og destilleriet sitt så mye at dersom kornprisene skulle falle kunne han lage øl og sprit av en tredjedel av bygget og rugen. Også kveget kastet mer av seg. Selv om Kleist ikke økte godsets kveghold, økt avkastninga av kvegbruket med 60% på grunn av stigende priser. I tillegg til de 28 trekkhestene godset hadde i 1763 hadde Kleist anskaffet 26 trekkokser. Det var nødvendig siden bøndene nektet å ta på seg å betale for godsets utvidelser av dets kornareal gjennom mer tvangsarbeid. Fra 1763 hadde godset hatt ansatt åtte mann for å ta seg av og bruke godsets hestespann. Tre nye mann ble ansatt for å ta seg av oksene, og å kjøre oksespannene. Og to nye arbeidsformenn ble ansatte på grunn av godsets store øking av åkerarealet. I 1809 hadde Stavenow 54 personer på lønningslistene. I tillegg til 1350 taler i pengelønn mottok de også kost og losji, og godset hadde 30 melkekyr for å skaffe de ansatte meieriprodukter. Disse utvidelsene og investeringene var med på å gjøre godset bedre drevet og mer lønnsomt. For å ha tilstrekkelig med arbeidskraft ansatte Kleis ikke bare flere personer i full stilling på godset, men sørget også for at han hadde tilgang til flere onnearbeidere og løsarbeidere. Dette fikk han til ved å la flere husmenn bosette seg på godset. De var pliktige til å møte opp når godset trengte ekstra arbeidskraft, og i 1808 hadde de plikt til å utføre 65 dager ulønnet arbeid for godset hvert år. I tillegg betalte de fem taler årlig for husmannsplassen. I 1763 var bøndenes pliktarbeid ført opp som verdt 21% av godsets netto fortjeneste, og i 1808 var dette redusert til 14%. Det skyldes at bøndene hadde greid å motstå presset for å tvinge dem til å øke mengden ubetalt arbeid som de utførte. Dermed økte betydninga av lønnet arbeid for godset. Ny uro, og frigjøring, på Stavenow. I 1808 sluttet bøndene å møte opp på godset for å utføre pliktarbeid. De sa at de var utslitte og fattige. Kammerretten dømte mot bøndene, men bøndene nektet å bøye seg. I 1809 sa Voss seg villig til å omgjøre arbeidsplikten til en årlig sum, og prøve ordninga foreløpig et år. Bøndene var ikke fornøyd med dette, og i desember sluttet de seg til en streik mot betaling av føydale avgifter som foregikk i Prignitz. De lokale myndighetene greide med fredelige midler å begrense streiken. På Stavenow ble bøndene i 1810 i en av landsbyene truet med militære innkvarteringer, og de måtte oppta pliktarbeidet. Men neste år gikk betalte de heller for å unngå dette arbeidet. Men de landsbyene der det var flest fullbønder betalte ingenting fra 1808 til 1817/18, og de nektet også å utføre pliktarbeid. De betalte først som en del av oppgjøret da de føydale forpliktelsene ble opphevet. For de fleste bøndene på Stavenow var det slutt på arbeidsplikta i 1808. Dette skjedde til tross for protester fra godseier Voss som ikke ville akseptere omgjøringsavgifta på 20 taler. I 1811 kom loven som ga alle bønder mulighet til å kjøpe gårdene de drev og bli fri fra føydale forpliktelser mot å betale erstatning til godseierne. I 1812 krevde bøndene på Stavenow forhandlinger for å overta gårdene sine. I 1820 hadde nesten alle bøndene under Stavenow kjøpt seg ut. Noen av bøndene betalte fullt ut, mens de fleste overlot en tredjedel eller en fjerdedel av jorda de drev til godset for å bli frie. Alle fullbøndene hadde hver minst 240 mål jord eller at de var blitt frie, og de bedrestilte småbrukerne hadde hver minst 100 mål jord pluss beiteretter. For begge gruppene var dette så mye at de kunne leve på anstendig vis av gårdene sine. Hvor representative var forholdene på Stavenow? Hvor representativt for forholdene til bøndene i Brandenburg-Preussen var forholdene og begivenhetene på Stavenow? I Prignitz var det allerede i 1754 så mange rettssaker mellom godseierne og bøndene om bruken av fellesjorda at godseiernes organisasjon (Ritterschaft) ba Friedrich II om å få skille ut fra fellesskapet den delen av fellesjorda som godseierne anså som sin egen. Dette ga kongen tillatelse til. I 1810 hadde alle godsene i Prignitz skilt sin jord ut fra fellesskapet. Noen adelsmenn utnyttet denne muligheten til å slå under seg deler av bøndenes jord. I 1765 og i 1770 prøvde adelsskapet å degradere eiendomsretten til bøndene som hadde eiendomsrett til gårdene sine, men uten å lykkes. Også på mange andre gods i Prignitz, som utgjør en betydelig del av Brandenburg, var godseierne fullt opptatt av rettssaker mellom dem og bøndene utover 1700-tallet. Etter Trettiårskrigen, og igjen på begynnelsen av 1700-tallet hadde bøndene i Prignitz organisert omfattende streiker rettet mot adelens forsøk på å undertvinge bøndene. Liknende hendinger som de som foregikk på Stavenow foregikk også på mange andre gods i Prignitz. Fra 1725 til 1801 ble befolkninga på landsbygda i Prignitz fordoblet, mens antallet bønder var konstant. Antallet jordbruksarbeidere ble seksdoblet i denne perioden. Og da bøndene i 1811 fikk muligheten til å kjøpe seg fri grep bøndene i hele Prignitz denne muligheten, og det viste seg at de hadde forbausende store pengesummer oppspart og som de brukte til dette formålet. Også i alle andre deler av Brandenburg-Preussen hadde godseierne i stor grad rasjonalisert drifta av godsene sin på kapitalistisk og mer agrovitenskapelig maner rundt år 1800. Dette innebar at de føydale arbeidspliktene ble omgjort til pengeytelser. Den historiske litteraturen viser at den kapitalistiske omforminga av godsdrifta som hadde foregått på Stavenow før 1800 var den dominerende trenden i hele Brandenburg-Preussen, inkludert Øst-Preussen, Pommern og Schlesien. Spesielt i Brandenburg og Schlesien er det klart at denne omlegginga foregikk påskyndet av stadige streiker fra bøndenes side. Noen linker til annet historisk materiale om Preussen og Tyskland. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Kilder for dette kapitlet er: Hartmut Harnisch: "Peasant and Markets: The Background to the Agrarian Reforms in Feudal Prussia East of the Elbe, 1760-1807." fra "The German Peasantry," redigert av Richard J. Evans og W. R. Lee. William H. Hagen: "The Junkers' Faithless Servants: Peasant Insubordination and the Breakdown of Serfdom in Brandenburg-Prussia, 1763-1811" fra "The German Peasantry," redigert av Richard J. Evans og W. R. Lee. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dette er skrevet av Tor Førde. 7. oktober 2001 Det inngår i et arbeid om Europas historie. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Opplysningstidas offentlighet. Skrevet av Tor Førde. Kilder for dette kapitlet er: James van Horn Meltons bok "The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe" Isabel V. Hull: "Sexuality, State, and Civil Society in Germany, 1700-1815" Jürgen Habermas: "Borgerlig offentlighet" Terry Pinkard: "Hegel A Biography" Innholdsoversikt: Innledning Staten og det sivile samfunnet Kameralistenes teori om det sivile samfunnet Kameralistene om det sivile samfunnets natur Foreninger: Den essensielle formen for praktisk sivilt samfunn Syttenhundretallets Offentlighet Det lesende publikum Å skrive for offentligheten Forfatterskap som eiendom Teatret fra hoffet til konsumentene Kvinner i Offentligheten: Opplysningstidas salonger Vertshus og kaffehus Frimureriet Universitetene Prosjektet til det sivile samfunnet Karakteristika ved den Nye moralen Habermas' "Borgerlig Offentlighet" Kritikk av Habermas' framstilling -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Innledning Det offentlige er det som er felles. Ordet "offentligheten" kan brukes om et publikum, og i så fall er det ofte en passiv forsamling. Men den offentligheten som vokste fram i Tyskland i det attende århundret var ikke en passive forsamling. Den frambrakte og valgte selv fritt de tema som den diskuterte, og dette er noe som karakteriserer opplysningstidas offentlighet. Diskusjonen og presentasjonen av tema kunne foregå i aviser, tidsskrifter, bøker og på steder der folk kom sammen for å diskutere bestemte emner. Det ble et ideal at offentlighetens diskusjon skulle kunne foregå fritt, uten sensur og tvangsmidler, der de beste argumenter og framstillinger ble avgjørende for hva som ble sett på som sant og rett. I middelalderen hadde samfunnet blitt styrt av verdslige og geistlige fyrster og adelsmenn og korporasjoner som byer og laug, ofte uten at det fantes noen fri offentlighet rundt hver enkelt politisk beslutningsenhet der dens styre ble diskutert. Fyrstenes offentlighet ved hoffet hadde vært en "representativ offentlighet" der fyrstene viste fram sin makt og prakt. Den offentligheten som vokste fram i opplysningstida hevdet derimot meninger og diskuterte statens styre og samfunnets orden, og ønsket at ordskiftet skulle bli av betydning for den politikken som ble ført. Og det ble det. Den mest kjente historiske studien av offentlighet er den boka av Jürgen Habermas som på norsk heter "Borgerlig Offentlighet". Den skal vi se på, men først skal vi se på noen andre bøker som går mer grundig inn på sider av offentlighetens framvekst i Tyskland, siden Habermas sin studie først og fremst tar opp utviklinga i England og Frankrike, og ikke er dekkende for utviklinga i Tyskland. Framveksten av opplysningstidas offentlighet forutsatte en rasjonell stat; en stat som både var rasjonell med hensyn til valg av mål og med hensyn til midler. Vi kan i kapitlet om "Den nye disiplinen" lese om hvordan staten forsøkte å disiplinere og rasjonalisere samfunnet. Dette arbeidet gjorde staten mottakelig for rasjonelle argumenter siden statene selv brukte rasjonelle argumenter, og de tyske statsapparatene kom til å oppfatte sin virksomhet som rasjonell og noe annet og mer enn fyrstenes utøvelse av herredømme, nemlig et arbeid for å oppnå "det felles beste". Offentligheten måtte ha sine organer, som aviser og tidsskrifter og steder der folk kan komme sammen for å diskutere aktuelle problemstillinger. Dette skal vi også se på. Oppbyggingen av dette kapitlet blir da: Først vil jeg følge Isabel V. Hull i hennes studie "Sexuality, State, and Civil Society in Germany, 1700-1815", der hun framstiller hvordan staten bidro til å utvikle, eller i det minste å forberede offentligheten, og la til rette for at offentligheten kunne fungere ved sin rasjonelle argumentasjon for den politikken som ble ført og utvikling av lovgivning og statsapparatet. Deretter vil jeg skissere opp utviklinga av det sivile samfunnets, eller offentlighetens, arenaer, som aviser, tidsskrifter og salonger. Videre vil jeg ta opp hva det sivile samfunnet ønsket å gjennomføre. Og til slutt vil jeg referere Isabel V. Hulls kritikk av Habermas sin forståelse av den "borgerlige offentlighet". -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Staten og det sivile samfunnet Her følger jeg Isabel V. Hulls bok. "Offentligheten" eller "Det sivile samfunnet"? Tyskland hadde i siste del av det attende århundret et vitalt og sterkt og kreativt sivilt samfunn som omfattet en betydelig del av befolkninga. Isabel Hulls skriver at hun velger å bruke betegnelsen "sivilt samfunn" om det aktive og diskuterende opplyste samfunnet. Hun vil ikke bruke betegnelser som Bürgertum, "offentlig sfære" eller Öffentlichkeit. Bürgertum er for klassebestemt og for trangt sosialøkonomisk. De viktigste deltakerne i og skaperne av det opplyste verdenssynet var embetsmenn i staten og i byene, Bildungsbürgertum, utdannede mennesker som arbeidet med undervisning og administrasjon og i frie yrker, og også det vi i snevrere forstand mener med borgerskapet etc. Den utdannede delen av adelen bidrog også betydelig som skapere og som opprettholdere av opplysning. Adelige utgjorde for eksempel 30% av Bonns leseselskap (Lesegesellschaft). Likevel var den utdannede eliten bare en liten del av den totale befolkninga. Men de kunne gjennom sine skrifter nå en stor del av den tyske befolkninga. Man regner i dag med at så mye som 70% av den tyske befolkninga vest for Elben kunne lese rundt år 1800, og det var mer enn i Frankrike. Opplysningstidas forståelse gikk igjen i og dominerte den litterære kulturen. Tilhengerne av opplysningstida var å finne i de mest sentrale stillinger, blant annet i statsapparatene. Fra disse sentrale stillingene begynte de å reformere de grunnleggende institusjonene og lovene og administrativ praksis osv. Deres innflytelse nådde videre enn deres gjerninger siden de ble modeller og eksempler og ga en ny forståelse av framtida. Som Hans-Ulrich Wehler framstiller det: "Ingen andre steder i de tidlig moderne samfunn i Europa eller Nord-Amerika kan man finne en liknende gruppe med den samme vedvarende innflytelse, den samme forbausende langtids virkning, selv inn i det tjuende århundret". Termen "ny Bürgertum" har noen fordeler i å beskrive bærerne av den tyske opplysningstida. Først gir den oppmerksomhet til at de utdannede ikke-adelige i opplysningstidas organisasjoner fant et sosialt grunnlag som de hadde tapt i det gamle samfunnet. Bildungsbürgertum hadde bokstavelig talt falt ut av standssamfunnets orden. I byene der de levde var de ofte uten borgerskap og den type sivile rettigheter (Bürgerrechte) som tilhørte det gamle patrisiatet og laugsborgerskapet. De var ei ny gruppe i ferd med å etablere seg. For det andre pekte de mot et nytt begrep om, en ny forståelse av Bürgertum, i betydningen Staatsbürger, eller aktiv deltakende samfunnsmedlem i det nye sivile samfunnet. De var slik en kommende klasse som enda ikke var blitt en del av det tradisjonelle samfunnet, men som var i ferd med å utforme og å drømme om en ny framtid. Kriteriet for å tilhøre denne gruppen var ikke tradisjonelt sosialt, det er, det samsvarte ikke helt med status, profesjon, heller ikke direkte med rikdom. I stedet var det en kvalitet som alle i teorien kunne aspirere mot og oppnå: Bildung. Siden idealet og kravet om at Bildung var det konstituerende prinsippet for den nye Staatsbürger overskred det den gamle sosial ordens grenser og undergravde den, som Friedrich Nicolai sa: "Fornuftige og ærverdige personer hører sammen uansett stand, religion, eller andre perifere forhold". Fornuften hadde erstattet standsmedlemskapet som identitetskort for den nye eliten. Med denne nye eliten var sosialt for flytende med for uklare grenser og for lite homogen til å kunne regnes som en ny klasse, derfor er begrepet "ny Bürgertum" lite dekkende. Kameralistenes teori om det sivile samfunnet Kameralistene var det tyske sivile samfunnets første teoretikere. De fleste av dem var toppbyråkrater, og skrev handbøker om god regjeringsskikk. Det er kjent så mange som fjorten tusen bøker av dette slaget, og det er en genre som er unik for Tyskland. Disse utredningene reflekterte over utenlandsk styringspraksis, og mange steder i Tyskland var myndighetene opptatt av alle livets forhold, spesielt i byene, og utferdiget bestemmelser om alt mulig, om helseforhold, sikkerhet, handel og konsum av mat og drikke, bekledning, dekorasjon, og mye annet. Kameralismen var opptatt av dette, og av skattlegging, og av å få hele politikken og styresettet til å bidra til å utvikle et harmonisk samfunn og harmoniske forhold mellom styrende og styrte. På den ene siden tjente kameralistene sine herrer ved å utvikle planer om økonomisk vekst og effektiv administrasjon for å øke fyrstens inntekter og makt. På den andre siden ankret de fyrsten fast i det eksisterende nettverket av lover og forpliktelser, og mer enn det: til idealet om og forpliktelse overfor det felles beste (Gemeinwohl), som den offentlige myndighet skulle tjene og garantere. Kameralistene produserte den første tyske teorien om det rette forholdet mellom stat og samfunn, og de gjorde det innenfor et rammeverk av kollektive og gjensidige forpliktelser. Dette rammeverket var både praktisk og utopisk. Det var praktisk siden kameralistene ønsket å gi jordnære råd til administrasjonen om hvordan tingene skulle gjøres. Problemet var ikke å begrunne staten eller samfunnet, men å få dem i harmoni ved å fremme deres felles beste. Kameralistene introduserte begrepet om statsborger i Tyskland, og la grunnlaget for et uavhengig rettsvesen og slik for rettsstaten (Rechtsstaat). Noen kameralister, som seint i det attende århundret reflekterte over hvordan styresettet skulle settes i forhold til samfunnet, utviklet for første gang en forståelse av og postulerte en privat sfære beskyttet mot offentlig intervensjon. Samtidig med sine praktiske gjøremål og interesser var også kameralistene opptatt av utopiske spekulasjoner. De så framover og var interessert i forandring, selv om de også ville opprettholde mange sider av den eksisterende orden. Kameralistene ville ha kontinuerlige forbedringer av samfunnet og staten og forholdet mellom dem: styresettet, og også av individene, helt fram til perfeksjon av alle. Christian Wolff skrev: "Naturen krever at vi strever mot det beste så langt vi er i stand til, derfor må vi også ha et begrep om det beste eller mest perfekte, slik at vi kan dømme om hva vi skal streve mot". Kameralistene om det sivile samfunnets natur "Staten er et samfunn" skrev Østerrikes mest kjente kameralist, Josef Sonnenfels (1733-1817) i 1777. Denne overbevisning delte han med sine kollegaer. Det var et forsøk på å løse det problemet som absolutismen presenterte, nemlig at staten truet med å bli stående for fjernt fra de som ble styrt, og måtte bringes i takt med dem. Ordet "stat" hadde dårlig rykte. Kameralistene ønsket å vise sine fyrstelige mestre "hvordan velstanden til landet og velferden til dets innbyggere er uløselig bundet sammen med interessene til deres leder, og dette er det sanne og eneste prinsippet for den kameralistiske vitenskapen." Dette postulerte en enhet mellom stat og samfunn, og det betydde at det felles beste var godt for begge parter, staten og samfunnet hadde felles interesser. For hard skattlegging ville være ødeleggende for begge parter, "fordi pliktene og rettene til regenten i en slik stat består i dette: alltid å opprettholde og oppmuntre det sikre og komfortable livet til både undersåttene og seg selv, som deres leder, i interesse for hele statens beste." Kameralistene kalte hele administrasjonen for "politi", altså ei anna betydning av ordet "politi" enn vår dagligdagse. Kameralistene la stor vekt på å skape økonomisk vekst og velstand. Kameralistene gikk ut fra at befolkningsvekst ikke ville føre til sult, men til økt produksjon og handel, og at veksten i handel og produksjon ville bli sterkere enn befolkningsveksten. Kameralistene utmerket seg ved sin entusiasme for befolkningsvekst. Dette må naturligvis også sees på bakgrunn av de store landområdene som lå øde og folketomme etter Trettiårskrigen. Kameralistene så konsumpsjon som et gode siden konsumpsjon skapte etterspørsel og markeder, og slik både bandt samfunnet sammen og gjorde vekst mulig. Dette var ulikt det alminnelige fattigdomssynet der man la vekt på å overleve, og for å greie dette måtte man spare og sette tæring etter næring. Kameralistene var ekspansive, og la ikke vekt på subsistens synssettet der man satset på å greie å overleve i fattigdom. Dette var et synssett som på sine måter undergravde den gamle verdensorden. Wolff konkluderte med å skrive: "Dersom man ikke forventet annet enn det som er nødvendig for å overleve, så ville det største antallet forretninger kollapse, og mange mennesker ville være uten arbeid som kunne skaffe dem inntekt å overleve av". Selv om kameralistene ønsket måtehold, omdefinerte de, nølende, forståelsen av hva luksus er. De så ikke på luksus som syndig, men mer som et gode, i det minste så lenge luksusvarene var produsert innenlands. En tredje forandring i verdisyn som kameralistene gjennomførte gjaldt synet på begjær. Når konsumet ble løsgjort fra nødvendigheten hvilte det på begjæret, og begjær, som lengsel etter gleder og materiell komfort, kunne derfor ikke framstilles som syndig. Tvertimot ble ønsket om materiell komfort et verdig mål. Det skjedde altså ei forandring hos kameralistene der man gikk over fra negative prinsipp om overlevelse og beskyttelse til positive prinsipp om lykke og glede, og dette gjorde seg også gjeldende for de grunnene som kameralistene ga for grunnlaget til staten/samfunnet. For de tidlige kameralistene var den grunnleggende beveggrunn å bygge beskyttelse rundt seg selv mot de onder som truet mennesket, som Pufendorf skrev i 1673. Christian Thomasius skrev i 1692 at: "Det sivile samfunnet ville ikke ha oppstått dersom man ikke hadde begynt å frykte kjærlighetsløse mennesker og søkt beskyttelse mot deres hat". Ti år senere hadde balansen forandret seg. Da skrev Thomasius at menneskene kom sammen og dannet samfunn for å vinne framgang og for å fremme det felles beste, som de kan oppnå med sin forenede energi. Dette ble det vanlige standpunktet for kameralistene. For kameralistene var da det sivile samfunnet den mest organiserte, selvbevisste formen for menneskelig liv. Regjering var en del av det, men en del som ble målt helt etter det sivile samfunnets egne mål. Regjeringenes oppgaver var å sikre samfunnets utvikling fram mot det felles beste. Det sivile samfunnet var for kameralistene alltid samfunnet i dets organiserte helhet, ikke bare en samling økonomiske forhold. Etterhvert som man går fra det syttende århundret og inn i det attende århundret forandret kameralistenes forståelse av samfunnet seg fra en noe abstrakt forståelse av en eksisterende enhet som hadde behov som ga moralsk ledelse og legitimitet til regjeringa, til et begrep om en sosial orden som var under utvikling og organisert etter nye prinsipp, som etterhvert ble klarere. Dette framtidsorienterte synet på samfunnet var ikke ment å overflødiggjøre den gamle sosiale orden, men å forbedre den. Noen karakteristika ved kameralistenes samfunnsoppfatning Begjæret Det sivile samfunnet var drevet av begjær. Befridd fra nødvendighetens diktat ble samfunnet drevet av lysten. "Det er bare to hovedkilder, eller to store drivfjær, fra hvilke all genialitet, oppfinnsomhet og foretaksomhet i et folk oppstår", skrev Justi. "Disse er begjær [Begierde], til å gjøre livet komfortabelt og gledefullt for en selv, og behovet [Verlangern] for fordeler. Begge er naturlige for mennesker, og medfødte. De trenger ikke å bli plantet i folk. Man trenger bare å styre dem riktig og fjerne hindringene for dem ..... Denne trangen til å gjøre livet mer komfortabelt finnes i kjærligheten til en selv". "Kjærlighet til en selv" var diametralt motsatt av de kollektive verdiene til overlevelses Europa. Og egenkjærligheten var farlig. Kameralistene møtte denne faren ved to strategier for å dempe enten dens begjær eller dens ubarmhjertige autistiske individualisme. I den første strategien omfavnet de selvet og studerte det for å forstå begjærets opphav. Thomasius engasjerte seg energisk i dette foretaket. I to store bøker undersøkte han følelsene. Han forklarte leseren hvordan han skulle anerkjenne sin egen følelsesmessige konstitusjon og lede den fram mot "fornuftig kjærlighet". Han ventet at leseren skulle bli sjokkert over den sentrale viktighet til begjæret i følelseslivet: "Hvordan ville det være, dersom vi sa: behov {Verlangen] (desiderium) eller lyst [Begierde] (cupiditas) var den eneste hovedfølelsen, som alle andre er underordnet? Det ville synes paradoksalt, og enda tror jeg at man kunne vel si dette." Han fortsatte med å omdefinere begjær mer smakfullt som "kjærlighet" og tilby lange råd om dens rette bruk. Rådene hans avhengte av to viktige antakelser. Moderasjon brakte den største lykken: "Ens store lykke avhenger av ro og moderat forandrede oppfatninger". Alle kameralistene var enige om at moderasjon var nøkkelen til den rette bruk av nytelsen. For det andre fulgte Thomasius Pufendorfs utsagn om at: "Regelen for lidenskapene er: hvor sterke de enn er, så kan en mann være overlegen dem ved den rette bruk av forstanden". Evnen til å styre sine lyster var merket på det rasjonelle mennesket, og senere nødvendig for adgang til det sivile samfunnet. Gjennom moderasjon kunne begjæret forenes med ens moralske plikter. Thomasius skrev at: "Moralitet [Sitten-Lehre] er ikke annet enn den læren som instruerer en person i hva hans sanne og høyeste lykke består i, og hvordan den oppnåes, og hvordan man fjerner og kommer over de hindringene for dette som en selv har kastet opp". Den andre strategien for å beskytte seg mot egenkjærlighetens ødeleggelser var å forankre den i et annet menneske. Denne strategien forklarte egenkjærlighet på en seksuell måte: "Der to sjeler er forenet må to viljer bli en, og hver elskende person lever mer for den andre enn for seg selv". Egenkjærligheten løses opp i kjærligheten til en annen. Dette kan bare skje på grunnlag av fullstendig følelsesmessig gjennomsiktighet og felles seksuell nytelse. Senere kameralister omdirigerte ikke egenkjærligheten inn i paret, men inn i familien. De antydet også at myndighetene kunne påvirke individene slik at de rettet sin kjærlighetstrang i den retning, eller på den måte, de påvirkende myndighetene ønsket. Materialisme Kameralistene var alltid oppmerksomme på Kammeret, altså skattkammeret, og skatteinngangen, selv om de ikke prøvde å maksimere skatteinngangen, men la vekt på at det var samfunnets velstand og produksjon som måtte økes mest mulig. På samme måte var de oppmerksomme på at ei utdannet og dyktig befolkning med et mangfold av ferdigheter og kunnskaper var nødvendige for å skape et velstående samfunn, men ikke tilstrekkelige til dette. Befolkninga måtte også ha moralsk ryggrad: "Den største dyktighet viser seg i den endelige analysen å være ufruktbar dersom personens hjerte ikke er moralsk [moralisch]. .... En persons hjerte er moralsk når han alvorlig prøver å måle anvendelsen av sin dyktighet ikke i henhold til dens egen bruk, men i henhold til velferden til den helheten som han lever i". Dette var den vanlige holdning hos kameralistene. Moralen ble sett på som grunnlaget for samfunnet. Derfor grunnla kameralistene samfunnet på forpliktelser, og ikke på rettigheter. Alle samfunnsmedlemmene hadde forpliktelser overfor hverandre og overfor det felles beste; det gjelder også forholdet mellom fyrsten og resten av samfunnet. Det sivile samfunnet bestod slik av moralske forhold av gjensidige forpliktelser, ikke av abstrakte retter avledet fra naturretten. Naturretten førte for kameralistene med seg et annet sett plikter, personens plikter overfor seg selv, ikke til umiddelbar nytelse, men plikter med en videre og fjernere framtidshorisont til å utvikle sin personlighets muligheter. Velferd var mer enn materielt velvære. Det var den rette balansen av gjensidige forpliktelser mellom de som konstituerte det sivile samfunnet. Kameralistene er blitt kritisert for å ha grunnlagt samfunnet på moralske forpliktelser heller enn på rettigheter. Leonard Kriege skrev: "Individet fant sin frihet stadig mer i konformitet med heller enn i motstand mot statens makt". Moralske begrensninger for herskeren var en svak erstatning for konstitusjonelle garantier. Etter reformasjonen visste alle i Tyskland at Guds orden rettferdiggjorde staten og at fyrsten var den øverste religiøse lederen i territoriet. Staten og samfunnet var ført sammen i moralsk forstand. Alle forhold i samfunnet var også moralske forhold; det gjaldt også for forholdet mellom fyrsten og undersåttene, der fyrsten, og også godseieren, pliktet å hjelpe sine undersåtter i tider med nød, slik Preussen bygde store kornkammer som ble brukt for å avhjelpe dyrtid og nød. Hele samfunnet var sammensatt av gjensidige forpliktelser. Man pliktet å leve et ærbart liv der man, så langt mulig, forsørget seg selv og bidro til å forsørge egen familie [ein Erbar und züchtiges Leben und Wandel]. Det ytre Det sivile samfunnet var sfæren for ytre handlinger her og nå. Dets standarder var lavere enn standardene som gjaldt for sjela og for den mer perfekte framtida. Utvendig disiplin skaper ikke dyd, men avholder fra syndige handlinger. Dette ble av de tidlige kameralistene oppfattet som en vanskelighet, som de prøvde å løse på to måter. Den første gikk ut på at de ignorerte sin egen innsikt i lovens begrensninger ved å la den gjelde også for menneskets indre natur, ved å inkludere religiøse bestemmelser i lovene, som å forby ateisme. Men Justi derimot skrev at det alltid er galt når statens lover blander sammen moralske dyder og sivile dyder. En mindre selvmotsigende løsning var å arbeide for at individenes selvkontroll skulle styrkes. Som Wolff observerte: "Generelt er det alltid mer som kan vinnes når man er disponert for noe ved en indre drift [Trieb] enn når man bare er holdt til det gjennom ytre tvang". Å fostre den rette indre trang kunne oppnås gjennom moralsk utdannelse. Kameralistene trodde at religionen var nødvendig for å utvikle selvkontroll, at det var av redsel for helvete og av ønske om å komme til himmelen at folk ble dydige og ønsket det gode. Derfor var ateismen en stor og samfunnsødeleggende trusel. Til slutt var ære viktig. På den måten mobiliserte man sterke indre mekanismer gjennom hvilke grupper allerede regulerte seg selv. Wolff gjorde det til en sivil plikt å opprettholde sin ære: "Enhver er forpliktet til å gjøre sitt ytterste for å være verdig ære [Ehre] ..... og å søke alles vennskap, slik at han opprettholder et godt rykte". Dette understreker at ære ble gitt eller opprettholdt kollektivt. Å handle ærverdig var å handle i overensstemmelse med sosiale forventninger. Men ikke bare på den måten kunne ære oppnås, men også gjennom å utmerke seg ved fortreffelig dyktighet. Å søke perfeksjon kunne derfor også være å søke ære. Differensiering Kameralistene oppfattet det sivile samfunnet som differensiert. Delvis tok de ganske enkelt og plasserte stendenes hierarkiet over det nye sivile samfunnet som de forestilte seg. Og delvis så de at differensiering var en nødvendig følge av en voksende økonomi. Wolff skrev at ulike personer har ulike behov og ønsker, og tilfredsstillelsen av disse leder ut over den rene overlevelse. Kameralistene var åpne for ulikhet og mangeartethet. Et eksempel på dette er at de var svært villige til å invitere utenlandske fagfolk til sine tyske stater. Men dette var ikke nok. Justi skrev: "Man må spesielt understreke at et snilt og vennlig styresett, en fornuftig frihet, tillater borgerne å engasjere seg i uskyldige og irrelevante handlinger, og fullstendig samvittighetsfrihet må det være rom for i en by, om man vil oppmuntre dens ekspansjon og vekst. Dette er ikke bare nødvendige midler for å oppmuntre befolkninga, men er også nødvendig for at manufakturen skal blomstre. Man kan ha lite håp om vekst i en by der ikke enhver nyter fullstendig sivil frihet og samvittighetsfrihet". Den mangfoldigheten som oppstod fra denne graden av frihet var nerveslitende. Sonnenfels var uvanlig når han mente at samfunnets deler ville regulere seg selv. De fleste kameralistene hadde en mer tradisjonell forståelse av den sosiale harmonien. De mente at i det minste måtte standssamfunnets sosiale hierarki beholdes. Oppdragelse til sosial harmoni så kameralistene på som viktig. Denne bestod i at folk ble tilpasset det eksisterende systemet ved å lære de ferdighetene som var nødvendige for å utføre de arbeidsoppgavene som fantes i samfunnet, og lærte å se det sosiale hierarkiet som tingenes naturlige orden. Dynamikk Kameralistene foreslo å åpne opp for en flom av produksjon, konsumpsjon, befolkningsvekst og rikdom. Likevel ønsket de ingen betydelige endringer av autoritetsforholdene i samfunnet. Standssamfunnet skulle fortsette å bestå, og rikdommen skulle fortsatt være like skjevt og ulikt fordelt mellom stendene. Foreninger: Den essensielle formen for praktisk sivilt samfunn Den tyske opplysningstida foregikk ikke inne i hodet på isolerte mennesker. Mer enn i England og i Frankrike var den tyske opplysningstida og de som representerte den organisert i institusjoner og foreninger der dens prinsipp ble gjort kjent og ble debattert og utformet. Leseforeningene var i siste del av det attende århundret blant det sosiale livets viktigste krystalliseringspunktene, de var formen for bygging av det sivile samfunnet. Foreningene begynte å bli dannet i 1720-årene med de første moralsk-litterære samfunnene, og dette forsatte i bølgebevegelser ut gjennom århundret der stadig større grupper ble deltakere. De første moralsk-litterære samfunnene ble dannet i kommersielle sentra som Hamburg og Leipzig. De ga medlemmene mulighet til å møtes og å lese og diskutere samtidige publikasjoner. De kunne utgi egne tidsskrifter, som Der Patriot til det moralsk-litterære samfunnet i Hamburg. Der Patriot nådde et publikum på 12-15.000 personer. Ved midten av århundret begynte to andre typer foreninger å oppstå, og medlemskap i dem ble den mest populære måten å delta i opplysningstida på. Den ene foreningstypen var frimurerlosjen. Rundt 1780 var det så mange som 350 hemmelige frimurerlosjer i Tyskland med 15-20.000 medlemmer, og de fleste støttet opp om opplysningstidas filosofi, som ble lest og diskutert i losjene. De allmennyttige samfunnene (gemein-nützig) var helt åpne. Det var omkring 50-60 av disse, og de hadde omkring 5.000 medlemmer i siste tredjedel av århundret. De hadde vide kontaktnett og utfoldet stor aktivitet, og var høgt respekterte. Disse foreningene hadde bibliotek og egne møterom. De organiserte ofte kampanjer der de utdelte priser for beste avhandling om aktuelle tema, som fattigdom. De publiserte avhandlinger om mange ulike saker. De bidro til å gjøre det sivile samfunnet mer kompetent til selv å arbeide med aktuelle saker, uten statens medvirkning. Dermed skjøv de grensene til statens virksomhet tilbake, ved å kvalifisere det sivile samfunnet til å definere og bearbeide sine egne problem. Mot slutten av århundret kom en tredje bølge av selvorganisering som produserte leseselskap for uformelle grupper som delte utgiftene til å kjøpe bøker og abonnere på tidsskrifter, og, gjennom mellomliggende former, til leseselskap med egne bibliotek og lesesaler og diskusjonsrom. Disse foreningene hadde ofte ukentlige møter. Rundt år 1800 var det omkring 430 slike foreninger med 15-20.000 aktive medlemmer. Og det kunne ha vært flere om ikke regjeringene etter 1789 hadde begynt å forby disse foreningene, på grunn av frykt for at de utviklet seg til å bli revolusjonære foreninger. I disse foreningene praktiserte medlemmene de grunnleggende prinsippene til det sivile samfunnet og perfeksjonerte dydene og ferdighetene som var nødvendige for å opprettholde og utvikle det. Medlemskap var naturligvis frivillig, og medlemmene ble etter diskusjon enige om reglene for foreningene. Medlemmene var like, uansett status utenfor foreningene, med lik tale- og stemmerett. Medlemmene skulle ikke avbryte hverandre eller uttale seg nedsettende eller sarkastisk om andre medlemmer, men være saklige. Alkohol skulle ikke nytes i de fleste foreningene. Det ble lagt vekt på å oppnå en rolig, behersket og edruelig atmosfære. Foreningene skulle oppøve medlemmenes bruk av fornuften, og gjerne også føre til praktisk handling. Man regner med at medlemsskapet var identitetsformende, der medlemmene kom til å akseptere nye sosiale regler og kom til å oppfatte seg som tilhørende en elite som skapte framtida. Regler om inklusjon og eksklusjon De tre bølgene med organisasjonsaktivitet, fra de moralsk-litterære selskapene i 1720-årene til 1760-årene, gjennom frimurerlosjenes og de patriotiske-almenn nyttige selskapenes tid fra 1750-årene til 1790-årene, og til leseselskapene fra 1770-årene til 1800, viser en markert trend i medlemsskap. De moralsk-litterære selskapene var de første til å nå hinsides de lærdes begrensede krets og til et bredere publikum. Deres mål var å skape en ny form for samfunn, og adelen var så befestet i det gamle at den bidro lite til dette nye. Bønder og handverkere som kunne lese ble ansett å være så tradisjonsbundne at de ble nektet adgang til disse nye foreningene. Men de moralsk-litterære selskapene rettet seg inn mot kvinner, selv om kvinnene ble sett på som lesere og ikke som bidragsytere. Målet for kvinnene var ikke som for mennene å utvikle sin personlighet, men å bli bedre mødre og koner og venner, og bedre forstå sin plikt overfor Gud og menneskeheten. Da oppmerksomheten i sterkere grad ble rettet mot personlig utvikling, og handverkere fikk adgang til foreningene, ble kvinnene utestengt. Like karakteristisk som utestengelsen av kvinner var den store deltakelsen av offentlige tjenestemenn. Deres deltakelse i opplysningstidas foreninger påvirket deres arbeid for fyrstene, og var medvirkende til at mange fyrster førte en på mange måter opplyst politikk. Disse offentlige tjenestemennene var spredt ut over hele Tyskland, og ikke konsentrert i et eller få sentra. De offentlige tjenestemennene kom i løpet av det attende århundret til ikke lenger å se på seg selv som fyrstens tjenere, men som statens eller det offentliges representanter, med oppgave å arbeide for det felles beste. De sluttet seg til foreninger og skrev i tidsskrifter som rasjonelle medlemmer av det sivile samfunnet. De mente at statens formål var det felles beste, som den også i følge kameralistenes skrifter var, og derfor forenlig med opplysningstidas idealer. Nasjonens anerkjente formyndere Christoph M. Wieland beskrev i 1791 publisistene som "i en bestemt betydning de virkelige nasjonens menn, fordi deres umiddelbare aktivitetsområde er hele Tyskland". Med dette summerte han opp deres selvforståelse. I et annet kraftfullt uttrykk fanget Wieland inn hvordan det sivile samfunnet så seg selv: "I løpet av den eksistensen som naturen har bestemt det, har menneskeheten i løpet av atskillige årtusener gjort markert framgang. Ti, tjue eller tretti millioner mennesker i en enkelt stat vil ikke lenger la seg bli behandlet som så så mange moralske sifre. Ikke desto mindre kan største delen av disse millionene i en bestemt mening bli sett på som umyndige; men de har den alminnelige fornuft som sine formyndere, og man kan hvile forsikret om at i saker som direkte angår velferden til den uendelig store majoriteten uttrykker disse formynderne den offentlige mening." Disse "nasjonens menn", som Wieland tenkte på som uttrykkende den offentlige mening, men som heller skapte den offentlige mening, var i kraft av sin utdannelse, rikdom og fritid, Fornuftens legemliggjørelse i den virkelige verden. Betydningen av begrepet "Statsborger" ble i slutten av det attende århundret innsnevret til bare å gjelde for de som aktivt tok del i den meningsskapende offentlige debatten. Delvis fordi den nye forståelsen av det sivile samfunnet tok vare på gamle og tradisjonelle elementer, og delvis fordi offentlige tjenestemenn spilte en stor rolle i å skape det sivile samfunnets nye selvforståelse, ble de aktive opplysningsmenns forståelse av seg selv som nasjonens formyndere og politikkens dommere, i stadig større grad akseptert av regjeringene. Da Friedrich II bestemte seg for at Preussen måtte få en ny alminnelig lov, fant han det riktig å la den offentlige mening bli hørt angående lovutkastene. Herskerne aksepterte at det fantes et sivilt samfunn og en offentlig mening som burde ble hørt og tatt hensyn til. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Notater om keiserens makt. Skrevet av Tor Førde. Dette kapitlet omhandler keiserens makt i Bøhmen og Ungarn. Østerrike bestod i den perioden som vi behandler her av flere kongedømmer. I de forskjellige kongedømmene hadde det jordeiende aristokratiet gjennom stenderforsamlingene ei dominerende stilling. Habsburgerne ville gjerne utøve absolutt makt, men måtte nøye seg med å styre gjennom det provinsielle aristokratiet. De store jordeierne kontrollerte ikke bare matproduksjonen, men også det meste av den økonomiske aktiviteten, og hadde autoritet over de personene som hørte inn under godsene. I Bøhmen var bondens verden det godset som han hørte inn under. Ved hjelp av patronasjerettigheter hadde godsherren greid å gjøre prestene til sine underordnede. Godsherren representerte øvrigheta både gjennom sin domsmyndighet og gjennom at han krevde inn tiende og kommanderte over bonden gjennom bondens arbeidsplikt. Godsherren var også en entreprenør, som ikke betalte skatter. Han kunne eie fabrikker og investere i statsgjeld. Godsherrene eide to tredjedeler av all eiendom i Bøhmen. Med unntak for Ungarn, der storbøndene var mektige, kontrollerte de aristokratiske godsherrene stenderforsamlingene i alle deler av de østerrikske landene. Disse forsamlingene avgjorde hvor store skatter som skulle betales inn til sentralmyndighetene. Aristokratiet kontrollerte også lokaladministrasjonen, og hadde den virkelige politiske makta i det meste av de østerrikske landene. Dette var den situasjonen som sentralmyndighetene stod overfor. Et skritt for å oppnå større kontroll var å prøve å ensrette landene med hensyn til religion. I deler av riket hadde mektige grupper blitt protestanter. De var dermed i et motsetningsforhold til den katolske keiseren, og dette motsetningsforholdet gjorde det lettere for disse gruppene å stå sammen mot keiseren. Den "fornyede konstitusjonen" som Ferdinand II garanterte Bøhmen i 1627 var en modell som Leopold I (1658-1705) ville prøve å innføre i Ungarn. Da Leopold, 17 år gammel, i 1658 overtok etter sin far Ferdinand III som keiser, overtok han den katolske motreformasjonens politikk som hadde økt keiserens myndighet i andre deler av riket. Både av samvittighetsgrunner og av politiske grunner ville den nye keiser Leopold I gjøre alle sine undersåtter til katolikker. Han følte seg personlig ansvarlig for sine undersåtters frelse, og mente at han selv kunne gå fortapt dersom undersåttene fikk lov til å drive med luthersk kjetteri. Han mente også at det var hans plikt som keiser å forsvare den romersk katolske religionen. Den politiske grunnen til å søke å gjøre riket enhetlig med hensyn til religion lå i at riket rommet så mange forskjellige språk, stater og religionsformer. Ved å gi riket en eneste religionsform kunne denne religionen virke samlende for riket. Det ble et grunnleggende prinsipp for hoffet i Wien at den romerske katolske religion skulle være et av de enhetsskapende og samlende elementene i riket, et element som også støttet opp om sentralmyndighetene i det habsburgske monarkiet. I 1670 hadde Nedre Østerrike igjen blitt romersk katolsk, selv om enda noen adelsfamilier holdt seg til den Augsburgske konfesjonen. I 1675 var det i følge rapporter fra prestene bare 354 protestanter igjen i Nedre Østerrike, og den siste av disse forlot riket i 1697. I 1670 ble også 1400 jøder fordrevet fra Wien. År 1700 hadde habsburgerne greid å fjerne protestantene fra både selve Østerrike og fra Bøhmen og Moravia, mente de. Men dette synspunktet var for optimistisk, siden overvåkinga av befolkninga ikke var grundig nok. Selv om jesuittene hadde hand om den høgere utdannelsen, manglet de oversikt over de enkelte skoledistriktene. Derfor måtte monarkiet be stenderne om hjelp. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Autoritet og Familie i Øvre Østerrike. Skrevet av Tor Førde. Dette kapitlet omhandler noen forhold vedrørende utviklinga av absolutismen i Øvre Østerrike i tidlig moderne tid. Den største byen i Øvre Østerrike er Linz. Øvre Østerrike grenser i vest mot Tyskland (Bayern), i nord mot Tsjekkia (Bøhmen), og den sørligste delen av Øvre Østerrike ligger i Salzkammer. Sørvest for Øvre Østerrike ligger Tyrol. Man regner med at befolkninga i Øvre Østerrike økte fra omkring 300.000 sent på femtenhundretallet til nesten 600.000 ved folketellinga i 1771. Dette kapitlet bygger på Hermann Rebels bok: "Peasant Classes. The Bureaucratization of Property and Family Relations under Early Habsburg Absolutism 1511-1636." Innholdsoversikt. Bondeopprør. Bondesamfunnets oppbygning. Landsbygdsamfunnets endrede statusforhold. Byråkratisering av husholdet. Byråkratisering av forholdet mellom husholdsmedlemmene. Ny lovmyndighet og Splittelse innen husholdet. Nye grunner til opprør. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bondeopprør. Øvre Østerrike var ofte i opprør på femten- og seksten hundretallet (35 ganger, gjennomsnittlig hvert sjette år). Noen av opprørene omfattet store områder og varte flere år, og ga opprørerne store seire. Et av de store opprørene i Øvre Østerrike begynte i 1594. I 1595 vant opprørerne en stor seier, og i mer enn et år styrte opprørerne Øvre Østerrike. I 1597 fikk keiseren i stand våpenhvile og forhandlinger mellom Stenderforsamlinga og de opprørske bøndene. Keiseren kom med retningslinjer for lokale avtaler mellom godseierne og bøndene. Mens våpenhvilen var i kraft og forhandlingene pågikk nyttet adelen anledninga til å utrydde deler av bøndene, med tortur, lemslestelser og offentlige henrettelser i stor stil. Dette store opprøret hadde blitt stoppet ved keiserens inngripen. Stenderforsamlinga, som var dominert av adelen og geistligheten, var ikke i stand til å mestre sine undersåtter. Bøndene hadde kjempet for sin selvstendighet først og fremst mot Stenderforsamlinga, men også mot keiseren, og bøndene ble etterhvert nødt til å handle innenfor de trange grensene som ble satt av godsforvaltninga og keiserens politikk. I striden som også foregikk mellom keiseren og stenderforsamlinga ble bøndene brukt og manipulert av begge partene, og bøndene utviklet en usikker politikk siden de ikke visste hvem som var venn eller fiende. Etter at erkehertug Ferdinand hadde blitt keiser i 1619 og vunnet over stenderforsamlingene i slaget ved det "Kvite Fjell" fulgte endringer i keiserens politikk overfor stenderne og også i bøndenes politikk. Keiseren satte gjennom sitt overherredømme i Øvre Østerrike. En del av bøndene fortsatte striden for lokalt selvstyre, og gikk over til geriljakrig. Denne geriljakrigen ble en del av det store opprøret i 1625 og 1626 som forsøkte å kombinere striden mot bayersk okkupasjon og motreformasjonenens absolutisme med striden for lokalt selvstyre mot godsforvalternes inngrep i landsbyenes og husholdningenes selvstyre. I 1625 var det tilfeller der landsbyer motsatte seg at motreformasjonens prester skulle tilsettes. Den bayerske stattholderen Adam von Herbersdorf møtte denne motstanden med stor brutalitet og offentlige henrettelser, som gjorde ham hatet. Opprøret i 1626 begynte med at seks bayerske leiesoldater og tre katolske prester ble drept etter en krangel i et vertshus. Etter dette erobret bøndene mange adelsseter både sørfor og nordfor Donau ved Schauberg, og slo Stattholderens hær i et avgjørende slag, og jaget både ham og stenderforsamlinga inn i festninga ved Linz. I løpet av de neste to månedene erobret bøndene alle de viktige byene i Øvre Østerrike, med unntak for Linz og Enns, og alle adelens og geistlighetas støttepunkter i Øvre Østerrike. På Donau fikk trafikk bare passere med tillatelse fra bondeopprørerne. En ny utgave av de tolv artiklene, fra det store bondeopprøret et århundre tidligere, ble utgitt som grunnlag for forhandlinger med keiseren, stenderne, byene i Øvre Østerrike og den bayerske stattholderen. Der ble det også fokusert på at bøndene ville representeres i stenderforsamlinga, i tillegg til religiøst selvstyre og at de bayerske leiesoldatene skulle ut av Øvre Østerrike. Forhandlingene førte ikke fram. Og senere i 1626 hadde den katolske liga samlet en hær stor nok til å bekjempe opprørerne. Bøndenes selvstendighet ble stadig mindre. I løpet av 1630-årene forandret bondehærenes sammensetning seg. Arkeologiske utgravninger av massegraver fra de siste store slagene viser at bondehærene mer og mer bestod av kvinner, barn og ungdommer og gamle folk. Dette skyldes blant annet stadig økende splittelse innen landsbygdsamfunnene. Bondesamfunnets oppbygning. Det er uenighet blant historikere om hva utviklinga av det østerrikske bondesamfunnet i denne tida gikk ut på. Hermann Rebel skriver at en viktig grunn til denne uenighet er manglende empiriske undersøkelser, og forsøk på teoriutvikling, eller teorianvendelse, uten tilstrekkelig empiriske grunnlag. Et ofte brukt uttrykk/begrep som er ment å betegne utviklinga i denne tida også i Østerrike er "reføydalisering." Hermann Rebel finner at det ikke dekker den utviklinga som foregikk. Han undersøker utviklinga og setter den inn i ei teoretisk ramme gitt først og fremst av Max Webers teoretiske drøftelser og undersøkelser om byråkratiseringa av samfunnet. Husholdet har ofte blitt oppfattet som den minste enhet ved sosialhistoriske analyser av det gamle bondesamfunnet. Det sekstende og syttende århundres administrative begrep om "hele huset" (das ganze Haus), som så bondehusholdet under ledelse av leilendingen som den grunnleggende sosiale, politiske og økonomiske enhet i landsbygdsamfunnet, har blitt vanlig i ikke-marxistisk litteratur om lagdelinga i det gamle landsbygdsamfunnet. Både marxistisk og ikke-marxistiske studier av det tidlig moderne landsbygdsamfunnet ser bondebefolkninga som et lag som er inndelt i familier, husholdninger og landsbyenheter. De betrakter dette å være i en overgangstilstand fra føydalismen til det moderne kapitalistiske samfunnet. Herman Rebel skriver at dette dualistiske synet på landsbygda, føydalistisk-kapitalistisk, og den periodiseringen som følger, har ført til uklart bilde og feil forståelse av det sosiale og politiske systemet til bøndene i det tidlig moderne Europa. Hendelsesforløp, - utviklinga av den føydale kapitalismen. Fra siste del av det fjortenhundretallet av strammet både de verdslige og de geistlige magnatene sitt grep om befolkninga på landsbygda i Øvre Østerrike ved å presse sin rett til pliktarbeid og andre tjenester og ytelser fra landsbygdbefolkninga. De verdiene som magnatene skaffet seg på denne måten søkte de å motta i en form som var omsettelig i markedet. Samtidig skaffet de seg kontroll over stadig større landområder. Dette førte til stadige opprør. Men likevel greide magnatene å skaffe seg et stadig sterkere grep om landsbygdbefolkninga og å nøytralisere landsbyfellesskapet. Uttrykkene "føydal kapitalisme" og "Wirtschaftsherrschaft" har blitt brukt for å betegne de forandringene som fant sted i den østlige delen av sentraleuropa i tidlig moderne tid. Herredømmeformen var i forhold til gods- og gårdsdrifta føydal, men i forhold til markedet var den kapitalistisk. Det var et blandet herredømme som kombinerte det rentierforholdet som ble etablert mellom jordherre og leilending i vest med det direkte herredømmet som ble etablert øst for Elben med Gutsherrschaft, jordbruksdrift i stor skala direkte ledet av jordherren med livegne jordbruksarbeidere. Foruten i Øvre Østerrike ble denne herredømmeformen etablert i Bayern, Indre Østerrike og Bøhmen. Det var likevel betydelige forskjeller mellom disse provinsene i hvordan herredømmet konkret ble organisert. Gjennom Middelalderen hadde adelen i Øvre Østerrike økt sin makt og rikdom. At realverdien av den faste jordleia gikk ned på grunn av inflasjon ble mer enn kompensert av at andre inntekter økte. Befolkninga økte forholdsvis sterkt i Øvre Østerrike, og dette førte til at rikelig med billig arbeidskraft var tilgjengelig. Denne hadde dessuten et høgt teknologisk nivå siden det ble utviklet handverksproduksjon for et stort marked. Også godsforvalterne og adelen skolerte seg i sin virksomhet, og førte et bokholderi som for sin tid var nøyaktig og avansert. Habsburgerne beholdt Pfandherrschaft som praksis. Denne hadde sitt opphav tilbake i Middelalderen da Habsburgerne hadde lånt penger fra adelen og andre som hadde penger å låne ut, og som motytelse lot de långiverne bestyre og berike seg på deler av Habsburgernes personlige eiendom (Kammergut) for en begrenset tid. Habsburgerne lot for eksempel Fuggerne drive sølvgruvene i Tyrol mot at Habsburgerne mottok store lån fra Fuggerne. (Se kapitlet om keisernes finanser.) Dette var en av de viktige inntektskildene for Habsburgerne. På samme måte som Habsburgerne leide ut sin private eiendom begynte de også å sette andre inntektskilder ut, som skatteinnkreving og jurisdiksjon, som også ble privatisert. Det var først og fremst magnatene som fikk disse oppgavene og rikdomskildene. Det både økte deres makt og dro dem inn i det keiserlige byråkratiet. Magnatene fikk politioppgaver, og de søkte å kombinere den offentlige myndighet keiseren ga dem med sin økonomiske makt for å øke sin rikdom. Dette skapte det herreveldet som befolkninga i Øvre Østerrike levde under. Det var først og fremst høgadelen som var rik og utøvde makt, men noen få biskoper var også svært rike siden disse få biskopen, hvorav biskopen i Passau var rikest, styrte de største godssamlingene. Men som gruppe var høgadelen klart rikeste og mektigst. Det mest grunnleggende forhold i den sosiale lagdelinga var det kasteaktig skillet mellom de autoritetene som eide jord og leilendingene deres. Opphavet til dette skillet mellom de som arvet retten til å kommandere og de som arvet plikten til å lyster finnes i tidlig Middelalder da de første tyskspråklige nybyggerne fra Bayern bosatte seg i skogene i Øvre Østerrike. Allerede de første nybyggerne var underlagt et voldspreget herredømme. Individuelt var de delt inn i forskjellige statusgrupper. Den lågeste arvelige statusen var personlig livegenskap. Denne statusen ble arvet gjennom kvinnelige ledd, altså fra mor til sønner og døtre. Livegne som våget å gifte seg med frie kvinner risikerte å bli kastrert eller innesperret for livstid. Det gikk lang tid før livegne fikk mulighet til å kjøpe retten å gifte seg med frie kvinner. Omkring år 1600 ble livegenskapen avskaffet, men befolkninga bestod fortsatt av undersåtter. Leilendingene kom til å få lik status som undersåtter, og de som hadde vært frie ble mer ufri. Arbeidsplikten og tienden og andre skatter og avgifter ble etterhvert gjort om til ei avgift som ble betalt i kontanter. Leiekontraktene for jord og gårdsbruk ble livsvarige og arvelige. De kunne også omsettes. Den som leide et gårdsbruk eller annen eiendom pliktet å holde den i minste like god stand som da de overtok den. Dersom den ble redusert i verdi kunne jordherren drive inn differansen ved å slå leietakeren konkurs. Gårdsbruk kunne ikke deles opp. Så lenge disse bestemmelsene ble fulgt opp kunne leietakerne, etter hvert, drive gårdene som de selv ønsket. Men det ble ikke mulig for undersåttene å kjøpe og eie gårdene. Rundt år 1600 var det utviklet allsidig markedsrettet handverksvirksomhet på bygdene i Øvre Østerrike. Det var spesielt tekstiler og redskaper av metall som ble produsert. Jordbruket var naturligvis svært viktig, men videre foregikk også salt og metall utvinning, og framstilling av glass, papir, keramikk og gjenstander av tre. Herrene hadde legalt kontroll over markedene og førsterett til å kjøpe, men de brukte bare denne retten i noen utstrekning til å kjøpe humle til ølproduksjonene. Markedene var store deler av Sentral Europa. De produserte altså for eksport. Forlagssystemet var i bruk både for produksjon av tekstiler og metallprodukter. Husholdningenes sammensetning. På sekstenhundretallet bodde bøndene i Øvre Østerrike ikke i landsbyer, men på enkeltliggende gårder. Det fantes landsbyer befolket av for eksempel handverkere, selv om handverk også ofte var lokalisert til de enkeltliggende gårdene. Berndorf var et prestegjeld der mesteparten av befolkninga bodde på enkeltliggende gårder. Dorfbeuern var et annet prestegjeld der befolkninga bodde i tre landsbyer. Vi skal se litt på sammensetninga av husholdene i disse to prestegjeldene. Antall beboere i hver hus. Berndorf (1648) Dorfbeuern (1649) 1 til 5 30,3% 46,7% 6 til 10 50,2% 49,7% 11 til 15 15,2% 3,6% 16 til 20 2,6% - 21 til 25 1,4% - I det landlige Berndorf var det gjennomsnittlig 7,7 personer i hvert hushold. I landsbyene i Dorfbeuern var det gjennomsnittlig 5,9 personer per hushold. I Berndorf bestod bare 13% av husholdningene av kjernefamilier, og i Dorfbruern 35%. I Berndorf bestyrte gifte ektepar 91% av husholdene. Husholdene bestod ellers av barn, tjenere, voksne sønner og døtre, losjerende og foreldre til det ekteparet som bestyrte husholdet, og også andre slektninger. Kårfolk var ei viktig gruppe. De kunne leve i hovedhuset eller i et mindre hus på gården, og de mottok ofte betydelige ytelser fra gården. Dersom gården var velstående var de også velstående, siden de visste å sikre seg sin del og vel så det. Den videre analysen omfatter befolkninga av undersåtter, og omfatter ikke adelen. Det gjennomsnittlige gårdsbruket i Øvre Østerrike var omkring 200 mål stort. Det fantes naturligvis både rike og fattige blant gårdbrukerne. De rikeste av dem var de som også hadde møller, gjestgiveri eller drev transportvirksomhet. Alle disse tre virksomhetene medførte handel. Det var nødvendig med konsesjon fra godseieren for å lykkes med denne virksomheten. I tillegg til de ordinære gårdbrukerne med arvelige leiekontrakter fantes det også småbrukere. De var fattige. Vi skal se på de hovedgruppene som utgjorde husholdningene. Losjerende. Den gruppen som ble kalt for "losjerende" leide et sted å sove i andres hus, mest vanlig hos gårdbrukerne. Både kvinner og menn kunne være losjerende. De eide vanligvis verktøy selv, som redskaper for å bearbeide metall, tekstiler eller treverk. De kunne også selv eie jordbruksredskaper. Det var langt flere menn i gruppen "losjerende" enn kvinner, og mennenes økonomiske situasjon var bedre enn kvinnenes. De losjerende var, i motsetning til tjenerne, ikke avhengig av det husholdet de bodde i for å skaffe seg mat. De stod også ganske fritt til å flytte. De losjerende stammet ofte fra ganske velstående familier, men de hadde ikke arvet fast eiendom, men likevel så mye i kontanter at de ikke stod på bar bakke, og de kunne være dyktige handverkere. Tjenere. Tjenerne ble leid inn på åremål. De sov enten i uthusene eller i et fellesrom for alle tjenerne. De var underlagt og inngikk i det husholdet der de arbeidet. De var fattige og så svake at ofte fikk de ikke utbetalt den lønna som de var lovet, og de hadde liten mulighet til å drive den inn. Arbeidet deres bestod vanligvis av gårdsarbeid for mennene og husarbeid for kvinnene. I tillegg hendte det at husholdet deltok i handverksøkonomien, og da var tjenerne sysselsatt med for eksempel spinning. Husmenn og småbrukere. Dette var ei fåtallig gruppe. Den viktigste grunnen til dette er at gårdene ikke ble delt. De sønnene og døtrene som ikke overtok gårder måtte enten leve hele livet som tjenere eller som losjerende, i andres hus. Husmennene drev litt jordbruk eller hagebruk, og i tillegg til dette deltok de gjerne i den handverksindustrien som var godt representert i Øvre Østerrike. Landsbygdsamfunnets endrede statusforhold. I Østerrike så myndighetene tradisjonelt på bondebefolkninga som en opprørske berme. De var knapt mennesker, og kunne ikke personlig få møte fyrsten. Gjennom de endringer som kom i løpet av femten og sekstenhundretallet ble deler av bondebefolkninga integrert i samfunnet på en ny måte. Og de fikk nye muligheter med den handverksindustrien og markedsadgangen som ble utviklet. Ved forhandlingene i 1597, som var basert på keiserens løsningsforslag etter de foregående års opprør, var det utviklet regler for godsforvaltninga som la vekt på at alle kristne burde behandles som medlemmer i et kristent samfunn. Undersåttene burde ikke lenger behandles som en opprørsk masse som hele tida måtte underkues. Autoriteten skiftet fokus fra landsbygdsamfunnet mot enkelte individ som burde bindes til autoritetene. Disse individene var husholdningenes hovedpersoner. Hermann Rebel skriver at grunnen til dette skiftet ikke er å finne i en fremadskridende kapitalisme eller individualisme, men i utviklinga av den absolutistiske staten og byråkratiseringa av eiendommen, familien og lokalsamfunnet. Omkring år 1500 var østerriksk politikk inne i et spor der tradisjonelle forhold var i oppløsning. Dette nye sporet var preget av at alle med eiendom og autoritet søkte å øke sine eiendommer og sin makt med alle midler, også ulovlige. Dette varte i 150 år. Bondeopprørene, som var uvanlig hyppige i disse årene, var bare en del av denne kampen. Initiativene og aktiviteten til både de geistlige og verdslige herrene, i samarbeid med keiseren, forandret bøndenes og bondesamfunnet status, reorganiserte det og avskaffet det gamle fellesskapet. Året 1597 er et avgjørende år fordi da blir offentlig lov satt over privat lov og statsgaranterte kontrakter satt over ensidig tvang. Tvangsarbeidets utforming. Et eksempel på denne prosessen er endringa av den middelalderske arbeidsplikten til ei avgift tilsvarende livegenskapens forandring til en skatt som er pålagt alle undersåtter. Det var to forskjellige former for arbeidsplikt. Den ene som alle skyldtes til de territorielle autoritetene bestod i plikt til å gjøre arbeid i nødssituasjoner, som å bygge forsvarsverker i tilfelle krig. Denne arbeidsplikten var ubegrenset. Den andre var en forpliktelse bestemte undersåtter hadde overfor bestemte herrer. Denne plikten varierte fra undersått til undersått, og noen undersåtter hadde ikke denne plikten, og for de som var pålagt denne plikten var den begrenset til et bestemt antall dager i året. Myndighetene hadde rundt år 1500 begynt å blande sammen disse to formene for arbeidsplikt, da begynte kravene om pliktarbeid å gå ut over de forpliktelsene undersåttene hadde. Godseierne begynte å regne arbeidsplikten inn i godsenes verdi når godsene ble stilt som sikkerhet for lån. For å øke godsenes låneverdi søkte de å øke undersåttenes plikt til å utføre ubetalt arbeid. Når Habsburgerne leide ut godsene sine lot de mengden pliktarbeid bli bestemt av den som overtok forvaltninga av godset. I 1522 opprettholdt en kongelig ordre denne typen bestemmelser. Utover femtenhundretallet var det den keiserlige finansadministrasjonen (Hofkammer) som først og fremst drev fram omforminga av de to formene for arbeidsplikt og gjorde dem til en universell forpliktelse. Da finansadministrasjonen i 1526 klargjorde det kongelige godset Steyr for pantsetting inkluderte de ei oversikt over arbeidstjenester som ble omregnet til kontantverdi. De beregnet dette for alle hushold som hørte inn under godset. I 1535 ble dette supplementert med bestemmelser om de bøter som skulle ilegges dersom arbeidstjenesten ikke ble utført. Rundt år 1500 begynte den keiserlige administrasjonen å ilegge alle undersåtter arbeidsplikt for å bygge festninger, og fra 1526 gjaldt denne arbeidsplikten for alle husholdere i Øvre Østerrike. Godseierne utnyttet denne arbeidsplikten til sin egen personlige fordel så godt de kunne. I 1568 krevde godsautoritetene i Øvre Østerrike pliktarbeid fra alle, også de som tidligere hadde vært fritatt for dette, eller penger, robotgeld, for å kjøpe seg fri fra dette pliktarbeidet. Disse kravene om stadig økt pliktarbeid førte til opprør. Under det store opprøret i 1595-97 var arbeidsplikten, eller tvangsarbeidet, et av de viktigste ankepunktene. Godseierne søkte også å kreve pliktarbeid fra barn og gamle folk. Det ble mulig å kjøpe barn fri fra tvangsarbeidet. Tvangsarbeidet, staten og godset. Etter avtalene i 1597 begynte myndighetene å gjøre pliktarbeidet om til en generell skatt. På lokalt nivå bestemte godseierne om pliktarbeidet skulle utføres eller omgjøres til en skatt, alt etter hva som passet best for godseierne. Omfanget av pliktarbeidet varierte sterkt mellom de forskjellige delene av Østerrike. I Steiermark var det i 1778 kommet opp i hele 165 dager, altså de fleste arbeidsdagene i året. Også i Bøhmen og Nedre Østerrike var arbeidsplikten knusende. Der ble godsene drevet på en annen måte enn i Øvre Østerrike. I de områdene som hadde den største arbeidsplikten ble godsene drevet direkte av godseieren eller hans godsforvaltning, jorda var altså i mindre grad leid ut til jordbrukerne. Der jorda var leid ut var godseierne mest interessert i å få arbeidsplikten gjort om til avgifter betalt kontant. Dette var tilfelle i Øvre Østerrike. Også andre plikter ble tatt inn i rikets lover, som plikten til å fore godseierens buskap og godseierens førsterett til å kjøpe undersåttenes produkter. I de delene av Østerrike der arbeidsplikten ble omgjort til ei kontant betalt avgift kom denne til å utgjøre en stor del av godsenes inntekt. Under klostret Garsten lå et gods med 1.258 hushold i 1631. Disse betalte 2.166 gulden i robotgeld, som utgjorde 21,1% av klosterets bruttoinntekter. I løpet av femten- og sekstenhundretallet kom nye inntekter, som robotgeld, til å utgjøre mesteparten av godsenes inntekt. Den gamle faste jordleia ble stadig redusert av inflasjonen. Men ved å utvikle nye inntektsmuligheter gjennom å finne på stadig nye skatter og plikter, greide godseierne å øke sine inntekter. Rundt år 1600 var godsene avhengige av en kontantstrøm av skatter og avgifter som var fastsatt og drevet gjennom av staten. Godsene ble drevet som administrative enheter innen staten og var avhengige av de skatter og avgifter som ble generert på denne måten. Å kalle denne omforminga av samfunnet for "reføydalisering" eller det "andre livegenskapen" informerer ikke om den utviklinga som foregikk. Utgangspunktet var keiserens finansadministrasjons arbeid for å øke pantsettingsverdien av keiserens eiendommer. I denne prosessen ble nye inntektskilder utviklet og gamle radikalt endret, og denne prosessen og de endringene som hadde funnet sted ble byråkratisert. I denne prosessen utviklet det administrative apparatet kontakt med enkeltpersoner på landsbygda etter hvert som husholdene ble gjennomtrengt av statens og godsenes politikk. Byråkratisering av husholdet. Der tidligere landsbysamfunnet var blitt holdt sammen av det selvadministrerende landsbyfellesskapet som selv forvaltet sine konflikter og sine ressurser, ble nå fra 1600-tallet av landsbygda holdt sammen av det byråkratiske apparatet til den absolutistiske østerrikske staten, formidlet gjennom godsforvaltninga og den provinsielle administrasjonen og rettsvesenet og gjennom husholdet som var blitt underlagt byråkratiet. Hvordan ble husholdet underlagt byråkratiet, og hvordan fungerte denne byråkratiseringa av husholdet? For å svare på dette spørsmålet går Hermann Rebel til Max Weber for å klargjøre teoretiske begrep om byråkratisk autoritet og klassestruktur. Han skriver at i Webers skrifter finner man tilstrekkelig mange elementer om en husholdets sosiologi til å kunne se det som en del av hans sosiologi om klasse og byråkratisk dominans og til å bruke det til å forklare den sosialhistoriske betydning av de data som er framlagt og analysert. Man kan begynne med Webers diskusjon av oppløsninga av husfellesskapet eller forsørgelsesfellesskapet (Versorgungsgemeinschaft). Det gikk over fra å være et produksjonsfellesskap der de forskjellige gjøremål til medlemmene bidrar til den felles velferd til medlemmene av fellesskapet, og utenfor det til "nabolaget" (Gemeinde), til et konsumfellesskap som ikke lenger koordinerer medlemmenes produktive aktivitet, og der medlemmenes sikkerhet hovedsakelig avhenger av det større samfunnet. Den viktigste grunnen til denne forandringa er, om man ser bort fra eksterne faktorer som veksten i pengeøkonomiens muligheter, det Weber kaller forandringer i "ansvarligheten" ("Rechenhaftigkeit") til husholdningsfellesskapets medlemmer. Denne forandringen i ansvarlighet var for Weber ikke noe nytt, eller en del av utviklinga mot moderniteten. Denne forandring fant også sted i antikken. Forandringen i ansvarligheten skapte nye og flere forhold som medlemmene av usholdningsfellesskapet stod i og undergravde dermed den egalitære fellesøkonomien til husholdningsfellesskapet. Denne forandringen skyldtes at man ble stilt ansvarlig overfor parter utenfor husholdningsfellesskapet. Denne forandring i ansvarlighet forandret radikalt betingelsene for barns medlemskap i husholdningsfellesskapet: "deltakelsen p.g.a. fødsel i husholdningens felles aktiviteter med sine fordeler og plikter er erstattet av rasjonell sosialisering. Individet kan enda bli født inn i husholdsfellesskapet, men han er som barn allerede en potensiell arbeider (Kommis) eller "partner" i den rasjonelt ordnede virksomhet som samfunnet opprettholder." Max Weber: Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft: Tubingen: J. C. B. Mahr, 1925, side 209. - Hermann Rebel side 140. Det var presis denne splittelsen, basert på et begrep om ansvarlighet, som igjen var basert på arv og ekteskap, som tilskrev individene, deres familier, og husholdningene deres rette plass i den østerrikske landsbygdas husholdningsfellesskap. Inventarlistene som myndighetene satte opp, blant annet for å kontrollere at gårdenes verdi ikke ble forringet, viser at husholdningene var gjennomtrengt av et begrep om ansvarlighet som ikke bare tok hensyn til hvordan familien lyktes økonomisk, men som også oppdaterte kontoene mellom de forskjellige familiemedlemmene og andre medlemmer av husholdet fortløpende. For å forstå husholdningsfellesskapet bedre i lys av byråkratisering og klasseforhold må vi forstå både dets markedssituasjon og de interne autoritetsforholdene. Beboerne av bondehusholdene var det som Weber kaller "imperativt koordinerte" grupper, underlagt den legitime og legalt-rasjonelle autoriteten til staten. Bondehusholdet, internt delt i forhold til markedet og autoritetsforholdene, var en klasse situasjon der individet og familieenheten fikk sin plass i henhold til både sine sjanser på markedet og i forhold til hvordan husholdets overhode ordnet familien. Husholdsoverhodene var i tillegg til å være gårdbrukere, leilendinger og familieoverhoder, også offisielt autoriserte administratorer av de skiftende familie-, eiendoms- og husholdsforholdene, som vi undersøker i denne studien. Forsøkene på å byråkratisere både keisernes gods og private gods etter legale og rasjonelle retningslinjer skapte en privilegert ervervsklasse (husholdningsoverhodene, husfedrene) som ble den lågeste byråkratiske instansen i Habsburgmonarkiet. Dette skal vi se nærmere på. Ellers bør det gjøres oppmerksom på at Max Webers klassebegrep er forskjellig fra Marx sitt klassebegrep i det Weber sitt klassebegrep legger mer vekt på autoritetsforhold og mindre vekt på eiendomsforhold. Byråkratisering av forholdet mellom husholdsmedlemmene. I bondehusholdningene var det to forskjellige grupper personer. Den ene var den familien som leide gården og den andre var tjenerne og de losjerende, som var underlagt husfarens autoritet. Denne autoriteten hadde blant annet sitt grunnlag i at husfaren representerte alle som bodde i huset i forhold til myndighetene. Han hadde derfor disiplinær myndighet i husholdet i forhold til alle som levde der. De Herreløse. Det fantes folk som ikke bodde i noe registrert hus. De var herreløse. I et samfunn der beskyttelse fra en eller annen offisielt anerkjent autoritet var nødvendig for en persons sosiale status ekskluderte denne mangelen på beskyttelse de som manglet den fra å nyte de "friheter" og rettigheter som fantes, og tvang dem inn i et liv på kanten av samfunnet og økonomien. De kunne leve i ei hytte i skogen, eller være vandrere, tiggere eller sigøynere. Hvor mange herreløse personer som fantes finnes det ingen fullstendig oversikt over. I et område ved grensen til Bøhmen ble det i 1615 funnet 113 uregistrerte hus. Folkene her livnærte seg som trekullbrennere, glassblåsere, trearbeidere og kurvmakere og liknende. Bare seksten av disse husholdene anerkjente ingen herres overherredømme. I dette undersøkte området var det 2.000 hushold. Vi vet ikke hvor nøyaktig denne undersøkelsen ble gjort eller hvor representativt dette området er. Denne herreløse klassen markerte grensen for et byråkratisk system der den minste administrative enheten var bondehusholdet. De herreløse ble betraktet som en plage og en trusel mot den eksisterende orden. De var unyttige personer som hadde valgt ikke å lide seg gjennom livet som tjenere i et bondehushold. Etter som tida gikk ble det flere og flere herreløse personer. Fra 1680 begynte myndighetene å ta barna fra de herreløse og gi barna til de registrerte husholdene. I 1727 ble det i en offisiell undersøkelse funnet mer enn 25.000 herreløse personer i Øvre Østerrike, inkludert 7.000 barn. Det ble forbudt å øke antallet hytter som var tilgjengelige for de herreløse. Karl VI erklærte at de skulle inngå i et registrert hushold og nektet dem å gifte seg. Men siden antallet herreløse økte og det ikke var mulig å bringe disse til å ta tjeneste ble det fra 1770-tallet tillatt for dem å bygge seg hytter i utmarka der de kunne livnære seg ved selvstendig arbeid. De herreløse fikk også lov til å holde kveg og å handle med kveg. De herreløse økte i antall blant annet siden mange tjenere rømte fra de brutale forholdene som de ble tilbudt. Å leve som herreløs var det mest humane alternativet for mange. De herreløse var et logisk biprodukt av en tilstand der husholdene og familielivet var delt mellom de som var husholdsoverhoder eller hadde mulighet for å bli det gjennom arv, og de som ikke hadde noen annen mulighet enn å leve på bunnen av rangstigen og der utføre alt arbeidet ofte uten betaling eller autoritet. Ny lovmyndighet og Splittelsen innen husholdet. Det ble i Øvre Østerrike skapt to klasser personer, de som hadde arvelige leiekontrakter på gårdene og ei stadig voksende eiendomsløs befolkning som var nødt til å leve som tjenere. Bondesjøleie ble avskaffet gjennom keiserens administrative overtakelse av gårder som ikke var eid av adelen eller kirka eller som ikke allerede var eid av keiseren. Keiseren gikk også på andre måter inn for å sette alle som drev gårdsbruk på samme fot og i så like forhold som mulig. Gårdbrukernes leiekontrakter og forhold ellers ble standardisert i følge bestemmelser truffet av keiseren. Magnatene var tvunget til å følge dette opp. De kunne ikke lenger behandle gårdsbrukene bare som enheter som hørte inn under godset, men måtte også behandle dem som enheter som lå under keiserens og rikets lov. I løpet av andre halvdel av 1500-tallet var det to utviklingsforløp som skilte husfedrene ut fra resten av husholdet og ga husfedrene større muligheter og større legalt ansvar. Det ene var at noen godseiere ga spesielle hus spesiell status med spesielle politiske og administrative oppgaver, som lensmenn (Richter) eller lensmannsbetjenter. Andre godseiere ga eksklusive sjenkebevilgninger til enkelte hushold, og gjorde dem dermed til vertshus, eller de ga eksklusive kontrakter til mølleeiere for å male godsets kornavling. Disse husholdene fikk administrative funksjoner. Dette ga disse utvalgte husholdene mulighet til sterkt økte inntekter og økt sosial status. Det andre utviklingsforløpet var viktigere fordi det berørte alle leilendingshusholdene. Det gikk ut på at det som hadde vært private føydale lover for godsene, markedene og landsbyene ble omformet til ensartede administrative lover. Ved slutten av Middelalderen var det ulike lover for landsbygdbefolkninga i Øvre Østerrike. Landsbyer hadde noen ganger sine egne lover, Hauptmannbriefe, som regulerte årlige valg av høvedsmann og fastsatte rettigheter og plikter for landsbyboerne. På den andre siden var Rikets lov som begynte å bli mer anvendt etter 1530 da Karl V kom med en straffelov. Mellom disse to lovkildene var bestemmelser fra de forskjellige autoritetene i Øvre Østerrike. Keiseren var den høgste lovgiver og hadde rett til å intervenere i alle saker og konflikter, og dette hadde ført til bestemmelsene om forholdet mellom herre og undersått som kom i 1597. Alle disse lovene ble samordnet. I 1559 hadde Landesgerichtsordnung fra Ferdinand I byråkratisert administrasjonen av loven ved å gi Rikets domstoler i oppgave å behandle forbrytelser som det var dødsstraff for, og alle andre saker ble behandlet av godseiernes jurisdiksjon. Reguleringene fastsatte at godseieren var undersåttenes umiddelbare lovgiver, og samtidig var Rikets lov den høgste loven. Godsene var enheter i landets jurisdiksjon. Ny lovmyndighet fra 1500. De eldste lovene i Øvre Østerrike stammet fra Bayern. De hadde som siktemål å opprettholde ro og orden. Dette til forskjell fra de gamle lovene i for eksempel Franken, som siktet mot rettferdighet. Dette gjorde at det var lettere og mindre konfliktfylt å administrere og samordne lovene i Øvre Østerrike enn i Franken. Taiding var et årlig møte der alle undersåttene i distriktet var samlet. Det ble ledet av lensmannen og der ble lovene og andre bestemmelser lest opp. Anvendelsen og forståelsen av disse lovene og bestemmelsene kunne diskuteres. Utover 1500- og 1600-tallet økte antallet lover og bestemmelser sterkt og gjorde livet mer komplisert. Faren for å bli bøtelagt eller fengslet eller utsatt for inkvisisjonen økte. Den grunnleggende enheten i disse nye lovene ble husholdet under ledelse av husfaren. Lovene la stor vekt på å skille ut og klargjøre husholdet som en selvstendig legal enhet. Ved inngangsdøra til huset sluttet godseierens myndighet og husfarens myndighet overtok. Det kom også lover for husholdene som fastsatte rettigheter og plikter for de forskjellige husstandsmedlemmene. Husfedre krevde inn skatt fra alle som var bosatt i huset og som var skattepliktige. I det alpine Østerrike hadde det store bondeopprøret i 1525 en viss suksess i det det lyktes å begrense godseiernes innflytelse i landsbyene. Dette skjedde ikke i Øvre Østerrike. Der ble kommunen, eller landsbyen, som selvstyrt enhet fullstendig satt til side. Den myndighet som hadde ligget hos landsbyene ble overtatt av godseierne. Tidligere hadde landsbyfellesskapet administrert reglene som omgav eiendom og jord og ekteskap og arv. Denne administrasjonen ble overtatt av godseierne. I Middelalderen hadde tre parter utøvd rettigheter i forhold til gården: Leilendingen som drev gården. Godseieren som krevde inn leie, avgifter som tiende, og tjenester. Landsbyfellesskapet som kontrollerte hvem som overtok gårder og hvordan gården ble drevet. Videre kunne en person leie jord av en godseier og samtidig være livegen under en annen herre (Leibherren), og i noen grad også være underlagt en tredje herres jurisdiksjon. Ferdinand I sine juridiske reformer avskaffet den myndigheten som både landsbyene og rivaliserende herrer hadde overfor leilendingen, og samlet juridiksjonen hos godseieren. Disse lot leilendingene drive gårdene sine som leilendingene selv ønsket, og lot dem også starte ny virksomhet, så lenge eiendommens verdi ikke ble redusert. Og eiendommene kunne ikke deles opp. Oversikten over alle gårdens hus og gjenstander, og deres verdi, ble utvidet til også å omfatte godseierens krav på å ha fortløpende oversikt over alle transaksjoner som husholdet og dets medlemmer gjorde. Dette betyr ikke at andre medlemmer av husholdet enn husfaren og kona hans hadde noen selvstendig rettslig stilling. Familieroller. Husfaren bestyrte tjenernes eventuelle arv. De losjerendes arvede midler ble også bestyrt av husfaren til de eventuelt giftet seg. Tjenerne hadde ikke rett til å gifte seg. Kårfolkene, som tidligere hadde drevet gården, solgt leiekontrakten til sine etterfølgere for en pris som vanligvis ikke lå langt fra markedsprisen. I tillegg sikret de seg store ytelser fra gården i form av brensel og den beste maten som ble produsert, og gjerne også tjenester, som de ikke betalte for. Den betydelige pengesummen de mottok brukte de til å spekulere med, viser et mangfold av kontrakter. Det var når leilendingene ble kårfolk at de kunne leve det gode liv. Hermann Rebels tese er at: "den østerrikske bondefamilien var en klassesituasjon der en klasse som leide gårdene utbyttet sin rollefamilie for å delta i konkurranse om status innen sin egen klasse. Slik status konkurranse fant sted ikke bare i det større samfunnet og i landsbyene, men også i familien selv. Konfliktens og interessens fellesskap innen storfamilien, mellom arvingen og hans ektemake på den ene siden og de eldre på den andre siden, bestod av en av samfunnets mest grunnleggende statuskonflikter. Kårfolkene kombinerte en kontrollerende interesse i land og kredittmarkedet med et konsummønster og livsplaner som var frigjort fra ansvaret og restriksjonene som bebyrdet deres etterfølgere som leilendinger. De hadde derfor gode muligheter til å skaffe seg status og ære som ville heve dem over andre leilendinger. Statustaktikken til storfamiliens eldre og leilendingene var til fordel for enkelte individer og ikke for hele familien. Bortsatte barn og søsken levde i en annen verden der de ble utbyttet som tjenere og dagarbeidere av den leilendingsfamilien som de delte hushold med. Hermann Rebel: side 198. Den østerrikske bondefamilien var ikke harmonisk og konfliktfri. Den erfarte en indre rollekonflikt der individenes søken etter status gjennom å tilegne seg nye økonomiske og administrative yrkesroller ikke gikk sammen med nære, tillitsfulle og fortrolige forhold i familiegruppa. De barna som ikke overtok gården endte gjerne som tjenere eller bortsatte barn. Var de heldige kunne de ende opp som losjerende i andre hushold mens arven deres ble forvaltet av husfedrene, en arv de kanskje aldri ville motta. Hermann Rebel skriver: "individene må ha erfart ekstrem sosial "ambivalens", om ikke rett og slett smerte, ved de motsetningene denne undertrykkelsen skapte i familielivet. Fedre var også ledere for husholdningene, og som slike var de konfrontert med en annen referansegruppe - godseierne og godsforvalterne, som handlet på egne og statens vegne. De negative sanksjonene som truet en leilendings sosiale forhold sikret at de autoritetsrelaterte rollene fikk førsteprioritet, og familierollene fikk mindre betydning, i forhold til de andre familiemedlemmene. Situasjonen var, i sin utilslørte form, nesten uutholdelig. Rundt år 1600, hadde allerede det østerrikske landsbygdsamfunnet begynt å utvikle seg, lenge før den industrielle teknologien, og de sosiale formene som fulgte med den gjorde sin innmarsj, mot en ødeleggelse av de følelsesmessige menneskelige forhold og mot en instrumentell rasjonalitet som underordnet de menneskelige relasjonene til sine egne formål. Alle, både husets herre og så vel som de bortsatte, led under denne statens invasjonen i familien." Hermann Rebell: side 226. Det ble alminnelig å sende barna bort til oppfostring i andre familier. For losjerende ble dette nødvendig siden de ikke levde under forhold der de kunne fostre opp sine barn. For leilendingene kunne dette være en måte å slippe å møte de følelsesmessige krav barn stiller. Andres barn var det lettere å behandle som gratis arbeidskraft som skulle disiplineres. Nye grunner til opprør. Herman Rebel skriver at opprøret i 1626 skilte seg fra opprøret i 1525 på den måten at det var ikke selvstyrte landsbyfellesskap som kjempet for sin selvstendighet, som i 1525, men et oppgjør innenfor byråkratiet. Lederne for opprøret i 1626 var personer som hadde gjort det godt innen det eksisterende systemet, og nådd så langt som det var mulig. Deltakerne derimot var husfedre av ulik status og økonomisk stilling. En detaljert gjennomgang av klagene fra juli viser at opprørerne handlet som et politisk parti ute etter å fremme og forsvare et bestemt syn på den byråkratiske staten. Den viktigste klagen opprørerne hadde over motreformasjonen var at den avbrøt og forstyrret provinsens styresett og velferd siden den satte utryddelse av protestantismen over den effektive gjennomføring av den administrative prosessen. Erfarne administratorer ble avsatt og erstattet med uerfarne personer som verken var kvalifiserte eller i stand til å utføre det arbeidet som de ble satt til. Administrasjonen ble ransaket og folk ble trakassert og satt i arrest, og uskyldige tjenestemenn ble til og med drept. Spesielt ble det protestert mot katolikkenes tyranniske administrasjon av skolene. Protestantiske husfedre måtte enten bli katolikker eller forlate landet. I begge tilfeller ville de tape mye på det de gjorde. Motreformasjonen var en voldsom affære. De aller fleste opprørerne var husfedre og fungerte som det lågeste nivået i det landsomfattende statsbyråkratiet. De var ikke engasjert i en klassekamp, som ved opprørene i 1525 og i 1595. I 1626 var opprørerne medlemmer av et byråkratisk hierarki, og motreformasjonen truet deres plassering innen dette hierarkiet, og hindret det i å fungere. Opprørerne var en gruppe som var utpekt til å utsettes for byråkratisk trakassering, og som motsatte seg dette. Opprørerne krevde religionsfrihet, og viste til at de hadde tjent huset Habsburg svært lenge, og dette burde gi dem en viss sikkerhet der de ikke var utsatt for trakassering. Rebel skriver at bondeopprørerne i 1626 var de første moderne menn. De krevde at betingelsene for å inneha stilling som leilending/gårdbruker og statens mann ikke ble blandet sammen med privatlivets rettigheter som selvvalgt religionsform og et uavhengig familie- og husholdsliv. Opprørerne appellerte til den unge legale og byråkratiske tradisjonen til den habsburgske staten, og forstod ikke at dens fundament var et annet. Et velfungerende byråkrati blir irrasjonelt dersom dets berettigelse blir at det fungerer knirkefritt. Dets berettigelse i habsburgerstaten var å vedlikeholde hierarkiet og dominansen og utøvelse av utenombyråkratisk makt. Opprørerne tapte, og måtte gå over til katolisismen for å beholde gårdene som de drev. Men i mer enn hundre år framover var det mange hemmelige protestanter i Østerrike. De nye Utstøtte. Hva med de menneskene som stod under det byråkratiske systemet? Enkelte av dem gjorde opprør mot systemet noen år senere, i 1632 og 1635 og 1636. Deres opprør stilte ikke hærer på mange tusen mann som var sterke nok til å slå Riket i viktige slag, som de store bondeopprørene hadde gjort. Disse opprørerne var noen hundre mennesker som gikk i skogene og i fjellene og bar bannere og vimpler og spilte på trommer, horn, fioliner og trompeter, ledet av visjonære fantaster. En av disse revolusjonære fantastene var rebellpredikanten Jacob Greimbl. Hans følge dukket opp i 1630. Jacob Greimbl dukket første gang opp i skriftlige kilder i 1626. Han ble da arrestert for å forkynne protestantismen. Senere arbeidet han bak frontene for de protestantiske hærene under trettiårskrigen. Han reiste opprørsstyrker, og i oktober 1632 ble opprørsstyrkene hans slått og i februar 1633 ble Greimbl halshogget. Samtidig med Greimbl var en annen rebellpredikant aktiv i Øvre Østerrike. Det var Martin Aichinger, mest kjent som "Laimbauer", som gården hans var kalt. Første gang han ble arrestert ble han sluppet fri fordi det ble antatt at han var gal. Han mistet gården fordi han ikke fulgte det byråkratiske regelverket. Deretter vandret Laimbauer rundt og bodde hvor det falt seg i tre år. I denne tida videreutviklet han sin teologi. Våren 1635 dukket han opp i åsene nord for Donau med et følge på flere hundre mennesker. De vandret fredelig rundt i landskapet, men avviste kontakt med myndighetene. Myndighetene var redde for at Laimbauer og hans følge ville gå sørover for å slutte seg til det opprøret som foregikk sør for Donau, i Steiermark og Kärnten. Gruppen gikk i oppløsning, men neste vår var Laimbauer på nytt ute og vandret sammen med et stor følge. På nytt omringet myndigheten Laimbauer og hans følge og søkte å nedkjempe dem. Men myndighetene mislyktes i første forsøk. Myndigheten organiserte en militia bestående av tjenestemenn og husfedre, men i et slag 8. mai 1636 ved Neumarkt beseiret Laimbauer og hans følge denne militiaen. Dette førte til at myndighetene begynte å reise større troppestyrker for å nedkjempe Laimbauer. I mai hadde stenderforsamlinga samlet over 1.000 mann under våpen for å ta Laimbauer og hans følge på 400 personer. I en landsby på en høyde ved Donau, rett overfor den senere dødsleiren Mauthausen, ble Laimbauer angrepet. Etter tre timers kamp ble husene der Laimbauer og hans følge holdt til brent ned. Laimbauer ble såret og arrestert. Følget hans ble massakrert. Laimbauer ble torturert til døde på markedsplassen i Linz 20. juni 1636. Hva var Laimbauers budskap? Laimbauer lovte en ny himmel og en ny jord for sitt følge. Motstanderne hans hevdet at han var agent for djevelen. Laimbauer lot håret vokse til anklene. Han bar en kvit drakt og et trefarget skulderskjerf og hadde fjær i hatten. Han hevdet at han hadde kontakt med Gud og englene og at han hadde fått makt til å tilgi synder. Han hevdet at Gud hadde utnevnt ham til å erstatte Jesus fram til Dommedag siden Jesus var blitt for feit. Dette kunne være en analogi til både den oppsvulmede katolske kirka og til at husfedre satte bort sine egne barn og tok inn andres barn som det kunne være lettere å gi hard behandling, og som ikke hadde noen krav på husholdets formue. Både Laimbauers følge og Greimbls følge nektet å ha noe med myndighetene å gjøre. Myndighetene forstod ikke hva disse følgene var ute etter. Greimbl var motstander av ekteskapet, og han levde "i synd" sammen med en ung kvinne som var datter av en høg tjenestemann. Laimbauer var også motstander av ekteskapet, selv om han var gift og viet folk. Laimbauer var ikke i prinsippet motstander av ekteskapet, men motstander av det ekteskapet hadde blitt i det gjennombyråkratiserte husholdet. Ekteskapet var blitt et privilegium for husfaderklassen. Losjerende kunne bare gifte seg etter omfattende undersøkelser av deres religiøse og økonomiske status, og den store majoriteten som bestod av bortsatte og tjenere kunne ikke gifte seg i det hele tatt. Derfor mente Laimbauer at ulovlige bryllupsseremonier var riktige. Både Greimbls følge og Laimbauers følge bestod først og fremst av ungdommer. Av de 300-400 personene i følget til Laimbauer våren 1635 var bare 60 væpnede menn. Resten var kvinner og gutter. Massakren der Laimbauers følge ble utryddet var nedslakting av ubevæpnede kvinner og barn. En av disse guttene ble også lemlestet og torturert til døde på markedsplassen i Linz sammen med Laimbauer. Den militsen som stod for nedslaktinga bestod ikke av profesjonelle soldater, men av husfedre. Med nedkjempelsen av Laimbauers bevegelse stod for første gang de direkte undertrykkerne, husfedrene, samlet i kamp mot de som led mest under undertrykkelsen, de bortsatte og tjenerne. Året 1636 så den endelige seieren til habsburgernes absolutistiske statsform. Begivenhetene dette året demonstrerer klart hvilket ondt og ødeleggende regime dette var. De unge som ble massakrert var bare regimets mest synlige ofre. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Kilde for dette kapitlet er Hermann Rebels bok: "Peasant Classes. The Bureaucratization of Property and Family Relations under Early Habsburg Absolutism 1511-1636." -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dette er skrevet av Tor Førde. Det inngår i et arbeid om Europas historie. - 18. juni 2001. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Statens nye Disiplin. Skrevet av Tor Førde. Innholdsoversikt. Innledning. Statskunstens utvikling i tidlig moderne Tyskland. Dannelsen av de tyske statene. Den absolutte statens struktur. Disiplinering. Den velordnede Politistaten. Forordningene. Religion og kirke. Samfunnet. Økonomi. Materiell framgang. Framgang i utdanning og kultur. Administrasjon. Konklusjon. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Innledning. I andre kapitler i denne serien om det tyske riket har jeg skrevet om den nye disiplin og orden som myndighetene søkte å gjennomføre i den perioden som her behandles (1500-1800). Blant de kapitlene der dette tas opp er kapitlet om Hohenlohe, der jeg har skrevet om den nye disiplinen i Hohenlohe. Også i kapitlet om Autoritet og familie i Øvre Østerrike behandles hvordan myndighetene griper inn i de personlige forhold for å kontrollere og disiplinere dem. Oppbygginga av den prøyssiske Militærstaten var også en disiplineringsprosess. Vi skal i dette kapitlet ta inn noen flere synspunkter på hvordan denne utviklinga foregikk i Tyskland og gi ei mer omfattende framstilling av disiplineringsprosessen, og de viktigste kildene for dette kapitlet blir: Gerhard Oestreich: "Neostoicism and the early modern state," og Marc Raeff: "The Well-Ordered Police State." Statskunstens utvikling i tidlig moderne Tyskland. Vi begynner med kapittel 9: "'Police' and Prudentia civilis in the seventeenth century" fra Gerhard Oestreich si ovenfornevnte bok. På et besøk til fyrstens bibliotek i Wolfenbüttel i 1707 oppdaget Christian Thomasius et delvis trykt manuskript av det politiske testamentet til Melchior von Osse som hadde vært kansler for kurfyrsten av Saksen midt på 1500-tallet. Det var en manual for regjeringskunst og administrasjon for en tysk territorialstat. Thomasius fikk dette manuskriptet trykt. Arbeidet gir en detaljert oppstilling av "politi" i betydningen "sivil organisasjon", eller "regulering, disiplin og kontroll av et samfunn; sivil administrasjon; opprettholdelse av lov og offentlig orden." Med utgangspunkt i Aristoteles "Politics" fastslår Osse at det er fire nødvendige ting som hører sammen med den gode politikk (police) i et land eller en by: en styrer og overherre, gode og vise råd, god og upartisk jurisdiksjon og et lydig folk. Vi ser at ordet "politi" brukes i en langt videre betydning enn det vi er vant med. Oppgaven er å få samfunnet til å trives sånn at undersåttene utvikler rikdom og velstand, og at alt som står i veien for det felles beste blir fjernet. Undersåttene har to plikter overfor herskeren: respekt og lydighet. For Osse er ordet "regimente" i betydningen styre over en person eller et land eller et folk et hovedbegrep som omfatter både regjering og "politi" og domsmyndighet. Osse gir antagelig den mest fullstendige forklaring av termen "politi" som den ble brukt i tidlig moderne tid. For ham var den identisk med både regjeringa og samfunnets oppbygging. Når og i hvilken sammenheng møter vi først termen "politi" i det tysk-talende Europa? Det er først i byene, og deretter i territoriene. Termen finnes brukt i Würzburg i 1476, i Nürnberg i bystyrets forordninger i 1482 og 1485, og i kurfyrstedømmet Mainz i 1488. Tidlig i neste århundre finner vi termen i kombinasjonen "politi og god orden" og "god politi og orden." "Politi" betyr det samme som "regimente". Målet var å produsere et velordnet sivilt og territorielt samfunn. Denne forståelsen av "politi" fikk snart myndighetene til å hevde at de hadde en generell kompetanse i å bekjempe alle former for sosial uorden som de vanlige lovene og skikkene ikke var et effektivt motmiddel mot. Oppgaven var å regulere til "det felles beste," og å etablere en "velordnet republikk," som politiforskriftene for Strasbourg uttrykte det i 1628. Den sosiale uorden som det måtte bøtes på hadde flere årsaker. Byenes drag på mennesker fra landsbygda i det femtende og sekstende århundret førte til at byene fyltes opp av stadig nye mennesker. Disse måtte tilpasse seg en ny livsstil og nye omgangsformer. Dette og den økende befolkningstettheten førte til stress på bysamfunnene og minsket toleranse for avvikende livsstiler. Kirkas jurisdiksjon greide ikke å følge opp denne utviklinga, og mange forhold som tidligere hadde ligget under kirkas jurisdiksjon ble overtatt av verdslige myndigheter og lagt under deres domsmyndighet. I Senmiddelalderen hadde nesten alle byer i Imperiet utstedt bestemmelser om blasfemi, utroskap, forførelse, spill, overstadig drukkenskap, overdådig levnet, og så videre. De nye problemene som ble skapt av trangboddhet og overopphoping av folk og den økte muligheten for friksjon og konflikt som dette førte til, førte til vidtrekkene "politi" aktivitet fra byenes side. Og dette ble senere fulgt opp av de territorielle myndighetene, og også av Imperiet. Det ble nødvendig å oppnå akulturasjon av innvandrerne gjennom bestemmelser om hygieniske forhold, sosial etikk og om handel og vandel. Først ble enkeltstående bestemmelser utstedt, og senere omfattende og mer fullstendig politiforordninger. Denne styringsskikken ble kopiert av de territorielle myndighetene, ofte etter initiativ fra stenderforsamlingene. Og Imperiet ved Riksdagen vedtok store politiforordninger i 1530, 1548 og 1577. Den vordende moderne staten med sine institusjoner og nye områder for sosial og økonomisk aktivitet svarte på nye nasjonale behov. Nødvendigheten av reguleringer skapte en reguleringsmani. Større sosial kompleksitet brakte med seg mer omfattende autoritetsutøvelse fra myndighetenes side. Folk måtte trenes og instrueres for å kunne ta på seg de oppgavene som det nye samfunnet påla dem. Nye autoritetsforhold svekket det føydale systemet. Tendensen til å skape intern suverenitet i territoriene i det syttende og attende århundret fremmet utviklinga av absolutistiske styreformer i noen av fyrstedømmene. Pengeøkonomien økte sterkt i omfang. Mange byer tjente på den økende handelen, og det oppstod et behov for reguleringer av den økonomiske virksomheten utover de tradisjonelle laugsbestemmelsene. Dette ble erkjent som like viktig som de tidligere bestemmelsene om forhold som angikk helse, brannvern og renhold. Det var på grunnlag av disse reguleringene og den kontrollen de medførte at styreformene ble utviklet. Det ble ikke gjort noe stort skille mellom offentlig og privat, og politiforordningene søkte å regulere både offentlige og private forhold og virksomheter. I første omgang var oppgaven å gjenopprette kristen dydighet og respektabilitet. Etter hvert invaderte politiforordningene privatlivet og satte regler for alle sider ved det. Man søkte også å disiplinere folk gjennom å undervise dem og å forandre den åndelige, moralske og psykologiske dannelsen av menneskene. Forordningene ble svært detaljerte. Om Strasbourg for perioden 1521-1681 sies det: "Det er bare med vanskelighet at vi kan forestille oss den presisjonen som hverdagslivet .... ble regulert til minste detalj med; det var ikke noe område av politisk, økonomisk, sosialt eller kulturelt liv som ikke var underlagt denne altomfattende lidenskapen for orden." Også i andre store byer var forholdene og reguleringene svært detaljerte. De store byene ble forandret med myndighetenes økende makt. Patrisiatet i Strasbourg, som bestod av omkring tretti familier mellom 1600 og 1680, fikk et tilskudd av en viktig ny klasse som først bare bestod av store handelsmenn, men senere hovedsakelig av folk med universitetsutdanning. Juristene kom til å dominere, ikke bare som byskrivere og rådgivere for bymyndighetene, men også som valgte medlemmer av bystyret og indre råd. Også i mange andre av de store byene overtok juristene mye av styret eller hvert som byadministrasjonen ble utbygd for å skjøtte de nye oppgavene som politiforordningene påla byenes myndigheter. Juristene og de øverste administratorene ble de øverste myndighetene i mange store byer. Dette har en parallell i utviklinga av byråkratiet og dets makt i mange av de territorielle statene. Dette forandret de berørte bysamfunnene sterkt, der det gamle patrisiatet fikk et tilskudd av utdannede jurister, leger, teologer og humanister. Det absolutistiske samfunnet bestod av det absolutistiske staten og det gamle, tradisjonelle korporative samfunnet. En del av samfunnet ble overtatt av staten og satt i dens tjeneste. Det ble utviklet et øvre lag i byråkratiet som var utdannet. Den absolutistiske statens forgjenger var den korporative staten med dens representative organ. Disse var representert i Landdagen, som blant annet bevilget skatter til fyrsten. Den absolutistiske staten ble utviklet da herskeren utviklet sin egen hær. Dermed oppnådde fyrsten en makt over samfunnet som han ikke hadde hatt tidligere. Men de gamle maktorganene og representative forsamlingene forsvant ikke, de ble bare innordnet i de nye autoritetsforholdene, og hadde fortsatt stor makt over lokale forhold, og søkte ofte også å delta på sentralt nivå. Man hadde fortsatt et standssamfunn der bøndene bar byrdene og betalte skattene. De tre viktigste trekkene ved staten ble militarismen, byråkratiet og merkantilismen. Det våpenkappløpet som foregikk gjorde det nødvendig for deltakerne å øke statens inntekter. Byråkratiet, militarismen og merkantilismen spredte sin innflytelse til alle livets forhold, og samfunnet ble karakterisert ved autoritet, disiplin og systematisk arbeid for å øke yteevnen i alle forhold. I denne perioden ble det utgitt svært mange bøker om politikk. Viktigst av dem var Politics av Justus Lipsius. De var opptatt av behovene til sin tids monarkier og til den herskende klasse. Denne litteraturen ble studert ved tyske universitet opp til det attende århundret. Lipsius' Politics kom ut i nittiseks opplag, alle språk inkludert. Denne litteraturen forsterket ideen om autoritet og om å disiplinere undersåttene. Juristene ble undervist i dette ved universitetene. Denne litteraturen underviste også i og la vekt på å utvikle de stoiske dydene, som beherskelse, selvdisiplin, måtehold og æresfølelse. I denne læren ble individet underordnet statens formål, og på den måten støttet denne litteraturen opp om absolutismen. Dette var ikke bare en tysk bevegelse, men hele Europa ble påvirket av denne litteraturen. Dannelsen av de tyske statene. Her bygger jeg på kapitlet "The estates of Germany and the formation of the state" i Oestreich si bok. Oestreich deler dannelsen av de tyske territoriestatene inn i tre perioder: Den første av disse er den primitive eller tidlige formen for dualistisk styre i det fjortende og femtende århundre. Den andre perioden er det første trinnet i utviklinga av den tidlig moderne staten, som han kaller "finansstaten", i det sekstende århundret. Den tredje perioden er det andre trinnet i utviklinga av den tidlig moderne staten. Det begynner i andre halvdel av det syttende århundret. Dette siste trinnet er den militære, økonomiske og administrative staten. Dette siste trinnet ble ikke nådd av en stor del av de mindre tyske statene/fyrstedømmene. I det tidligste av disse stadiene fantes enda ikke de territorielle stenderforsamlingene. Fyrsten prøvde å styre det lokale nivået gjennom sine tjenestemenn, men det lyktes ofte ikke siden godseierne og den lokale adelen ofte overtok styret på lokalplanet på landsbygda, (eller landsbyene, da de oppstod, utviklet et visst indre selvstyre,) og byene frigjorde seg etterhvert fra fyrstenes styre. Den lokale adelen, geistligheten og de territorielle byene kom etterhvert til å danne territorielle stenderforsamlinger, Landdagen. Hver av stendene hadde også egen forsamlinger, med kontakt over territoriegrensene. I den første perioden oppstod de korporative institusjonene. Landdagene hadde rett til å presentere klager til fyrsten. Den lovgivninga som ble gitt i denne perioden oppstod i samarbeid mellom fyrstene og landdagene. På territorie nivå stod fyrsten overfor stenderforsamlinga/Landdagen, som han var nødt til å forholde seg til, siden fyrsten hadde liten direkte myndighet på lokalnivået. Styret som ble utviklet i denne første perioden var dualistisk, delt mellom fyrsten og de korporative institusjonene. Dette styringssystemet utgjorde ikke en "stat". I neste periode ble det Oestreich kaller for "finansstaten" utviklet. I 1520 ga keiser Karl V en lang instruksjon til Württemberg, som da var under keiserens styre, om å fastlegge de løpende utgiftene. Landdagens økonomiske plan ble kalt "der stat". Dette var et budsjett som man kom fram til etter lange forhandlinger mellom stenderforsamlinga og keiserens regjering om hvordan regjeringa, administrasjonen og forsvaret av hertugdømmet Württemberg skulle finansieres. I det tyske området kom begrepet "stat" først til å brukes i forbindelse med statens finanser. På 1500-tallet var finanssaker, spørsmål om hvordan fyrstens utgifter skulle dekkes og skattesaker, de viktigste sakene i det offentlige livet. De finansielle drøftelsene og forhandlingene mellom fyrsten og stendene om bevilgning av penger var den viktigste oppgaven for stenderforsamlingene. Stenderforsamlingene kunne overta fyrstenes gjeld og bidrog til å finansiere hoffene, fyrstenes administrasjon og regjeringsapparat. Stenderforsamlingene utviklet sine egne administrasjonsapparat som gjorde stenderforsamlingene i stand til å samle inn skattene til fyrsten uten fyrstens deltakelse. Statens utvikling på dette trinnet var avhengig av stenderforsamlingene, siden den bare kunne foregå i samarbeid med dem. Stenderforsamlingene hadde egne budsjett og samlet inn skatter som ikke gikk til fyrstene. På sentralt nivå var det en todelt finansadministrasjon som var underlagt fyrsten og som også var underlagt stenderforsamlinga. Stendene kunne påvirke fyrstens finansadministrasjon ved å være med på å bestemme hvem som arbeidet i den. Og fyrsten kunne også i noen grad få sine folk inn i stenderforsamlingas finansadministrasjon. Finansadministrasjonen på lokalt nivå var bygd opp uavhengig av fyrsten. Den lokale adelen og byene krevde inn skattene på vegne av fyrsten. I store deler av Tyskland overlevde denne finansadministrasjonen gjennom hele den perioden vi arbeider med (1500-1800). Selv i det som ble et av de mest sentrale områdene i Tyskland, Mark Brandenburg, fungerte finansadministrasjonen på denne måten i det attende århundret. Det var i denne andre perioden at Landdagene (de territorielle stenderforsamlingene) hadde størst innflytelse. De tok seg også av rettsvesenet og lovene, og lovgivning. Landdagen tok seg også av skoler og universitet og undervisning og kirkespørsmål. Det var et partnerskap mellom fyrstene og stenderforsamlingene. I den tredje perioden i det syttende århundret ble den militære, økonomiske og administrative staten etablert. Det som framfor alt skilte denne statsformen fra "finansstaten" var synet på den stående hæren. Stenderforsamlingene ønsket ingen stående hær. Motstanden mot stående hærstyrker, og mot å bevilge penger til disse, var så sterk fra stenderforsamlingenes side at i Preussen ble stenderforsamlingene stort sett ekskludert fra reell makt på sentralt nivå av fyrsten. Dette skjedde også andre steder. De gamle organene til stenderforsamlingene ble i stor grad satt til side av de militære kommissærene. Der stenderforsamlingene fortsatte å eksistere ble de tvunget til å samarbeide med fyrsten på hans premisser, de var ikke lenger jevnbyrdige partnere med ham. Bare på lokalnivået fortsatte representative forsamlinger å fungere ganske fritt på mange områder. I tillegg til at militærstaten oppstod ble det økonomiske grunnlaget for staten forbedret. Kameralistisk teori hadde som ei forutsetning at det var gjensidige forpliktelse mellom fyrsten og undersåttene, og at fyrsten skulle arbeide for økonomisk utvikling. Og de gjorde det. I Preussen er de store nydyrkingsprosjektene og kanalbygginga kjent. Kameralismen fremmet også religiøs toleranse. Omkring dette spørsmålet kunne det bli konflikt, som i Preussen der fyrsten stod for en mer tolerant politikk enn stenderforsamlingene. Både den lutherske kirka og stenderforsamlingene i Preussen ville ikke tolerere ikke-lutheranere, men fyrsten bekjempet denne motstanden. Stenderforsamlingene var knyttet til å forsvare standsprivilegier og særinteresser, selv om de hevdet å være de fremste representantene for territoriene, og greide ikke å utvikle en offensiv tenkning. Monarkene derimot støttet seg på en offensiv tenkning der de stod som representanter for det felles beste og for utvikling av effektivitet og rasjonalitet, og var i stand til å ta initiativene i forholdet til stenderforsamlingene. Lenker: Til neste del: Forsida -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Kilder for dette kapitlet er: Gerhard Oestreich: "Neostoicism and the early modern state." Marc Raeff: "The Well-Ordered Police State." -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dette er skrevet av Tor Førde, 14. oktober 2001. Det inngår i et arbeid om Europas historie. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Fra Brandenburg til Preussen. Skrevet av Tor Førde. Kilde for dette kapitlet er H. W. Kochs bok "A History of Prussia". Innholdsoversikt. Innledning. Preussen på 1500-tallet. Brandenburg på 1500-tallet. Den store kurfyrsten. Trettiårskrigen. Preussens suverenitet. Innføring av absolutismen. Konflikt med stenderforsamlinga i Preussen. Stenderforsamlinga i Brandenburg. Sentraladministrasjonens utvikling. Kurfyrste Friedrich III. Friedrich blir konge. Kong Friedrichs politikk. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Innledning. Dette kapitlet omhandler tidsrommet 1500-1713. (Også andre av kapitlene om Preussen tar opp dette tidsrommet.) Brandenburg var år 1500 et fyrstedømme i Det Romerske Imperium av den Tyske Nasjon. Preussen hadde ingenting med Brandenburg å gjøre. Preussen var fra freden i Thorun i 1466 underlagt kongen av Polen. Tidligere hadde Preussen vært underlagt den Teutonske ridderordenen. Offisielt ble fyrsten av Brandenburg også hertug av Preussen i 1611, da han fikk Preussen som et len fra kongen av Polen. I året 1657 ble Preussen uavhengig av Polen, og i 1701 kronet kurfyrsten av Brandenburg seg som konge i Preussen. Fra da av valgte han å kalle seg for konge i Preussen istedenfor kurfyrste av Brandenburg, og fyrstedømmet hans, der Brandenburg fortsatt var kjerneområdet, begynte å bli kalt for Preussen. Dette er å foregripe ei utvikling som jeg vil gå mer detaljert inn på seinere. Preussen på 1500-tallet. På 1400-tallet kom den Teutoniske ridderordenen i oppløsning. Også grupper utenfor ridderordenen organiserte seg for å delta i maktkampene i Preussen. Resultatet av stridighetene var at kongen av Polen vant kontroll over Preussen, og ved freden i Thorun fikk stormesteren av Teutonerordenen Preussen som len av den polske kongen. I 1511 ble den første stormester av Teutonerordenen fra Brandenburg valgt. Det var markgreve Albrecht av Brandenburg-Ansbach. Som følge av reformasjonen ble Teutonerordenen under Albrecht en verdslig orden. I Preussen ble Danzig først påvirket av reformasjonen. Deretter ble reformasjonens tanker kjent i Kønigsberg, der biskop Georg von Polentz, som var medlem av Teutonerordenen, tok den reformerte læren i bruk jula 1525. Teutonerordenens stormester, markgreve Albrecht av Brandenburg-Ansbach, støttet reformasjonen, og så sekularisering av ridderordenen som den beste mulighet for ordenen til å overleve. I en avtale med kongen av Polen overførte markgrev Albrecht stormesterverdigheten til kongen mot at Preussen ble et polsk hertugdømme der markgreven også var hertug av Preussen. Albrecht ble også lutheraner. Universitet i Kønigsberg ble en protestantisk institusjon. Siden evangeliet i følge Luther skulle forkynnes på morsmålet til folk ble et polsk og et litauiske seminar opprettet under det teologiske fakultetet, og religiøse tekster oversatt til de forskjellige språkene i Preussen. Da Albrecht ble hertug av Preussen i 1525 svor stenderforsamlinga troskap til hertugen. Men bøndene stilte som betingelse for å sverge troskap at de nye privilegiene som adelen hadde skaffet seg etter at Teutonerordenen hadde begynt å miste sin makt skulle avskaffes. Disse nye privilegiene medførte nye byrder for bøndene. Bøndene samlet seg utenfor Kønigsberg. Der drepte Albrecht deres ledere og tvang dem til å sverge troskap. At Albrecht deltok i å gjøre den tidligere tyske kolonien Preussen til et polsk hertugdømme ble i det tyske riket betraktet som et forræderi, og Albrecht ble derfor bannlyst i 1532 av Imperiets høgste domstol, etter at den katolske kirka også hadde bannlyst ham. Denne bannlysinga kom til å gjelde for alle prøyssere. Siden den lutherske kirka var akseptert og fungerte i Preussen på denne tida betydde denne bannlysinga lite. Selv om Polen var katolsk støttet Polen reformasjonene i Preussen. Under Albrecht økte den jordeiende adelens makt i Preussen. Adelen bygde opp stadig større gods, og bøndene ble redusert til rettsløse livegne undersåtter av adelsmennene. Adelen drev selv sine gods, og bøndene ble forvandlet til halvslaver. Preussen ble et av Vest-Europas kornkammer. Adelen utøvde sin makt blant annet gjennom Landdagen, der Landtag, som var stenderforsamlinga i Preussen. Den bevilget penger, og uten godkjennelse fra Landdagen var det ikke mulig å skrive ut skatter. Landdagen bestod av tre grupper, den adelen som stammet fra Tyskland, den lokale landadelen og byene. På slutten av sin regjeringstid prøvde Albrecht å begrense adelens makt. Som en advarsel til Albrecht henrettet da stenderforsamlinga flere av rådgiverne til Albrecht. Da Albrecht døde i 1568 var sønnen Albrecht II hans etterfølger. Da det viste seg at han var sinnssyk ble i 1605 kurfyrste Joachim Friedrich av Brandenburg utnevnte til hertugregent i 1605. I 1611 ble sønnen hans, kurfyrste Johann Sigismund, offisielt hertug av Preussen. Brandenburg på 1500-tallet. Også i Brandenburg ble bøndene mer og mer undertrykt av adelen. Adelen i Altmark greide å gjøre det til en forbrytelse å tillate en bonde å bo eller slå seg ned et annet sted utenfor det godset der bonden hadde vokst opp. Det skyldtes at kornprisene var økende og at landet var så tynt befolket at store områder ikke lot seg dyrke på grunn av mangel på arbeidskraft. For å holde på arbeidskrafta gjorde adelen tidligere frie bønder til livegne undersåtter. Kurfyrsten støttet adelen i dette. Men i Brandenburg lot ikke fyrsten adelen få så stor makt over sentralmakta som adelen greide å oppnå i Preussen, selv om også stenderforsamlinga i Brandenburg hevdet at den var maktas grunnlag. For at fyrsten skulle være i stand til å utøve makt trengte han et maktapparat, et byråkrati, og en hær. Rundt år 1500 var oppbygginga av et effektivt byråkrati og en hær begynt i Brandenburg. Tidligere hadde fyrstene i krigføring vært avhengige av at den adelen som hadde mottatt jord i len fra fyrsten stilte opp og kjempet sammen med fyrsten. Men allerede på 1400-tallet hadde fyrsten av Brandenburg vært i stand til å stille betydelige hærstyrker på egen hand. Kurfyrst Joachim I overtok makta i Brandenburg i 1499. Han grunnla universitetet i Frankfurt an der Oder, og tillot nye tankeretninger å etablere seg der. Universitetet begynte undervisninga i 1506. Kurfyrst Joachim motsatte seg reformasjonen, og som belønning fra den katolske kirka fikk han lov til å utnevne biskopene i Brandenburg. Men kona til kurfyrsten ble protestant, selv om kurfyrsten prøvde å hindre dette. Han prøvde også å hindre henne i å delta i protestantiske gudstjenester, og hun flyktet derfor til Saksen. Ved Riksdagen i Augsburg i 1530 var kurfyrste Joachim leder for katolikkene under striden mot de protestantiske fyrstene. Da han døde i 1535 ble styret av riket hans delt mellom de to sønnene Johann av Kystrin og Neumark og Joachim II. Sistnevnte ble også ny kurfyrste. Til i 1570 styrte disse hver sin del av Brandenburg. Joachim var en rolig person uten store ambisjoner. Han likte å leve i sus og dus, som det sømmet seg for en fyrste. Johann organiserte hærstyrker som han leide ut, og levde mer sparsommelig. Da Johann døde etterlot han seg en formue, mens Joachim etterlot seg gjeld. Johann støttet reformasjonen, mens Joachim var mer reservert overfor den. Ingen av brødrene deltok i den Schmalkaldiske krigen, de protestantiske fyrstenes allianses krig mot keiser Karl V, i 1546-7. I 1571 døde begge brødrene med mindre enn ti dagers mellomrom. Johann hadde ingen sønner. Derfor kom sønnen til Joachim, Johann Georg, til å bli ny kurfyrste og hovedarving til begge brødrene. Johann Georg var protestant. Innenrikspolitisk ville han konsolidere Brandenburg, og utenriks var han motstander av motreformasjonen, og fremmet arvekrav på Jülich-Kleve. Han døde i 1598. Joachim Friedrich ble deretter ny kurfyrste. Han ønsket å opprette et bedre forhold til habsburgerne. Dessuten arvet han gjeld som han ville kvitte seg med. For å gjøre dette måtte han få Landdagen til å skrive ut skatter. Dette gjorde Landdagen bare under den forutsetning at adelen fikk nye privilegier som sikret adelen den økonomiske makta i Brandenburg. Landdagen ønsket en passiv utenrikspolitikk siden den ønsket fred og ingen krigsutgifter. Kurfyrste Joachim Friedrich utviklet sentraladministrasjonen i Brandenburg. I desember 1604 ble det hemmelige rådet opprettet. Det bestod av ni rådgivere. Dets oppgave var å administrere indre og ytre saker under oppsyn av kurfyrsten. Kurfyrsten opprettet også en ny domstol og et Amtskammer som administrerte kurfyrstens jordeiendommer. Sønnen til Joachim Friedrich, kurfyrst Johann Sigismund, var en mer aktiv protestant. Han ble i 1611 offisielt innsatt som hertug av Preussen, som han mottok som et len under kongen av Polen. Da Albrecht II døde i 1618 gikk arveretten til huset Hohenzollern. Johan Sigismund ekteskap med Albrechts eldste datter etablerte arvekravet på Jülich-Kleve. Brandenburg og Preussen var to områder som var omtrent like store. Det betyr at da kurfyrsten av Brandenburg også ble hertug av Preussen ble det området som kurfyrsten styrte over fordoblet. Kønigsberg i Preussen var rikere enn noen by i Brandenburg. Både i Preussen og i Brandenburg var det ofte adelen som spilte førstefiolin. Johann Sigismund hadde dårlig helse. Og denne ble ikke bedre av hans overdådige spise- og drikkevaner. Forholdet hans til kona var så dårlig at de slåss som hund og katt. Den energien som han hadde begynt sitt styre med ble etterhvert borte. I 1609 døde hertugen av Jülich. Kurfyrstinne Anne av Brandenburg var først i arverekkefølgen, og Brandenburg søkte å overta Jülich-Kleve. Dette motsatte keiseren seg. Neuburgfamilien presenterte også et arvekrav, og hertugdømmet ble delt mellom Brandenburg og Neuburg. Den lokale stenderforsamlinga aksepterte delinga på den betingelse at religiøs toleranse ble utøvd. Johann Sigismund gikk over til kalvinismen i 1613. Siden kalvinismen stod svakt i Brandenburg var han nødt til å tolerere andre trosformer. Også mange senere kurfyrster kom til å være kalvinister, og Brandenburg-Preussen kom til å utvikle en tradisjon for religiøs toleranse. I november 1619 overlot Johann Sigismund styret til sin sønn Georg Wilhelm. Heller ikke Georg Wilhelm hadde god helse. Han var heller ikke særlig begavet eller interessert i politikk. Derfor var det ikke vanskelig for hans fremste rådgiver Adam, greve av Schwartzenberg, å overta styringa av Brandenburg sin politikk. Mor til den nye kurfyrsten førte sin egen politikk. Hun ønsket at datter hennes skulle bli gift med den svenske kongen, Gustav Adolf. Johann Sigismund motsatte seg denne forbindelsen siden Sverige og Polen var i krig, og Johann Sigismunds lensherre var den polske kongen. Likevel ble Johann Sigismunds søster gift med den svenske kongen Dette ble i Polen oppfattet som en konspirasjon mot Polen, og det gikk ikke raskt for Johann Sigismund å bli formelt innsatt som hertug i Preussen. Han ønsket slett ikke å bli innblandet i noen krig. I 1621 ble Johann Sigismund hertug av Preussen på samme vilkår som sin forgjenger, og Brandenburg greide å holde seg ute av konflikten mellom Sverige og Polen. Johann Sigismund prøvde å holde Brandenburg utenfor den store krigen som etterhvert utviklet seg i Tyskland. Men da svenskene under Gustav Adolf gjorde landgang måtte Brandenburg slutte seg til dem. Og Brandenburg ble fryktelig herjet av krigen. Da Georg Wilhelm døde i 1640 var landet i ferd med å gå i oppløsning. Den Store Kurfyrsten. I 1620 ble Friedrich Wilhelm født. Han vokste opp mens krigen raste i landet, og fikk under oppveksten se sitt land bli mer og mer ødelagt. I 1640 overtok han som kurfyrste av Brandenburg. I 1634 hadde han blitt sendt til Leyden i Nederland for å studere. Han hadde studert matematikk, latin, historie, krigskunst, og lært å snakke fransk, nederlandsk og polsk, i tillegg til at han kunne tysk. Og han utviklet sympati for Nederland. Da Friedrich Wilhelm overtok som kurfyrste i 1640 var situasjonen til Brandenburg dårlig. De soldatene som var hyrt inn for å forsvare landet plyndret det heller, og da svenskene i 1639 okkuperte deler av Brandenburg sies det at befolkninga opplevde det som en befrielse. Store deler av landet til kurfyrsten var i hendene på andre fyrster. Trettiårskrigen. Mer enn halvparten av befolkninga i Brandenburg var borte, og krigen raste fortsatt. De viktigste områdene av Brandenburg var i fiendens hender. I Preussen hadde adelen nyttet hertugens svakhet til å tiltvinge seg enda mer makt og innflytelse. Likevel var Preussen viktigere enn Brandenburg siden Preussen var rikere, og siden hertugen der rådde over større rikdommer og inntekter enn han gjorde i Brandenburg. Disse rikdommene bestod både i svært store eiendommer som lå under hertugen og rett til å skattlegge befolkninga som hørte under disse eiendommene uten å gå veien om stenderforsamlinga. Dessuten hadde Kønigsberg stor eksport av viktige råvarer som kunne skattlegges. Far til Friedrich Wilhelm hadde hatt Schwartzenberg som viktigste rådgiver. Friedrich Wilhelm brukte heller mor si, mens Schwartzenberg ble mer og mer redusert. Situasjonen ble analysert, og man kom fram til at Brandenburg ikke kunne føre krig mot Sverige, og kurfyrsten burde prøve å ha et vennlig forhold til habsburgerne og til stenderforsamlinga. Det Brandenburg først og fremst manglet var en sterk hær. Uten en hær kunne ikke Brandenburg føre en sjølstendig politikk, men var avhengig av andre makters gode vilje. Friedrich Wilhelm søkte å utvikle et samarbeidsforhold til stenderforsamlinga, men stenderforsamlinga var først og fremst opptatt av å bevare og å øke adelens privilegier. Det eneste de ble enige om var å undersøke klagene om at hæren plyndret det landet den skulle beskytte. Dette var en hær som burde oppløses siden den ikke hadde kampevne. Samtidig trengte Friedrich Wilhelm hæren siden det var krig. For å komme ut av denne situasjonen forhandlet han med svenskene om en våpenhvile. 24. juli 1641 ble en toårig våpenhvileavtale inngått med Sverige. Den 7. oktober 1641 ble Friedrich Wilhelm innsatt som hertug av Preussen. I november deltok han i Preussens Landdag i Kønigsberg. Der innvilget Landdagen ham retten til å innføre ei omsetningsavgift. Dette kom til å bli en av de viktigste skattene i Brandenburg-Preussen. Siden denne skattoppkrevinga skulle administreres av adelen kunne adelen unngå at den rammet dem selv hardt. De privilegiene som adelen på egen hand hadde begynte å utøve ble i 1653 anerkjent av Friedrich Wilhelm. Befolkninga på landsbygda øst for Elben kan deles opp i fire grupper: Bøndene som hadde mellom 300 og 600 mål jord. De måtte holde den lokale herren med fra to til fire hester og en eller to jordbruksarbeidere. Husmennene som hadde mindre jord og var nødt til å arbeide for den lokale herren. Husmennene som bare hadde en liten hage måtte utføre både forefallende arbeide og arbeide full tid for den lokale herren under onnene. Tjener og bønder som tjente den lokale herren direkte og levde på eller i nærheten av hans eiendom. I tillegg til arbeidsytelser måtte bøndene betale i penger eller naturalia til herren. Bøndene var underlagt herrens jurisdiksjon, og kunne ikke forlate hans eiendom uten hans tillatelse. De kunne ikke lære seg et handverk eller yrke uten hans tillatelse. I Pommern kunne herren kjøpe og selge sine livegne om han ønsket, og gjøre med dem hva han ville. Befolkninga i byer som kom under herrene var i samme situasjon. Vest for Elben var forholdene bedre. I Øst-Preussen liknet forholdene mye på forholdene i Polen. Også Friedrich Wilhelm var kalvinist. Siden majoriteten av befolkninga i Brandenburg-Preussen var lutheranere var det naturlig for Friedrich Wilhelm å være religiøst tolerant. Mesteparten av Friedrich Wilhelms regjeringsarbeid fant sted med innenfor det hemmelig rådet, som møttes to-tre ganger i veka. Våren 1644 begynte Friedrich Wilhelm å bygge opp hæren. Først etter 1660 var det mulig å gjøre den om til en regulær stående hær. Det meste av oppbygginga av hæren kom til å foregå ved Rhinen, i Kleve. I 1646 hadde Brandenburg 3.000 soldater ved Rhinen. Også i Brandenburg ble garnisonene styrket. Grunnen til at Friedrich Wilhelm valgte å bygge opp hæren ved Rhinen var at han ikke ville vekke mistanke hos svenskene. Et stort problem var å skaffe penger for å betale soldatene. Mesteparten av pengene kom fra hertugdømmet Preussen. I Kleve var det motstand mot oppbygginga av hæren. Stenderforsamlinga der ville bare bevilge penger til hæren dersom den ble fjernet fra Kleve. Friedrich Wilhelm bestemte seg derfor for å skrive ut skatter uten tillatelse. Dette lot seg gjøre på landsbygda, men i byene ville ikke administrasjonen samarbeide siden skattlegginga var ulovlig. Også Nederland og Østerrike gikk mot denne ulovlige skattlegginga. i 1644 trakk svenskene seg ut fra fortene ved Frankfurt an der Oder siden det var behov for soldatene i en krig mot Danmark, og den nye hæren til Friedrich Wilhelm overtok fortene. Men hæren var fortsatt så liten at den kunne ikke foreta seg noe for å beskytte Brandenburg. Noe som ble tydelig da tropper som skulle hjelpe danskene fritt kunne passere gjennom Brandenburg noe senere. Mellom Brandenburg og Sverige var det konflikt om herredømmet over Pommern. Heller ikke Nederland ville at Sverige skulle greie å opprette fullstendig herredømme over Østersjøen siden handelen på Østersjøen var svært viktig for Nederland. I fredsforhandlingene ved slutten av Trettiårskrigen var spørsmålet om herredømme over Pommern viktig. Pommern var så og si kyststrekninga til Brandenburg og et forbindelsesledd mellom Brandenburg og Preussen. Utløpet av Oder med Stettin var det området som Brandenburg aller helst ville ha. Østerrike støttet Sveriges krav på hele Pommern og byene Wismar, Bremen og Verden. Frankrike kom med et kompromissforslag som ville dele Pommern. Den østlige delen, Vorpommern og utløpet av Oder med Stettin skulle gå til Sverige mens Brandenburg skulle få den vestlige delen av Pommern, Hinterpommern. Siden dette var det beste Brandenburg var i stand til å få støtte for aksepterte Brandenburg det. Og en krig som hadde lagt øde en tredjedel av alle gårdsbrukene i Brandenburg-Preussen var slutt. Da freden kom ville ikke Sverige trekke seg ut av de delene av Pommern som Brandenburg i følge fredsavtalen skulle ha. Keiseren, som ville ha kurfyrstens støtte ved valget av sønnen til ny keiser, truet med krig dersom svenskene ikke holdt seg til fredsavtalen. Og svenskene trakk seg da ut av de delene av Pommern som Brandenburg skulle ha. Preussens suverenitet. I 1655 brøt det ut krig mellom Sverige og Polen. Siden kurfyrsten var den polske kongens vasall var han pliktig til å hjelpe Polen, men han gjorde det ikke. Svenskene avanserte raskt, og ønsket også å ta Preussen. Kurfyrsten tilbød seg å mekle, men svenskene avslo tilbudet. Den polske kongen, Johan Casimir, måtte flykte fra Polen, og Brandenburgs fyrste måtte akseptere Sverige som overherre i Preussen. Den 17. januar 1656 mottok han Preussen som len fra Sverige av Karl X. Men ganske raskt kom Johan Casimir tilbake med støtte fra store folkegrupper og kirka og drev Karl X ut av Polen. Brandenburg holdt fast ved alliansen med Sverige og innledet krig mot Polen. Dermed fikk den nye hæren til Brandenburg prøvd seg for første gang, og den viste seg å holde mål. Polakkene kom på defensiven. Nå ville både Østerrike og Russland gripe inn på Polens side. Friedrich Wilhelm benyttet svenskenes svekkede posisjon til å kreve at Sverige anerkjente Friedrich Wilhelm som hertug og suveren hersker over Preussen. Dette gikk svenskene med på i slutten av 1656. Keiser Ferdinand III døde i 1657, og det var viktig å vinne kurfyrsten over på habsburgernes side ved valget av ny keiser. Kurfyrstens viktigste krav var anerkjennelse av Preussen som en suveren stat. Under hardt press fra Østerrike gikk Polen med på dette kravet, og ved Wehlauavtalen 19. september 1657 ble Preussen igjen et suverent område. Ny fiendtlighet fra svenskenes side fikk Brandenburg til å inngå en defensiv allianse med Østerrike og Polen. Den 18. juli 1658 ble Leopold, atten år gammel, valgt som ny keiser. En måned senere gikk Karl X til ny krig. Denne gangen vendte han seg mot Danmark. Han seilte med en flåte til København, som ble satt under blokade. Men København ble innbitt forsvart. Friedrich Wilhelm besluttet å angripe Sverige. Med en hær på 30.000 mann jaget han svenskene fra Schleswig og Holstein og samtidig kom en nederlandsk flåte og brøt den svenske blokaden av København. Frankrike var den viktigste allierte til Sverige, men Frankrike var opptatt med sin krig mot Spania. Da krigen mot Spania var over i 1659 samlet Frankrike en hær på 40.000 mann som kunne brukes i Østersjøområdet. Da oppga Østerrike og Polen støtten til Brandenburg. Da Karl X døde ble det lettere å komme fram til ei fredsslutning. Ved fredsavtalen i Olivia (i nærheten av Danzig) i 1660 måtte Brandenburg overgi Vorpommern til Sverige. Det eneste Brandenburg hadde oppnådd var innrømmelse av Preussens selvstendighet. Innføring av absolutismen. Etter freden i Olivia sluttet Friedrich Wilhelm å motta råd. Allerede i 1653 hadde den brandenburgske Landdagen hatt sitt siste møte. Siden kurfyrstens land var spredd ut over et stort område, fra Rhinen til Øst-Preussen, kunne de vanskelig gjøre samlet motstand. Derfor kunne Friedrich Wilhelm tvinge sin vilje på dem ett etter ett. Sterkest motstand møtte Friedrich Wilhelm i den største av sine besittelser, Preussen. Landdagen hevdet at hertugens suverenitet over Preussen krevde Landdagens samtykke for å være gyldig. Konflikt med stenderforsamlinga i Preussen. Det brøt ut åpen konflikt mellom Friedrich Wilhelm og stenderforsamlinga, Landdagen, i Preussen i 1661. Gjennom et konstitusjonelt dokument kunngjorde Friedrich Wilhelm at han hadde jus supremi et absoluti domini, mens Landdagens privilegier skulle være uforandret, men Landdagen skulle bare kunne samles med hertugens samtykke. Stenderforsamlinga nektet å akseptere dette, og ville ikke anerkjenne Friedrich Wilhelms suverenitetskrav. Den drivende kraft i opposisjonen var Hieronymus Roth som var formann i domstolen i Kønigsberg. Roth var populær og beskyttet av byen. I 1662 bestemte Friedrich Wilhelm seg for å bruke alle midler for å få sin vilje gjennom. Han landet i Danzig med 2.000 soldater, og de gikk til Kønigsberg. Der greide en av Friedrich Wilhelms patruljer å fange Hieronymus Roth. Stenderforsamlinga ga opp sin motstand. Alle medlemmer av regjeringa og byråd skulle nå rapportere direkte til Friedrich Wilhelm. En bestemmelse om at bare ortodokse lutheranere kunne ansettes i offentlige stillinger ble avskaffet. Roth ble anklaget for forræderi. Men på grunn av den komplekse situasjonen ble det anbefalt at han skulle benådes om han ba om nåde. Det nektet Roth, og han satt derfor i fengsel til sin død 16 år senere. I 1669 brøt en ny konflikt ut mellom Landdagen og hertugen. Stenderforsamlinga nektet å bevilge penger som fyrsten ønsket til militære formål. En av de mest tydelige motstanderne av disse bevilgningene var oberst Ludwig von Kalckstein. Han var dømt for underslag og hadde rømt til Polen, der han talte mot kurfyrsten. Kurfyrsten fikk ham kidnappet og ført til Preussen. Der ble han forhørt og torturert og halshogd i 1672. Kurfyrstens fremferd viste at han ikke ville tåle noen opposisjon. I 1673 og 1674 bevilget stenderforsamlinga de pengene som kurfyrsten ønsket, og han stasjonerte tropper i Kønigsberg. Stenderforsamlinga i Brandenburg. Striden med stenderforsamlinga i Brandenburg var ikke så hard. Motstanden gikk ikke lenger enn til klager. Stenderforsamlinga bevilget de pengene som kurfyrsten ønsket. En grunn til dette var at kurfyrsten ga den jordeiende adelen personlig jurisdiksjon over de livegne bøndene og jordarbeiderne og fritak fra å betale skatt. Ofrene for denne politikken var bøndene og de livegne. Kurfyrsten greide bare å innføre omsetningsavgift i byene, siden omsetningsavgift på landsbygda ville ha medført at adelen også måtte betale skatt, og dette motsatte adelen seg. Brandenburg fikk derfor et todelt skattesystem. Situasjonen var vanskeligere for kurfyrsten ved Rhinen for der kunne opposisjonen i Kleve finne støtte i Nederland, og i Jülich-Berg fant den katolske opposisjonen støtte hos keiseren. Kurfyrsten greide ikke å kneble stenderforsamlingene ved Rhinen. De fortsatte å ha rett til å samles når de selv ønsket, og bare innfødte kunne ansettes som offentlige tjenestemenn. Kurfyrstens styre i de forskjellige områdene som lå utenfor Brandenburg og som tilhørte fyrstedømmet bestod av en stattholder med et råd. Det var intet enhetlig styresystem siden mange lokale tilpasninger var nødvendige. Sentraladmistrasjonens utvikling. Det hemmelige rådet ble utviklet til kjernen i et sentralt styresett. Det begynte sakte å få innflytelse også utenfor Brandenburg. Det begynte å organisere seg i departementer. Men for at de skulle få myndighet utenfor Brandenburg måtte de også anerkjennes som sentrale regjeringsorgan for alle kurfyrstens land, og det tok tid. Det mest effektive sentraliseringsinstrumentet var skattlegginga som ble tatt i bruk for å bygge opp og å opprettholde hæren. Denne skatten ble samlet inn og administrert av krigskommissærene. De var underlagt Krigskommisariatet, som ble ledet av den fremst av generalene, som også var medlem av det hemmelige rådet. Friedrich Wilhelm søkte å bygge en profesjonell og disiplinert hær. All plyndring ville bli straffet med henging. En offiser som angrep en sivil ville bli degradert til menig for et år. Noen av bestemmelsene til Friedrich Wilhelm overlevde ikke hans regjeringstid, som at det ble forbudt for offiserer å slå soldatene. Friedrich Wilhelm opprettet regimentene og utnevnte oberstene. Han opprettet, etter fransk modell, kadettkorps for trening av nye offiserer. En grunn til å opprette kadettkorpsene var å opprette langvarige bindinger mellom de enkelte offiserene og hæren for å oppnå korpsånd. En annen var å forbedre utdanninga av offiserene. I første omgang kom mesteparten av hæren fra det åpne markedet, og ble rekruttert i de samme grupper som leiesoldatene kom fra. Når soldater ble rekruttert måtte de sverge troskap til kurfyrsten. Det var vanskelig å disiplinere soldatene, og tilfeller av ulydighet var utallige. Friedrich Wilhelm var inne på ideen å innføre generell verneplikt, men han stolte for lite på sine undersåtter til å våge å prøve dette. Han hadde også liten tillit til adelen, selv om den senere kom til å bli kjernen i hæren til Preussen. Kurfyrsten gjorde et poeng av å samrå seg med generalene. Disse samrådingsmøtene kom til å utvikle seg til den Prøyssisk generalstaben. Hæren trengte mer penger enn kurfyrsten fikk inn i form av skatter. Derfor ble Friedrich Wilhelm avhengig av subsidier fra stormaktene for å opprettholde hæren. Da Ludvik XIV i 1667 prøvde å erobre Nederland hadde kurfyrsten et annet problem. I Polen hadde Johan Casimir abdisert, og en fransk prins var foreslått som ny konge. Dette satte ikke kurfyrsten pris på. Ludvik XIV unnlot å støtte dette kandidaturet mot at Brandenburg lovet å holde seg nøytral i krigen mellom Frankrike og Nederland. En polsk adelsmann ble deretter polsk konge. Mot en årlig støtte på 40.000 taler fra Frankrike lovte Friedrich Wilhelm at han aktivt ville støtte Frankrike i en konflikt etter at den spanske kongen var død. Det liknet mye på en hemmelig avtale rettet mot Nederland. Friedrich Wilhelm beundret Nederland, men han var også sterkt irritert over Nederland siden Nederland holdt deler av kurfyrstens Rhinske land okkupert på grunn av gjeld som kurfyrsten hadde til Nederland. Forholdet til Nederland ble debattert i kurfyrstens familie, og man kom fram til at Brandenburg skulle støtte Nederland. Den 6. mai 1672 ble en allianse inngått med Nederland. Nederland skulle betale halvparten av utgiftene for en hær på 20.000 mann. England og Frankrike gikk til krig mot Nederland, og Nederland forble isolert, til tross for alliansen med Brandenburg. Og Nederland betalte ikke subsidiene til Brandenburg. Brandenburg førte en lite sammenhengende politikk, og ble gjort til narr. Hæren til Brandenburg ble også slått i kamp. Juledagen 1674 invaderte svenskene Brandenburg og herjet landet. Svenskene hadde alliert seg med Frankrike. Nå måtte Brandenburg få hæren sin, som hadde vinterkvarter i Franken etter å ha deltatt i krigen for å holde Frankrike ute av Tyskland, heim snarest mulig. Det ble gjort forbløffende fort ved å dele hæren opp i små enheter. Ved Rathenow ble svenskene overrasket og trakk seg ut av festninga. Siden svenskene ikke viste at de var overlegne i antall og ikke kjente motstandernes slagoppstilling tapte de slaget. Også neste slag tapte svenskene. Kurfyrsten forstod at dersom krigen utviklet seg videre som den hadde begynte ville han kunne erobre hele Pommern, i det minste munningen til Oder og Stettin som han så gjerne ønsket seg. Han allierte seg med Danmark, men nå dro krigen ut, og årene gikk. Fra juli til i desember 1677 ble Stettin beleiret. Til slutt ble det slått hull i bymurene og det var klart for storming av byen, men da kapitulerte byen. Den ble lovet å få beholde sine privilegier under Brandenburg. Ved freden i St. Germain 29. juni 1679 måtte Brandenburg gi fra seg alt Brandenburg hadde vunnet fra svenskene. Frankrike krevde det, og Brandenburg var ikke sterkt nok til å prøve en kraftprøve med Frankrike, og ingen av de andre stormaktene ville støtte Brandenburg. Friedrich Wilhelm følte seg forrådt av keiseren, og glemte sin egen vinglete politikk. Politikken hans var også påvirket av et ønske om gevinst i Schlesien. I følge en avtale fra 1537 hadde han nå fått et arvekrav på deler av Schlesien, som var østerrikskt territorium. Dette tok Wien ikke hensyn til. Derfor sluttet Friedrich Wilhelm seg til Frankrike. Ludvik XIV ønsket Brandenburgs støtte mens Frankrike erobret stadig nye biter av Tyskland, og Brandenburg ønsket Frankrikes støtte for å vinne deler av Østersjøkysten fra Sverige. Frankrike vant på denne alliansen, mens Friedrich Wilhelm ble stemplet som forræder ellers i Tyskland. Brandenburg forsatte å forhandle med Frankrike for å vinne støtte mot Sverige, men han fikk ikke noe bindende løfte. I mellomtida begynte tyrkerne å beleire Wien. Friedrich Wilhelm tilbød seg å hjelpe keiseren mot betaling og territoriale avståelser. Dette avslo keiseren, og da tyrkerne ble drevet bort fra Wien deltok ikke Brandenburg, og hadde ikke noen del av æren for det. Den store kurfyrsten Friedrich Wilhelm døde i 1688. Han utrettet ikke store ting. Brandenburg var fortsatt for svakt til å føre en selvstendig politikk, selv om Friedrich Wilhelm ønsket å føre en selvstendig politikk. Derfor ble Friedrich Wilhelms politikk ustø og vinglet. Men Friedrich Wilhelm begynte noe, han la et grunnlag for den videre utviking av militærstaten Preussen. Da Friedrich Wilhelm døde var Preussens hær på 30.000 mann. Skatteinngangen var for liten til å betale denne hæren. Og selv med subsidier og støtte fra stormaktene ble det i knappeste laget. For å øke skattegrunnlaget ville Friedrich Wilhelm øke befolkninga. Det var en grunn til at så mange hugenotter var velkomne da hugenottene ble utvist fra Frankrike i 1685 ved opphevelsen av Ediktet fra Nantes. En annen grunn var at de var kalvinister i likhet med kurfyrsten. Hugenottene var dyktige folk med utdannelse. De hadde ferdigheter å tilføre Preussen. Et stort problem for kurfyrsten var at landene hans var spredt over et stort område, fra lengst i øst til lengst i vest i Tyskland. De var derfor sårbare og vanskelige å forsvare. Kurfyrste Friedrich III. Friedrich III overtok som kurfyrste da faren døde i 1688. I 1692 innførte han primogeniture, at den førstefødte sønn arver riket i sin helhet. Friedrich III hadde ingen ambisjoner om å gjøre Brandenburg til ei stormakt. Han ønsket å leve i prakt. Statens styre overlot han til sine fremste ministre, som fram til 1697 var Eberhard von Danckelmann, og fra 1702 Kolbe von Wartenberg. Den første periodens utenrikspolitikk var dominert av det forhold at Brandenburg var med i den store alliansen mot Frankrike. Danckelmann hadde gått sterkt inn for å få Brandenburg på Nederlands side i konflikten med Frankrike. Da William III av Orange reiste til England i 1688 for å overta som konge der under "The Glorious Revolution" dekket Brandenburg overfarten med store troppestyrker langs Rhinen, for å forhindre at Frankrike angrep Nederland og forstyrret den nederlandske inngripen i England. I den store alliansens krig mot Frankrike mottok Brandenburg subsidier fra Nederland, England, Østerrike og Spania. Brandenburg var ikke i stand til å føre krig på egen hand. Brandenburg var enda så svakt at i mange tilfeller ble avtalte subsidier ikke utbetalt, og Brandenburg ble oversett. Dette skjedde ved fredsslutninga i Ryswick i 1697. Danckelmann ble utpekt som syndebukk for dette og avsatt. Ingen ny person med tilsvarende kapasitet ble innsatt som ny leder for statens styre, og det forfalt. Kurfyrsten blir konge. Kurfyrstens store ambisjon var å bli konge. Han hadde ikke makt til å tvinge seg til denne verdigheten. Men det kunne være mulig å oppnå denne verdigheten som en belønning fra keiseren. Dersom han ble konge ønsket han ikke ha denne verdigheten som et len fra keiseren. Derfor baserte han arbeidet for å oppnå kongeverdighet på å bli konge over Preussen, som var et sjølstendig territorium der kurfyrsten var suveren. For å bli konge over Preussen var det nok med keiserens samtykke i at han tok tittelen i bruk. I 1690 kom de første forhandlingene med keiseren om å få kongetittelen godkjent. Men keiseren ønsket ikke å hjelpe til med å etablere et protestantisk kongedømme i Imperiet. Da Østerrike kom i krig med Frankrike og ville ha støtte fra Brandenburg, gikk keiseren i året 1700 med på å godkjenne at kurfyrsten brukte kongetittelen basert på Preussen. Den 18. januar 1701 satte Friedrich krona på hodet sitt i Kønigsberg. Han kalte seg konge i Preussen. Som kurfyrste hadde Friedrich vært den tredje, Friedrich III, men som konge i Preussen var han den første, Friedrich I. Kong Friedrich I's politikk. Friedrich I ønsket å føre en fredelig politikk. Og han ønsket en sterk hær og et liv i prakt. Da Wartenberg ble førsteminister ble statens økonomi stadig dårligere. Wartenberg og hans rådgivere søkte å oppfylle kongens ønske om å leve som en konge. Friedrich ble også en stor støtte for de skjønne kunster. Han inviterte mange dyktige mennesker til Brandenburg. Pufendorf fikk i oppdrag å skrive Friedrich Wilhelms historie. Pufendorf utviklet sammen med Christian Thomasius teorien om det opplyste eneveldet, der fyrstens oppgave var å styre til undersåttenes beste. Philipp Jakob Spener ble invitert til hoffet, etter at han var blitt utvist fra Saksen på grunn av sitt utradisjonelle religiøse syn. Spener var en av de personene som utviklet pietismen. Friedrich stiftet universitetet i Halle, som begynte å undervise i 1694 med 449 studenter. Hovedoppgaven til dette universitetet var å utdanne administratorer. Derfor ble i utgangspunkt det juridiske fakultetet det viktige fakultetet. Friedrich fikk Christian Thomasius til å komme til universitetet i Halle, og det ga universitetet et godt rykte. August Hermann Francke arbeidet også ved universitetet i Halle. Han er kjent for sitt organisatoriske arbeid innenfor utdanning og sosialt og religiøst arbeid. Franke var en av de fremste pietistene i Tyskland. Friedrich stiftet også det prøyssisk kunstakademiet. Det instituttet som utviklet seg til å bli det Kongelige Prøyssisk Vitenskapsakademiet ble støttet av Friedrich. Leibniz hadde ideen til dette akademiet. Leibniz var en av de personene som ble invitert til Berlin. Friedrich la vekt på at det nye akademiet skulle bruke og fremme det tyske språket. Friedrich fikk for saker som omhandlet beløp under 2.500 gylden myndigheten til å foreta den endelige rettsavgjørelsen lagt til Berlin. Ellers var Imperiets domstoler overordnet de enkelte fyrstedømmenes domstoler. Dermed måtte en appelldomstol opprettes i Berlin, og i 1703 ble dette gjort. Dermed hadde ikke Brandenburg-Preussen fått et enhetlig juridisk system. De første årene etter at Danckelmann var avsatt ledet fyrsten selv statens politikk. Etterhvert ble Johan Casimir Kolbe von Wartenberg kongens favoritt. Wartenberg var en dyktig diplomat med gode forbindelser til hoffet i Wien. Wartenberg ble kongens nærmeste rådgiver og medarbeider. Wartenberg ble svært flink til å behandle kongen, og også til å skaffe seg selv store inntekter. Wartenberg kom til å formulere kongens politikk. Statens utgifter økte sterkt uten at inntektene økte tilsvarende. Finansadministrasjonen og årlige budsjetter ble oversett. For å øke inntektene ble det foreslått å dele opp de kongelige eiendommene og å leie dem ut. Leiene skulle kunne gjøres arvelige. Opprinnelige var det tenkt å leie ut møller, vertshus og mindre gods. Samtidig skulle livegenskapen avskaffes på de kongelige eiendommene. Dermed ville de som drev eiendommene bli personlig interessert i driftsresultatet, og det var ventet at dette ville gi bedre resultat, og også større inntekter til kongen. Bøndene ville også bli løftet ut av den avhengigheten de befant seg i til en mer selvstendig stilling. Dette ville forandre den sosiale strukturen i Brandenburg-Preussen betydelig. Det ble stor strid om dette forslaget, og motstanden var så sterk at det ikke ble satt i verk på en hensiktsmessig måte. I 1709 var det spesielt i Øst-Preussen en uvanlig kald vinter. Samtidig ble området rammet av pest, og svært mange mennesker omkom. Store områder ble avfolket. Myndighetene var ikke i stand til å gjøre noe for å hjelpe befolkninga. Mange store underslag som var gjort av Wartenberg og hans folk ble avdekket, og i 1710 måtte Wartenberg pensjoneres. Ved Wartenbergs avgang var kronprinsen, Friedrich Wilhelm, 21 år gammel. Han var født i 1688. Han begynte å overta styret allerede før faren var død. Den administrasjonen og det byråkratiet som hadde forfalt begynte han å gjenopprette ved å sette noen kontorer i bedre stand, og noen ble avskaffet. Preussen deltok med 8.000 soldater i den spanske arvefølgekrigen. Soldatene ble brukt av de landene som betalte for dem, for økonomien var så dårlig at uten bidrag fra stormaktene ville Preussen knapt hatt råd til å holde en hær. Da William III av Orange, konge av England, døde i 1702, var Friedrich nærmeste arving. Orange eide mange eiendommer som var spredt over Nederland, Tyskland og Burgund. William hadde etterlatt et testamente der en fjern slektning var satt opp som hovedarving. Arven var en grunn til at hæren til Preussen ble konsentrert i vest. En annen grunn var at de maktene som betalte for hæren ønsket å ha den i vest. Under den spanske arvefølgekrigen deltok prøyssisk tropper på mange fronter, og de utmerket seg som disiplinerte og dyktige. Men de ble bare ansett som hjelpetropper. Den 25. februar 1713 døde kong Friedrich I av Preussen. Han hadde gitt et løft til utdanning og kulturliv i Brandenburg-Preussen. Men han hadde slett ikke videreutviklet militærstaten Preussen. Sønnen og sønnesønnen hans skulle gjøre det. Utviklinga av den prøyssisk militærstaten er tema for neste kapittel. Noen linker til historisk materiale om Preussen og Tyskland. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Kilde for dette kapitlet er H. W. Kochs bok "A History of Prussia". -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dette er skrevet av Tor Førde. Det inngår i et arbeid om Europas historie. 11. juli 2001. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pietismen og den prøyssiske staten. Skrevet av Tor Førde. Dette kapitlet bygger på Mary Fulbrooks bok "Piety and Politics" og Philipp Jakob Speners: "Pia Desideria." Innholdsoversikt. Philipp Jakob Spener. Pietismen i Preussen. Pietismens karakter. Hvem var pietister? Stat og samfunn. Den etablerte kirka. Kirka og toleransen. Fra reform til statsreligion. Pietismens etablering i Preussen. Pietismen i Øst-Preussen. Pietismen inkorporeres under Friedrich Wilhelm I. Württemberg og Pietismen. Württembergs styresett. Kirka i Württemberg. Gjennomgang av "Pia Desideria" -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Philipp Jakob Spener. Philipp Jakob Speners (1635-1705) bok "Pia Desideria" er den pietistiske bevegelsens litterære utgangspunkt. Den ble første gang utgitt i 1675, som en fortale til Johann Arndts (1555-1621) postille. Johann Arndt regnes som den teologiske far til den tyske lutherske pietismen. Hans bok "Sann Kristendom" var den første boka som utfordret den lutherske ortodoksien innenfra. Spener utarbeidet sine og Arndts tanker på en sånn måte at de kunne tjene som utgangspunkt for en reformbevegelse innenfor lutherske kirker. Den lutherske ortodoksien hadde stivnet til og fenget ikke folk på Speners tid. Den var blitt et regelverk for riktig tro og forestilling som ikke nådde inn til menneskene og ikke angikk deres daglige liv. Dette ønsker jeg å komme nærmere inn på i et senere kapittel om "konfesjonalismen". Da Spener skrev "Pia Desideria" arbeidet han som prest i Frankfurt am Main. Boka vakte oppsikt, og da deler av den pietistiske bevegelsen som vokste fram i Frankfurt ikke ville delta i de tradisjonelle gudstjenestene skapte dette vanskeligheter for Spener. Han var derfor glad for at han ble bedt om å komme til kurfyrsten av Saksen til Dresden som overhoffpredikant. I 1689 formante Spener kurfyrsten om å omvende seg, og dette satte ikke kurfyrsten pris på. Ortodokse teologer flere steder i Tyskland gikk mot den pietistiske bevegelsen og de pietistiske tilhengerne av Spener, og dette gjorde situasjonen i Dresden vanskelig for Spener. Men han slapp ut av denne vanskelige situasjonen da kurfyrsten av Brandenburg i 1691 ba ham om å være prest i Brandenburg. Der fikk Spener arbeide i fred. Brandenburg-Preussen ble med sitt tolerante miljø den ledende stat i den tyske protestantismen. Pietismen i Preussen. Pietismen oppstod som en reformbevegelse innenfor den lutherske kirka. Det religiøse livet lå ned, og de lutherske kirkene forkynte skolastiske spissfindigheter. Spener gikk inn for en mer inderlig og aktiv kristendom, som i stor grad skulle foregå i mindre grupper der alle deltakerne kunne være aktive, og der det ikke var noe skille mellom predikanter og publikum, men der alle kunne være predikanter og samtalepartnere. Den kristendommen Spener gikk inn for skulle farge alle sider av livet, og være mindre opptatt av det konfesjonelle regelverket, og derfor mer tolerant overfor andre konfesjoner. Pietismen ble best mottatt i Preussen og Württemberg. Mange steder ble pietistene tvunget bort av den etablerte ortodoksiens forsvarere. I Preussen ble pietismen introdusert av Spener og av August Hermann Francke. Francke var blitt jaget fra Saksen fordi han hadde søkt å fremme pietismen. Han slo seg ned i den nye prøyssiske universitetsbyen Halle, der han etablerte flere institusjoner som kom til å blomstre med statens støtte. Francke så seg som et redskap for Gud med oppgave å etablere Guds rike på jord. Den første av de institusjonene som Francke etablerte var en skole og et hjem for foreldreløse barn. Senere fulgte mange næringsvirksomheter som skulle bidra til å finansiere det store barnehjemmet. Francke dro også i gang en misjonsbevegelse. Etter hvert ble pietismen en del av den prøyssiske staten. Under kurfyrste Friedrich III, som kronet seg til konge i Preussen i 1701, og spesielt under hans etterfølger Friedrich Wilhelm I, "soldatkongen", ble pietismen omgjort til en ideologi og organisasjon som støtte opp om den prøyssiske staten og absolutismen, og til gjengjeld i stor grad ble finansiert gjennom staten. De prøyssiske herskerne så at pietismen og dens organisatoriske evner og aktivisme kunne være nyttig for samfunnet og staten, og derfor ble et partnerskap etablert. Staten tok i bruk pietistiske predikanter som feltprester, og pietister fikk arbeide i statstjenesten ute i provinsene. Rundt 1730 var pietistisk utdannelse og bekjennelse en forutsetning for å få tilsettelse i staten. Fra midten av århundret ble pietismen skjøvet i bakgrunnen. Friedrich II ("Den Store") var skeptisk overfor religion, og reduserte pietismens betydning. Men da den prøyssiske militære absolutismen ble etablert og provinsadelen innlemmet i det statlige systemet var pietismen av stor og vital betydning. At den prøyssiske "ethos" kan ha et religiøst fundament har mange historikere skrevet om. Otto Hintze og Gerhard Oestreich har skrevet om hvordan kalvinismen og den nederlandske innflytelsen på kurfyrstene gjorde dem mindre tradisjonsbundne og drev dem til et stadig målrettet slit for å bygge statens makt. Men her skal vi se på hvordan pietismen og dens intensitet ble bundet til staten, og deres gjensidige bruk av hverandre. Pietismens karakter. Pietismen ønsket en reformasjon av menneskenes liv og levemåte. Da den oppstod en kvart århundre etter Trettiårskrigen var Tyskland enda nedkjørt etter krigens enorme ødeleggelser. Gjenoppbygginga var slett ikke fullført. Det var fortsatt mange mennesker som ikke hadde noe sted å bo, og mange marker som ikke ble høstet. Også kirker og skoler manglet. Og den ortodokse Lutherdommen som ble forkynt hadde liten innflytelse. Pietistene ville reformere kirka, ikke melde seg ut av den eller bygge opp ei ny kirke. Absolutismen var i ferd med å etablere seg, og ved mange fyrstehoff ble den fulgt av økende pomp og prakt. Det stod i kontrast til den fattigdom folk flest levde i. Spener trodde at det var mulig å forandre verden til det bedre. Han brøt med den dominerende lutherske ortodoksien ved sin tro på ei kirke innenfor kirka, bestående av små grupper mennesker som møttes for å lese i Bibelen og snakke sammen om religiøse saker. Pietismen var svært Bibelorientert. Pietistene gjorde mye for å spre Bibelen. Francke drev trykkeri og trykte og solgte Bibelen. Pietistene trodde som lutheranere ellers at menneskene kunne bare frelses gjennom tro og nåde. Pietistene søkte å framkalle en opplevelse av dette gjennom en omvendelse der nåden ble opplevd. Denne opplevelsen ble tegnet på at personen var frelst. Forkynnelsesstilen var direkte, og predikantene prøvde ofte å gi folk en opplevelse av at de var syndige og fordømte, og at de gjennom omvendelsen ble frigjort fra synden. Omvendelsen skulle være eller føre til en gjenfødelse til et nytt liv uten synd. Pietistene i Halle gjorde omvendelsen og frelsesopplevelsen nesten til en rutine som ble krevd for at folk skulle aksepteres som frelste. For å kjenne sin egen sjels frelse ble selvbetraktning og selvfordypelse lagt stor vekt på. Følelsene ble svært viktige - Gefühl ist alles. Pietistene utviklet ofte klare regler for hvordan de skulle leve. Enkelhet, moderasjon og orden var viktig. Senere ble mange pietister temmelig asketiske. Men asketismen var i utgangspunktet ikke en del av pietismen. Hvem var pietister? Pietismen appellerte til mange ulike grupper i befolkninga. I Halle ble alle de statsstøttede forretningene og de økonomiske initiativene til Francke oppfattet som illegitim konkurranse av mange av laugene. Franckes aktivisme på alle områder brakte ham i konflikt med de etablerte elitene i Halle. Derfor var de første tilhengerne til Francke ikke medlemmer av de etablerte elitene i Halle, men heller folk som det hadde gått dårlig med. Dette ser ut til å ha vært tilfelle også i Berlin. Den lutherske ortodoksien ble støttet av de lokale elitene. Pietismen i Preussen ser generelt ut til først å ha fått oppslutning fra folk som stod utenfor systemet. Stat og samfunn. På Speners tid var Brandenburg fortsatt ikke stort mer enn noen fattige og øde sandsletter i utkanten av sivilisasjonen. Hundre år senere var Preussen anerkjent som ei militær stormakt. Hva hadde skjedd, med hvilke midler var denne stormakta blitt bygd? Brandenburg-Preussen var en sammensatt stat. Den bestod av landområder fra lengst vest i Tyskland til lengst øst i Tyskland, og disse områdene var skilt fra hverandre av andre fyrstedømmer. Det sentrale området var Brandenburg. Kurfyrste Friedrich III, som ble konge i Preussen i 1701, var også markgreve i Brandenburg, suveren fyrste av Oranien, Magdeburg, Cleve, Jülich, Berge, Stettin, Pommern, Cassuben og Wenden, i Schlesien, hertug av Crossen, borggreve i Nürnberg, fyrste i Halberstadt, Minden og Camin, greve av Hohenzollern, Mark, Ravensberg, Lingen, Moerss, og enda mer, for å gi et inntrykk av hvor sammensatte de brandenburgske hohenzollernes land var. Disse landene var ulike, med ulike styreformer og ulike tradisjoner. En oppgave for herskerne over disse landene var å redusere deres selvstyre og sentralisere maktutøvelsen. Siden disse landene var så ulike og spredt ut over et stort område var mulighetene for en splitt og hersk politikk til stede siden fyrsten ikke ville møte en samlet opposisjon. Det var stor forskjell mellom de østlige og de vestlige provinsene. I øst var storgodsdrift med liten frihet for bøndene et dominerende trekk ved økonomien, mens mange vestlige områder hadde en mer variert og mangfoldig økonomi med større frihet for deltakerne. I Brandenburg var store områder lagt øde under Trettiårskrigen, og tusenvis av gårder var rasert. Statens makt var ulik i de forskjellige områdene. I vest måtte kurfyrsten av Brandenburg ofte nøye seg med å hente skatteinntekter, og hadde liten direkte makt. I øst derimot ble adelen etter hvert innlemmet i staten. De første avgjørende skritt mot dette ble tatt av den Store kurfyrsten, Friedrich Wilhelm, som regjerte i årene 1640-88. Den siste alminnelige Landdagen i Brandenburg ble holdt i 1652. Der ble forholdet mellom stenderne og fyrsten reforhandlet. Blant annet mot at stenderne fikk kontroll over de lokale kirkene og bekreftet sin makt og domsmyndighet over lokalbefolkninga, skulle fyrsten motta tilstrekkelig med penger gjennom skattlegging til å holde en liten stående hær. Under den svensk-polske krigen 1655-60 ble Generalkriegskommissariatet opprettet. Det kom til å bli en mektig institusjon. Hæren ble etter hvert større enn avtalt. Byene og landsbygda fikk ulike skattesystem, noe som var en grunn til at de ikke stod sammen i protester mot skattene. De fleste byene i de østlige områdene hadde svakt utviklede institusjoner sammenliknet med lenger vest, og var mer avhengige av eksport og dermed av fjernere områder enn de fleste byene i vest, og derfor lettere for staten å skaffe seg kontroll over, noe som skjedde i 1670-årene. Da ble bystyrene i Brandenburg ansvarlige overfor kurfyrsten. Friedrich III, som ble kong Friedrich I i 1701, var mer opptatt av kultur enn forgjengerne, og gjorde mye for å legge grunnlaget for at Preussen senere skulle fostre et kulturliv av ypperste verdensklasse (Kant etc.). Han grunnla universitetet i Halle og vitenskapsakademiet i Berlin, som begge ble sentra for opplysningstida i Tyskland gjennom innflytelsen fra Thomasius, Wolff og Leibniz. Han holdt et lystig hoff. Da "soldatkongen", Friedrich Wilhelm, overtok i 1713 ble det slutt på lystigheten. Han utviklet absolutismen videre. Hovedsaken for ham var hæren og direkte og personlig kontroll over et statsapparat som trengte så langt inn i samfunnet som bare mulig. I sine "Instruksjoner til sin etterfølger" fra 1722 skrev han at statstjenestemennene skulle være avhengige av herskeren. Herskeren skulle selv ha personlig kontroll over hæren og finansene. Han skulle ikke la seg lede av ministrene. Adelen skulle sysselsettes i hæren. Dermed var de både under kontroll og satt de til oppgaver som høvde for dem, siden de var vant til å kommandere fra sitt liv på godsene. Og Friedrich Wilhelm gjorde svært mye for å opprette den absolutistiske staten. Han institusjonaliserte sentraladministrasjonen for krig og skatter ved å konsolidere Generalkriegskommissariatet og opprettet Finansdirektoratet. I 1723 ble disse slått sammen til et mektig organ under kongens direkte kontroll - General-Ober-Finanz-Kriegs-und-Domainen-Direktorium. Fra 1723 til han døde i 1740 brukte Friedrich Wilhelm dette organet som sitt sentrale administrative organ i det absolutistiske styresettet. Samtidig konsentrerte han seg om å bygge opp hæren, som i 1740 fikk 80% av statens inntekter. Friedrich II, som av en eller annen merkelig grunn har fått tilnavnet "den Store", hadde det grunnlaget som far hans hadde lagt å stå på. Dette brukte han til å føre krig, og til å ta svært store risikoer, der bare flaksen reddet den prøyssiske staten fra å gå under. I 1740 angrep Friedrich II Østerrike for første gang og erobret Schlesien, og senere angrep han også Saksen. Ved slutten av Sjuårskrigen (1756-63), som ble startet av Friedrich II, var det bare et dødsfall i Russland, der Tsaren døde, som reddet Brandenburg-Preussen fra å tape krigen, og trolig bli delt mellom seierherrene. Ved slutten av Friedrich den andres regjeringstid var hæren i langt dårligere forfatning enn da han overtok som konge, i følge Christopher Duffy. Det samme gjelder også for den sivile administrasjonen. Dette gjelder selv om Friedrich prøvde å utvikle maktapparatet videre. I andre kapitler om Preussen har jeg beskrevet denne nevnte utviklinga nærmere, spesielt i kapitlet om den prøyssiske militærstaten. Der beskrives det kjente "kantonsystemet", som ble innført for rekruttering til hæren i 1733. Disse viser jeg til. Kongens kommissærer overvåket og kontrollerte også det sivile samfunnet i betydelig grad, selv om de i mange sammenhenger ikke hadde instruksjonsmyndighet. Det var først og fremst i sammenhenger som hadde betydning for militærvesenet og statens finanser at kongens agenter gjorde seg gjeldende. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pietismen i Preussen II. Skrevet av Tor Førde. Kilde for dette kapitlet er Richard L. Gawthrop: "Pietism and The Making of Eighteenth-Century Prussia." Dette er det andre kapitlet om pietismen i Preussen. Det tar spesielt opp de personene som gjorde pietismen til en statsbyggende ideologi, og noen sider ved pietistenes statsbyggende virksomhet, samt den økonomiske politikken og den økonomiske utviklinga i Brandenburg-Preussen under kong Friedrich Wilhelm I (konge 1713-1740). Dette kapitlet bør lese etter det første kapitlet om pietismen. Situasjonen: Brandenburg-Preussen 1713. Personene: August Hermann Francke. Franckes reformvisjon. Arbeidet i skolene i Halle. Universitetet i Halle og ledertreninga. Det økonomiske grunnlaget. Misjonsvirksomhet. Personene: Kong Friedrich Wilhelm I. Spredning av Halle pietismen i Preussen 1713-40. Pietismen i hæren og byråkratiet. Offiserskorpset. Byråkratiet. Sivil mobilisering og økonomisk utvikling. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Situasjonen: Brandenburg-Preussen 1713. Pietismens "far", Philipp Jacob Spener (1635-1705) ble av kurfyrsten invitert til Brandenburg i 1691. Kurfyrsten var kalvinist, men majoriteten av befolkninga var ortodokse protestanter. Kurfyrste Friedrich III, fra 1701 den første kongen i Preussen: kong Friedrich I, regjerte fra 1688 til 1713. Han var i likhet med sin far og sin sønn en overbevist kalvinist, og så på den reformerte lære som den sanne formen for kristendom. Han ville utbre den reformerte kirka i sine land, og lot mange hugenotter og andre kalvinistiske innvandrere slå seg ned i Brandenburg-Preussen. Han foretrakk også kalvinister ved hoffet og i ledelsen av staten. Fram til 1697 ble farens, den store kurfyrstens, politikk ført videre av farens rådgivere som fikk utforme politikken, først og fremst Eberhardt Danckelmann. Grunnleggelsen av det lutherske universitetet i Halle i 1692 kan sees på som en videreførelse av det gamle rivaliseringsforholdet med Saksen om å være det fremste protestantiske fyrstedømmet i Tyskland. Pietistene ble ønsket velkomne til det nye universitetet. En viktig grunn til dette var at Spener la vekt på å bygge ned de konfesjonelle konfliktene, og var mindre fiendtlig innstilt overfor den reformerte kirka enn de ortodokse lutheranerne. Samtidig innså kurfyrsten at den reformerte kirka knapt hadde noen mulighet til å bli dominerende blant hans ortodoks lutherske undersåttere. Han ønsket å komme fram til ei forsoning mellom dynastiet og den reformerte kirka på den ene side og den lutherske kirka og den delen av befolkninga som soknet til den på den andre sida. Kurfyrsten ønsket i første omgang å oppnå dette ved å slå sammen de to protestantiske kirkesamfunnene. Det ville han gjøre ved å innføre den anglikanske kirka i Brandenburg-Preussen og en felles liturgi for de to kirkesamfunnene. Den fremste medarbeideren til kurfyrsten i dette forsøket var hoffpredikanten Daniel Ernst Jablonski. Dette lyktes ikke. Kurfyrste Friedrich III ( fra 1701 Kong Friedrich I) ville at provinseliten i riket hans også skulle kunne finne plass ved hoffet hans. I motsetning til faren ville han ikke underkue denne eliten. Han ville skape et strålende hoff som ville tiltrekke seg den innfødte adelen, men han lyktes ikke i dette selv om han brukte store deler av statens inntekter til pomp og prakt. Da Wittgenstein, Wartensleben og Wartenberg ble de av kongen foretrukne fra 1702 begynt et vanstyre som varte til i 1710, da disse tre falt i unåde. I disse årene deltok hæren i den spanske arvefølgekrigen, og store subsidier fra England og Nederland kom til Berlin, der hoffet brukte pengene til luksus og pomp og prakt. I mens økte antallet tiggere i Berlin sterkt siden krigens offer, invalide soldater, enker og faderløse, ikke mottok noen som helst hjelp fra den staten og fyrsten som de hadde ofret alt for. Den store kurfyrsten, som hadde regjert fra 1640 til 1688, hadde prøvd å pasifisere den lutherske kirka. Et av midlene til å gjøre dette hadde vært å forby visitasjoner, altså kontroller av tilstanden i de lokale menighetene mens han regjerte. Dette medførte at det ikke ble foretatt initiativ for å forbedre skoler eller andre institusjoner som kirka tok seg av. Det var ofte disse institusjonene som hadde prøvd å avhjelpe den værste nøden. Kong Friedrich I kom etterhvert til føre en mer aktiv politikk overfor den lutherske kirka, der han støttet mange initiativ fra og innen kirka. Men det alminnelige vanstyret gjorde at disse initiativene ikke kunne ble virkelig effektive. Og så kom den forferdelige sulten og hungersnøden i 1708-1710. Etter en svært kald vinter slo avlingene fullstendige feil i store områder. I Øst-Preussen døde 40% av befolkninga av sult, og store områder ble lagt øde. En viktig grunn til denne forferdelige situasjonen var at befolkninga var blitt flådd av staten og skatteoppkreverne og hoffet i Berlin. Det fantes ikke reserver hos folk som de kunne bruke til å hjelpe seg med. Likevel, under denne hungersnøden ble det eksportert korn fra både Brandenburg og Preussen. Etter dette mistet både kong Friedrich og rådgiverne hans makta, og sønnen, Friedrich Wilhelm I, begynte å overta. I 1713 døde kong Friedrich I, og Friedrich Wilhelm overtok som konge. Han overtok som konge i et dynasti som hadde liten oppslutning fra den innfødte eliten. Kurfyrstenes forsøk på å få kontroll over landene hadde samtidig være et arbeid for å redusere adelens makt og innflytelse. Kløfta mellom adelen og dynastiet ble gjort enda større av at dynastiet var kalvinsk, og foretrakk kalvinske rådgivere, mens adelen var ortodoks luthersk. Hæren var så stor at fyrstens inntekter knapt kunne underholde den. Så lenge den spanske arvefølgekrigen hadde vart hadde store subsidier, bidrag til krigføringa fra Nederland og England, strømmet inn til Berlin. Da krigen var slutt ville kong Friedrich I redusere hæren. Men før han fikk gjort dette døde han. Og sønnen ville slett ikke redusere hæren. Hæren var da på godt og vel 30.000 mann. Richard Gawthrop skriver at Brandenburg-Preussen var i 1713 en tradisjonell europeisk stat. Fyrsten hadde en sterkere stilling i forhold til stendene enn i de fleste statene, og kunne derfor foreta ei hardere skattlegging, men det var ikke en annen type stat. Fyrstene fram til 1713 hadde vært tradisjonelle. Men i 1713 var Brandenburg-Preussen i en situasjon der det måtte skje forandringer. Og så skjer det noe nytt med den nye kongen Friedrich Wilhelm I. Personene: August Hermann Francke. Om August Hermann Francke og hans virksomhet har jeg skrevet i det første kapitlet om pietismen i Preussen. Les om det! August Hermann Francke var en ganske annen personlighetstype enn Spener. Og Franckes religionsopplevelse var også svært forskjellig fra Speners. I 1682, seksten år gammel, ble Francke innrullert ved universitetet i Erfurt. Senere var han tre år ved universitetet i Kiel og til slutt i Leipzig. Fra juli 1686 spilte Francke en ledende rolle i Collegium philobiblicum i Leipzig. Da Spener, som nylig hadde kommet til Saksen som hoffpredikant, besøkte colleguium i 1687 var det for å trene studentene i hebraisk og gresk. Det førte ikke til noen nærmere kontakt mellom Francke og Spener. Høsten 1687 reiste Francke til Lüneburg for å studere videre. Det var i Lüneburg at Francke gjennomgikk den omvendelsen som ble den sentrale religiøse opplevelsen i livet hans. Først etter denne opplevelsen begynte Francke å nærme seg Spener og pietismen. I 1689 bodde Francke to måneder hos Spener i Dresden. Spener ble Franckes åndelige veileder og rådgiver. Med omvendelsen i Lüneburg ble Francke "gjenfødt". Noe slikt hadde Spener aldri opplevd. Fra Francke skrev seg inn ved universitetet i Leipzig opplevde han intense åndelige konflikter. Han kjente sterk skyldfølelse fordi han søkte ære og berømmelse som lærd og for å arbeide for å bli likt av andre mennesker istedenfor av Gud. Francke reiste til Lüneburg for å arbeide seg gjennom konflikten under rolige forhold. Men i Lüneburg ble Francke svært opptatt av sin mangel på tro og av sin tvil. I den ytterste nød bad han til Gud og bad om å ble berget fra elendigheten og tvilen og angsten. I det øyeblikket erfarte Francke direkte Guds "faderlige kjærlighet", og "så raskt som noen kan snu hendene var all min tvil borte, og jeg var forsikret i mitt hjerte om Guds nåde gjennom Jesus". Fra da av oppfattet Francke seg å være en helt annen personlighetstype enn tidligere. Det som hadde betydd noe for ham tidligere ble av mindre betydning. Francke plasserte seg i Guds hand med glede og takknemlighet. Siden Spener aldri hadde opplevd noe liknende hadde han en annen oppfattelse av gjenfødelsen. Spener hadde aldri tvilt på sin religiøse tro, og derfor heller ikke opplevd noen omvendelse. Spener mente at gjenfødelsen var noe som foregikk over tid, og at hvert menneske hadde sin spesielle vei. Han forlangte heller ingen omvendelse for at folk skulle få adgang til gruppene hans. Francke derimot tok utgangspunkt i sin omvendelse i undervisninga si. Han oppfordret folk til å angre for å kunne innlede omvendelsen og gjenfødelsen. Francke forestilte seg at bare gjennom angeren kunne man ble omvendt og gjenfødt. Men gjenfødelsen var bare første steg på veien mot rettferdiggjørelse. Det viktige var å utvikle et forhold til Gud, og i utviklinga av ideene om dette brukte både Spener og Francke verk av engelske puritanere. For Spener kunne religiøs tro eksistere uten at folk erfarte troen; troen kunne være en beslutning om å tro. For Francke var den religiøse troen langt mer en opplevelse og erfaring, en opplevelse av et fellesskap med Gud. Franckes begrep om livet etter omvendelsen var å være et passivt redskap som Gud virket gjennom. Denne vekten på erfaring av Guds nærhet, som var så betydningsfull for Francke, gjorde at religiøse kriser nødvendigvis måtte dukke opp, siden det ville komme perioder der Francke, og andre omvendte, ikke opplevde Guds nærhet. Francke fortalte sine følgesvenner at Gud gjemte seg for å gjøre det religiøse livet mer intenst for å forhindre en tilbakevending til det gamle jeg og for å styrke troen gjennom prøvelser. Franckes religiøsitet var svært følelsespreget, og den var sterkt handlingsorientert. Francke var forpliktet til å tjene Gud hver time på dagen. Derfor fordømte han lediggang, og arbeid ble oppfattet blant de aktivitetene der menneskene skulle tjene sin neste og Gud. Spener formulerte ingen tilsvarende posisjon for arbeidet siden han med sitt asketiske ideal om ikke å ære verden opplevde en konflikt mellom å forplikte seg overfor det verdslige gjennom arbeid og å tjene Gud. Francke delte i noen grad Speners tradisjonelle kristne skepsis overfor verden og forakt for det verdslige, med det korresponderende syn på livet som en forberedelse for det hinsidige. Men Franckes konklusjon var radikalt ny: at verden var et objekt som måtte forbedres av mennesket i dets søken etter og arbeid for frelse. Det var gjennom denne radikalismen at Francke kom til å legge guddommelig mening inn i de mest verdslige yrkesaktiviteter. Ved å arbeide iherdig i verden kunne de troende demonstrere sin hengivenhet og lydighet overfor Guds lov. Francke forsikret at i livet etter døden ville Gud belønne iherdig arbeid. Bønnen ble omdefinert til å være en hjelp til handling, og ikke en fordypelse i Gud eller samtale med Gud. For å hjelpe sine følgesvenner med å være lydige overfor Gud utarbeidet Francke omfattende livsregler, Lebens-Regeln. De omfattet alle sider ved livet og dagliglivet. Man skulle for eksempel være forsiktig med å le. Francke regnet alle avvik fra den permanente personligheten som skadelige. Derfor var Francke motstander av alle former for rollespill eller identitetsforandring. Francke forbandt framgang i troen med å tjene sin neste, og å tjene sin neste kunne man gjøre gjennom sitt arbeid, og dersom man ikke lyktes med dette var det et tegn på svikt i troen. Troen måtte erfares, og derfor var det viktig å lykkes i sitt arbeid. Troen var derfor både en indre og en ytre prosess. Gudstroen og det arbeidet den førte til ble vurdert etter hvor mye den bidrog til å forbedre verden. Arbeidet var altså uten ende, nok var aldri nok, det beste var heller aldri godt nok. Resultat ble svært viktige for Francke og hans følgesvenner. Det som var nyttig var også godt. Grensene mellom det åndelige og det materielle ble utydelige. Dette var ulikt Speners oppfatning. I følge Spener var det Gud som bar byrdene, og Spener var ydmyk i forhold til de resultat som ble oppnådd. Verken æren for å lykkes eller den manglende ære ved ikke å lykkes lå på menneskene, etter Speners oppfatning. Både Francke og Spener var optimister som mente at verden kunne forbedres. De arbeidet ikke for å nå fram til tusenårsriket eller et paradis på jord, en endelig tilstand der gjort var gjort og man hadde lyktes fullt ut og var ferdig med arbeidet. Kunnskapen om Guds vilje mottak de omvendte fra Gud gjennom det daglige arbeidet for Guds ære. Francke hevdet med sikkerhet å kjenne Guds vilje i mange situasjoner. Pietistene så seg selv som Guds privilegerte agenter, som kunne overskride tradisjoner. For Spener kom reformene til å skje i alle fall, og menneskene bestemte om de ville delta. For Francke derimot var det han selv og de omvendte reformatorene som bar reformene fram og gjennomførte dem. Dette tilsammen la grunnen for en veldig dynamisme i Franckes virke, han måtte bestandig videre. Veksten i troen etter omvendelsen førte Guds barn stadig nærmere perfeksjonen. Og denne prosessen kunne aldri avbrytes eller ta en time pause. Arbeidet og oppofrelsen var uten ende. Og seirene kunne bli desto større. Franckes reformvisjon. Pietismen trodde at ved å skape nye institusjonelle former innen den etablerte orden kunne denne tjene som utgangspunkt for en altomfattende reform av samfunnet. Franckes omvendelseserfaring og hans altbeseirende handlingsorientering ga ham og de institusjonene som han bygde opp en svært pågående stil og grenseløse målsettinger. Francke ville gjøre Halleanstaltene til komplette modellsamfunn. Rett etter år 1700 fikk Francke mulighet til å utvikle en strategi for disse målsetningene sine. Barnehjemmet var bygd og den lokale motstanden mot det var nedkjempet. I "Projekt zu einem Seminario universali" fra 1701 og "Grosse Aufsatsen" fra 1704 utviklet Francke sin analyse av de dårlige sidene ved samfunnet og metoder for å fjerne dem. Alle større og viktige grupper i samfunnet var korrumperte av egoisme og selviskhet. Men de kristne skulle ikke dra seg tilbake fra verden av denne grunn. Man skulle finne årsakene til de bedrøvelige tilstandene, og søke å forandre dem. Et forhold som Francke festet seg ved var den elendige utdannelsen som den oppvoksende slekt fikk. Et annet forhold var at enker, foreldreløse og fattige ble satt til side og oversett, de fikk ingen hjelp eller støtte på noen måte. Francke avsluttet sin gjennomgang av samfunnet med en protest mot at "sånn en mengde mennesker er uten disiplin, uten instruksjon, uten oppsyn eller orden, uten noe å gjøre, og som resultat er de opptatt med tyveri, horeri, mord og gateran, og mange andre skrekkelig ting og synder". Et viktig tiltak for å forbedre situasjonen var å utdanne de unge og ta seg av de fattige og hjelpeløse, ved å lære opp gudfryktige predikanter og sette dyktige personer i autoritetsposisjoner for å lede befolkninga fra lediggang til produktiv virksomhet. Francke mente at dette var framfor alt en oppgave for presteskapet. Francke fornektet predestinasjonslæren til Calvin, altså at folk er på forhand bestemt enten til fortapelse eller frelse. Francke mente at Gud hadde kallet alle mennesker til nåden, og garantert frelse til alle som opplevde gjenfødselen og tok seg av sin neste. Anstalter som den Francke hadde bygd opp i Halle skulle ta seg mennesker og forberede dem for egen gjenfødelse og sette dem i stand til å gå ut i verden for å omvende andre. Etter Franckes syn hadde universitetet og skolene i Halle ubegrensede muligheter til å utføre Guds frelsesgjerning. Men Francke trodde ikke at alle på egen hand kunne finne fram til omvendelse. Francke så på seg selv og sine nærmeste kollegaer som en elitegruppe med makt og myndighet til å styre de menneskene som var tiltrodd dem til frelsen. Francke og hans innerste sirkel hevdet at de var middel som Gud brukte. Og at deres asketiske regime var standarden for all menneskelig opptreden. Den raske veksten og raske suksessen til Halleanstaltene ga Francke tillit til at det han gjorde var rett. Francke ble en pioner i yrkesutdannelse, og gjorde seg kjent med de nyeste teknologiene på flere fagfelt og viste ekstraordinære evner som nyskaper og organisator. Og han satte opp og koordinerte misjonærvirksomhet på tre kontinent. Arbeidet i skolene i Halle. I de lutherske skolene var religionsundervisning viktig lenge før pietistene begynte å drive skoler. Men denne undervisninga bestod hovedsakelig av å pugge Luthers lille katekisme. Og den lyktes ikke i å få en betydelig del av befolkninga til å internalisere kirkas moralske verdier. Bibelen ble ikke brukt i den tidligste kristendomsundervisninga på folkeskolenivået. Francke var bestemt på at kristendomsundervisninga som han var ansvarlig for i anstaltene og skolene i Halle og Glaucha ikke skulle være så overfladisk. Ikke bare i skoletimene, men også i fritida, skulle elevene utsettes for kristelig påvirkning. Før barnehjemmet hans hadde fått egne bygninger ble barna innlosjert hos pietistiske familier. Deretter bygde Francke egne bygninger til barnehjemmet, og dermed hadde han mulighet til å kontroller miljøet som de foreldreløse barna vokste opp i. Og dette gikk han inn for. Francke og staben hans overvåket og styrte all kommunikasjon mellom barna. Også i skolene til pietistene var det streng disiplin. Bare under kontrollerte forhold mente Francke at han kunne være sikker på å lykkes i å inngi elevene de puritanske verdiene som han ønsket at elevene skulle gjøre til sine verdier. Franckes program for å forandre elevenes natur var svært ambisiøst og bygde på systematisk indoktrinering og overvåking av elevene hele døgnet. Så snart elevene ble medlemmer av Franckes institusjoner ble de underlagt Franckes program. Første del av programmet kalte Francke for å "brekke viljen". Det skulle gjøres snilt og med innlevelse og medfølelse. Likevel var målet at elevene skulle bli absolutt lydige overfor lærerne og de overordnede. I følge Franckes pedagogiske teori var å brekke elevenes "naturlige vilje" så snart som mulig det nødvendige første steget på veien mot å lede elevene bort fra verdens fristelser og å underordne eleven under den guddommelige vilje. Først etter dette kunne eleven begynne å gjøre de verdiene som anstaltene i Halle bygde på til sine. Neste steg var å utsette elevene for intens framføring av de pietistiske verdiene i klasserommet. Religiøs instruksjon tok mer tid enn noe annet fag. Elevene måtte lære utenat deler av katekismen, bibelvers og salmer og kunne framføre dette for klassen. Lærerne diskuterte det framførte stoffet med elevene, og oppmuntret elevene til å uttrykke det med sine egne ord. Lærerne stilte også spørsmål om hvordan stoffet kunne anvendes på dagligdagse situasjoner. Onsdagene og lørdagene repeterte elevene det stoffet som de hadde gjennomgått de to foregående dagene. I tillegg til resitasjon fra Bibelen og diskusjon av tekstene leste elevene høyt fra Bibelen til hverandre. Både morgen og kveld bad de, og skoledagen sluttet med bønnetime, som inkluderte salmesang, Bibellesning og overhøring av grupper av elever. Søndagene gikk naturligvis mye av tida med til gudstjeneste. Hovedformålet med denne drillen var å venne elevene til selvfornektelse og nestekjærlighet. Det ble naturligvis ventet at lærerne skulle være eksempel som utøvde de verdiene som de lærte. Francke ansatte bare kristne lærere som var "født på nytt". De kunne også bruke strenge midler for å opprettholde disiplin. Dersom noen ikke fulgte anstaltens regler ble de omgående straffet. Kroppslig avstraffelse foregikk, og elever kunne plasseres på isolat med bare vann og brød. Det var stor avstand mellom de verdiene skolen formidlet og skolens praksis på den ene siden og på den andre siden de verdiene og det livet som mange av elevene kjente før de kom til skolen. Derfor var motstand mot skolens regler og praksis ikke uvanlig i den første tida elever var ved skolen eller i barnehjemmet. Etter skoletid hadde de elevene som bodde i anstaltene mye leksearbeid å gjøre. Francke mente at det kristne livet bare skulle bestå av arbeid og bønn og studier. Lek og fritid var forbudt. Ingen form for sport eller lek eller kroppsøving var tillatt. For å sikre at regelene ble overholdt var kontinuerlig overvåkning av elevene nødvendig. Francke så "nøyaktig inspeksjon" som det sentrale punktet i undervisninga. Også oppførselen utenfor skoletida ble overvåket, både hva elevene leste og hvordan de hadde omgang med venner ble kontrollert. For de elevene som bodde heime hadde lærerne nær kontakt med foreldrene for å få foreldrene til å slutte seg til skolens disiplin og å være med på å utøve den. Det ble ført protokoll over alle elevene. Fire ganger i året måtte lærerne gi rapport om hver elevs fromhet, oppførsel og skoleferdigheter. Franckes intensjon var å trene elevene til å praktisere asketisme og lydighet mot Gud. Men Francke la også vekt på at elevene skulle bli dyktige i det yrket som de ville havne i. For Francke var en grunnleggende del av det kristne livet å arbeide for å forbedre verden, på alle måter. Derfor måtte elevene få gode og nyttige kunnskaper og ferdigheter, og både et kristelig og praktisk sinnelag. De fagene som det skulle undervises i i skolen til barnehjemmet måtte være nyttige i dagliglivet. Det ble gitt både grundigere opplæring og opplæring i flere praktiske fag i anstaltene i Halle enn noe annet sted i Tyskland. Matematikk var et viktig fag i Halle. Og det ble lagt stor vekt på å kunne bruke det tyske språket, som det ble arbeidet med på mange forskjellige måter både skriftlig og muntlig. Elevene i latinskolen lærte både om jus og økonomi, geografi, botanikk, anatomi og medisin. Francke insisterte på at elevene skulle få god forståelse for det materialet som de ble presentert for. Elevene skulle ikke arbeide med mange fag, men ha god tid til hvert fag de arbeidet med for å kunne lære det grundig. Undervisninga ble gjerne lagt opp sånn at elevenes lyst til å leke og eksperimentere kunne utfoldes der. I fritida var lek forbudt. Hver dag ble en del av skoletida brukt utenfor klasserommet. Elevene kunne sammen med læreren besøke verksteder for å se hvordan praktisk arbeid ble gjort, eller de var ute og samlet planter som en del av botanikkundervisninga. Skolene hadde tilgang til store mengder illustrasjoner, pedagogiske hjelpemidler og bøker. De hadde et Naturalienkabinett der det var gjenstander og planter fra hele verden. Der var også modeller av universet som Copernicus og Tycho Brahe lærte at det var, og instrumenter for vitenskapelige eksperimenter og for praktisk arbeid og demonstrasjoner. Mange av utstillingene var bygd av elevene selv. Katalogen over gjenstandene i Naturalienkabinett var på 375 sider i 1740. Biblioteket hadde 18.000 bind i 1721, og det lånte ut bøker både til elever og studenter og til befolkninga i Halle. Biblioteket hadde åpent alle dager utenom helligdager, og det hadde også åpent om kveldene. Francke la stor vekt både på religiøs og praktisk undervisning. Det var i tråd med at det ble lagt liten vekt på statusforskjeller hos Francke. Det sosiale hierarkiet ble ikke avspeilet i sterkere grad enn nødvendig av finansielle og legitimitetsmessige grunner i Halleanstaltene. Francke la framfor alt vekt på at det ble produsert personer som både var gudfryktige og dyktige. Francke la stor vekt på å oppdage evnene og talentene til hver enkelt elev, og så satse på å utvikle disse på best mulig måte. Elever med talenter, det gjelder også elever fra barnehjemmet, fikk stipend for å kunne gå videre i utdanninga. Holy Bible, Bible in Basic English (BBE). Textfile 980302. Gen 1:1 At the first God made the heaven and the earth. Gen 1:2 And the earth was waste and without form; and it was dark on the face of the deep: and the Spirit of God was moving on the face of the waters. Gen 1:3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. Gen 1:4 And God, looking on the light, saw that it was good: and God made a division between the light and the dark, Gen 1:5 Naming the light, Day, and the dark, Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the first day. Gen 1:6 And God said, Let there be a solid arch stretching over the waters, parting the waters from the waters. Gen 1:7 And God made the arch for a division between the waters which were under the arch and those which were over it: and it was so. Gen 1:8 And God gave the arch the name of Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day. Gen 1:9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven come together in one place, and let the dry land be seen: and it was so. Gen 1:10 And God gave the dry land the name of Earth; and the waters together in their place were named Seas: and God saw that it was good. Gen 1:11 And God said, Let grass come up on the earth, and plants producing seed, and fruit-trees giving fruit, in which is their seed, after their sort: and it was so. Gen 1:12 And grass came up on the earth, and every plant producing seed of its sort, and every tree producing fruit, in which is its seed, of its sort: and God saw that it was good. Gen 1:13 And there was evening and there was morning, the third day. Gen 1:14 And God said, Let there be lights in the arch of heaven, for a division between the day and the night, and let them be for signs, and for marking the changes of the year, and for days and for years: Gen 1:15 And let them be for lights in the arch of heaven to give light on the earth: and it was so. Gen 1:16 And God made the two great lights: the greater light to be the ruler of the day, and the smaller light to be the ruler of the night: and he made the stars. Gen 1:17 And God put them in the arch of heaven, to give light on the earth; Gen 1:18 To have rule over the day and the night, and for a division between the light and the dark: and God saw that it was good. Gen 1:19 And there was evening and there was morning, the fourth day. Gen 1:20 And God said, Let the waters be full of living things, and let birds be in flight over the earth under the arch of heaven. Gen 1:21 And God made great sea-beasts, and every sort of living and moving thing with which the waters were full, and every sort of winged bird: and God saw that it was good. Gen 1:22 And God gave them his blessing, saying, Be fertile and have increase, making all the waters of the seas full, and let the birds be increased in the earth. Gen 1:23 And there was evening and there was morning, the fifth day. Gen 1:24 And God said, Let the earth give birth to all sorts of living things, cattle and all things moving on the earth, and beasts of the earth after their sort: and it was so. Gen 1:25 And God made the beast of the earth after its sort, and the cattle after their sort, and everything moving on the face of the earth after its sort: and God saw that it was good. Gen 1:26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, like us: and let him have rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over the cattle and over all the earth and over every living thing which goes flat on the earth. Gen 1:27 And God made man in his image, in the image of God he made him: male and female he made them. Gen 1:28 And God gave them his blessing and said to them, Be fertile and have increase, and make the earth full and be masters of it; be rulers over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every living thing moving on the earth. Gen 1:29 And God said, See, I have given you every plant producing seed, on the face of all the earth, and every tree which has fruit producing seed: they will be for your food: Gen 1:30 And to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the air and every living thing moving on the face of the earth I have given every green plant for food: and it was so. Gen 1:31 And God saw everything which he had made and it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day. Gen 2:1 And the heaven and the earth and all things in them were complete. Gen 2:2 And on the seventh day God came to the end of all his work; and on the seventh day he took his rest from all the work which he had done. Gen 2:3 And God gave his blessing to the seventh day and made it holy: because on that day he took his rest from all the work which he had made and done. Gen 2:4 These are the generations of the heaven and the earth when they were made. Gen 2:5 In the day when the Lord God made earth and heaven there were no plants of the field on the earth, and no grass had come up: for the Lord God had not sent rain on the earth and there was no man to do work on the land. Gen 2:6 But a mist went up from the earth, watering all the face of the land. Gen 2:7 And the Lord God made man from the dust of the earth, breathing into him the breath of life: and man became a living soul. Gen 2:8 And the Lord God made a garden in the east, in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had made. Gen 2:9 And out of the earth the Lord made every tree to come, delighting the eye and good for food; and in the middle of the garden, the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Gen 2:10 And a river went out of Eden giving water to the garden; and from there it was parted and became four streams. Gen 2:11 The name of the first is Pishon, which goes round about all the land of Havilah where there is gold. Gen 2:12 And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone. Gen 2:13 And the name of the second river is Gihon: this river goes round all the land of Cush. Gen 2:14 And the name of the third river is Tigris, which goes to the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates. Gen 2:15 And the Lord God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to do work in it and take care of it. Gen 2:16 And the Lord God gave the man orders, saying, You may freely take of the fruit of every tree of the garden: Gen 2:17 But of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you may not take; for on the day when you take of it, death will certainly come to you. Gen 2:18 And the Lord God said, It is not good for the man to be by himself: I will make one like himself as a help to him Gen 2:19 And from the earth the Lord God made every beast of the field and every bird of the air, and took them to the man to see what names he would give them: and whatever name he gave to any living thing, that was its name. Gen 2:20 And the man gave names to all cattle and to the birds of the air and to every beast of the field; but Adam had no one like himself as a help. Gen 2:21 And the Lord God sent a deep sleep on the man, and took one of the bones from his side while he was sleeping, joining up the flesh again in its place: Gen 2:22 And the bone which the Lord God had taken from the man he made into a woman, and took her to the man. Gen 2:23 And the man said, This is now bone of my bone and flesh of my flesh: let her name be Woman because she was taken out of Man. Gen 2:24 For this cause will a man go away from his father and his mother and be joined to his wife; and they will be one flesh. Gen 2:25 And the man and his wife were without clothing, and they had no sense of shame. Gen 3:1 Now the snake was wiser than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made. And he said to the woman, Has God truly said that you may not take of the fruit of any tree in the garden? Gen 3:2 And the woman said, We may take of the fruit of the trees in the garden: Gen 3:3 But of the fruit of the tree in the middle of the garden, God has said, If you take of it or put your hands on it, death will come to you. Gen 3:4 And the snake said, Death will not certainly come to you: Gen 3:5 For God sees that on the day when you take of its fruit, your eyes will be open, and you will be as gods, having knowledge of good and evil. Gen 3:6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and a delight to the eyes, and to be desired to make one wise, she took of its fruit, and gave it to her husband. Gen 3:7 And their eyes were open and they were conscious that they had no clothing and they made themselves coats of leaves stitched together. Gen 3:8 And there came to them the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden in the evening wind: and the man and his wife went to a secret place among the trees of the garden, away from the eyes of the Lord God. Gen 3:9 And the voice of the Lord God came to the man, saying, Where are you? Gen 3:10 And he said, Hearing your voice in the garden I was full of fear, because I was without clothing: and I kept myself from your eyes. Gen 3:11 And he said, Who gave you the knowledge that you were without clothing? Have you taken of the fruit of the tree which I said you were not to take? Gen 3:12 And the man said, The woman whom you gave to be with me, she gave me the fruit of the tree and I took it. Gen 3:13 And the Lord God said to the woman, What have you done? And the woman said, I was tricked by the deceit of the snake and I took it. Gen 3:14 And the Lord God said to the snake, Because you have done this you are cursed more than all cattle and every beast of the field; you will go flat on the earth, and dust will be your food all the days of your life: Gen 3:15 And there will be war between you and the woman and between your seed and her seed: by him will your head be crushed and by you his foot will be wounded. Gen 3:16 To the woman he said, Great will be your pain in childbirth; in sorrow will your children come to birth; still your desire will be for your husband, but he will be your master. Gen 3:17 And to Adam he said, Because you gave ear to the voice of your wife and took of the fruit of the tree which I said you were not to take, the earth is cursed on your account; in pain you will get your food from it all your life. Gen 3:18 Thorns and waste plants will come up, and the plants of the field will be your food; Gen 3:19 With the hard work of your hands you will get your bread till you go back to the earth from which you were taken: for dust you are and to the dust you will go back. Gen 3:20 And the man gave his wife the name of Eve because she was the mother of all who have life. Gen 3:21 And the Lord God made for Adam and for his wife coats of skins for their clothing. Gen 3:22 And the Lord God said, Now the man has become like one of us, having knowledge of good and evil; and now if he puts out his hand and takes of the fruit of the tree of life, he will go on living for ever. Gen 3:23 So the Lord God sent him out of the garden of Eden to be a worker on the earth from which he was taken. Gen 3:24 So he sent the man out; and at the east of the garden of Eden he put winged ones and a flaming sword turning every way to keep the way to the tree of life. Gen 4:1 And the man had connection with Eve his wife, and she became with child and gave birth to Cain, and said, I have got a man from the Lord. Gen 4:2 Then again she became with child and gave birth to Abel, his brother. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a farmer. Gen 4:3 And after a time, Cain gave to the Lord an offering of the fruits of the earth. Gen 4:4 And Abel gave an offering of the young lambs of his flock and of their fat. And the Lord was pleased with Abel's offering; Gen 4:5 But in Cain and his offering he had no pleasure. And Cain was angry and his face became sad. Gen 4:6 And the Lord said to Cain, Why are you angry? and why is your face sad? Gen 4:7 If you do well, will you not have honour? and if you do wrong, sin is waiting at the door, desiring to have you, but do not let it be your master. Gen 4:8 And Cain said to his brother, Let us go into the field: and when they were in the field, Cain made an attack on his brother Abel and put him to death. Gen 4:9 And the Lord said to Cain, Where is your brother Abel? And he said, I have no idea: am I my brother's keeper? Gen 4:10 And he said, What have you done? the voice of your brother's blood is crying to me from the earth. Gen 4:11 And now you are cursed from the earth, whose mouth is open to take your brother's blood from your hand; Gen 4:12 No longer will the earth give you her fruit as the reward of your work; you will be a wanderer in flight over the earth. Gen 4:13 And Cain said, My punishment is greater than my strength. Gen 4:14 You have sent me out this day from the face of the earth and from before your face; I will be a wanderer in flight over the earth, and whoever sees me will put me to death. Gen 4:15 And the Lord said, Truly, if Cain is put to death, seven lives will be taken for his. And the Lord put a mark on Cain so that no one might put him to death. Gen 4:16 And Cain went away from before the face of the Lord, and made his living-place in the land of Nod on the east of Eden. Gen 4:17 And Cain had connection with his wife and she became with child and gave birth to Enoch: and he made a town, and gave the town the name of Enoch after his son. Gen 4:18 And Enoch had a son Irad: and Irad became the father of Mehujael: and Mehujael became the father of Methushael: and Methushael became the father of Lamech. Gen 4:19 And Lamech had two wives; the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. Gen 4:20 And Adah gave birth to Jabal: he was the father of such as are living in tents and keep cattle. Gen 4:21 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all players on instruments of music. Gen 4:22 And Zillah gave birth to Tubal-cain, who is the father of every maker of cutting instruments of brass and iron: and the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah. Gen 4:23 And Lamech said to his wives, Adah and Zillah, give ear to my voice; you wives of Lamech, give attention to my words, for I would put a man to death for a wound, and a young man for a blow; Gen 4:24 If seven lives are to be taken as punishment for Cain's death, seventy-seven will be taken for Lamech's. Gen 4:25 And Adam had connection with his wife again, and she gave birth to a son to whom she gave the name of Seth: for she said, God has given me another seed in place of Abel, whom Cain put to death. Gen 4:26 And Seth had a son, and he gave him the name of Enosh: at this time men first made use of the name of the Lord in worship. Gen 5:1 This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day when God made man, he made him in the image of God; Gen 5:2 Male and female he made them, naming them Man, and giving them his blessing on the day when they were made. Gen 5:3 Adam had been living for a hundred and thirty years when he had a son like himself, after his image, and gave him the name of Seth: Gen 5:4 And after the birth of Seth, Adam went on living for eight hundred years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 5:5 And all the years of Adam's life were nine hundred and thirty: and he came to his end. Gen 5:6 And Seth was a hundred and five years old when he became the father of Enosh: Gen 5:7 And he went on living after the birth of Enosh for eight hundred and seven years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 5:8 And all the years of Seth's life were nine hundred and twelve: and he came to his end. Gen 5:9 And Enosh was ninety years old when he became the father of Kenan: Gen 5:10 And after the birth of Kenan, Enosh went on living for eight hundred and fifteen years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 5:11 And all the years of Enosh were nine hundred and five: and he came to his end. Gen 5:12 And Kenan was seventy years old when he became the father of Mahalalel: Gen 5:13 And after the birth of Mahalalel, Kenan went on living for eight hundred and forty years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 5:14 And all the years of Kenan's life were nine hundred and ten; and he came to his end. Gen 5:15 And Mahalalel was sixty-five years old when he became the father of Jared: Gen 5:16 And after the birth of Jared, Mahalalel went on living for eight hundred and thirty years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 5:17 And all the years of Mahalalel's life were eight hundred and ninety-five: and he came to his end. Gen 5:18 And Jared was a hundred and sixty-two years old when he became the father of Enoch: Gen 5:19 And Jared went on living after the birth of Enoch for eight hundred years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 5:20 And all the years of Jared's life were nine hundred and sixty-two: and he came to his end. Gen 5:21 And Enoch was sixty-five years old when he became the father of Methuselah: Gen 5:22 And after the birth of Methuselah, Enoch went on in God's ways for three hundred years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 5:23 And all the years of Enoch's life were three hundred and sixty-five: Gen 5:24 And Enoch went on in God's ways: and he was not seen again, for God took him. Gen 5:25 And Methuselah was a hundred and eighty-seven years old when he became the father of Lamech: Gen 5:26 And after the birth of Lamech, Methuselah went on living for seven hundred and eighty-two years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 5:27 And all the years of Methuselah's life were nine hundred and sixty-nine: and he came to his end. Gen 5:28 And Lamech was a hundred and eighty-two years old when he had a son: Gen 5:29 And he gave him the name of Noah, saying, Truly, he will give us rest from our trouble and the hard work of our hands, because of the earth which was cursed by God. Gen 5:30 And after the birth of Noah, Lamech went on living for five hundred and ninety-five years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 5:31 And all the years of Lamech's life were seven hundred and seventy-seven: and he came to his end. Gen 5:32 And when Noah was five hundred years old, he became the father of Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Gen 6:1 And after a time, when men were increasing on the earth, and had daughters, Gen 6:2 The sons of God saw that the daughters of men were fair; and they took wives for themselves from those who were pleasing to them. Gen 6:3 And the Lord said, My spirit will not be in man for ever, for he is only flesh; so the days of his life will be a hundred and twenty years. Gen 6:4 There were men of great strength and size on the earth in those days; and after that, when the sons of God had connection with the daughters of men, they gave birth to children: these were the great men of old days, the men of great name. Gen 6:5 And the Lord saw that the sin of man was great on the earth, and that all the thoughts of his heart were evil. Gen 6:6 And the Lord had sorrow because he had made man on the earth, and grief was in his heart. Gen 6:7 And the Lord said, I will take away man, whom I have made, from the face of the earth, even man and beast and that which goes on the earth and every bird of the air; for I have sorrow for having made them. Gen 6:8 But Noah had grace in the eyes of God. Gen 6:9 These are the generations of Noah. Noah was an upright man and without sin in his generation: he went in the ways of God. Gen 6:10 And Noah had three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Gen 6:11 And the earth was evil in God's eyes and full of violent ways. Gen 6:12 And God, looking on the earth, saw that it was evil: for the way of all flesh had become evil on the earth. Gen 6:13 And God said to Noah, The end of all flesh has come; the earth is full of their violent doings, and now I will put an end to them with the earth. Gen 6:14 Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood with rooms in it, and make it safe from the water inside and out. Gen 6:15 And this is the way you are to make it: it is to be three hundred cubits long, fifty cubits wide, and thirty cubits high. Gen 6:16 You are to put a window in the ark, a cubit from the roof, and a door in the side of it, and you are to make it with a lower and second and third floors. Gen 6:17 For truly, I will send a great flow of waters over the earth, for the destruction from under the heaven of all flesh in which is the breath of life; everything on the earth will come to an end. Gen 6:18 But with you I will make an agreement; and you will come into the ark, you and your sons and your wife and your sons' wives with you. Gen 6:19 And you will take with you into the ark two of every sort of living thing, and keep them safe with you; they will be male and female. Gen 6:20 Two of every sort of bird and cattle and of every sort of living thing which goes on the earth will you take with you to keep them from destruction. Gen 6:21 And make a store of every sort of food for yourself and them. Gen 6:22 And all these things Noah did; as God said, so he did. Gen 7:1 And the Lord said to Noah, Take all your family and go into the ark, for you only in this generation have I seen to be upright. Gen 7:2 Of every clean beast you will take seven males and seven females, and of the beasts which are not clean, two, the male and his female; Gen 7:3 And of the birds of the air, seven males and seven females, so that their seed may still be living on the face of the earth. Gen 7:4 For after seven days I will send rain on the earth for forty days and forty nights, for the destruction of every living thing which I have made on the face of the earth. Gen 7:5 And Noah did everything which the Lord said he was to do. Gen 7:6 And Noah was six hundred years old when the waters came flowing over all the earth. Gen 7:7 And Noah, with his sons and his wife and his sons' wives, went into the ark because of the flowing of the waters. Gen 7:8 Of clean beasts, and of beasts which are not clean, and of birds, and of everything which goes on the earth, Gen 7:9 In twos, male and female, they went into the ark with Noah, as God had said. Gen 7:10 And after the seven days, the waters came over all the earth. Gen 7:11 In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, all the fountains of the great deep came bursting through, and the windows of heaven were open; Gen 7:12 And rain came down on the earth for forty days and forty nights. Gen 7:13 On the same day Noah, with Shem, Ham, and Japheth, his sons, and his wife and his sons' wives, went into the ark; Gen 7:14 And with them, every sort of beast and cattle, and every sort of thing which goes on the earth, and every sort of bird. Gen 7:15 They went with Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh in which is the breath of life. Gen 7:16 Male and female of all flesh went in, as God had said, and the ark was shut by the Lord. Gen 7:17 And for forty days the waters were over all the earth; and the waters were increased so that the ark was lifted up high over the earth. Gen 7:18 And the waters overcame everything and were increased greatly on the earth, and the ark was resting on the face of the waters. Gen 7:19 And the waters overcame everything on the earth; and all the mountains under heaven were covered. Gen 7:20 The waters went fifteen cubits higher, till all the mountains were covered. Gen 7:21 And destruction came on every living thing moving on the earth, birds and cattle and beasts and everything which went on the earth, and every man. Gen 7:22 Everything on the dry land, in which was the breath of life, came to its end. Gen 7:23 Every living thing on the face of all the earth, man and cattle and things moving on the face of the earth, and birds of the air, came to destruction: only Noah and those who were with him in the ark, were kept from death. Gen 7:24 And the waters were over the earth a hundred and fifty days. Gen 8:1 And God kept Noah in mind, and all the living things and the cattle which were with him in the ark: and God sent a wind over the earth, and the waters went down. Gen 8:2 And the fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were shut, and the rain from heaven was stopped. Gen 8:3 And the waters went slowly back from the earth, and at the end of a hundred and fifty days the waters were lower. Gen 8:4 And on the seventeenth day of the seventh month the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat. Gen 8:5 And still the waters went on falling, till on the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains were seen. Gen 8:6 Then, after forty days, through the open window of the ark which he had made, Gen 8:7 Noah sent out a raven, which went this way and that till the waters were gone from the earth. Gen 8:8 And he sent out a dove, to see if the waters had gone from the face of the earth; Gen 8:9 But the dove saw no resting-place for her foot, and came back to the ark, for the waters were still over all the earth; and he put out his hand, and took her into the ark. Gen 8:10 And after waiting another seven days, he sent the dove out again; Gen 8:11 And the dove came back at evening, and in her mouth was an olive-leaf broken off: so Noah was certain that the waters had gone down on the earth. Gen 8:12 And after seven days more, he sent the dove out again, but she did not come back to him. Gen 8:13 And in the six hundred and first year, on the first day of the first month, the waters were dry on the earth: and Noah took the cover off the ark and saw that the face of the earth was dry. Gen 8:14 And on the twenty-seventh day of the second month the earth was dry. Gen 8:15 And God said to Noah, Gen 8:16 Go out of the ark, you and your wife and your sons and your sons' wives. Gen 8:17 Take out with you every living thing which is with you, birds and cattle and everything which goes on the earth, so that they may have offspring and be fertile and be increased on the earth. Gen 8:18 And Noah went out with his sons and his wife and his sons' wives; Gen 8:19 And every beast and bird and every living thing of every sort which goes on the earth, went out of the ark. Gen 8:20 And Noah made an altar to the Lord, and from every clean beast and bird he made burned offerings on the altar. Gen 8:21 And when the sweet smell came up to the Lord, he said in his heart, I will not again put a curse on the earth because of man, for the thoughts of man's heart are evil from his earliest days; never again will I send destruction on all living things as I have done. Gen 8:22 While the earth goes on, seed time and the getting in of the grain, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night, will not come to an end. Gen 9:1 And God gave his blessing to Noah and his sons, and said, Be fertile, and have increase, and make the earth full. Gen 9:2 And the fear of you will be strong in every beast of the earth and every bird of the air; everything which goes on the land, and all the fishes of the sea, are given into your hands. Gen 9:3 Every living and moving thing will be food for you; I give them all to you as before I gave you all green things. Gen 9:4 But flesh with the life-blood in it you may not take for food. Gen 9:5 And for your blood, which is your life, will I take payment; from every beast I will take it, and from every man will I take payment for the blood of his brother-man. Gen 9:6 Whoever takes a man's life, by man will his life be taken; because God made man in his image. Gen 9:7 And now, be fertile and have increase; have offspring on the earth and become great in number. Gen 9:8 And God said to Noah and to his sons, Gen 9:9 Truly, I will make my agreement with you and with your seed after you, Gen 9:10 And with every living thing with you, all birds and cattle and every beast of the earth which comes out of the ark with you. Gen 9:11 And I will make my agreement with you; never again will all flesh be cut off by the waters; never again will the waters come over all the earth for its destruction. Gen 9:12 And God said, This is the sign of the agreement which I make between me and you and every living thing with you, for all future generations: Gen 9:13 I will put my bow in the cloud and it will be for a sign of the agreement between me and the earth. Gen 9:14 And whenever I make a cloud come over the earth, the bow will be seen in the cloud, Gen 9:15 And I will keep in mind the agreement between me and you and every living thing; and never again will there be a great flow of waters causing destruction to all flesh. Gen 9:16 And the bow will be in the cloud, and looking on it, I will keep in mind the eternal agreement between God and every living thing on the earth. Gen 9:17 And God said to Noah, This is the sign of the agreement which I have made between me and all flesh on the earth. Gen 9:18 And the sons of Noah who went out of the ark were Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and Ham is the father of Canaan. Gen 9:19 These three were the sons of Noah and from them all the earth was peopled. Gen 9:20 In those days Noah became a farmer, and he made a vine-garden. Gen 9:21 And he took of the wine of it and was overcome by drink; and he was uncovered in his tent. Gen 9:22 And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father unclothed, and gave news of it to his two brothers outside. Gen 9:23 And Shem and Japheth took a robe, and putting it on their backs went in with their faces turned away, and put it over their father so that they might not see him unclothed. Gen 9:24 And, awaking from his wine, Noah saw what his youngest son had done to him, and he said, Gen 9:25 Cursed be Canaan; let him be a servant of servants to his brothers. Gen 9:26 And he said, Praise to the Lord, the God of Shem; let Canaan be his servant. Gen 9:27 May God make Japheth great, and let his living-place be in the tents of Shem, and let Canaan be his servant. Gen 9:28 And Noah went on living three hundred and fifty years after the great flow of waters; Gen 9:29 all the years of his life were nine hundred and fifty: and he came to his end. Gen 10:1 Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: these are the sons which they had after the great flow of waters Gen 10:2 The sons of Japheth: Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan and Tubal and Meshech and Tiras. Gen 10:3 And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz and Riphath and Togarmah. Gen 10:4 And the sons of Javan: Elishah and Tarshish, the Kittim and the Dodanim. Gen 10:5 From these came the nations of the sea-lands, with their different families and languages. Gen 10:6 And the sons of Ham: Cush and Mizraim and Put and Canaan. Gen 10:7 And the sons of Cush: Seba and Havilah and Sabtah and Raamah and Sabteca; and the sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan. Gen 10:8 And Cush was the father of Nimrod, who was the first of the great men of the earth. Gen 10:9 He was a very great bowman, so that there is a saying, Like Nimrod, a very great bowman. Gen 10:10 And at the first, his kingdom was Babel and Erech and Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. Gen 10:11 From that land he went out into Assyria, building Nineveh with its wide streets and Calah, Gen 10:12 And Resen between Nineveh and Calah, which is a very great town. Gen 10:13 And Mizraim was the father of the Ludim and Anamim and Lehabim and Naphtuhim; Gen 10:14 And Pathrusim and Casluhim and Caphtorim, from whom came the Philistines. Gen 10:15 And Canaan was the father of Zidon, who was his oldest son, and Heth, Gen 10:16 And the Jebusite and the Amorite and the Girgashite, Gen 10:17 And the Hivite and the Arkite and the Sinite, Gen 10:18 And the Arvadite and the Zemarite and the Hamathite; after that the families of the Canaanites went far and wide in all directions; Gen 10:19 Their country stretching from Zidon to Gaza, in the direction of Gerar; and to Lasha, in the direction of Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zeboiim. Gen 10:20 All these, with their different families, languages, lands, and nations, are the offspring of Ham. Gen 10:21 And Shem, the older brother of Japheth, the father of the children of Eber, had other sons in addition. Gen 10:22 These are the sons of Shem: Elam and Asshur and Arpachshad and Lud and Aram. Gen 10:23 And the sons of Aram: Uz and Hul and Gether and Mash. Gen 10:24 And Arpachshad became the father of Shelah; and Shelah became the father of Eber. Gen 10:25 And Eber had two sons: the name of the one was Peleg, because in his time the peoples of the earth became separate; and his brother's name was Joktan. Gen 10:26 And Joktan was the father of Almodad and Sheleph and Hazarmaveth and Jerah Gen 10:27 And Hadoram and Uzal and Diklah Gen 10:28 And Obal and Abimael and Sheba Gen 10:29 And Ophir and Havilah and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan. Gen 10:30 And their country was from Mesha, in the direction of Sephar, the mountain of the east. Gen 10:31 These, with their families and their languages and their lands and their nations, are the offspring of Shem. Gen 10:32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, in the order of their generations and their nations: from these came all the nations of the earth after the great flow of waters. Gen 11:1 And all the earth had one language and one tongue. Gen 11:2 And it came about that in their wandering from the east, they came to a stretch of flat country in the land of Shinar, and there they made their living-place. Gen 11:3 And they said one to another, Come, let us make bricks, burning them well. And they had bricks for stone, putting them together with sticky earth. Gen 11:4 And they said, Come, let us make a town, and a tower whose top will go up as high as heaven; and let us make a great name for ourselves, so that we may not be wanderers over the face of the earth. Gen 11:5 And the Lord came down to see the town and the tower which the children of men were building. Gen 11:6 And the Lord said, See, they are all one people and have all one language; and this is only the start of what they may do: and now it will not be possible to keep them from any purpose of theirs. Gen 11:7 Come, let us go down and take away the sense of their language, so that they will not be able to make themselves clear to one another. Gen 11:8 So the Lord God sent them away into every part of the earth: and they gave up building their town. Gen 11:9 So it was named Babel, because there the Lord took away the sense of all languages and from there the Lord sent them away over all the face of the earth. Gen 11:10 These are the generations of Shem. Shem was a hundred years old when he became the father of Arpachshad, two years after the great flow of waters; Gen 11:11 And after the birth of Arpachshad, Shem went on living for five hundred years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 11:12 And Arpachshad was thirty-five years old when he became the father of Shelah: Gen 11:13 And after the birth of Shelah, Arpachshad went on living for four hundred and three years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 11:14 And Shelah was thirty years old when he became the father of Eber: Gen 11:15 And after the birth of Eber, Shelah went on living for four hundred and three years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 11:16 And Eber was thirty-four years old when he became the father of Peleg: Gen 11:17 And after the birth of Peleg, Eber went on living for four hundred and thirty years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 11:18 And Peleg was thirty years old when he became the father of Reu: Gen 11:19 And after the birth of Reu, Peleg went on living for two hundred and nine years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 11:20 And Reu was thirty-two years old when he became the father of Serug: Gen 11:21 And after the birth of Serug, Reu went on living for two hundred and seven years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 11:22 And Serug was thirty years old when he became the father of Nahor: Gen 11:23 And after the birth of Nahor, Serug went on living for two hundred years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 11:24 And Nahor was twenty-nine years old when he became the father of Terah: Gen 11:25 And after the birth of Terah, Nahor went on living for a hundred and nineteen years, and had sons and daughters: Gen 11:26 And Terah was seventy years old when he became the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran. Gen 11:27 These are the generations of Terah: Terah was the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran was the father of Lot. Gen 11:28 And death came to Haran when he was with his father Terah in the land of his birth, Ur of the Chaldees. Gen 11:29 And Abram and Nahor took wives for themselves: the name of Abram's wife was Sarai, and the name of Nahor's wife was Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah and Iscah. Gen 11:30 And Sarai had no child. Gen 11:31 And Terah took Abram, his son, and Lot, the son of Haran, and Sarai, his daughter-in-law, the wife of his son Abram and they went out from Ur of the Chaldees, to go to the land of Canaan; and they came to Haran, and were there for some time. Gen 11:32 And all the years of Terah's life were two hundred and five: and Terah came to his end in Haran. Gen 12:1 Now the Lord said to Abram, Go out from your country and from your family and from your father's house, into the land to which I will be your guide: Gen 12:2 And I will make of you a great nation, blessing you and making your name great; and you will be a blessing: Gen 12:3 To them who are good to you will I give blessing, and on him who does you wrong will I put my curse: and you will become a name of blessing to all the families of the earth. Gen 12:4 So Abram went as the Lord had said to him, and Lot went with him: Abram was seventy-five years old when he went away from Haran. Gen 12:5 And Abram took Sarai, his wife, and Lot, his brother's son, and all their goods and the servants which they had got in Haran, and they went out to go to the land of Canaan. Gen 12:6 And Abram went through the land till he came to Shechem, to the holy tree of Moreh. At that time, the Canaanites were still living in the land. Gen 12:7 And the Lord came to Abram, and said, I will give all this land to your seed; then Abram made an altar there to the Lord who had let himself be seen by him. Gen 12:8 And moving on from there to the mountain on the east of Beth-el, he put up his tent, having Beth-el on the west and Ai on the east: and there he made an altar and gave worship to the name of the Lord. Gen 12:9 And he went on, journeying still to the South. Gen 12:10 And because there was little food to be had in that land, he went down into Egypt. Gen 12:11 Now when he came near to Egypt, he said to Sarai, his wife, Truly, you are a fair woman and beautiful to the eye; Gen 12:12 And I am certain that when the men of Egypt see you, they will say, This is his wife: and they will put me to death and keep you. Gen 12:13 Say, then, that you are my sister, and so it will be well with me because of you, and my life will be kept safe on your account. Gen 12:14 And so it was that when Abram came into Egypt, the men of Egypt, looking on the woman, saw that she was fair. Gen 12:15 And Pharaoh's great men, having seen her, said words in praise of her to Pharaoh, and she was taken into Pharaoh's house. Gen 12:16 And because of her, he was good to Abram, and he had sheep and oxen and asses, and men-servants and women-servants, and camels. Gen 12:17 And the Lord sent great troubles on Pharaoh's house because of Sarai, Abram's wife. Gen 12:18 Then Pharaoh sent for Abram, and said, What have you done to me? why did you not say that she was your wife? Gen 12:19 Why did you say that she was your sister? so that I took her for my wife: now, take your wife and go on your way. Gen 12:20 And Pharaoh gave orders to his men, and they sent him on his way, with his wife and all he had. Gen 13:1 And Abram went up out of Egypt with his wife and all he had, and Lot with him, and they came in to the South. Gen 13:2 Now Abram had great wealth of cattle and silver and gold. Gen 13:3 And travelling on from the South, he came to Beth-el, to the place where his tent had been before, between Beth-el and Ai; Gen 13:4 To the place where he had made his first altar, and there Abram gave worship to the name of the Lord. Gen 13:5 And Lot, who went with him, had flocks and herds and tents; Gen 13:6 So that the land was not wide enough for the two of them: their property was so great that there was not room for them together. Gen 13:7 And there was an argument between the keepers of Abram's cattle and the keepers of Lot's cattle: at that time the Canaanites and Perizzites were still living in the land. Gen 13:8 Then Abram said to Lot, Let there be no argument between me and you, and between my herdmen and your herdmen, for we are brothers. Gen 13:9 Is not all the land before you? then let us go our separate ways: if you go to the left, I will go to the right; or if you take the right, I will go to the left. Gen 13:10 And Lot, lifting up his eyes and looking an the valley of Jordan, saw that it was well watered everywhere, before the Lord had sent destruction on Sodom and Gomorrah; it was like the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt, on the way to Zoar. Gen 13:11 So Lot took for himself all the valley of Jordan, and went to the east, and they were parted from one another. Gen 13:12 Abram went on living in the land of Canaan, and Lot went to the lowland towns, moving his tent as far as Sodom. Gen 13:13 Now the men of Sodom were evil, and great sinners before the Lord. Gen 13:14 And the Lord had said to Abram, after Lot was parted from him, From this place where you are take a look to the north and to the south, to the east and to the west: Gen 13:15 For all the land which you see I will give to you and to your seed for ever. Gen 13:16 And I will make your children like the dust of the earth, so that if the dust of the earth may be numbered, then will your children be numbered. Gen 13:17 Come, go through all the land from one end to the other for I will give it to you. Gen 13:18 And Abram, moving his tent, came and made his living-place by the holy tree of Mamre, which is in Hebron, and made an altar there to the Lord. Gen 14:1 Now in the days of Amraphel, king of Shinar, Arioch, king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and Tidal, king of Goiim, Gen 14:2 They made war with Bera, king of Sodom, and with Birsha, king of Gomorrah, Shinab, king of Admah, and Shemeber, king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (which is Zoar). Gen 14:3 All these came together in the valley of Siddim (which is the Salt Sea). Gen 14:4 For twelve years they were under the rule of Chedorlaomer, but in the thirteenth year they put off his control. Gen 14:5 And in the fourteenth year, Chedorlaomer and the kings who were on his side, overcame the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim, Gen 14:6 And the Horites in their mountain Seir, driving them as far as El-paran, which is near the waste land. Gen 14:7 Then they came back to En-mishpat (which is Kadesh), making waste all the country of the Amalekites and of the Amorites living in Hazazon-tamar. Gen 14:8 And the king of Sodom with the king of Gomorrah and the king of Admah and the king of Zeboiim and the king of Bela (that is Zoar), went out, and put their forces in position in the valley of Siddim, Gen 14:9 Against Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and Tidal, king of Goiim, and Amraphel, king of Shinar, and Arioch, king of Ellasar: four kings against the five. Gen 14:10 Now the valley of Siddim was full of holes of sticky earth; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah were put to flight and came to their end there, but the rest got away to the mountain. Gen 14:11 And the four kings took all the goods and food from Sodom and Gomorrah and went on their way. Gen 14:12 And in addition they took Lot, Abram's brother's son, who was living in Sodom, and all his goods. Gen 14:13 And one who had got away from the fight came and gave word of it to Abram the Hebrew, who was living by the holy tree of Mamre, the Amorite, the brother of Eshcol and Aner, who were friends of Abram. Gen 14:14 And Abram, hearing that his brother's son had been made a prisoner, took a band of his trained men, three hundred and eighteen of them, sons of his house, and went after them as far as Dan. Gen 14:15 And separating his forces by night, he overcame them, putting them to flight and going after them as far as Hobah, which is on the north side of Damascus. Gen 14:16 And he got back all the goods, and Lot, his brother's son, with his goods and the women and the people. Gen 14:17 And when he was coming back after putting to flight Chedorlaomer and the other kings, he had a meeting with the king of Sodom in the valley of Shaveh, that is, the King's Valley. Gen 14:18 And Melchizedek, king of Salem, the priest of the Most High God, took bread and wine, Gen 14:19 And blessing him, said, May the blessing of the Most High God, maker of heaven and earth, be on Abram: Gen 14:20 And let the Most High God be praised, who has given into your hands those who were against you. Then Abram gave him a tenth of all the goods he had taken. Gen 14:21 And the king of Sodom said to Abram, Give me the prisoners and take the goods for yourself. Gen 14:22 But Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have taken an oath to the Lord, the Most High God, maker of heaven and earth, Gen 14:23 That I will not take so much as a thread or the cord of a shoe of yours; so that you may not say, I have given wealth to Abram: Gen 14:24 Give me nothing but the food which the fighting-men who went with me have had; but let Aner and Eshcol and Mamre have their part of the goods. Gen 15:1 After these things, the word of the Lord came to Abram in a vision, saying, Have no fear, Abram: I will keep you safe, and great will be your reward. Gen 15:2 And Abram said, What will you give me? for I have no child and this Eliezer of Damascus will have all my wealth after me. Gen 15:3 And Abram said, You have given me no child, and a servant in my house will get the heritage. Gen 15:4 Then said the Lord, This man will not get the heritage, but a son of your body will have your property after you. Gen 15:5 And he took him out into the open air, and said to him, Let your eyes be lifted to heaven, and see if the stars may be numbered; even so will your seed be. Gen 15:6 And he had faith in the Lord, and it was put to his account as righteousness. Gen 15:7 And he said to him, I am the Lord, who took you from Ur of the Chaldees, to give you this land for your heritage. Gen 15:8 And he said, O Lord God, how may I be certain that it will be mine? Gen 15:9 And he said, Take a young cow of three years old, and a she-goat of three years old, and a sheep of three years old, and a dove and a young pigeon. Gen 15:10 All these he took, cutting them in two and putting one half opposite the other, but not cutting the birds in two. Gen 15:11 And evil birds came down on the bodies, but Abram sent them away. Gen 15:12 Now when the sun was going down, a deep sleep came on Abram, and a dark cloud of fear. Gen 15:13 And he said to Abram, Truly, your seed will be living in a land which is not theirs, as servants to a people who will be cruel to them for four hundred years; Gen 15:14 But I will be the judge of that nation whose servants they are, and they will come out from among them with great wealth. Gen 15:15 As for you, you will go to your fathers in peace; at the end of a long life you will be put in your last resting-place. Gen 15:16 And in the fourth generation they will come back here; for at present the sin of the Amorite is not full. Gen 15:17 Then when the sun went down and it was dark, he saw a smoking fire and a flaming light which went between the parts of the bodies. Gen 15:18 In that day the Lord made an agreement with Abram, and said, To your seed have I given this land from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates: Gen 15:19 The Kenite, the Kenizzite, and the Kadmonite, Gen 15:20 And the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Rephaim, Gen 15:21 And the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Girgashite, and the Jebusite. Gen 16:1 Now Sarai, Abram's wife, had given him no children; and she had a servant, a woman of Egypt whose name was Hagar. Gen 16:2 And Sarai said to Abram, See, the Lord has not let me have children; go in to my servant, for I may get a family through her. And Abram did as Sarai said. Gen 16:3 So after Abram had been living for ten years in the land of Canaan, Sarai took Hagar, her Egyptian servant, and gave her to Abram for his wife. Gen 16:4 And he went in to Hagar and she became with child, and when she saw that she was with child, she no longer had any respect for her master's wife. Gen 16:5 And Sarai said to Abram, May my wrong be on you: I gave you my servant for your wife and when she saw that she was with child, she no longer had any respect for me: may the Lord be judge between you and me. Gen 16:6 And Abram said, The woman is in your power; do with her whatever seems good to you. And Sarai was cruel to her, so that she went running away from her. Gen 16:7 And an angel of the Lord came to her by a fountain of water in the waste land, by the fountain on the way to Shur. Gen 16:8 And he said, Hagar, Sarai's servant, where have you come from and where are you going? And she said, I am running away from Sarai, my master's wife. Gen 16:9 And the angel said to her, Go back, and put yourself under her authority. Gen 16:10 And the angel of the Lord said, Your seed will be greatly increased so that it may not be numbered. Gen 16:11 And the angel of the Lord said, See, you are with child and will give birth to a son, to whom you will give the name Ishmael, because the ears of the Lord were open to your sorrow. Gen 16:12 And he will be like a mountain ass among men; his hand will be against every man and every man's hand against him, and he will keep his place against all his brothers. Gen 16:13 And to the Lord who was talking with her she gave this name, You are a God who is seen; for she said, Have I not even here in the waste land had a vision of God and am still living? Gen 16:14 So that fountain was named, Fountain of Life and Vision: it is between Kadesh and Bered. Gen 16:15 And Hagar gave birth to a child, the son of Abram, to whom Abram gave the name of Ishmael. Gen 16:16 Abram was eighty-six years old when Hagar gave birth to Ishmael. Gen 17:1 When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Lord came to him, and said, I am God, Ruler of all; go in my ways and be upright in all things, Gen 17:2 And I will make an agreement between you and me, and your offspring will be greatly increased. Gen 17:3 And Abram went down on his face on the earth, and the Lord God went on talking with him, and said, Gen 17:4 As for me, my agreement is made with you, and you will be the father of nations without end. Gen 17:5 No longer will your name be Abram, but Abraham, for I have made you the father of a number of nations. Gen 17:6 I will make you very fertile, so that nations will come from you and kings will be your offspring. Gen 17:7 And I will make between me and you and your seed after you through all generations, an eternal agreement to be a God to you and to your seed after you. Gen 17:8 And to you and to your seed after you, I will give the land in which you are living, all the land of Canaan for an eternal heritage; and I will be their God. Gen 17:9 And God said to Abraham, On your side, you are to keep the agreement, you and your seed after you through all generations. Gen 17:10 And this is the agreement which you are to keep with me, you and your seed after you: every male among you is to undergo circumcision. Gen 17:11 In the flesh of your private parts you are to undergo it, as a mark of the agreement between me and you. Gen 17:12 Every male among you, from one generation to another, is to undergo circumcision when he is eight days old, with every servant whose birth takes place in your house, or for whom you gave money to someone of another country, and not of your seed. Gen 17:13 He who comes to birth in your house and he who is made yours for a price, all are to undergo circumcision; so that my agreement may be marked in your flesh, an agreement for all time. Gen 17:14 And any male who does not undergo circumcision will be cut off from his people: my agreement has been broken by him. Gen 17:15 And God said, As for Sarai, your wife, from now her name will be not Sarai, but Sarah. Gen 17:16 And I will give her a blessing so that you will have a son by her: truly my blessing will be on her, and she will be the mother of nations: kings of peoples will be her offspring. Gen 17:17 Then Abraham went down on his face, and laughing, said in his heart, May a man a hundred years old have a child? will Sarah, at ninety years old, give birth? Gen 17:18 And Abraham said to God, If only Ishmael's life might be your care! Gen 17:19 And God said, Not so; but Sarah, your wife, will have a son, and you will give him the name Isaac, and I will make my agreement with him for ever and with his seed after him. Gen 17:20 As for Ishmael, I have given ear to your prayer: truly I have given him my blessing and I will make him fertile and give him great increase; he will be the father of twelve chiefs, and I will make him a great nation. Gen 17:21 But my agreement will be with Isaac, to whom Sarah will give birth a year from this time. Gen 17:22 And having said these words, God went up from Abraham. Gen 17:23 And Abraham took Ishmael, his son, and all whose birth had taken place in his house, and all his servants whom he had made his for a price, every male of his house, and on that very day he gave them circumcision in the flesh of their private parts as God had said to him. Gen 17:24 Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he underwent circumcision. Gen 17:25 And Ishmael, his son, was thirteen years old when he underwent circumcision. Gen 17:26 Abraham and Ishmael, his son, underwent circumcision on that very day. Gen 17:27 And all the men of his house, those whose birth had taken place in the house and those whom he had got for money from men of other lands, underwent circumcision with him. Gen 18:1 Now the Lord came to him by the holy tree of Mamre, when he was seated in the doorway of his tent in the middle of the day; Gen 18:2 And lifting up his eyes, he saw three men before him; and seeing them, he went quickly to them from the door of the tent, and went down on his face to the earth; Gen 18:3 And said, My Lord, if now I have grace in your eyes, do not go away from your servant: Gen 18:4 Let me get water for washing your feet, and take your rest under the tree: Gen 18:5 And let me get a bit of bread to keep up your strength, and after that you may go on your way: for this is why you have come to your servant. And they said, Let it be so. Gen 18:6 Then Abraham went quickly into the tent, and said to Sarah, Get three measures of meal straight away and make cakes. Gen 18:7 And running to the herd, he took a young ox, soft and fat, and gave it to the servant and he quickly made it ready; Gen 18:8 And he took butter and milk and the young ox which he had made ready and put it before them, waiting by them under the tree while they took food. Gen 18:9 And they said to him, Where is Sarah your wife? And he said, She is in the tent. Gen 18:10 And he said, I will certainly come back to you in the spring, and Sarah your wife will have a son. And his words came to the ears of Sarah who was at the back of the tent-door. Gen 18:11 Now Abraham and Sarah were very old, and Sarah was past the time for giving birth. Gen 18:12 And Sarah, laughing to herself, said, Now that I am used up am I still to have pleasure, my husband himself being old? Gen 18:13 And the Lord said, Why was Sarah laughing and saying, Is it possible for me, being old, to give birth to a child? Gen 18:14 Is there any wonder which the Lord is not able to do? At the time I said, in the spring, I will come back to you, and Sarah will have a child. Gen 18:15 Then Sarah said, I was not laughing; for she was full of fear. And he said, No, but you were laughing. Gen 18:16 And the men went on from there in the direction of Sodom; and Abraham went with them on their way. Gen 18:17 And the Lord said, Am I to keep back from Abraham the knowledge of what I do; Gen 18:18 Seeing that Abraham will certainly become a great and strong nation, and his name will be used by all the nations of the earth as a blessing? Gen 18:19 For I have made him mine so that he may give orders to his children and those of his line after him, to keep the ways of the Lord, to do what is good and right: so that the Lord may do to Abraham as he has said. Gen 18:20 And the Lord said, Because the outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is very great, and their sin is very evil, Gen 18:21 I will go down now, and see if their acts are as bad as they seem from the outcry which has come to me; and if they are not, I will see. Gen 18:22 And the men, turning from that place, went on to Sodom: but Abraham was still waiting before the Lord. Gen 18:23 And Abraham came near, and said, Will you let destruction come on the upright with the sinners? Gen 18:24 If by chance there are fifty upright men in the town, will you give the place to destruction and not have mercy on it because of the fifty upright men? Gen 18:25 Let such a thing be far from you, to put the upright to death with the sinner: will not the judge of all the earth do right? Gen 18:26 And the Lord said, If there are fifty upright men in the town, I will have mercy on it because of them. Gen 18:27 And Abraham answering said, Truly, I who am only dust, have undertaken to put my thoughts before the Lord: Gen 18:28 If by chance there are five less than fifty upright men, will you give up all the town to destruction because of these five? And he said, I will not give it to destruction if there are forty-five. Gen 18:29 And again he said to him, By chance there may be forty there. And he said, I will not do it if there are forty. Gen 18:30 And he said, Let not the Lord be angry with me if I say, What if there are thirty there? And he said, I will not do it if there are thirty. Gen 18:31 And he said, See now, I have undertaken to put my thoughts before the Lord: what if there are twenty there? And he said, I will have mercy because of the twenty. Gen 18:32 And he said, O let not the Lord be angry and I will say only one word more: by chance there may be ten there. And he said, I will have mercy because of the ten. Gen 18:33 And the Lord went on his way when his talk with Abraham was ended, and Abraham went back to his place. Gen 19:1 And at nightfall the two angels came to Sodom; and Lot was seated at the way into the town: and when he saw them he got up and came before them, falling down on his face to the earth. Gen 19:2 And he said, My masters, come now into your servant's house and take your rest there for the night, and let your feet be washed; and early in the morning you may go on your way. And they said, Not so, but we will take our night's rest in the street. Gen 19:3 But he made his request more strongly, so they went with him into his house; and he got food ready for them, and made unleavened bread, of which they took. Gen 19:4 But before they had gone to bed, the men of the town, all the men of Sodom, came round the house, young and old, from every part of the town; Gen 19:5 And crying out to Lot, they said, Where are the men who came to your house this night? Send them out to us, so that we may take our pleasure with them. Gen 19:6 And Lot went out to them in the doorway, shutting the door after him. Gen 19:7 And he said, My brothers, do not this evil. Gen 19:8 See now, I have two unmarried daughters; I will send them out to you so that you may do to them whatever seems good to you: only do nothing to these men, for this is why they have come under the shade of my roof. Gen 19:9 And they said, Give way there. This one man, they said, came here from a strange country, and will he now be our judge? now we will do worse to you than to them; and pushing violently against Lot, they came near to get the door broken in. Gen 19:10 But the men put out their hands and took Lot into the house to them, shutting the door again. Gen 19:11 But the men who were outside the door they made blind, all of them, small and great, so that they were tired out with looking for the door. Gen 19:12 Then the men said to Lot, Are there any others of your family here? sons-in-law or sons or daughters, take them all out of this place; Gen 19:13 For we are about to send destruction on this place, because a great outcry against them has come to the ears of the Lord; and the Lord has sent us to put an end to the town. Gen 19:14 And Lot went out and said to his sons-in-law, who were married to his daughters, Come, let us go out of this place, for the Lord is about to send destruction on the town. But his sons-in-law did not take him seriously. Gen 19:15 And when morning came, the angels did all in their power to make Lot go, saying, Get up quickly and take your wife and your two daughters who are here, and go, for fear that you come to destruction in the punishment of the town. Gen 19:16 But while he was waiting, the men took him and his wife and his daughters by the hand, for the Lord had mercy on them, and put them outside the town. Gen 19:17 And when they had put them out, he said, Go for your life, without looking back or waiting in the lowland; go quickly to the mountain or you will come to destruction. Gen 19:18 And Lot said to them, Not so, O my Lord; Gen 19:19 See now, your servant has had grace in your eyes and great is your mercy in keeping my life from destruction, but I am not able to get as far as the mountain before evil overtakes me and death; Gen 19:20 This town, now, is near, and it is a little one: O, let me go there (is it not a little one?) so that my life may be safe. Gen 19:21 And he said, See, I have given you your request in this one thing more: I will not send destruction on this town. Gen 19:22 Go there quickly, for I am not able to do anything till you have come there. For this reason, the town was named Zoar. Gen 19:23 The sun was up when Lot came to Zoar. Gen 19:24 Then the Lord sent fire and flaming smoke raining down from heaven on Sodom and Gomorrah. Gen 19:25 And he sent destruction on those towns, with all the lowland and all the people of those towns and every green thing in the land. Gen 19:26 But Lot's wife, looking back, became a pillar of salt. Gen 19:27 And Abraham got up early in the morning and went to the place where he had been talking with the Lord: Gen 19:28 And looking in the direction of Sodom and Gomorrah and the lowland, he saw the smoke of the land going up like the smoke of an oven. Gen 19:29 So it came about that when God sent destruction on the towns of the lowland, he kept his word to Abraham, and sent Lot safely away when he put an end to the towns where he was living. Gen 19:30 Then Lot went up out of Zoar to the mountain, and was living there with his two daughters, for fear kept him from living in Zoar: and he and his daughters made their living-place in a hole in the rock. Gen 19:31 And the older daughter said to her sister, Our father is old, and there is no man to be a husband to us in the natural way: Gen 19:32 Come, let us give our father much wine, and we will go into his bed, so that we may have offspring by our father, Gen 19:33 And that night they made their father take much wine; and the older daughter went into his bed; and he had no knowledge of when she went in or when she went away. Gen 19:34 And on the day after, the older daughter said to the younger, Last night I was with my father; let us make him take much wine this night again, and do you go to him, so that we may have offspring by our father. Gen 19:35 And that night again they made their father take much wine; and the younger daughter went into his bed; and he had no knowledge of when she went in or when she went away. Gen 19:36 And so the two daughters of Lot were with child by their father. Gen 19:37 And the older daughter had a son, and she gave him the name Moab: he is the father of the Moabites to this day. Gen 19:38 And the younger had a son and gave him the name Ben-ammi: from him come the children of Ammon to this day. Gen 20:1 And Abraham went on his way from there to the land of the South, and was living between Kadesh and Shur, in Gerar. Gen 20:2 And Abraham said of Sarah, his wife, She is my sister: and Abimelech, king of Gerar, sent and took Sarah. Gen 20:3 But God came to Abimelech in a dream in the night, and said to him, Truly you are a dead man because of the woman whom you have taken; for she is a man's wife. Gen 20:4 Now Abimelech had not come near her; and he said, Lord, will you put to death an upright nation? Gen 20:5 Did he not say to me himself, She is my sister? and she herself said, He is my brother: with an upright heart and clean hands have I done this. Gen 20:6 And God said to him in the dream, I see that you have done this with an upright heart, and I have kept you from sinning against me: for this reason I did not let you come near her. Gen 20:7 So now, give the man back his wife, for he is a prophet, and let him say a prayer for you, so your life may be safe: but if you do not give her back, be certain that death will come to you and all your house. Gen 20:8 So Abimelech got up early in the morning and sent for all his servants and gave them word of these things, and they were full of fear. Gen 20:9 Then Abimelech sent for Abraham, and said, What have you done to us? what wrong have I done you that you have put on me and on my kingdom so great a sin? You have done to me things which are not to be done. Gen 20:10 And Abimelech said to Abraham, Why did you do this thing? Gen 20:11 And Abraham said, Because it seemed to me that there was no fear of God in this place, and that they might put me to death because of my wife. Gen 20:12 And, in fact, she is my sister, the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and she became my wife: Gen 20:13 And when God sent me wandering from my father's house, I said to her, Let this be the sign of your love for me; wherever we go, say of me, He is my brother. Gen 20:14 Then Abimelech gave to Abraham sheep and oxen and men-servants and women-servants, and gave him back his wife Sarah. Gen 20:15 And Abimelech said, See, all my land is before you; take whatever place seems good to you. Gen 20:16 And he said to Sarah, See, I have given to your brother a thousand bits of silver so that your wrong may be put right; now your honour is clear in the eyes of all. Gen 20:17 Then Abraham made prayer to God, and God made Abimelech well again, and his wife and his women-servants, so that they had children. Gen 20:18 For the Lord had kept all the women of the house of Abimelech from having children, because of Sarah, Abraham's wife. Gen 21:1 And the Lord came to Sarah as he had said and did to her as he had undertaken. Gen 21:2 And Sarah became with child, and gave Abraham a son when he was old, at the time named by God. Gen 21:3 And Abraham gave to his son, to whom Sarah had given birth, the name Isaac. Gen 21:4 And when his son Isaac was eight days old, Abraham made him undergo circumcision, as God had said to him. Gen 21:5 Now Abraham was a hundred years old when the birth of Isaac took place. Gen 21:6 And Sarah said, God has given me cause for laughing, and everyone who has news of it will be laughing with me. Gen 21:7 And she said, Who would have said to Abraham that Sarah would have a child at her breast? for see, I have given him a son now when he is old. Gen 21:8 And when the child was old enough to be taken from the breast, Abraham made a great feast. Gen 21:9 And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian playing with Isaac. Gen 21:10 So she said to Abraham, Send away that woman and her son: for the son of that woman is not to have a part in the heritage with my son Isaac. Gen 21:11 And this was a great grief to Abraham because of his son. Gen 21:12 But God said, Let it not be a grief to you because of the boy and Hagar his mother; give ear to whatever Sarah says to you, because it is from Isaac that your seed will take its name. Gen 21:13 And I will make a nation of the son of your servant-woman, because he is your seed. Gen 21:14 And early in the morning Abraham got up, and gave Hagar some bread and a water-skin, and put the boy on her back, and sent her away: and she went, wandering in the waste land of Beer-sheba. Gen 21:15 And when all the water in the skin was used up, she put the child down under a tree. Gen 21:16 And she went some distance away, about an arrow flight, and seating herself on the earth, she gave way to bitter weeping, saying, Let me not see the death of my child. Gen 21:17 And the boy's cry came to the ears of God; and the angel of God said to Hagar from heaven, Hagar, why are you weeping? have no fear, for the child's cry has come to the ears of God. Gen 21:18 Come, take your child in your arms, for I will make of him a great nation. Gen 21:19 Then God made her eyes open, and she saw a water-spring, and she got water in the skin and gave the boy a drink. Gen 21:20 And God was with the boy, and he became tall and strong, and he became a bowman, living in the waste land. Gen 21:21 And while he was in the waste land of Paran, his mother got him a wife from the land of Egypt. Gen 21:22 Now at that time, Abimelech and Phicol, the captain of his army, said to Abraham, I see that God is with you in all you do. Gen 21:23 Now, then, give me your oath, in the name of God, that you will not be false to me or to my sons after me, but that as I have been good to you, so you will be to me and to this land where you have been living. Gen 21:24 And Abraham said, I will give you my oath. Gen 21:25 But Abraham made a protest to Abimelech because of a water-hole which Abimelech's servants had taken by force. Gen 21:26 But Abimelech said, I have no idea who has done this thing; you never gave me word of it, and I had no knowledge of it till this day. Gen 21:27 And Abraham took sheep and oxen and gave them to Abimelech, and the two of them made an agreement together. Gen 21:28 And Abraham put seven young lambs of the flock on one side by themselves. Gen 21:29 Then Abimelech said, What are these seven lambs which you have put on one side? Gen 21:30 And he said, Take these seven lambs from me as a witness that I have made this water-hole. Gen 21:31 So he gave that place the name Beer-sheba, because there the two of them had given their oaths. Gen 21:32 So they made an agreement at Beer-sheba, and Abimelech and Phicol, the captain of his army, went back to the land of the Philistines. Gen 21:33 And Abraham, after planting a holy tree in Beer-sheba, gave worship to the name of the Lord, the Eternal God. Gen 21:34 And Abraham went on living in the land of the Philistines as in a strange country. Gen 22:1 Now after these things, God put Abraham to the test, and said to him, Abraham; and he said, Here am I. Gen 22:2 And he said to him, Take your son, your dearly loved only son Isaac, and go to the land of Moriah and give him as a burned offering on one of the mountains of which I will give you knowledge. Gen 22:3 And Abraham got up early in the morning, and made ready his ass, and took with him two of his young men and Isaac, his son, and after the wood for the burned offering had been cut, he went on his way to the place of which God had given him word. Gen 22:4 And on the third day, Abraham, lifting up his eyes, saw the place a long way off. Gen 22:5 Then he said to his young men, Keep here with the ass; and I and the boy will go on and give worship and come back again to you. Gen 22:6 And Abraham put the wood for the burned offering on his son's back, and he himself took the fire and the knife in his hand, and the two of them went on together. Gen 22:7 Then Isaac said to Abraham, My father; and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, We have wood and fire here, but where is the lamb for the burned offering? Gen 22:8 And Abraham said, God himself will give the lamb for the burned offering: so they went on together. Gen 22:9 And they came to the place of which God had given him knowledge; and there Abraham made the altar and put the wood in place on it, and having made tight the bands round Isaac his son, he put him on the wood on the altar. Gen 22:10 And stretching out his hand, Abraham took the knife to put his son to death. Gen 22:11 But the voice of the angel of the Lord came from heaven, saying, Abraham, Abraham: and he said, Here am I. Gen 22:12 And he said, Let not your hand be stretched out against the boy to do anything to him; for now I am certain that the fear of God is in your heart, because you have not kept back your son, your only son, from me. Gen 22:13 And lifting up his eyes, Abraham saw a sheep fixed by its horns in the brushwood: and Abraham took the sheep and made a burned offering of it in place of his son. Gen 22:14 And Abraham gave that place the name Yahweh-yireh: as it is said to this day, In the mountain the Lord is seen. Gen 22:15 And the voice of the angel of the Lord came to Abraham a second time from heaven, Gen 22:16 Saying, I have taken an oath by my name, says the Lord, because you have done this and have not kept back from me your dearly loved only son, Gen 22:17 That I will certainly give you my blessing, and your seed will be increased like the stars of heaven and the sand by the seaside; your seed will take the land of those who are against them; Gen 22:18 And your seed will be a blessing to all the nations of the earth, because you have done what I gave you orders to do. Gen 22:19 Then Abraham went back to his young men and they went together to Beer-sheba, the place where Abraham was living. Gen 22:20 After these things, Abraham had news that Milcah, the wife of his brother Nahor, had given birth to children; Gen 22:21 Uz the oldest, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel, the father of Aram, Gen 22:22 And Chesed and Hazo and Pildash and Jidlaph and Bethuel. Gen 22:23 Bethuel was the father of Rebekah: these eight were the children of Milcah and Nahor, Abraham's brother. Gen 22:24 And his servant Reumah gave birth to Tebah and Gaham and Tahash and Maacah. Gen 23:1 Now the years of Sarah's life were a hundred and twenty-seven. Gen 23:2 And Sarah's death took place in Kiriath-arba, that is, Hebron, in the land of Canaan: and Abraham went into his house, weeping and sorrowing for Sarah. Gen 23:3 And Abraham came from his dead and said to the children of Heth, Gen 23:4 I am living among you as one from a strange country: give me some land here as my property, so that I may put my dead to rest. Gen 23:5 And in answer the children of Heth said to Abraham, Gen 23:6 My lord, truly you are a great chief among us; take the best of our resting-places for your dead; not one of us will keep back from you a place where you may put your dead to rest. Gen 23:7 And Abraham got up and gave honour to the children of Heth, the people of that land. Gen 23:8 And he said to them, If you will let me put my dead to rest here, make a request for me to Ephron, the son of Zohar, Gen 23:9 That he will give me the hollow in the rock named Machpelah, which is his property at the end of his field; let him give it to me for its full price as a resting-place for my dead among you. Gen 23:10 Now Ephron was seated among the children of Heth: and Ephron the Hittite gave Abraham his answer in the hearing of the children of Heth, and of all those who came into his town, saying, Gen 23:11 No, my lord, I will give you the field with the hollow in the rock; before all the children of my people will I give it to you for a resting-place for your dead. Gen 23:12 And Abraham went down on his face before the people of the land. Gen 23:13 And Abraham said to Ephron, in the hearing of the people of the land, If only you will give ear to me, I will give you the price of the field; take it, and let me put my dead to rest there. Gen 23:14 So Ephron said to Abraham, Gen 23:15 My lord, give ear to me: the value of the land is four hundred shekels; what is that between me and you? so put your dead to rest there. Gen 23:16 And Abraham took note of the price fixed by Ephron in the hearing of the children of Heth, and gave him four hundred shekels in current money. Gen 23:17 So Ephron's field at Machpelah near Mamre, with the hollow in the rock and all the trees in the field and round it, Gen 23:18 Became the property of Abraham before the eyes of the children of Heth and of all who came into the town. Gen 23:19 Then Abraham put Sarah his wife to rest in the hollow rock in the field of Machpelah near Mamre, that is, Hebron in the land of Canaan. Gen 23:20 And the field and the hollow rock were handed over to Abraham as his property by the children of Heth. Gen 24:1 Now Abraham was old and far on in years: and the Lord had given him everything in full measure. Gen 24:2 And Abraham said to his chief servant, the manager of all his property, Come now, put your hand under my leg: Gen 24:3 And take an oath by the Lord, the God of heaven and the God of the earth, that you will not get a wife for my son Isaac from the daughters of the Canaanites among whom I am living; Gen 24:4 But that you will go into my country and to my relations and get a wife there for my son Isaac. Gen 24:5 And the servant said, If by chance the woman will not come with me into this land, am I to take your son back again to the land from which you came? Gen 24:6 And Abraham said, Take care that you do not let my son go back to that land. Gen 24:7 The Lord God of heaven, who took me from my father's house and from the land of my birth, and made an oath to me, saying, To your seed I will give this land: he will send his angel before you and give you a wife for my son in that land. Gen 24:8 And if the woman will not come with you, then you are free from this oath; only do not take my son back there. Gen 24:9 And the servant put his hand under Abraham's leg, and gave him his oath about this thing. Gen 24:10 And the servant took ten of his master's camels, and all sorts of good things of his master's, and went to Mesopotamia, to the town of Nahor. Gen 24:11 And he made the camels take their rest outside the town by the water-spring in the evening, at the time when the women came to get water. Gen 24:12 And he said, O Lord, the God of my master Abraham, let me do well in what I have undertaken this day, and give your mercy to my master Abraham. Gen 24:13 See, I am waiting here by the water-spring; and the daughters of the town are coming out to get water: Gen 24:14 Now, may the girl to whom I say, Let down your vessel and give me a drink, and who says in answer, Here is a drink for you and let me give water to your camels: may she be the one marked out by you for your servant Isaac: so may I be certain that you have been good to my master Abraham. Gen 24:15 And even before his words were ended, Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel, the son of Milcah, who was the wife of Nahor, Abraham's brother, came out with her water-vessel on her arm. Gen 24:16 She was a very beautiful girl, a virgin, who had never been touched by a man: and she went down to the spring to get water in her vessel. Gen 24:17 And the servant came running to her and said, Give me a little water from your vessel. Gen 24:18 And she said, Take a drink, my lord: and quickly letting down her vessel onto her hand, she gave him a drink. Gen 24:19 And having done so, she said, I will get water for your camels till they have had enough. Gen 24:20 And after putting the water from her vessel into the animals' drinking-place, she went quickly back to the spring and got water for all the camels. Gen 24:21 And the man, looking at her, said nothing, waiting to see if the Lord had given his journey a good outcome. Gen 24:22 And when the camels had had enough, the man took a gold nose-ring, half a shekel in weight, and two ornaments for her arms of ten shekels weight of gold; Gen 24:23 And said to her, Whose daughter are you? is there room in your father's house for us? Gen 24:24 And she said to him, I am the daughter of Bethuel, the son of Milcah, Nahor's wife. Gen 24:25 And she said, We have a great store of dry grass and cattle-food, and there is room for you. Gen 24:26 And with bent head the man gave worship to the Lord; Gen 24:27 And said, Praise be to the Lord, the God of my master Abraham, who has given a sign that he is good and true to my master, by guiding me straight to the house of my master's family. Gen 24:28 So the girl went running and took the news of these things to her mother's house Gen 24:29 Now Rebekah had a brother named Laban, and he came out quickly to the man at the water-spring. Gen 24:30 And when he saw the nose-ring and the ornaments on his sister's hands, and when she gave him word of what the man had said to her, then he went out to the man who was waiting with the camels by the water-spring. Gen 24:31 And he said to him, Come in, you on whom is the blessing of the Lord; why are you waiting outside? for I have made the house ready for you, and a place for the camels. Gen 24:32 Then the man came into the house, and Laban took their cords off the camels and gave them dry grass and food, and he gave to him and the men who were with him water for washing their feet. Gen 24:33 And meat was put before him, but he said, I will not take food till I have made my business clear to you. And they said, Do so. Gen 24:34 And he said, I am Abraham's servant. Gen 24:35 The Lord has given my master every blessing, and he has become great: he has given him flocks and herds and silver and gold, and men-servants and women-servants and camels and asses. Gen 24:36 And when Sarah, my master's wife, was old, she gave birth to a son, to whom he has given all he has. Gen 24:37 And my master made me take an oath, saying, Do not get a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites among whom I am living; Gen 24:38 But go to my father's house and to my relations for a wife for my son. Gen 24:39 And I said to my master, What if the woman will not come with me? Gen 24:40 And he said, The Lord, whom I have ever kept before me, will send his angel with you, who will make it possible for you to get a wife for my son from my relations and my father's house; Gen 24:41 And you will be free from your oath to me when you come to my people; and if they will not give her to you, you will be free from your oath. Gen 24:42 And I came today to the water-spring, and I said, O Lord, the God of my master Abraham, if it is your purpose to give a good outcome to my journey, Gen 24:43 Let it come about that, while I am waiting here by the water-spring, if a girl comes to get water and I say to her, Give me a little water from your vessel, and she says, Gen 24:44 Take a drink, and I will get water for your camels; let her be the woman marked out by the Lord for my master's son. Gen 24:45 And even while I was saying this to myself, Rebekah came out with her vessel on her arm; and she went down to the spring to get water; and I said to her, Give me a drink. Gen 24:46 And straight away she took down her vessel from her arm, and said, Take a drink, and I will get water for your camels. Gen 24:47 And questioning her, I said, Whose daughter are you? And she said, The daughter of Bethuel, the son of Nahor, and Milcah his wife. Then I put the ring on her nose and the ornaments on her hands. Gen 24:48 And with bent head I gave worship and praise to the Lord, the God of my master Abraham, by whom I had been guided in the right way, to get the daughter of my master's brother for his son. Gen 24:49 And now, say if you will do what is good and right for my master or not, in order that it may be clear to me what I have to do. Gen 24:50 Then Laban and Bethuel said in answer, This is the Lord's doing: it is not for us to say Yes or No to you. Gen 24:51 See, here is Rebekah: take her and go, and let her be your master's son's wife, as the Lord has said. Gen 24:52 And at these words, Abraham's servant went down on his face and gave praise to the Lord. Gen 24:53 Then he took jewels of silver and jewels of gold and fair robes and gave them to Rebekah: and he gave things of value to her mother and her brother. Gen 24:54 Then he and the men who were with him had food and drink, and took their rest there that night; and in the morning he got up, and said, Let me now go back to my master. Gen 24:55 But her brother and her mother said, Let the girl be with us a week or ten days, and then she may go. Gen 24:56 And he said, Do not keep me; the Lord has given a good outcome to my journey; let me now go back to my master. Gen 24:57 And they said, We will send for the girl, and let her make the decision. Gen 24:58 And they sent for Rebekah and said to her, Are you ready to go with this man? And she said, I am ready. Gen 24:59 So they sent their sister Rebekah and her servant with Abraham's servant and his men. Gen 24:60 And they gave Rebekah their blessing, saying, O sister, may you be the mother of thousands and ten thousands; and may your seed overcome all those who make war against them. Gen 24:61 So Rebekah and her servant-women went with the man, seated on the camels; and so the servant took Rebekah and went on his way. Gen 24:62 Now Isaac had come through the waste land to Beer-lahai-roi; for he was living in the South. Gen 24:63 And when the evening was near, he went wandering out into the fields, and lifting up his eyes he saw camels coming. Gen 24:64 And when Rebekah, looking up, saw Isaac, she got down from her camel, Gen 24:65 And said to the servant, Who is that man coming to us through the field? And the servant said, It is my master: then she took her veil, covering her face with it. Gen 24:66 Then the servant gave Isaac the story of all he had done. Gen 24:67 And Isaac took Rebekah into his tent and she became his wife; and in his love for her, Isaac was comforted after his father's death. Gen 25:1 And Abraham took another wife named Keturah. Gen 25:2 She became the mother of Zimran and Jokshan and Medan and Midian and Ishbak and Shuah. Gen 25:3 And Jokshan became the father of Sheba and Dedan. And from Dedan came the Asshurim and Letushim and Leummim. Gen 25:4 And from Midian came Ephah and Epher and Hanoch and Abida and Eldaah. All these were the offspring of Keturah. Gen 25:5 Now Abraham gave all his property to Isaac; Gen 25:6 But to the sons of his other women he gave offerings, and sent them away, while he was still living, into the east country. Gen 25:7 Now the years of Abraham's life were a hundred and seventy-five. Gen 25:8 And Abraham came to his death, an old man, full of years; and he was put to rest with his people. Gen 25:9 And Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, put him to rest in the hollow rock of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron, the son of Zohar the Hittite, near Mamre; Gen 25:10 The same field which Abraham got from the children of Heth: there Abraham was put to rest with Sarah, his wife. Gen 25:11 Now after the death of Abraham, the blessing of God was with Isaac, his son. Gen 25:12 Now these are the generations of Ishmael, the son of Abraham, whose mother was Hagar the Egyptian, the servant of Sarah: Gen 25:13 These are the names of the sons of Ishmael by their generations: Ishmael's first son was Nebaioth; then Kedar and Adbeel and Mibsam Gen 25:14 And Mishma and Dumah and Massa, Gen 25:15 Hadad and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah: Gen 25:16 These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names in their towns and their tent-circles; twelve chiefs with their peoples. Gen 25:17 And the years of Ishmael's life were a hundred and thirty-seven: and he came to his end, and was put to rest with his people. Gen 25:18 And their country was from Havilah to Shur which is east of Egypt: they took their place to the east of all their brothers. Gen 25:19 Now these are the generations of Abraham's son Isaac: Gen 25:20 Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel the Aramaean of Paddan-aram, and the sister of Laban the Aramaean, to be his wife. Gen 25:21 Isaac made prayer to the Lord for his wife because she had no children; and the Lord gave ear to his prayer, and Rebekah became with child. Gen 25:22 And the children were fighting together inside her, and she said, If it is to be so, why am I like this? So she went to put her question to the Lord. Gen 25:23 And the Lord said to her, Two nations are in your body, and two peoples will come to birth from you: the one will be stronger than the other, and the older will be the servant of the younger. Gen 25:24 And when the time came for her to give birth, there were two children in her body. Gen 25:25 And the first came out red from head to foot like a robe of hair, and they gave him the name of Esau. Gen 25:26 And after him, his brother came out, gripping Esau's foot; and he was named Jacob: Isaac was sixty years old when she gave birth to them. Gen 25:27 And the boys came to full growth; and Esau became a man of the open country, an expert bowman; but Jacob was a quiet man, living in tents. Gen 25:28 Now Isaac's love was for Esau, because Esau's meat was greatly to his taste: but Rebekah had more love for Jacob. Gen 25:29 And one day Jacob was cooking some soup when Esau came in from the fields in great need of food; Gen 25:30 And Esau said to Jacob, Give me a full meal of that red soup, for I am overcome with need for food: for this reason he was named Edom. Gen 25:31 And Jacob said, First of all give me your birthright. Gen 25:32 And Esau said, Truly, I am at the point of death: what profit is the birthright to me? Gen 25:33 And Jacob said, First of all give me your oath; and he gave him his oath, handing over his birthright to Jacob. Gen 25:34 Then Jacob gave him bread and soup; and he took food and drink and went away, caring little for his birthright. Gen 26:1 Then came a time of great need in the land, like that which had been before in the days of Abraham. And Isaac went to Abimelech, king of the Philistines, at Gerar. Gen 26:2 And the Lord came to him in a vision and said, Do not go down to Egypt; keep in the land of which I will give you knowledge: Gen 26:3 Keep in this land, and I will be with you and give you my blessing; for to you and to your seed will I give all these lands, giving effect to the oath which I made to your father Abraham; Gen 26:4 I will make your seed like the stars of heaven in number, and will give them all these lands, and your seed will be a blessing to all the nations of the earth; Gen 26:5 Because Abraham gave ear to my voice and kept my words, my rules, my orders, and my laws. Gen 26:6 So Isaac went on living in Gerar; Gen 26:7 And when he was questioned by the men of the place about his wife, he said, She is my sister; fearing to say, She is my wife; for, he said, the men of the place may put me to death on account of Rebekah; because she is very beautiful. Gen 26:8 And when he had been there for some time, Abimelech, king of the Philistines, looking through a window, saw Isaac playing with Rebekah his wife. Gen 26:9 And he said to Isaac, It is clear that she is your wife: why then did you say, She is my sister? And Isaac said, For fear that I might be put to death because of her. Gen 26:10 Then Abimelech said, What have you done to us? one of the people might well have had connection with your wife, and the sin would have been ours. Gen 26:11 And Abimelech gave orders to his people that anyone touching Isaac or his wife was to be put to death. Gen 26:12 Now Isaac, planting seed in that land, got in the same year fruit a hundred times as much, for the blessing of the Lord was on him. Gen 26:13 And his wealth became very great, increasing more and more; Gen 26:14 For he had great wealth of flocks and herds and great numbers of servants; so that the Philistines were full of envy. Gen 26:15 Now all the water-holes, which his father's servants had made in the days of Abraham, had been stopped up with earth by the Philistines. Gen 26:16 And Abimelech said to Isaac, Go away from us, for you are stronger than we are. Gen 26:17 So Isaac went away from there, and put up his tents in the valley of Gerar, making his living-place there. Gen 26:18 And he made again the water-holes which had been made in the days of Abraham his father, and which had been stopped up by the Philistines; and he gave them the names which his father had given them. Gen 26:19 Now Isaac's servants made holes in the valley, and came to a spring of flowing water. Gen 26:20 But the herdmen of Gerar had a fight with Isaac's herdmen, for they said, The spring is ours: so he gave the spring the name of Esek, because there was a fight about it. Gen 26:21 Then they made another water-hole, and there was a fight about that, so he gave it the name of Sitnah. Gen 26:22 Then he went away from there, and made another water-hole, about which there was no fighting: so he gave it the name of Rehoboth, for he said, Now the Lord has made room for us, and we will have fruit in this land. Gen 26:23 And from there he went on to Beer-sheba. Gen 26:24 That night the Lord came to him in a vision, and said, I am the God of your father Abraham: have no fear for I am with you, blessing you, and your seed will be increased because of my servant Abraham. Gen 26:25 Then he made an altar there, and gave worship to the name of the Lord, and he put up his tents there, and there his servants made a water-hole. Gen 26:26 And Abimelech had come to him from Gerar, with Ahuzzath his friend and Phicol, the captain of his army. Gen 26:27 And Isaac said to them, Why have you come to me, seeing that in your hate for me you sent me away from you? Gen 26:28 And they said, We saw clearly that the Lord was with you: so we said, Let there be an oath between us and you, and let us make an agreement with you; Gen 26:29 That you will do us no damage, even as we put no hand on you, and did you nothing but good, and sent you away in peace: and now the blessing of the Lord is on you. Gen 26:30 Then he made a feast for them, and they all had food and drink. Gen 26:31 And early in the morning they took an oath one to the other: then Isaac sent them away and they went on their way in peace. Gen 26:32 And that day Isaac's servants came to him and gave him word of the water-hole which they had made, and said to him, We have come to water. Gen 26:33 And he gave it the name of Shibah: so the name of that town is Beer-sheba to this day. Gen 26:34 And when Esau was forty years old, he took as his wives Judith, the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Basemath, the daughter of Elon the Hittite: Gen 26:35 And Isaac and Rebekah had grief of mind because of them. Gen 27:1 Now when Isaac was old and his eyes had become clouded so that he was not able to see, he sent for Esau, his first son, and said to him, My son: and he said, Here am I. Gen 27:2 And he said, See now, I am old, and my death may take place at any time: Gen 27:3 So take your arrows and your bow and go out to the field and get meat for me; Gen 27:4 And make me food, good to the taste, such as is pleasing to me, and put it before me, so that I may have a meal and give you my blessing before death comes to me. Gen 27:5 Now Isaac's words to his son were said in Rebekah's hearing. Then Esau went out to get the meat. Gen 27:6 And Rebekah said to Jacob, her son, Your father said to your brother Esau in my hearing, Gen 27:7 Go and get some roe's meat and make me a good meal, so that I may be full, and give you my blessing before the Lord before my death. Gen 27:8 Now, my son, do what I say. Gen 27:9 Go to the flock and get me two fat young goats; and I will make of them a meal to your father's taste: Gen 27:10 And you will take it to him, so that he may have a good meal and give you his blessing before his death. Gen 27:11 And Jacob said to Rebekah, his mother, But Esau my brother is covered with hair, while I am smooth: Gen 27:12 If by chance my father puts his hand on me, it will seem to him that I am tricking him, and he will put a curse on me in place of a blessing. Gen 27:13 And his mother said, Let the curse be on me, my son: only do as I say, and go and get them for me. Gen 27:14 So he went and got them and took them to his mother: and she made a meal to his father's taste. Gen 27:15 And Rebekah took the fair robes of her oldest son, which were with her in the house, and put them on Jacob, her younger son: Gen 27:16 And she put the skins of the young goats on his hands and on the smooth part of his neck: Gen 27:17 And she gave into the hand of Jacob, her son, the meat and the bread which she had made ready. Gen 27:18 And he came to his father, and said, My father: and he said, Here am I: who are you, my son? Gen 27:19 And Jacob said, I am Esau, your oldest son; I have done as you said: come now, be seated and take of my meat, so that you may give me a blessing. Gen 27:20 And Isaac said, How is it that you have got it so quickly, my son? And he said, Because the Lord your God made it come my way. Gen 27:21 And Isaac said, Come near so that I may put my hand on you, my son, and see if you are truly my son Esau or not. Gen 27:22 And Jacob went near his father Isaac: and he put his hands on him; and he said, The voice is Jacob's voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau. Gen 27:23 And he did not make out who he was, because his hands were covered with hair like his brother Esau's hands: so he gave him a blessing. Gen 27:24 And he said, Are you truly my son Esau? And he said, I am. Gen 27:25 And he said, Put it before me and I will take of my son's meat, so that I may give you a blessing. And he put it before him and he took it; and he gave him wine, and he had a drink. Gen 27:26 And his father Isaac said to him, Come near now, my son, and give me a kiss. Gen 27:27 And he came near and gave him a kiss; and smelling the smell of his clothing, he gave him a blessing, and said, See, the smell of my son is like the smell of a field on which the blessing of the Lord has come: Gen 27:28 May God give you the dew of heaven, and the good things of the earth, and grain and wine in full measure: Gen 27:29 Let peoples be your servants, and nations go down before you: be lord over your brothers, and let your mother's sons go down before you: a curse be on everyone by whom you are cursed, and a blessing on those who give you a blessing. Gen 27:30 And when Isaac had come to the end of blessing Jacob, and Jacob had not long gone away from Isaac his father, Esau came in from the field. Gen 27:31 And he made ready a meal, good to the taste, and took it to his father, and said to him, Let my father get up and take of his son's meat, so that you may give me a blessing. Gen 27:32 And Isaac his father said to him, Who are you? And he said, I am your oldest son, Esau. Gen 27:33 And in great fear Isaac said, Who then is he who got meat and put it before me, and I took it all before you came, and gave him a blessing, and his it will be? Gen 27:34 And hearing the words of his father, Esau gave a great and bitter cry, and said to his father, Give a blessing to me, even to me, O my father! Gen 27:35 And he said, Your brother came with deceit, and took away your blessing. Gen 27:36 And he said, Is it because he is named Jacob that he has twice taken my place? for he took away my birthright, and now he has taken away my blessing. And he said, Have you not kept a blessing for me? Gen 27:37 And Isaac answering said, But I have made him your master, and have given him all his brothers for servants; I have made him strong with grain and wine: what then am I to do for you, my son? Gen 27:38 And Esau said to his father, Is that the only blessing you have, my father? give a blessing to me, even me! And Esau was overcome with weeping. Gen 27:39 Then Isaac his father made answer and said to him, Far from the fertile places of the earth, and far from the dew of heaven on high will your living-place be: Gen 27:40 By your sword will you get your living and you will be your brother's servant; but when your power is increased his yoke will be broken from off your neck. Gen 27:41 So Esau was full of hate for Jacob because of his father's blessing; and he said in his heart, The days of weeping for my father are near; then I will put my brother Jacob to death. Gen 27:42 Then Rebekah, hearing what Esau had said, sent for Jacob, her younger son, and said to him, It seems that your brother Esau is purposing to put you to death. Gen 27:43 So now, my son, do what I say: go quickly to Haran, to my brother Laban; Gen 27:44 And be there with him for a little time, till your brother's wrath is turned away; Gen 27:45 Till the memory of what you have done to him is past and he is no longer angry: then I will send word for you to come back; are the two of you to be taken from me in one day? Gen 27:46 Then Rebekah said to Isaac, My life is a weariness to me because of the daughters of Heth: if Jacob takes a wife from among the daughters of Heth, such as these, the women of this land, of what use will my life be to me? Gen 28:1 Then Isaac sent for Jacob, and blessing him, said, Do not take a wife from among the women of Canaan; Gen 28:2 But go to Paddan-aram, to the house of Bethuel, your mother's father, and there get yourself a wife from the daughters of Laban, your mother's brother. Gen 28:3 And may God, the Ruler of all, give you his blessing, giving you fruit and increase, so that you may become an army of peoples. Gen 28:4 And may God give you the blessing of Abraham, to you and to your seed, so that the land of your wanderings, which God gave to Abraham, may be your heritage. Gen 28:5 So Isaac sent Jacob away: and he went to Paddan-aram, to Laban, son of Bethuel the Aramaean, the brother of Rebekah, the mother of Jacob and Esau. Gen 28:6 So when Esau saw that Isaac had given Jacob his blessing, and sent him away to Paddan-aram to get a wife for himself there, blessing him and saying to him, Do not take a wife from among the women of Canaan; Gen 28:7 And that Jacob had done as his father and mother said and had gone to Paddan-aram; Gen 28:8 It was clear to Esau that his father had no love for the women of Canaan, Gen 28:9 So Esau went to Ishmael and took Mahalath, the daughter of Abraham's son Ishmael, the sister of Nebaioth, to be his wife in addition to the wives he had. Gen 28:10 So Jacob went out from Beer-sheba to go to Haran. Gen 28:11 And coming to a certain place, he made it his resting-place for the night, for the sun had gone down; and he took one of the stones which were there, and putting it under his head he went to sleep in that place. Gen 28:12 And he had a dream, and in his dream he saw steps stretching from earth to heaven, and the angels of God were going up and down on them. Gen 28:13 And he saw the Lord by his side, saying, I am the Lord, the God of Abraham your father, and the God of Isaac: I will give to you and to your seed this land on which you are sleeping. Gen 28:14 Your seed will be like the dust of the earth, covering all the land to the west and to the east, to the north and to the south: you and your seed will be a name of blessing to all the families of the earth. Gen 28:15 And truly, I will be with you, and will keep you wherever you go, guiding you back again to this land; and I will not give you up till I have done what I have said to you. Gen 28:16 And Jacob, awaking from his sleep, said, Truly, the Lord is in this place and I was not conscious of it. Gen 28:17 And fear came on him, and he said, This is a holy place; this is nothing less than the house of God and the doorway of heaven. Gen 28:18 And early in the morning Jacob took the stone which had been under his head, and put it up as a pillar and put oil on it. Gen 28:19 And he gave that place the name of Beth-el, but before that time the town was named Luz. Gen 28:20 Then Jacob took an oath, and said, If God will be with me, and keep me safe on my journey, and give me food and clothing to put on, Gen 28:21 So that I come again to my father's house in peace, then I will take the Lord to be my God, Gen 28:22 And this stone which I have put up for a pillar will be God's house: and of all you give me, I will give a tenth part to you. Gen 29:1 Then Jacob went on his journey till he came to the land of the children of the East. Gen 29:2 And there he saw a water-hole in a field, and by the side of it three flocks of sheep, for there they got water for the sheep: and on the mouth of the water-hole there was a great stone. Gen 29:3 And all the flocks would come together there, and when the stone had been rolled away, they would give the sheep water, and put the stone back again in its place on the mouth of the water-hole. Gen 29:4 Then Jacob said to the herdmen, My brothers, where do you come from? And they said, From Haran. Gen 29:5 And he said to them, Have you any knowledge of Laban, the son of Nahor? And they said, We have. Gen 29:6 And he said to them, Is he well? And they said, He is well, and here is Rachel his daughter coming with the sheep. Gen 29:7 Then Jacob said, The sun is still high and it is not time to get the cattle together: get water for the sheep and go and give them their food. Gen 29:8 And they said, We are not able to do so till all the flocks have come together and the stone has been rolled away from the mouth of the water-hole; then we will get water for the sheep. Gen 29:9 While he was still talking with them, Rachel came with her father's sheep, for she took care of them. Gen 29:10 Then when Jacob saw Rachel, the daughter of Laban, his mother's brother, coming with Laban's sheep, he came near, and rolling the stone away from the mouth of the hole, he got water for Laban's flock. Gen 29:11 And weeping for joy, Jacob gave Rachel a kiss. Gen 29:12 And Rachel, hearing from Jacob that he was her father's relation and that he was the son of Rebekah, went running to give her father news of it. Gen 29:13 And Laban, hearing news of Jacob, his sister's son, came running, and took Jacob in his arms, and kissing him, made him come into his house. And Jacob gave him news of everything. Gen 29:14 And Laban said to him, Truly, you are my bone and my flesh. And he kept Jacob with him for the space of a month. Gen 29:15 Then Laban said to Jacob, Because you are my brother are you to be my servant for nothing? say now, what is your payment to be? Gen 29:16 Now Laban had two daughters: the name of the older was Leah, and the name of the younger was Rachel. Gen 29:17 And Leah's eyes were clouded, but Rachel was fair in face and form. Gen 29:18 And Jacob was in love with Rachel; and he said, I will be your servant seven years for Rachel, your younger daughter. Gen 29:19 And Laban said, It is better for you to have her than another man: go on living here with me. Gen 29:20 And Jacob did seven years' work for Rachel; and because of his love for her it seemed to him only a very little time. Gen 29:21 Then Jacob said to Laban, Give me my wife so that I may have her, for the days are ended. Gen 29:22 And Laban got together all the men of the place and gave a feast. Gen 29:23 And in the evening he took Leah, his daughter, and gave her to him, and he went in to her. Gen 29:24 And Laban gave Zilpah, his servant-girl, to Leah, to be her waiting-woman. Gen 29:25 And in the morning Jacob saw that it was Leah: and he said to Laban, What have you done to me? was I not working for you so that I might have Rachel? why have you been false to me? Gen 29:26 And Laban said, In our country we do not let the younger daughter be married before the older. Gen 29:27 Let the week of the bride-feast come to its end and then we will give you the other in addition, if you will be my servant for another seven years. Gen 29:28 And Jacob did so; and when the week was ended, Laban gave him his daughter Rachel for his wife. Gen 29:29 And Laban gave Rachel his servant-girl Bilhah to be her waiting-woman. Gen 29:30 Then Jacob took Rachel as his wife, and his love for her was greater than his love for Leah; and he went on working for Laban for another seven years. Gen 29:31 Now the Lord, seeing that Leah was not loved, gave her a child; while Rachel had no children. Gen 29:32 And Leah was with child, and gave birth to a son to whom she gave the name Reuben: for she said, The Lord has seen my sorrow; now my husband will have love for me. Gen 29:33 Then she became with child again, and gave birth to a son; and said, Because it has come to the Lord's ears that I am not loved, he has given me this son in addition: and she gave him the name Simeon. Gen 29:34 And she was with child again, and gave birth to a son; and said, Now at last my husband will be united to me, because I have given him three sons: so he was named Levi. Gen 29:35 And she was with child again, and gave birth to a son: and she said, This time I will give praise to the Lord: so he was named Judah; after this she had no more children for a time. Gen 30:1 Now Rachel, because she had no children, was full of envy of her sister; and she said to Jacob, If you do not give me children I will not go on living. Gen 30:2 But Jacob was angry with Rachel, and said, Am I in the place of God, who has kept your body from having fruit? Gen 30:3 Then she said, Here is my servant Bilhah, go in to her, so that she may have a child on my knees, and I may have a family by her. Gen 30:4 So she gave him her servant Bilhah as a wife, and Jacob went in to her. Gen 30:5 And Bilhah became with child, and gave birth to a son. Gen 30:6 Then Rachel said, God has been my judge, and has given ear to my voice, and has given me a son; so he was named Dan. Gen 30:7 And again Bilhah, Rachel's servant, was with child, and gave birth to a second son. Gen 30:8 And Rachel said, I have had a great fight with my sister, and I have overcome her: and she gave the child the name Naphtali. Gen 30:9 When it was clear to Leah that she would have no more children for a time, she gave Zilpah, her servant, to Jacob as a wife. Gen 30:10 And Zilpah, Leah's servant, gave birth to a son. Gen 30:11 And Leah said, It has gone well for me: and she gave him the name Gad. Gen 30:12 And Zilpah, Leah's servant, gave birth to a second son. Gen 30:13 And Leah said, Happy am I! and all women will give witness to my joy: and she gave him the name Asher. Gen 30:14 Now at the time of the grain-cutting, Reuben saw some love-fruits in the field, and took them to his mother Leah. And Rachel said to her, Let me have some of your son's love-fruits. Gen 30:15 But Leah said to her, Is it a small thing that you have taken my husband from me? and now would you take my son's love-fruits? Then Rachel said, You may have him tonight in exchange for your son's love-fruits. Gen 30:16 In the evening, when Jacob came in from the field, Leah went out to him and said, Tonight you are to come to me, for I have given my son's love-fruits as a price for you. And he went in to her that night. Gen 30:17 And God gave ear to her and she became with child, and gave Jacob a fifth son. Gen 30:18 Then Leah said, God has made payment to me for giving my servant-girl to my husband: so she gave her son the name Issachar. Gen 30:19 And again Leah became with child, and she gave Jacob a sixth son. Gen 30:20 And she said, God has given me a good bride-price; now at last will I have my husband living with me, for I have given him six sons: and she gave him the name Zebulun. Gen 30:21 After that she had a daughter, to whom she gave the name Dinah. Gen 30:22 Then God gave thought to Rachel, and hearing her prayer he made her fertile. Gen 30:23 And she was with child, and gave birth to a son: and she said, God has taken away my shame. Gen 30:24 And she gave him the name Joseph, saying, May the Lord give me another son. Gen 30:25 Now after the birth of Joseph, Jacob said to Laban, Let me go away to my place and my country. Gen 30:26 Give me my wives and my children, for whom I have been your servant, and let me go: for you have knowledge of all the work I have done for you. Gen 30:27 And Laban said, If you will let me say so, do not go away; for I have seen by the signs that the Lord has been good to me because of you. Gen 30:28 Say then what your payment is to be and I will give it. Gen 30:29 Then Jacob said, You have seen what I have done for you, and how your cattle have done well under my care. Gen 30:30 For before I came you had little, and it has been greatly increased; and the Lord has given you a blessing in everything I have done; but when am I to do something for my family? Gen 30:31 And Laban said, What am I to give you? And Jacob said, Do not give me anything; but I will again take up the care of your flock if you will only do this for me: Gen 30:32 Let me go through all your flock today, taking out from among them all the sheep which are marked or coloured or black, and all the marked or coloured goats: these will be my payment. Gen 30:33 And so you will be able to put my honour to the test in time to come; if you see among my flocks any goats which are not marked or coloured, or any sheep which is not black, you may take me for a thief. Gen 30:34 And Laban said, Let it be as you say. Gen 30:35 So that day he took all the he-goats which were banded or coloured, and all the she-goats which were marked or coloured or had white marks, and all the black sheep, and gave them into the care of his sons; Gen 30:36 And sent them three days' journey away: and Jacob took care of the rest of Laban's flock. Gen 30:37 Then Jacob took young branches of trees, cutting off the skin so that the white wood was seen in bands. Gen 30:38 And he put the banded sticks in the drinking-places where the flock came to get water; and they became with young when they came to the water. Gen 30:39 And because of this, the flock gave birth to young which were marked with bands of colour. Gen 30:40 These lambs Jacob kept separate; and he put his flock in a place by themselves and not with Laban's flock. Gen 30:41 And whenever the stronger ones of the flock became with young, Jacob put the sticks in front of them in the drinking-places, so that they might become with young when they saw the sticks. Gen 30:42 But when the flocks were feeble, he did not put the sticks before them; so that the feebler flocks were Laban's and the stronger were Jacob's. Gen 30:43 So Jacob's wealth was greatly increased; he had great flocks and women-servants and men-servants and camels and asses. Gen 31:1 Now it came to the ears of Jacob that Laban's sons were saying, Jacob has taken away all our father's property, and in this way he has got all this wealth. Gen 31:2 And Jacob saw that Laban's feeling for him was no longer what it had been before. Gen 31:3 Then the Lord said to Jacob, Go back to the land of your fathers, and to your relations, and I will be with you. Gen 31:4 And Jacob sent for Rachel and Leah to come to him in the field among his flock. Gen 31:5 And he said to them, It is clear to me that your father's feeling is no longer what it was to me; but the God of my father has been with me Gen 31:6 And you have seen how I have done all in my power for your father, Gen 31:7 But your father has not kept faith with me, and ten times he has made changes in my payment; but God has kept him from doing me damage. Gen 31:8 If he said, All those in the flock which have marks are to be yours, then all the flock gave birth to marked young; and if he said, All the banded ones are to be yours, then all the flock had banded young. Gen 31:9 So God has taken away your father's cattle and has given them to me. Gen 31:10 And at the time when the flock were with young, I saw in a dream that all the he-goats which were joined with the she-goats were banded and marked and coloured. Gen 31:11 And in my dream the angel of the Lord said to me, Jacob: and I said, Here am I. Gen 31:12 And he said, See how all the he-goats are banded and marked and coloured: for I have seen what Laban has done to you. Gen 31:13 I am the God of Beth-el, where you put oil on the pillar and took an oath to me: now then, come out of this land and go back to the country of your birth. Gen 31:14 Then Rachel and Leah said to him in answer, What part or heritage is there for us in our father's house? Gen 31:15 Are we not as people from a strange country to him? for he took a price for us and now it is all used up. Gen 31:16 For the wealth which God has taken from him is ours and our children's; so now, whatever God has said to you, do. Gen 31:17 Then Jacob put his wives and his sons on camels; Gen 31:18 And sending on before him all his cattle and his property which he had got together in Paddan-aram, he made ready to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan. Gen 31:19 Now Laban had gone to see to the cutting of the wool of his sheep; so Rachel secretly took the images of the gods of her father's house. Gen 31:20 And Jacob went away secretly, without giving news of his flight to Laban the Aramaean. Gen 31:21 So he went away with all he had, and went across the River in the direction of the hill-country of Gilead. Gen 31:22 And on the third day Laban had news of Jacob's flight. Gen 31:23 And taking the men of his family with him, he went after him for seven days and overtook him in the hill-country of Gilead. Gen 31:24 Then God came to Laban in a dream by night, and said to him, Take care that you say nothing good or bad to Jacob. Gen 31:25 Now when Laban overtook him, Jacob had put up his tent in the hill-country; and Laban and his brothers put up their tents in the hill-country of Gilead. Gen 31:26 And Laban said to Jacob, Why did you go away secretly, taking my daughters away like prisoners of war? Gen 31:27 Why did you make a secret of your flight, not giving me word of it, so that I might have sent you away with joy and songs, with melody and music? Gen 31:28 You did not even let me give a kiss to my sons and my daughters. This was a foolish thing to do. Gen 31:29 It is in my power to do you damage: but the God of your father came to me this night, saying, Take care that you say nothing good or bad to Jacob. Gen 31:30 And now, it seems, you are going because your heart's desire is for your father's house; but why have you taken my gods? Gen 31:31 And Jacob, in answer, said to Laban, My fear was that you might take your daughters from me by force. Gen 31:32 As for your gods, if anyone of us has them, let him be put to death: make search before us all for what is yours, and take it. For Jacob had no knowledge that Rachel had taken them. Gen 31:33 So Laban went into Jacob's tent and into Leah's tent, and into the tents of the two servant-women, but they were not there; and he came out of Leah's tent and went into Rachel's. Gen 31:34 Now Rachel had taken the images, and had put them in the camels' basket, and was seated on them. And Laban, searching through all the tent, did not come across them. Gen 31:35 And she said to her father, Let not my lord be angry because I do not get up before you, for I am in the common condition of women. And with all his searching, he did not come across the images. Gen 31:36 Then Jacob was angry with Laban, and said, What crime or sin have I done that you have come after me with such passion? Gen 31:37 Now that you have made search through all my goods, what have you seen which is yours? Make it clear now before my people and your people, so that they may be judges between us. Gen 31:38 These twenty years I have been with you; your sheep and your goats have had young without loss, not one of your he-goats have I taken for food. Gen 31:39 Anything which was wounded by beasts I did not take to you, but myself made up for the loss of it; you made me responsible for whatever was taken by thieves, by day or by night. Gen 31:40 This was my condition, wasted by heat in the day and by the bitter cold at night; and sleep went from my eyes. Gen 31:41 These twenty years I have been in your house; I was your servant for fourteen years because of your daughters, and for six years I kept your flock, and ten times was my payment changed. Gen 31:42 If the God of my father, the God of Abraham and the Fear of Isaac, had not been with me, you would have sent me away with nothing in my hands. But God has seen my troubles and the work of my hands, and this night he kept you back. Gen 31:43 Then Laban, answering, said, These women are my daughters and these children my children, the flocks and all you see are mine: what now may I do for my daughters and for their children? Gen 31:44 Come, let us make an agreement, you and I; and let it be for a witness between us. Gen 31:45 Then Jacob took a stone and put it up as a pillar. Gen 31:46 And Jacob said to his people, Get stones together; and they did so; and they had a meal there by the stones. Gen 31:47 And the name Laban gave it was Jegar-sahadutha: but Jacob gave it the name of Galeed. Gen 31:48 And Laban said, These stones are a witness between you and me today. For this reason its name was Galeed, Gen 31:49 And Mizpah, for he said, May the Lord keep watch on us when we are unable to see one another's doings. Gen 31:50 If you are cruel to my daughters, or if you take other wives in addition to my daughters, then though no man is there to see, God will be the witness between us. Gen 31:51 And Laban said, See these stones and this pillar which I have put between you and me; Gen 31:52 They will be witness that I will not go over these stones to you, and you will not go over these stones or this pillar to me, for any evil purpose. Gen 31:53 May the God of Abraham and the God of Nahor, the God of their father, be our judge. Then Jacob took an oath by the Fear of his father Isaac. Gen 31:54 And Jacob made an offering on the mountain, and gave orders to his people to take food: so they had a meal and took their rest that night on the mountain. Gen 31:55 And early in the morning Laban, after kissing and blessing his daughters, went on his way back to his country. Gen 32:1 And on his way Jacob came face to face with the angels of God. Gen 32:2 And when he saw them he said, This is the army of God: so he gave that place the name of Mahanaim. Gen 32:3 Now Jacob sent servants before him to Esau, his brother, in the land of Seir, the country of Edom; Gen 32:4 And he gave them orders to say these words to Esau: Your servant Jacob says, Till now I have been living with Laban: Gen 32:5 And I have oxen and asses and flocks and men-servants and women-servants: and I have sent to give my lord news of these things so that I may have grace in his eyes. Gen 32:6 When the servants came back they said, We have seen your brother Esau and he is coming out to you, and four hundred men with him. Gen 32:7 Then Jacob was in great fear and trouble of mind: and he put all the people and the flocks and the herds and the camels into two groups; Gen 32:8 And said, If Esau, meeting one group, makes an attack on them, the others will get away safely. Gen 32:9 Then Jacob said, O God of my father Abraham, the God of my father Isaac, the Lord who said to me, Go back to your country and your family and I will be good to you: Gen 32:10 I am less than nothing in comparison with all your mercies and your faith to me your servant; for with only my stick in my hand I went across Jordan, and now I have become two armies. Gen 32:11 Be my saviour from the hand of Esau, my brother: for my fear is that he will make an attack on me, putting to death mother and child. Gen 32:12 And you said, Truly, I will be good to you, and make your seed like the sand of the sea which may not be numbered. Gen 32:13 Then he put up his tent there for the night; and from among his goods he took, as an offering for his brother Esau, Gen 32:14 Two hundred she-goats and twenty he-goats, two hundred females and twenty males from the sheep, Gen 32:15 Thirty camels with their young ones, forty cows, ten oxen, twenty asses, and ten young asses. Gen 32:16 These he gave to his servants, every herd by itself, and he said to his servants, Go on before me, and let there be a space between one herd and another. Gen 32:17 And he gave orders to the first, saying, When my brother Esau comes to you and says, Whose servant are you, and where are you going, and whose are these herds? Gen 32:18 Then say to him, These are your servant Jacob's; they are an offering for my lord, for Esau; and he himself is coming after us. Gen 32:19 And he gave the same orders to the second and the third and to all those who were with the herds, saying, This is what you are to say to Esau when you see him; Gen 32:20 And you are to say further, Jacob, your servant, is coming after us. For he said to himself, I will take away his wrath by the offering which I have sent on, and then I will come before him: it may be that I will have grace in his eyes. Gen 32:21 So the servants with the offerings went on in front, and he himself took his rest that night in the tents with his people. Gen 32:22 And in the night he got up, and taking with him his two wives and the two servant-women and his eleven children, he went over the river Jabbok. Gen 32:23 He took them and sent them over the stream with all he had. Gen 32:24 Then Jacob was by himself; and a man was fighting with him till dawn. Gen 32:25 But when the man saw that he was not able to overcome Jacob, he gave him a blow in the hollow part of his leg, so that his leg was damaged. Gen 32:26 And he said to him, Let me go now, for the dawn is near. But Jacob said, I will not let you go till you have given me your blessing. Gen 32:27 Then he said, What is your name? And he said, Jacob. Gen 32:28 And he said, Your name will no longer be Jacob, but Israel: for in your fight with God and with men you have overcome. Gen 32:29 Then Jacob said, What is your name? And he said, What is my name to you? Then he gave him a blessing. Gen 32:30 And Jacob gave that place the name of Peniel, saying, I have seen God face to face, and still I am living. Gen 32:31 And while he was going past Peniel, the sun came up. And he went with unequal steps because of his damaged leg. Gen 32:32 For this reason the children of Israel, even today, never take that muscle in the hollow of the leg as food, because the hollow of Jacob's leg was touched. Gen 33:1 Then Jacob, lifting up his eyes, saw Esau coming with his four hundred men. So he made a division of the children between Leah and Rachel and the two women-servants. Gen 33:2 He put the servants and their children in front, Leah and her children after them, and Rachel and Joseph at the back. Gen 33:3 And he himself, going before them, went down on his face to the earth seven times till he came near his brother. Gen 33:4 Then Esau came running up to him, and folding him in his arms, gave him a kiss: and the two of them were overcome with weeping. Gen 33:5 Then Esau, lifting up his eyes, saw the women and the children, and said, Who are these with you? And he said, The children whom God in his mercy has given to your servant. Gen 33:6 Then the servants and their children came near, and went down on their faces. Gen 33:7 And Leah came near with her children, and then Joseph and Rachel, and they did the same. Gen 33:8 And he said, What were all those herds which I saw on the way? And Jacob said, They were an offering so that I might have grace in my lord's eyes. Gen 33:9 But Esau said, I have enough; keep what is yours, my brother, for yourself. Gen 33:10 And Jacob said, Not so; but if I have grace in your eyes, take them as a sign of my love, for I have seen your face as one may see the face of God, and you have been pleased with me. Gen 33:11 Take my offering then, with my blessing; for God has been very good to me and I have enough: so at his strong request, he took it. Gen 33:12 And he said, Let us go on our journey together, and I will go in front. Gen 33:13 But Jacob said, My lord may see that the children are only small, and there are young ones in my flocks and herds: one day's over-driving will be the destruction of all the flock. Gen 33:14 Do you, my lord, go on before your servant; I will come on slowly, at the rate at which the cattle and the children are able to go, till I come to my lord at Seir. Gen 33:15 And Esau said, Then keep some of my men with you. And he said, What need is there for that, if my lord is pleased with me? Gen 33:16 So Esau, turning back that day, went on his way to Seir. Gen 33:17 And Jacob went on to Succoth, where he made a house for himself and put up tents for his cattle: for this reason the place was named Succoth. Gen 33:18 So Jacob came safely from Paddan-aram to the town of Shechem in the land of Canaan, and put up his tents near the town. Gen 33:19 And for a hundred bits of money he got from the children of Hamor, the builder of Shechem, the field in which he had put up his tents. Gen 33:20 And there he put up an altar, naming it El, the God of Israel. Gen 34:1 Now Dinah, the daughter whom Leah had by Jacob, went out to see the women of that country. Gen 34:2 And when Shechem, the son of Hamor the Hivite who was the chief of that land, saw her, he took her by force and had connection with her. Gen 34:3 Then his heart went out in love to Dinah, the daughter of Jacob, and he said comforting words to her. Gen 34:4 And Shechem said to Hamor, his father, Get me this girl for my wife. Gen 34:5 Now Jacob had word of what Shechem had done to his daughter; but his sons were in the fields with the cattle, and Jacob said nothing till they came. Gen 34:6 Then Hamor, the father of Shechem, came out to have a talk with Jacob. Gen 34:7 Now the sons of Jacob came in from the fields when they had news of it, and they were wounded and very angry because of the shame he had done in Israel by having connection with Jacob's daughter; and they said, Such a thing is not to be done. Gen 34:8 But Hamor said to them, Shechem, my son, is full of desire for your daughter: will you then give her to him for a wife? Gen 34:9 And let our two peoples be joined together; give your daughters to us, and take our daughters for yourselves. Gen 34:10 Go on living with us, and the country will be open to you; do trade and get property there. Gen 34:11 And Shechem said to her father and her brothers, If you will give ear to my request, whatever you say I will give to you. Gen 34:12 However great you make the bride-price and payment, I will give it; only let me have the girl for my wife. Gen 34:13 But the sons of Jacob gave a false answer to Shechem and Hamor his father, because of what had been done to Dinah their sister. Gen 34:14 And they said, It is not possible for us to give our sister to one who is without circumcision, for that would be a cause of shame to us: Gen 34:15 But on this condition only will we come to an agreement with you: if every male among you becomes like us and undergoes circumcision; Gen 34:16 Then we will give our daughters to you and take your daughters to us and go on living with you as one people. Gen 34:17 But if you will not undergo circumcision as we say, then we will take our daughter and go. Gen 34:18 And their words were pleasing to Hamor and his son Shechem. Gen 34:19 And without loss of time the young man did as they said, because he had delight in Jacob's daughter, and he was the noblest of his father's house. Gen 34:20 Then Hamor and Shechem, his son, went to the meeting-place of their town, and said to the men of the town, Gen 34:21 It is the desire of these men to be at peace with us; let them then go on living in this country and doing trade here, for the country is wide open before them; let us take their daughters as wives and let us give them our daughters. Gen 34:22 But these men will make an agreement with us to go on living with us and to become one people, only on the condition that every male among us undergoes circumcision as they have done. Gen 34:23 Then will not their cattle and their goods and all their beasts be ours? so let us come to an agreement with them so that they may go on living with us. Gen 34:24 Then all the men of the town gave ear to the words of Hamor and Shechem his son; and every male in the town underwent circumcision. Gen 34:25 But on the third day after, before the wounds were well, two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brothers, took their swords and came into the town by surprise and put all the males to death. Gen 34:26 And Hamor and his son they put to death with the sword, and they took Dinah from Shechem's house and went away. Gen 34:27 And the sons of Jacob came on them when they were wounded and made waste the town because of what had been done to their sister; Gen 34:28 They took their flocks and their herds and their asses and everything in their town and in their fields, Gen 34:29 And all their wealth and all their little ones and their wives; everything in their houses they took and made them waste. Gen 34:30 And Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, You have made trouble for me and given me a bad name among the people of this country, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites: and because we are small in number they will come together against me and make war on me; and it will be the end of me and all my people. Gen 34:31 But they said, Were we to let him make use of our sister as a loose woman? Gen 35:1 And God said to Jacob, Go up now to Beth-el and make your living-place there: and put up an altar there to the God who came to you when you were in flight from your brother Esau. Gen 35:2 Then Jacob said to all his people, Put away the strange gods which are among you, and make yourselves clean, and put on a change of clothing: Gen 35:3 And let us go up to Beth-el: and there I will make an altar to God, who gave me an answer in the day of my trouble, and was with me wherever I went. Gen 35:4 Then they gave to Jacob all the strange gods which they had, and the rings which were in their ears; and Jacob put them away under the holy tree at Shechem. Gen 35:5 So they went on their journey: and the fear of God was on the towns round about, so that they made no attack on the sons of Jacob. Gen 35:6 And Jacob came to Luz in the land of Canaan (which is the same as Beth-el), he and all his people. Gen 35:7 And there he made an altar, naming the place El-beth-el: because it was there he had the vision of God when he was in flight from his brother. Gen 35:8 And Deborah, the servant who had taken care of Rebekah from her birth, came to her end, and was put to rest near Beth-el, under the holy tree: and they gave it the name of Allon-bacuth. Gen 35:9 Now when Jacob was on his way from Paddan-aram, God came to him again and, blessing him, said, Gen 35:10 Jacob is your name, but it will be so no longer; from now your name will be Israel; so he was named Israel. Gen 35:11 And God said to him, I am God, the Ruler of all: be fertile, and have increase; a nation, truly a group of nations, will come from you, and kings will be your offspring; Gen 35:12 And the land which I gave to Abraham and Isaac, I will give to you; and to your seed after you I will give the land. Gen 35:13 Then God went up from him in the place where he had been talking with him. Gen 35:14 And Jacob put up a pillar in the place where he had been talking with God, and put a drink offering on it, and oil. Gen 35:15 And he gave to the place where God had been talking with him, the name of Beth-el. Gen 35:16 So they went on from Beth-el; and while they were still some distance from Ephrath, the pains of birth came on Rachel and she had a hard time. Gen 35:17 And when her pain was very great, the woman who was helping her said, Have no fear; for now you will have another son. Gen 35:18 And in the hour when her life went from her (for death came to her), she gave the child the name Ben-oni: but his father gave him the name of Benjamin. Gen 35:19 So Rachel came to her end and was put to rest on the road to Ephrath (which is Beth-lehem). Gen 35:20 And Jacob put up a pillar on her resting-place; which is named, The Pillar of the resting-place of Rachel, to this day. Gen 35:21 And Israel went journeying on and put up his tents on the other side of the tower of the flock. Gen 35:22 Now while they were living in that country, Reuben had connection with Bilhah, his father's servant-woman: and Israel had news of it. Gen 35:23 Now Jacob had twelve sons: the sons of Leah: Reuben, Jacob's first son, and Simeon and Levi and Judah and Issachar and Zebulun; Gen 35:24 The sons of Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin; Gen 35:25 The sons of Bilhah, Rachel's servant: Dan and Naphtali; Gen 35:26 The sons of Zilpah, Leah's servant: Gad and Asher; these are the sons whom Jacob had in Paddan-aram. Gen 35:27 And Jacob came to his father Isaac at Mamre, at Kiriath-arba, that is, Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac had been living. Gen 35:28 And Isaac was a hundred and eighty years old. Gen 35:29 Then Isaac came to his end and was put to rest with his father's people, an old man after a long life: and Jacob and Esau, his sons, put him in his last resting-place. Gen 36:1 Now these are the generations of Esau, that is to say, Edom. Gen 36:2 Esau's wives were women of Canaan: Adah, the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah, the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite, Gen 36:3 And Basemath, Ishmael's daughter, the sister of Nebaioth. Gen 36:4 Adah had a son Eliphaz; and Basemath was the mother of Reuel; Gen 36:5 Oholibamah was the mother of Jeush, Jalam, and Korah; these are the sons of Esau, whose birth took place in the land of Canaan. Gen 36:6 Esau took his wives and his sons and his daughters, and all the people of his house, and his beasts and his cattle and all his goods which he had got together in the land of Canaan, and went into the land of Seir, away from his brother Jacob. Gen 36:7 For their wealth was so great that the land was not wide enough for the two of them and all their cattle. Gen 36:8 So Esau made his living-place in the hill-country of Seir (Esau is Edom). Gen 36:9 And these are the generations of Esau, the father of the Edomites in the hill-country of Seir: Gen 36:10 These are the names of Esau's sons: Eliphaz, the son of Esau's wife Adah, and Reuel, the son of Esau's wife Basemath. Gen 36:11 The sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz. Gen 36:12 And Eliphaz, the son of Esau, had connection with a woman named Timna, who gave birth to Amalek: all these were the children of Esau's wife Adah. Gen 36:13 And these are the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah: they were the children of Esau's wife Basemath. Gen 36:14 And these are the sons of Esau's wife Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah, the daughter of Zibeon: she was the mother of Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. Gen 36:15 These were the chiefs among the sons of Esau: the sons of Eliphaz, Esau's first son: Teman, Omar, Zepho, Kenaz, Gen 36:16 Korah, Gatam, Amalek: all these were chiefs in the land of Edom, the offspring of Eliphaz, the seed of Adah. Gen 36:17 And these are the sons of Esau's son Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, Mizzah: these were the chiefs of Reuel in the land of Edom, the children of Esau's wife Basemath. Gen 36:18 And these are the sons of Esau's wife Oholibamah: Jeush, Jalam, and Korah: these were the chiefs who came from Esau's wife Oholibamah, daughter of Anah. Gen 36:19 These were the sons of Esau (that is, Edom), and these were their chiefs. Gen 36:20 These are the sons of Seir the Horite who were living in that country; Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Gen 36:21 Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan: these are the chiefs of the Horites, offspring of Seir in the land of Edom. Gen 36:22 The children of Lotan were Hori and Hemam; Lotan's sister was Timna. Gen 36:23 And these are the children of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam. Gen 36:24 And these are the children of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah; that same Anah who made the discovery of the water-springs in the waste land, when he was looking after the asses of his father Zibeon. Gen 36:25 And these are the children of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah his daughter. Gen 36:26 These are the children of Dishon: Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Keran. Gen 36:27 These are the children of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan. Gen 36:28 These are the children of Dishan: Uz and Aran. Gen 36:29 These were the Horite chiefs: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Gen 36:30 Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. Such were the Horite chiefs in their order in the land of Seir. Gen 36:31 And these are the kings who were ruling in the land of Edom before there was any king over the children of Israel. Gen 36:32 Bela, son of Beor, was king in Edom, and the name of his chief town was Dinhabah. Gen 36:33 At his death, Jobab, son of Zerah of Bozrah, became king in his place. Gen 36:34 And at the death of Jobab, Husham, from the country of the Temanites, became king in his place. Gen 36:35 And at the death of Husham, Hadad, son of Bedad, who overcame the Midianites in the field of Moab, became king; his chief town was named Avith. Gen 36:36 And at the death of Hadad, Samlah of Masrekah became king. Gen 36:37 And at the death of Samlah, Shaul of Rehoboth by the River became king in his place. Gen 36:38 And at the death of Shaul, Baal-hanan, son of Achbor, became king. Gen 36:39 And at the death of Baal-hanan, Hadar became king in his place; his chief town was named Pau, and his wife's name was Mehetabel; she was the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Me-zahab. Gen 36:40 These are the names of the chiefs of Esau in the order of their families and their places: Timna, Alvah, Jetheth, Gen 36:41 Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon, Gen 36:42 Kenaz, Teman, Mibzar, Gen 36:43 Magdiel, Iram; these are the Edomite chiefs, in their places in their heritage; this is Esau, the father of the Edomites. Gen 37:1 Now Jacob was living in the land where his father had made a place for himself, in the land of Canaan. Gen 37:2 These are the generations of Jacob: Joseph, a boy seventeen years old, was looking after the flock, together with his brothers, the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, his father's wives; and Joseph gave their father a bad account of them. Gen 37:3 Now the love which Israel had for Joseph was greater than his love for all his other children, because he got him when he was an old man: and he had a long coat made for him. Gen 37:4 And because his brothers saw that Joseph was dearer to his father than all the others, they were full of hate for him, and would not say a kind word to him. Gen 37:5 Now Joseph had a dream, and he gave his brothers an account of it, which made their hate greater than ever. Gen 37:6 And he said to them, Let me give you the story of my dream. Gen 37:7 We were in the field, getting the grain stems together, and my grain kept upright, and yours came round and went down on the earth before mine. Gen 37:8 And his brothers said to him, Are you to be our king? will you have authority over us? And because of his dream and his words, their hate for him became greater than ever. Gen 37:9 Then he had another dream, and gave his brothers an account of it, saying, I have had another dream: the sun and the moon and eleven stars gave honour to me. Gen 37:10 And he gave word of it to his father and his brothers; but his father protesting said, What sort of a dream is this? am I and your mother and your brothers to go down on our faces to the earth before you? Gen 37:11 And his brothers were full of envy; but his father kept his words in mind. Gen 37:12 Now his brothers went to keep watch over their father's flock in Shechem. Gen 37:13 And Israel said to Joseph, Are not your brothers with the flock in Shechem? come, I will send you to them. And he said to him, Here am I. Gen 37:14 And he said to him, Go now, and see if your brothers are well and how the flock is; then come back and give me word. So he sent him out of the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem. Gen 37:15 And a man saw him wandering in the country, and said to him, What are you looking for? Gen 37:16 And he said, I am looking for my brothers; please give me word of where they are keeping their flock. Gen 37:17 And the man said, They have gone away from here, for they said in my hearing, Let us go to Dothan. So Joseph went after them and came up with them at Dothan. Gen 37:18 But they saw him when he was a long way off, and before he came near them they made a secret design against him to put him to death; Gen 37:19 Saying to one another, See, here comes this dreamer. Gen 37:20 Let us now put him to death and put his body into one of these holes, and we will say, An evil beast has put him to death: then we will see what becomes of his dreams. Gen 37:21 But Reuben, hearing these words, got him out of their hands, saying, Let us not take his life. Gen 37:22 Do not put him to a violent death, but let him be placed in one of the holes; this he said to keep him safe from their hands, with the purpose of taking him back to his father again. Gen 37:23 So when Joseph came to his brothers, they took off his long coat which he had on; Gen 37:24 And they took him and put him in the hole: now the hole had no water in it. Gen 37:25 Then seating themselves, they took their meal: and looking up, they saw a travelling band of Ishmaelites, coming from Gilead on their way to Egypt, with spices and perfumes on their camels. Gen 37:26 And Judah said to his brothers, What profit is there in putting our brother to death and covering up his blood? Gen 37:27 Let us give him to these Ishmaelites for a price, and let us not put violent hands on him, for he is our brother, our flesh. And his brothers gave ear to him. Gen 37:28 And some traders from Midian went by; so pulling Joseph up out of the hole, they gave him to the Ishmaelites for twenty bits of silver, and they took him to Egypt. Gen 37:29 Now when Reuben came back to the hole, Joseph was not there; and giving signs of grief, Gen 37:30 He went back to his brothers, and said, The child is gone; what am I to do? Gen 37:31 Then they took Joseph's coat, and put on it some of the blood from a young goat which they had put to death, Gen 37:32 And they took the coat to their father, and said, We came across this; is it your son's coat or not? Gen 37:33 And he saw that it was, and said, It is my son's coat; an evil beast has put him to death; without doubt Joseph has come to a cruel end. Gen 37:34 Then Jacob, giving signs of grief, put on haircloth, and went on weeping for his son day after day. Gen 37:35 And all his sons and all his daughters came to give him comfort, but he would not be comforted, saying with weeping, I will go down to the underworld to my son. So great was his father's sorrow for him. Gen 37:36 And in Egypt the men of Midian gave him for a price to Potiphar, a captain of high position in Pharaoh's house. Gen 38:1 Now at that time, Judah went away from his brothers and became the friend of a man of Adullam named Hirah. Gen 38:2 And there he saw the daughter of a certain man of Canaan named Shua, and took her as his wife. Gen 38:3 And she gave birth to a son, and he gave him the name Er. Gen 38:4 And again she gave birth to a son, and he gave him the name Onan. Gen 38:5 Then she had another son, to whom she gave the name Shelah; she was at Chezib when the birth took place. Gen 38:6 And Judah took a wife for his first son Er, and her name was Tamar. Gen 38:7 Now Er, Judah's first son, did evil in the eyes of the Lord, so that he put him to death. Gen 38:8 Then Judah said to Onan, Go in to your brother's wife and do what it is right for a husband's brother to do; make her your wife and get offspring for your brother. Gen 38:9 But Onan, seeing that the offspring would not be his, went in to his brother's wife, but let his seed go on to the earth, so that he might not get offspring for his brother. Gen 38:10 And what he did was evil in the eyes of the Lord, so that he put him to death, like his brother. Gen 38:11 Then Judah said to Tamar, his daughter-in-law, Go back to your father's house and keep yourself as a widow till my son Shelah becomes a man: for he had in his mind the thought that death might come to him as it had come to his brothers. So Tamar went back to her father's house. Gen 38:12 And after a time, Bath-shua, Judah's wife, came to her end; and after Judah was comforted for her loss, he went to Timnah, where they were cutting the wool of his sheep, and his friend Hirah of Adullam went with him. Gen 38:13 And when Tamar had news that her father-in-law was going up to Timnah to the wool-cutting, Gen 38:14 She took off her widow's clothing, and covering herself with her veil, she took her seat near Enaim on the road to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah was now a man, but she had not been made his wife. Gen 38:15 When Judah saw her he took her to be a loose woman of the town, because her face was covered. Gen 38:16 And turning to her by the roadside, he said to her, Let me come in to you; for he had no idea that she was his daughter-in-law. And she said, What will you give me as my price? Gen 38:17 And he said, I will give you a young goat from the flock. And she said, What will you give me as a sign till you send it? Gen 38:18 And he said, What would you have? And she said, Your ring and its cord and the stick in your hand. So he gave them to her and went in to her, and she became with child by him. Gen 38:19 Then she got up and went away and took off her veil and put on her widow's clothing. Gen 38:20 Then Judah sent his friend Hirah with the young goat, to get back the things which he had given as a sign to the woman: but she was not there. Gen 38:21 And he put questions to the men of the place, saying, Where is the loose woman who was in Enaim by the wayside? And they said, There was no such woman there. Gen 38:22 So he went back to Judah, and said, I have not seen her, and the men of the place say that there is no such woman there. Gen 38:23 And Judah said, Let her keep the things, so that we may not be shamed; I sent the young goat, but you did not see the woman. Gen 38:24 Now about three months after this, word came to Judah that Tamar, his daughter-in-law, had been acting like a loose woman and was with child. And Judah said, Take her out and let her be burned. Gen 38:25 And while she was being taken out, she sent word to her father-in-law, saying, The man whose property these things are, is the father of my child: say then, whose are this ring and this cord and this stick? Gen 38:26 Then Judah said openly that they were his, and said, She is more upright than I am, for I did not give her to Shelah my son. And he had no more connection with her. Gen 38:27 And when the time came for her to give birth, it was clear that there were two children in her body. Gen 38:28 And while she was in the act of giving birth, one of them put out his hand; and the woman who was with her put a red thread round his hand, saying, This one came out first. Gen 38:29 But then he took his hand back again, and his brother came first to birth: and the woman said, What an opening you have made for yourself! So he was named Perez. Gen 38:30 And then his brother came out, with the red thread round his hand, and he was named Zerah. Gen 39:1 Now Joseph was taken down to Egypt; and Potiphar the Egyptian, a captain of high position in Pharaoh's house, got him for a price from the Ishmaelites who had taken him there. Gen 39:2 And the Lord was with Joseph, and he did well; and he was living in the house of his master the Egyptian. Gen 39:3 And his master saw that the Lord was with him, making everything he did go well. Gen 39:4 And having a high opinion of Joseph as his servant, he made him the overseer of his house and gave him control over all he had. Gen 39:5 And from the time when he made him overseer and gave him control of all his property, the blessing of the Lord was with the Egyptian, because of Joseph; the blessing of the Lord was on all he had, in the house and in the field. Gen 39:6 And he gave Joseph control of all his property, keeping no account of anything, but only the food which was put before him. Now Joseph was very beautiful in form and face. Gen 39:7 And after a time, his master's wife, looking on Joseph with desire, said to him, Be my lover. Gen 39:8 But he would not, and said to her, You see that my master keeps no account of what I do in his house, and has put all his property in my control; Gen 39:9 So that no one has more authority in this house than I have; he has kept nothing back from me but you, because you are his wife; how then may I do this great wrong, sinning against God? Gen 39:10 And day after day she went on requesting Joseph to come to her and be her lover, but he would not give ear to her. Gen 39:11 Now one day he went into the house to do his work; and not one of the men of the house was inside. Gen 39:12 And pulling at his coat, she said, Come to my bed; but slipping out of his coat, he went running away. Gen 39:13 And when she saw that he had got away, letting her keep his coat, Gen 39:14 She sent for the men of her house and said to them, See, he has let a Hebrew come here and make sport of us; he came to my bed, and I gave a loud cry; Gen 39:15 And hearing it he went running out without his coat. Gen 39:16 And she kept his coat by her, till his master came back. Gen 39:17 Then she gave him the same story, saying, The Hebrew servant whom you have taken into our house came in to make sport of me; Gen 39:18 And when I gave a loud cry he went running out without his coat. Gen 39:19 And hearing his wife's account of what his servant had done, he became very angry. Gen 39:20 And Joseph's master took him and put him in prison, in the place where the king's prisoners were kept in chains, and he was there in the prison-house. Gen 39:21 But the Lord was with Joseph, and was good to him, and made the keeper of the prison his friend. Gen 39:22 And the keeper of the prison put all the prisoners under Joseph's control, and he was responsible for whatever was done there. Gen 39:23 And the keeper of the prison gave no attention to anything which was under his care, because the Lord was with him; and the Lord made everything he did go well. Gen 40:1 Now after these things the chief servant who had the care of the wine, and the chief bread-maker in Pharaoh's house, did something against Pharaoh's orders; Gen 40:2 And Pharaoh was angry with his two servants, with the chief wine-servant and the chief bread-maker; Gen 40:3 And he put them in prison under the care of the captain of the army, in the same prison where Joseph himself was shut up. Gen 40:4 And the captain put them in Joseph's care, and he did what was needed for them; and they were kept in prison for some time. Gen 40:5 And these two had a dream on the same night; the chief wine-servant and the chief bread-maker of the king of Egypt, who were in prison, the two of them had dreams with a special sense. Gen 40:6 And in the morning when Joseph came to them he saw that they were looking sad. Gen 40:7 And he said to the servants of Pharaoh who were in prison with him, Why are you looking so sad? Gen 40:8 Then they said to him, We have had a dream, and no one is able to give us the sense. And Joseph said, Does not the sense of dreams come from God? what was your dream? Gen 40:9 Then the chief wine-servant gave Joseph an account of his dream, and said, In my dream I saw a vine before me; Gen 40:10 And on the vine were three branches; and it seemed as if it put out buds and flowers, and from them came grapes ready for cutting. Gen 40:11 And Pharaoh's cup was in my hand, and I took the grapes and crushing them into Pharaoh's cup, gave the cup into Pharaoh's hand. Gen 40:12 Then Joseph said, This is the sense of your dream: the three branches are three days; Gen 40:13 After three days Pharaoh will give you honour, and put you back into your place, and you will give him his cup as you did before, when you were his wine-servant. Gen 40:14 But keep me in mind when things go well for you, and be good to me and say a good word for me to Pharaoh and get me out of this prison: Gen 40:15 For truly I was taken by force from the land of the Hebrews; and I have done nothing for which I might be put in prison. Gen 40:16 Now when the chief bread-maker saw that the first dream had a good sense, he said to Joseph, I had a dream; and in my dream there were three baskets of white bread on my head; Gen 40:17 And in the top basket were all sorts of cooked meats for Pharaoh; and the birds were taking them out of the baskets on my head. Gen 40:18 Then Joseph said, This is the sense of your dream: the three baskets are three days; Gen 40:19 After three days Pharaoh will take you out of prison, hanging you on a tree, so that your flesh will be food for birds. Gen 40:20 Now the third day was Pharaoh's birthday, and he gave a feast for all his servants; and he gave honour to the chief wine-servant and the chief bread-maker among the others. Gen 40:21 And he put the chief wine-servant back in his old place; and he gave the cup into Pharaoh's hand. Gen 40:22 But the chief bread-maker was put to death by hanging, as Joseph had said. Gen 40:23 But the wine-servant did not keep Joseph in mind or give a thought to him. Gen 41:1 Now after two years had gone by, Pharaoh had a dream; and in his dream he was by the side of the Nile; Gen 41:2 And out of the Nile came seven cows, good-looking and fat, and their food was the river-grass. Gen 41:3 And after them seven other cows came out of the Nile, poor-looking and thin; and they were by the side of the other cows. Gen 41:4 And the seven thin cows made a meal of the seven fat cows. Then Pharaoh came out of his sleep. Gen 41:5 But he went to sleep again and had a second dream, in which he saw seven heads of grain, full and good, all on one stem. Gen 41:6 And after them came up seven other heads, thin and wasted by the east wind. Gen 41:7 And the seven thin heads made a meal of the good heads. And when Pharaoh was awake he saw it was a dream. Gen 41:8 And in the morning his spirit was troubled; and he sent for all the wise men of Egypt and all the holy men, and put his dream before them, but no one was able to give him the sense of it. Gen 41:9 Then the chief wine-servant said to Pharaoh, The memory of my sin comes back to me now; Gen 41:10 Pharaoh had been angry with his servants, and had put me in prison in the house of the captain of the army, together with the chief bread-maker; Gen 41:11 And we had a dream on the same night, the two of us, and the dreams had a special sense. Gen 41:12 And there was with us a young Hebrew, the captain's servant, and when we put our dreams before him, he gave us the sense of them. Gen 41:13 And it came about as he said: I was put back in my place, and the bread-maker was put to death by hanging. Gen 41:14 Then Pharaoh sent for Joseph, and they took him quickly out of prison; and when his hair had been cut and his dress changed, he came before Pharaoh. Gen 41:15 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, I have had a dream, and no one is able to give me the sense of it; now it has come to my ears that you are able to give the sense of a dream when it is put before you. Gen 41:16 Then Joseph said, Without God there will be no answer of peace for Pharaoh. Gen 41:17 Then Pharaoh said, In my dream I was by the side of the Nile: Gen 41:18 And out of the Nile came seven cows, fat and good-looking, and their food was the river-grass; Gen 41:19 Then after them came seven other cows, very thin and poor-looking, worse than any I ever saw in the land of Egypt; Gen 41:20 And the thin cows made a meal of the seven fat cows who came up first; Gen 41:21 And even with the fat cows inside them they seemed as bad as before. And so I came out of my sleep. Gen 41:22 And again in a dream I saw seven heads of grain, full and good, coming up on one stem: Gen 41:23 And then I saw seven other heads, dry, thin, and wasted by the east wind, coming up after them: Gen 41:24 And the seven thin heads made a meal of the seven good heads; and I put this dream before the wise men, but not one of them was able to give me the sense of it. Gen 41:25 Then Joseph said, These two dreams have the same sense: God has made clear to Pharaoh what he is about to do. Gen 41:26 The seven fat cows are seven years, and the seven good heads of grain are seven years: the two have the same sense. Gen 41:27 The seven thin and poor-looking cows who came up after them are seven years; and the seven heads of grain, dry and wasted by the east wind, are seven years when there will be no food. Gen 41:28 As I said to Pharaoh before, God has made clear to him what he is about to do. Gen 41:29 Seven years are coming in which there will be great wealth of grain in Egypt; Gen 41:30 And after that will come seven years when there will not be enough food; and the memory of the good years will go from men's minds; and the land will be made waste by the bad years; Gen 41:31 And men will have no memory of the good time because of the need which will come after, for it will be very bitter. Gen 41:32 And this dream came to Pharaoh twice, because this thing is certain, and God will quickly make it come about. Gen 41:33 And now let Pharaoh make search for a man of wisdom and good sense, and put him in authority over the land of Egypt. Gen 41:34 Let Pharaoh do this, and let him put overseers over the land of Egypt to put in store a fifth part of the produce of the land in the good years. Gen 41:35 And let them get together all the food in those good years and make a store of grain under Pharaoh's control for the use of the towns, and let them keep it. Gen 41:36 And let that food be kept in store for the land till the seven bad years which are to come in Egypt; so that the land may not come to destruction through need of food. Gen 41:37 And this seemed good to Pharaoh and to all his servants. Gen 41:38 Then Pharaoh said to his servants, Where may we get such a man as this, a man in whom is the spirit of God? Gen 41:39 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, Seeing that God has made all this clear to you, there is no other man of such wisdom and good sense as you: Gen 41:40 You, then, are to be over my house, and all my people will be ruled by your word: only as king will I be greater than you. Gen 41:41 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, See, I have put you over all the land of Egypt. Gen 41:42 Then Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand and put it on Joseph's hand, and he had him clothed with the best linen, and put a chain of gold round his neck; Gen 41:43 And he made him take his seat in the second of his carriages; and they went before him crying, Make way! So he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt. Gen 41:44 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, I am Pharaoh; and without your order no man may do anything in all the land of Egypt. Gen 41:45 And Pharaoh gave Joseph the name of Zaphnath-paaneah; and he gave him Asenath, the daughter of Poti-phera, the priest of On, to be his wife. So Joseph went through all the land of Egypt. Gen 41:46 Now Joseph was thirty years old when he came before Pharaoh, king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from before the face of Pharaoh and went through all the land of Egypt. Gen 41:47 Now in the seven good years the earth gave fruit in masses. Gen 41:48 And Joseph got together all the food of those seven years, and made a store of food in the towns: the produce of the fields round every town was stored up in the town. Gen 41:49 So he got together a store of grain like the sand of the sea; so great a store that after a time he gave up measuring it, for it might not be measured. Gen 41:50 And before the time of need, Joseph had two sons, to whom Asenath, the daughter of Poti-phera, priest of On, gave birth. Gen 41:51 And to the first he gave the name Manasseh, for he said, God has taken away from me all memory of my hard life and of my father's house. Gen 41:52 And to the second he gave the name Ephraim, for he said, God has given me fruit in the land of my sorrow. Gen 41:53 And so the seven good years in Egypt came to an end. Gen 41:54 Then came the first of the seven years of need as Joseph had said: and in every other land they were short of food; but in the land of Egypt there was bread. Gen 41:55 And when all the land of Egypt was in need of food, the people came crying to Pharaoh for bread; and Pharaoh said to the people, Go to Joseph, and whatever he says to you, do it. Gen 41:56 And everywhere on the earth they were short of food; then Joseph, opening all his store-houses, gave the people of Egypt grain for money; so great was the need of food in the land of Egypt. Gen 41:57 And all lands sent to Egypt, to Joseph, to get grain, for the need was great over all the earth. Gen 42:1 Now Jacob, hearing that there was grain in Egypt, said to his sons, Why are you looking at one another? Gen 42:2 And he said, I have had news that there is grain in Egypt: go down there and get grain for us, so that life and not death may be ours. Gen 42:3 So Joseph's ten brothers went down to get grain from Egypt. Gen 42:4 But Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph's brother, with them, for fear, as he said, that some evil might come to him. Gen 42:5 And the sons of Israel came with all the others to get grain: for they were very short of food in the land of Canaan. Gen 42:6 Now Joseph was ruler over all the land, and it was he who gave out the grain to all the people of the land; and Joseph's brothers came before him and went down on their faces to the earth. Gen 42:7 And when Joseph saw his brothers, it was clear to him who they were, but he made himself strange to them, and talking roughly to them, said, Where do you come from? And they said, From the land of Canaan, to get food. Gen 42:8 Now though Joseph saw that these were his brothers, they had no idea who he was. Gen 42:9 Then the memory of his dreams about them came back to Joseph, and he said to them, You have come secretly to see how poor the land is. Gen 42:10 And they said to him, Not so, my lord: your servants have come with money to get food. Gen 42:11 We are all one man's sons, we are true men; we have not come with any secret purpose. Gen 42:12 And he said to them, No, but you have come to see how poor the land is. Gen 42:13 Then they said, We your servants are twelve brothers, sons of one man in the land of Canaan; the youngest of us is now with our father, and one is dead. Gen 42:14 And Joseph said, It is as I said; you have come with some secret purpose; Gen 42:15 But in this way will you be put to the test: by the life of Pharaoh, you will not go away from this place till your youngest brother comes here. Gen 42:16 Send one of your number to get your brother, and the rest of you will be kept in prison, so that your words may be tested to see if you are true; if not, by the life of Pharaoh, your purpose is certainly secret. Gen 42:17 So he put them in prison for three days. Gen 42:18 And on the third day Joseph said to them, Do this, if you would keep your lives: for I am a god-fearing man: Gen 42:19 If you are true men, let one of you be kept in prison, while you go and take grain for the needs of your families; Gen 42:20 And come back to me with your youngest brother, so that your words may be seen to be true, and you will not be put to death. This is what you are to do. Gen 42:21 And they said to one another, Truly, we did wrong to our brother, for we saw his grief of mind, and we did not give ear to his prayers; that is why this trouble has come on us. Gen 42:22 And Reuben said to them, Did I not say to you, Do the child no wrong? but you gave no attention; so now, punishment has come on us for his blood. Gen 42:23 They were not conscious that the sense of their words was clear to Joseph, for he had been talking to them through one who had knowledge of their language. Gen 42:24 And turning away from them, he was overcome with weeping; then he went on talking to them again and took Simeon and put chains on him before their eyes. Gen 42:25 Then Joseph gave orders for their bags to be made full of grain, and for every man's money to be put back into his bag, and for food to be given them for the journey: which was done. Gen 42:26 Then they put the bags of grain on their asses and went away. Gen 42:27 Now at their night's resting-place one of them, opening his bag to give his ass some food, saw his money in the mouth of the bag. Gen 42:28 And he said to his brothers, My money has been given back: it is in my bag; then their hearts became full of fear, and turning to one another they said, What is this which God has done to us? Gen 42:29 So when they came to Jacob their father, in the land of Canaan, they gave him an account of all their experiences, saying, Gen 42:30 The man who is the ruler of the country was rough with us and put us in prison, saying that we had come with a secret evil purpose. Gen 42:31 And we said to him, We are true men, we have no evil designs; Gen 42:32 We are twelve brothers, sons of our father; one is dead, and the youngest is now with our father in the land of Canaan. Gen 42:33 And the ruler of the land said, In this way I may be certain that you are true men; let one of you be kept here with me, while you go and take grain for the needs of your families; Gen 42:34 And come back to me with your youngest brother: then I will be certain that you are true men, and I will give your brother back to you and let you do trade in the land. Gen 42:35 And when they took the grain out of their bags, it was seen that every man's parcel of money was in his bag; and when they and their father saw the money, they were full of fear. Gen 42:36 And Jacob their father said to them, You have taken my children from me: Joseph is gone and Simeon is gone, and now you would take Benjamin away; all these things have come on me. Gen 42:37 And Reuben said, Put my two sons to death if I do not come back to you with him; let him be in my care and I will give him safely back to you. Gen 42:38 And he said, I will not let my son go down with you; for his brother is dead and he is all I have: if evil overtakes him on the journey, then through you will my grey head go down to the underworld in sorrow. Gen 43:1 Now the land was in bitter need of food. Gen 43:2 And when the grain which they had got in Egypt was all used up, their father said to them, Go again and get us a little food. Gen 43:3 And Judah said to him, The man said to us with an oath, You are not to come before me again without your brother. Gen 43:4 If you will let our brother go with us, we will go down and get food: Gen 43:5 But if you will not send him, we will not go down: for the man said to us, You are not to come before me if your brother is not with you. Gen 43:6 And Israel said, Why were you so cruel to me as to say to him that you had a brother? Gen 43:7 And they said, The man put a number of questions to us about ourselves and our family, saying, Is your father still living? have you another brother? And we had to give him answers; how were we to have any idea that he would say, Come back with your brother? Gen 43:8 Then Judah said to Israel, his father, Send the boy with me, and let us be up and going, so that we and you and our little ones may not come to destruction. Gen 43:9 Put him into my care and make me responsible for him: if I do not give him safely back to you, let mine be the sin for ever. Gen 43:10 Truly, if we had not let the time go by, we might have come back again by now. Gen 43:11 Then their father Israel said to them, If it has to be so, then do this: take of the best fruits of the land in your vessels to give the man, perfumes and honey and spices and nuts: Gen 43:12 And take twice as much money with you; that is to say, take back the money which was put in your bags, for it may have been an error; Gen 43:13 And take your brother and go back to the man: Gen 43:14 And may God, the Ruler of all, give you mercy before the man, so that he may give you back your other brother and Benjamin. If my children are to be taken from me; there is no help for it. Gen 43:15 So they took what their father said for the man, and twice as much money in their hands, and Benjamin, and went on their journey to Egypt, and came before Joseph. Gen 43:16 And when Joseph saw Benjamin, he said to his chief servant, Take these men into my house, and make ready a meal, for they will take food with me in the middle of the day. Gen 43:17 And the servant did as Joseph said, and took the men into Joseph's house. Gen 43:18 Now the men were full of fear because they had been taken into Joseph's house and they said, It is because of the money which was put back in our bags the first time; he is looking for something against us, so that he may come down on us and take us and our asses for his use. Gen 43:19 So they went up to Joseph's chief servant at the door of the house, Gen 43:20 And said, O my lord, we only came down the first time to get food; Gen 43:21 And when we came to our night's resting-place, on opening our bags we saw that every man's money was in the mouth of his bag, all our money in full weight: and we have it with us to give it back; Gen 43:22 As well as more money, with which to get food: we have no idea who put our money in our bags. Gen 43:23 Then the servant said, Peace be with you: have no fear: your God, even the God of your father, has put wealth in your bags for you: I had your money. Then he let Simeon come out to them. Gen 43:24 And the servant took them into Joseph's house, and gave them water for washing their feet; and he gave their asses food. Gen 43:25 And they got ready the things for Joseph before he came in the middle of the day: for word was given to them that they were to have a meal there. Gen 43:26 And when Joseph came in, they gave him the things which they had for him, and went down to the earth before him. Gen 43:27 And he said, How are you? is your father well, the old man of whom you were talking to me? is he still living? Gen 43:28 And they said, Your servant, our father, is well, he is still living. And they went down on their faces before him. Gen 43:29 Then, lifting up his eyes, he saw Benjamin, his brother, his mother's son, and he said, Is this your youngest brother of whom you gave me word? And he said, God be good to you, my son. Gen 43:30 Then Joseph's heart went out to his brother, and he went quickly into his room, for he was overcome with weeping. Gen 43:31 Then, after washing his face, he came out, and controlling his feelings said, Put food before us. Gen 43:32 And they put a meal ready for him by himself, and for them by themselves, and for the Egyptians who were with him by themselves; because the Egyptians may not take food with the Hebrews, for that would make them unclean. Gen 43:33 And they were all given their seats before him in order of birth, from the oldest to the youngest: so that they were looking at one another in wonder. Gen 43:34 And Joseph sent food to them from his table, but he sent five times as much to Benjamin as to any of the others. And they took wine freely with him. Gen 44:1 Then he gave orders to the servant who was over his house, saying, Put as much food into the men's bags as will go into them, and put every man's money in the mouth of his bag; Gen 44:2 And put my cup, my silver cup, in the youngest one's bag, with his money. So he did as Joseph said. Gen 44:3 And at dawn the men, with their asses, were sent away. Gen 44:4 And when they had gone only a little way out of the town, Joseph said to the servant who was over his house, Go after them; and when you overtake them, say to them, Why have you done evil in reward for good? Gen 44:5 Is not this the cup from which my lord takes wine and by which he gets knowledge of the future? Truly, you have done evil. Gen 44:6 So he overtook them and said these words to them. Gen 44:7 And they said to him, Why does my lord say such words as these? far be it from your servants to do such a thing: Gen 44:8 See, the money which was in the mouth of our bags we gave back to you when we came again from Canaan: how then might we take silver or gold from your lord's house? Gen 44:9 If it comes to light that any of your servants has done this, let him be put to death, and we will be your lord's servants. Gen 44:10 And he said, Let it be as you say: he in whose bag it is seen will become my servant; and you will not be responsible. Gen 44:11 Then every man quickly got his bag down and undid it. Gen 44:12 And he made a search, starting with the oldest and ending with the youngest; and the cup was in Benjamin's bag. Gen 44:13 Then in bitter grief they put the bags on the asses again and went back to the town. Gen 44:14 So Judah and his brothers came to Joseph's house; and he was still there: and they went down on their faces before him. Gen 44:15 And Joseph said, What is this thing which you have done? had you no thought that such a man as I would have power to see what is secret? Gen 44:16 And Judah said, What are we to say to my lord? how may we put ourselves right in his eyes? God has made clear the sin of your servants: now we are in your hands, we and the man in whose bag your cup was seen. Gen 44:17 Then he said, Far be it from me to do so: but the man who had my cup will be my servant; and you may go back to your father in peace. Gen 44:18 Then Judah came near him, and said, Let your servant say a word in my lord's ears, and let not your wrath be burning against your servant: for you are in the place of Pharaoh to us. Gen 44:19 My lord said to his servants, Have you a father or a brother? Gen 44:20 And we said to my lord, We have an old father and a young child, whom he had when he was old; his brother is dead and he is the only son of his mother, and is very dear to his father. Gen 44:21 And you said to your servants, Let him come down to me with you, so that I may see him. Gen 44:22 And we said to my lord, His father will not let him go; for if he went away his father would come to his death. Gen 44:23 But you said to your servants, If your youngest brother does not come with you, you will not see my face again. Gen 44:24 And when we went back to your servant, our father, we gave him an account of my lord's words. Gen 44:25 And our father said, Go again and get us a little food. Gen 44:26 And we said, Only if our youngest brother goes with us will we go down; for we may not see the man's face again if our youngest brother is not with us. Gen 44:27 And our father said to us, You have knowledge that my wife gave me two sons; Gen 44:28 The one went away from me, and I said, Truly he has come to a violent death; and from that time I have not seen him, Gen 44:29 If now you take this one from me, and some evil comes to him, you will make my grey head go down in sorrow to the underworld. Gen 44:30 If then I go back to your servant, my father, without the boy, because his life and the boy's life are one, Gen 44:31 When he sees that the boy is not with us, he will come to his death, and our father's grey head will go down in sorrow to the underworld. Gen 44:32 For I made myself responsible for the boy to my father, saying, If I do not give him safely back to you, let mine be the sin for ever. Gen 44:33 So now let me be my lord's servant here in place of the boy, and let him go back with his brothers. Gen 44:34 For how may I go back to my father without the boy, and see the evil which will come on my father? Gen 45:1 Then Joseph, unable to keep back his feelings before those who were with him, gave orders for everyone to be sent away, and no one was present when he made clear to his brothers who he was. Gen 45:2 And so loud was his weeping, that it came to the ears of the Egyptians and all Pharaoh's house. Gen 45:3 And Joseph said to his brothers, I am Joseph: is my father still living? But his brothers were not able to give him an answer for they were troubled before him. Gen 45:4 Then Joseph said to his brothers, Come near to me. And they came near, And he said, I am Joseph your brother, whom you sent into Egypt. Gen 45:5 Now do not be troubled or angry with yourselves for sending me away, because God sent me before you to be the saviour of your lives. Gen 45:6 For these two years have been years of need, and there are still five more years to come in which there will be no ploughing or cutting of grain. Gen 45:7 God sent me before you to keep you and yours living on earth so that you might become a great nation. Gen 45:8 So now it was not you who sent me here, but God: and he has made me as a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and ruler over all the land of Egypt. Gen 45:9 Now go quickly to my father, and say to him, Your son Joseph says, God has made me ruler over all the land of Egypt: come down to me straight away: Gen 45:10 The land of Goshen will be your living-place, and you will be near me; you and your children and your children's children, and your flocks and herds and all you have: Gen 45:11 And there I will take care of you, so that you and your family may not be in need, for there are still five bad years to come. Gen 45:12 Now truly, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin see, that it is my mouth which says these things to you. Gen 45:13 Give my father word of all my glory in Egypt and of all you have seen; and come back quickly with my father. Gen 45:14 Then, weeping, he took Benjamin in his arms, and Benjamin himself was weeping on Joseph's neck. Gen 45:15 Then he gave a kiss to all his brothers, weeping over them; and after that his brothers had no fear of talking to him. Gen 45:16 And news of these things went through Pharaoh's house, and it was said that Joseph's brothers were come; and it seemed good to Pharaoh and his servants. Gen 45:17 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, Say to your brothers, Put your goods on your beasts and go back to the land of Canaan; Gen 45:18 And get your father and your families and come back to me: and I will give you all the good things of Egypt, and the fat of the land will be your food. Gen 45:19 And say to them, This you are to do: take carts from the land of Egypt for your little ones and for your wives, and get your father and come back. Gen 45:20 And take no thought for your goods, for the best of all the land of Egypt is yours. Gen 45:21 And the children of Israel did as he said; and Joseph gave them carts as had been ordered by Pharaoh, and food for their journey. Gen 45:22 To every one of them he gave three changes of clothing; but to Benjamin he gave three hundred bits of silver and five changes of clothing. Gen 45:23 And to his father he sent ten asses with good things from Egypt on their backs, and ten she-asses with grain and bread and food for his father on the journey. Gen 45:24 And he sent his brothers on their way, and said to them, See that you have no argument on the road. Gen 45:25 So they went up from Egypt and came to the land of Canaan, to their father Jacob. Gen 45:26 And they said to him, Joseph is living, and is ruler over all the land of Egypt. And at this word Jacob was quite overcome, for he had no faith in it. Gen 45:27 And they gave him an account of everything Joseph had said to them; and when he saw the carts which Joseph had sent for them, his spirit came back to him: Gen 45:28 And Israel said, It is enough: Joseph my son is still living; I will go and see him before my death. Gen 46:1 And Israel went on his journey with all he had, and came to Beer-sheba, where he made offerings to the God of his father Isaac. Gen 46:2 And God said to Israel in a night-vision, Jacob, Jacob. And he said, Here am I. Gen 46:3 And he said, I am God, the God of your father: go down to Egypt without fear, for I will make a great nation of you there: Gen 46:4 I will go down with you to Egypt, and I will see that you come back again, and at your death Joseph will put his hands on your eyes. Gen 46:5 Then Jacob went on from Beer-sheba; and the sons of Jacob took their father and their little ones and their wives in the carts which Pharaoh had sent for them. Gen 46:6 And they took their cattle and all the goods which they had got in the land of Canaan, and came to Egypt, even Jacob and all his seed: Gen 46:7 His sons and his sons' sons, his daughters and his daughters' sons and all his family he took with him into Egypt. Gen 46:8 And these are the names of the children of Israel who came into Egypt, even Jacob and all his sons: Reuben, Jacob's oldest son; Gen 46:9 And the sons of Reuben: Hanoch and Pallu and Hezron and Carmi; Gen 46:10 And the sons of Simeon: Jemuel and Jamin and Ohad and Jachin and Zohar and Shaul, the son of a woman of Canaan; Gen 46:11 And the sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari; Gen 46:12 And the sons of Judah: Er and Onan and Shelah and Perez and Zerah: but Er and Onan had come to their death in the land of Canaan; and the sons of Perez were Hezron and Hamul. Gen 46:13 And the sons of Issachar: Tola and Puah and Job and Shimron; Gen 46:14 And the sons of Zebulun: Sered and Elon and Jahleel; Gen 46:15 All these, together with his daughter Dinah, were the children of Leah, whom Jacob had by her in Paddan-aram; they were thirty-three in number. Gen 46:16 And the sons of Gad: Ziphion and Haggi, Shuni and Ezbon, Eri and Arodi and Areli; Gen 46:17 And the sons of Asher: Jimnah and Ishvah and Ishvi and Beriah, and Sarah, their sister; and the sons of Beriah: Heber and Malchiel. Gen 46:18 These are the children of Zilpah, whom Laban gave to his daughter Leah, and Jacob had these sixteen children by her. Gen 46:19 The sons of Jacob's wife Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin. Gen 46:20 And Joseph had Manasseh and Ephraim in the land of Egypt, by Asenath, the daughter of Poti-phera, priest of On. Gen 46:21 And the sons of Benjamin were Belah and Becher and Ashbel, Gera and Naaman, Ehi and Rosh, Muppim and Huppim and Ard. Gen 46:22 All these were the children of Rachel whom Jacob had by her, fourteen persons. Gen 46:23 And the son of Dan was Hushim. Gen 46:24 And the sons of Naphtali: Jahzeel and Guni and Jezer and Shillem. Gen 46:25 These were the children of Bilhah, whom Laban gave to his daughter Rachel, seven persons. Gen 46:26 All the persons who came with Jacob into Egypt, the offspring of his body, were sixty-six, without taking into account the wives of Jacob's sons. Gen 46:27 And the sons of Joseph whom he had in Egypt were two. Seventy persons of the family of Jacob came into Egypt. Gen 46:28 Now he had sent Judah before him to Goshen, to get word from Joseph; and so they came to the land of Goshen. Gen 46:29 And Joseph got his carriage ready and went to Goshen for the meeting with his father; and when he came before him, he put his arms round his neck, weeping. Gen 46:30 And Israel said to Joseph, Now that I have seen you living again, I am ready for death. Gen 46:31 And Joseph said to his brothers and to his father's people, I will go and give the news to Pharaoh, and say to him, My brothers and my father's people, from the land of Canaan, have come to me; Gen 46:32 And these men are keepers of sheep and owners of cattle, and have with them their flocks and their herds and all they have. Gen 46:33 Now when Pharaoh sends for you and says, What is your business? Gen 46:34 You are to say, Your servants have been keepers of cattle from our early days up to now, like our fathers; in this way you will be able to have the land of Goshen for yourselves; because keepers of sheep are unclean in the eyes of the Egyptians. Gen 47:1 Then Joseph went to Pharaoh, and said, My father and my brothers with their flocks and their herds and all they have, are come from Canaan, and are now in the land of Goshen. Gen 47:2 And he took five of his brothers to Pharaoh. Gen 47:3 And Pharaoh said to them, What is your business? And they said, Your servants are keepers of sheep, as our fathers were before us. Gen 47:4 And they said to Pharaoh, We have come to make a living in this land, because we have no grass for our flocks in the land of Canaan; so now let your servants make a place for themselves in the land of Goshen. Gen 47:5 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, Let them have the land of Goshen; and if there are any able men among them, put them over my cattle. Gen 47:6 And Jacob and his sons came to Joseph in Egypt, and when word of it came to the ears of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, he said to Joseph, Your father and brothers have come to you; all the land of Egypt is before you; let your father and your brothers have the best of the land for their resting-place. Gen 47:7 Then Joseph made his father Jacob come before Pharaoh, and Jacob gave him his blessing. Gen 47:8 And Pharaoh said to him, How old are you? Gen 47:9 And Jacob said, The years of my wanderings have been a hundred and thirty; small in number and full of sorrow have been the years of my life, and less than the years of the wanderings of my fathers. Gen 47:10 And Jacob gave Pharaoh his blessing, and went out from before him. Gen 47:11 And Joseph made a place for his father and his brothers, and gave them a heritage in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had given orders. Gen 47:12 And Joseph took care of his father and his brothers and all his father's people, giving them food for the needs of their families. Gen 47:13 Now there was no food to be had in all the land, so that all Egypt and Canaan were wasted from need of food. Gen 47:14 And all the money in Egypt and in the land of Canaan which had been given for grain, came into the hands of Joseph: and he put it in Pharaoh's house. Gen 47:15 And when all the money in Egypt and Canaan was gone, the Egyptians came to Joseph, and said, Give us bread; would you have us come to destruction before your eyes? for we have no more money. Gen 47:16 And Joseph said, Give me your cattle; I will give you grain in exchange for your cattle if your money is all gone. Gen 47:17 So they took their cattle to Joseph and he gave them bread in exchange for their horses and flocks and herds and asses, so all that year he gave them food in exchange for their cattle. Gen 47:18 And when that year was ended, they came to him in the second year, and said, We may not keep it from our lord's knowledge that all our money is gone, and all the herds of cattle are my lord's; there is nothing more to give my lord but our bodies and our land; Gen 47:19 Are we to come to destruction before your eyes, we and our land? take us and our land and give us bread; and we and our land will be servants to Pharaoh; and give us seed so that we may have life and the land may not become waste. Gen 47:20 So Joseph got all the land in Egypt for Pharaoh; for every Egyptian gave up his land in exchange for food, because of their great need; so all the land became Pharaoh's. Gen 47:21 And as for the people, he made servants of them, town by town, from one end of Egypt to the other. Gen 47:22 Only he did not take the land of the priests, for the priests had their food given them by Pharaoh, and having what Pharaoh gave them, they had no need to give up their land. Gen 47:23 Then Joseph said to the people, I have made you and your land this day the property of Pharaoh; here is seed for you to put in your fields. Gen 47:24 And when the grain is cut, you are to give a fifth part to Pharaoh, and four parts will be yours for seed and food, and for your families and your little ones. Gen 47:25 And they said to him, Truly you have kept us from death; may we have grace in your eyes, and we will be Pharaoh's servants. Gen 47:26 Then Joseph made a law which is in force to this day, that Pharaoh was to have the fifth part; only the land of the priests did not become his. Gen 47:27 And so Israel was living among the Egyptians in the land of Goshen; and they got property there, and became very great in numbers and in wealth. Gen 47:28 And Jacob was living in the land of Goshen for seventeen years; so the years of his life were a hundred and forty-seven. Gen 47:29 And the time of his death came near, and he sent for his son Joseph and said to him, If now I am dear to you, put your hand under my leg and take an oath that you will not put me to rest in Egypt; Gen 47:30 But when I go to my fathers, you are to take me out of Egypt and put me to rest in their last resting-place. And he said, I will do so. Gen 47:31 And he said, Take an oath to me; and he took an oath to him: and Israel gave worship on the bed's head. Gen 48:1 Now after these things, word came to Joseph that his father was ill: and he took with him his sons Manasseh and Ephraim. Gen 48:2 And when they said to Jacob, Your son Joseph is coming to see you: then Israel, getting all his strength together, had himself lifted up in his bed. Gen 48:3 And Jacob said to Joseph, God, the Ruler of all, came to me in a vision at Luz in the land of Canaan, and gave me his blessing, Gen 48:4 And said to me, Truly, I will make you fertile and give you increase and will make of you a great family of nations: and I will give this land to your seed after you to be their heritage for ever. Gen 48:5 And now your two sons who came to birth in Egypt before I came to you here, are mine; Ephraim and Manasseh will be mine, in the same way as Reuben and Simeon are. Gen 48:6 And any other offspring which you have after them, will be yours, and will be named after their brothers in their heritage. Gen 48:7 And as for me, when I came from Paddan, death overtook Rachel on the way, when we were still some distance from Ephrath; and I put her to rest there on the road to Ephrath, which is Beth-lehem. Gen 48:8 Then Israel, looking at Joseph's sons, said, Who are these? Gen 48:9 And Joseph said to his father, They are my sons, whom God has given me in this land. And he said, Let them come near me, and I will give them a blessing. Gen 48:10 Now because Israel was old, his eyes were no longer clear, and he was not able to see. So he made them come near to him, and he gave them a kiss, folding them in his arms. Gen 48:11 And Israel said to Joseph, I had no hope of seeing your face again, but God in his mercy has let me see you and your children. Gen 48:12 Then Joseph took them from between his knees, and went down on his face to the earth. Gen 48:13 Then taking Ephraim with his right hand, Joseph put him at Israel's left side, and with his left hand he put Manasseh at Israel's right side, placing them near him. Gen 48:14 And Israel, stretching out his right hand, put it on the head of Ephraim, the younger, and his left hand on the head of Manasseh, crossing his hands on purpose, for Manasseh was the older. Gen 48:15 And he gave Joseph a blessing, saying, May the God to whom my fathers, Abraham and Isaac, gave worship, the God who has taken care of me all my life till this day, Gen 48:16 The angel who has been my saviour from all evil, send his blessing on these children: and let my name and the name of my fathers, Abraham and Isaac, be given to them; and let them become a great nation in the earth. Gen 48:17 Now when Joseph saw that his father had put his right hand on the head of Ephraim, it did not seem right to him; and lifting his father's hand he would have put it on the head of Manasseh. Gen 48:18 And Joseph said to his father, Not so, my father, for this is the older; put your right hand on his head. Gen 48:19 But his father would not, saying, I am doing it on purpose, my son; he will certainly become a nation and a great one; but his younger brother will be greater than he, and his seed will become a great family of nations. Gen 48:20 So he gave them his blessing that day, saying, You will be the sign of blessing in Israel, for they will say, May God make you like Ephraim and Manasseh; and he put Ephraim before Manasseh. Gen 48:21 Then Israel said to Joseph, Now my death is near; but God will be with you, guiding you back to the land of your fathers. Gen 48:22 And I have given you more than your brothers, even Shechem as your heritage, which I took from the Amorites with my sword and my bow. Gen 49:1 And Jacob sent for his sons, and said, Come together, all of you, so that I may give you news of your fate in future times. Gen 49:2 Come near, O sons of Jacob, and give ear to the words of Israel your father. Gen 49:3 Reuben, you are my oldest son, the first-fruit of my strength, first in pride and first in power: Gen 49:4 But because you were uncontrolled, the first place will not be yours; for you went up to your father's bed, even his bride-bed, and made it unclean. Gen 49:5 Simeon and Levi are brothers; deceit and force are their secret designs. Gen 49:6 Take no part in their secrets, O my soul; keep far away, O my heart, from their meetings; for in their wrath they put men to death, and for their pleasure even oxen were wounded. Gen 49:7 A curse on their passion for it was bitter; and on their wrath for it was cruel. I will let their heritage in Jacob be broken up, driving them from their places in Israel. Gen 49:8 To you, Judah, will your brothers give praise: your hand will be on the neck of your haters; your father's sons will go down to the earth before you. Gen 49:9 Judah is a young lion; like a lion full of meat you have become great, my son; now he takes his rest like a lion stretched out and like an old lion; by whom will his sleep be broken? Gen 49:10 The rod of authority will not be taken from Judah, and he will not be without a law-giver, till he comes who has the right to it, and the peoples will put themselves under his rule. Gen 49:11 Knotting his ass's cord to the vine, and his young ass to the best vine; washing his robe in wine, and his clothing in the blood of grapes: Gen 49:12 His eyes will be dark with wine, and his teeth white with milk. Gen 49:13 The resting-place of Zebulun will be by the sea, and he will be a harbour for ships; the edge of his land will be by Zidon. Gen 49:14 Issachar is a strong ass stretched out among the flocks: Gen 49:15 And he saw that rest was good and the land was pleasing; so he let them put weights on his back and became a servant. Gen 49:16 Dan will be the judge of his people, as one of the tribes of Israel. Gen 49:17 May Dan be a snake in the way, a horned snake by the road, biting the horse's foot so that the horseman has a fall. Gen 49:18 I have been waiting for your salvation, O Lord. Gen 49:19 Gad, an army will come against him, but he will come down on them in their flight. Gen 49:20 Asher's bread is fat; he gives delicate food for kings. Gen 49:21 Naphtali is a roe let loose, giving fair young ones. Gen 49:22 Joseph is a young ox, whose steps are turned to the fountain; Gen 49:23 He was troubled by the archers; they sent out their arrows against him, cruelly wounding him: Gen 49:24 But their bows were broken by a strong one, and the cords of their arms were cut by the Strength of Jacob, by the name of the Stone of Israel: Gen 49:25 Even by the God of your father, who will be your help, and by the Ruler of all, who will make you full with blessings from heaven on high, blessings of the deep stretched out under the earth, blessings of the breasts and of the fertile body: Gen 49:26 Blessings of sons, old and young, to the father: blessings of the oldest mountains and the fruit of the eternal hills: let them come on the head of Joseph, on the crown of him who was separate from his brothers. Gen 49:27 Benjamin is a wolf, searching for meat: in the morning he takes his food, and in the evening he makes division of what he has taken. Gen 49:28 These are the twelve tribes of Israel: and these are the words their father said to them, blessing them; to every one he gave his blessing. Gen 49:29 And he gave orders to them, saying, Put me to rest with my people and with my fathers, in the hollow of the rock in the field of Ephron the Hittite, Gen 49:30 In the rock in the field of Machpelah, near Mamre in the land of Canaan, which Abraham got from Ephron the Hittite, to be his resting-place. Gen 49:31 There Abraham and Sarah his wife were put to rest, and there they put Isaac and Rebekah his wife, and there I put Leah to rest. Gen 49:32 In the rock in the field which was got for a price from the people of Heth. Gen 49:33 And when Jacob had come to the end of these words to his sons, stretching himself on his bed, he gave up his spirit, and went the way of his people. Gen 50:1 And Joseph put his head down on his father's face, weeping and kissing him. Gen 50:2 And Joseph gave orders to his servants who had the necessary knowledge, to make his father's body ready, folding it in linen with spices, and they did so. Gen 50:3 And the forty days needed for making the body ready went by: and there was weeping for him among the Egyptians for seventy days. Gen 50:4 And when the days of weeping for him were past, Joseph said to the servants of Pharaoh, If now you have love for me, say these words to Pharaoh: Gen 50:5 My father made me take an oath, saying, When I am dead, put me to rest in the place I have made ready for myself in the land of Canaan. So now let me go and put my father in his last resting-place, and I will come back again. Gen 50:6 And Pharaoh said, Go up and put your father to rest, as you gave your oath to him. Gen 50:7 So Joseph went up to put his father in his last resting-place; and with him went all the servants of Pharaoh, and the chief men of his house and all the chiefs of the land of Egypt, Gen 50:8 And all the family of Joseph, and his brothers and his father's people: only their little ones and their flocks and herds they did not take with them from the land of Goshen. Gen 50:9 And carriages went up with him and horsemen, a great army. Gen 50:10 And they came to the grain-floor of Atad on the other side of Jordan, and there they gave the last honours to Jacob, with great and bitter sorrow, weeping for their father for seven days. Gen 50:11 And when the people of the land, the people of Canaan, at the grain-floor of Atad, saw their grief, they said, Great is the grief of the Egyptians: so the place was named Abel-mizraim, on the other side of Jordan. Gen 50:12 So his sons did as he had given them orders to do: Gen 50:13 For they took him into the land of Canaan and put him to rest in the hollow rock in the field of Machpelah, which Abraham got with the field, for a resting-place, from Ephron the Hittite at Mamre. Gen 50:14 And when his father had been put to rest, Joseph and his brothers and all who had gone with him, went back to Egypt. Gen 50:15 Now after the death of their father, Joseph's brothers said to themselves, It may be that Joseph's heart will be turned against us, and he will give us punishment for all the evil which we did to him. Gen 50:16 So they sent word to Joseph, saying, Your father, before his death, gave us orders, saying, Gen 50:17 You are to say to Joseph, Let the wrongdoing of your brothers be overlooked, and the evil they did to you: now, if it is your pleasure, let the sin of the servants of your father's God have forgiveness. And at these words, Joseph was overcome with weeping. Gen 50:18 Then his brothers went, and falling at his feet, said, Truly, we are your servants. Gen 50:19 And Joseph said, Have no fear: am I in the place of God? Gen 50:20 As for you, it was in your mind to do me evil, but God has given a happy outcome, the salvation of numbers of people, as you see today. Gen 50:21 So now, have no fear: for I will take care of you and your little ones. So he gave them comfort with kind words. Gen 50:22 Now Joseph and all his father's family went on living in Egypt: and the years of Joseph's life were a hundred and ten. Gen 50:23 And Joseph saw Ephraim's children of the third generation: and the children of Machir, the son of Manasseh, came to birth on Joseph's knees. Gen 50:24 Then Joseph said to his brothers, The time of my death has come; but God will keep you in mind and take you out of this land into the land which he gave by his oath to Abraham and Isaac and Jacob. Gen 50:25 Then Joseph made the children of Israel take an oath, saying, God will certainly give effect to his word, and you are to take my bones away from here. Gen 50:26 So Joseph came to his death, being a hundred and ten years old: and they made his body ready, and he was put in a chest in Egypt. Exo 1:1 Now these are the names of the sons of Israel who came into Egypt; every man and his family came with Jacob. Exo 1:2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; Exo 1:3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin; Exo 1:4 Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. Exo 1:5 All the offspring of Jacob were seventy persons: and Joseph had come to Egypt before them. Exo 1:6 Then Joseph came to his end, and all his brothers, and all that generation. Exo 1:7 And the children of Israel were fertile, increasing very greatly in numbers and in power; and the land was full of them. Exo 1:8 Now a new king came to power in Egypt, who had no knowledge of Joseph. Exo 1:9 And he said to his people, See, the people of Israel are greater in number and in power than we are: Exo 1:10 Let us take care for fear that their numbers may become even greater, and if there is a war, they may be joined with those who are against us, and make an attack on us, and go up out of the land. Exo 1:11 So they put overseers of forced work over them, in order to make their strength less by the weight of their work. And they made store-towns for Pharaoh, Pithom and Raamses. Exo 1:12 But the more cruel they were to them, the more their number increased, till all the land was full of them. And the children of Israel were hated by the Egyptians. Exo 1:13 And they gave the children of Israel even harder work to do: Exo 1:14 And made their lives bitter with hard work, making building-material and bricks, and doing all sorts of work in the fields under the hardest conditions. Exo 1:15 And the king of Egypt said to the Hebrew women who gave help at the time of childbirth (the name of the one was Shiphrah and the name of the other Puah), Exo 1:16 When you are looking after the Hebrew women in childbirth, if it is a son you are to put him to death; but if it is a daughter, she may go on living. Exo 1:17 But the women had the fear of God, and did not do as the king of Egypt said, but let the male children go on living. Exo 1:18 And the king of Egypt sent for the women, and said to them, Why have you done this, and let the male children go on living? Exo 1:19 And they said to Pharaoh, Because the Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women, for they are strong, and the birth takes place before we come to them. Exo 1:20 And the blessing of God was on these women: and the people were increased in number and became very strong. Exo 1:21 And because the women who took care of the Hebrew mothers had the fear of God, he gave them families. Exo 1:22 And Pharaoh gave orders to all his people, saying, Every son who comes to birth is to be put into the river, but every daughter may go on living. Exo 2:1 Now a man of the house of Levi took as his wife a daughter of Levi. Exo 2:2 And she became with child and gave birth to a Son; and when she saw that he was a beautiful child, she kept him secretly for three months. Exo 2:3 And when she was no longer able to keep him secret, she made him a basket out of the stems of water-plants, pasting sticky earth over it to keep the water out; and placing the baby in it she put it among the plants by the edge of the Nile. Exo 2:4 And his sister took her place at a distance to see what would become of him. Exo 2:5 Now Pharaoh's daughter came down to the Nile to take a bath, while her women were walking by the riverside; and she saw the basket among the river-plants, and sent her servant-girl to get it. Exo 2:6 And opening it, she saw the child, and he was crying. And she had pity on him, and said, This is one of the Hebrews' children. Exo 2:7 Then his sister said to Pharaoh's daughter, May I go and get you one of the Hebrew women to give him the breast? Exo 2:8 And Pharaoh's daughter said to her, Go. And the girl went and got the child's mother. Exo 2:9 And Pharaoh's daughter said to her, Take the child away and give it milk for me, and I will give you payment. And the woman took the child and gave it milk at her breast. Exo 2:10 And when the child was older, she took him to Pharaoh's daughter and he became her son, and she gave him the name Moses, Because, she said, I took him out of the water. Exo 2:11 Now when Moses had become a man, one day he went out to his people and saw how hard their work was; and he saw an Egyptian giving blows to a Hebrew, one of his people. Exo 2:12 And turning this way and that, and seeing no one, he put the Egyptian to death, covering his body with sand. Exo 2:13 And he went out the day after and saw two of the Hebrews fighting: and he said to him who was in the wrong, Why are you fighting your brother? Exo 2:14 And he said, Who made you a ruler and a judge over us? are you going to put me to death as you did the Egyptian? And Moses was in fear, and said, It is clear that the thing has come to light. Exo 2:15 Now when Pharaoh had news of this, he would have put Moses to death. But Moses went in flight from Pharaoh into the land of Midian: and he took his seat by a water-spring. Exo 2:16 Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters: and they came to get water for their father's flock. Exo 2:17 And the keepers of the sheep came up and were driving them away; but Moses got up and came to their help, watering their flock for them. Exo 2:18 And when they came to Reuel their father, he said, How is it that you have come back so quickly today? Exo 2:19 And they said, An Egyptian came to our help against the keepers of sheep and got water for us and gave it to the flock. Exo 2:20 And he said to his daughters, Where is he? why have you let the man go? make him come in and give him a meal. Exo 2:21 And Moses was happy to go on living with the man; and he gave his daughter Zipporah to Moses. Exo 2:22 And she gave birth to a son, to whom he gave the name Gershom: for he said, I have been living in a strange land. Exo 2:23 Now after a long time the king of Egypt came to his end: and the children of Israel were crying in their grief under the weight of their work, and their cry for help came to the ears of God. Exo 2:24 And at the sound of their weeping the agreement which God had made with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob came to his mind. Exo 2:25 And God's eyes were turned to the children of Israel and he gave them the knowledge of himself. Exo 3:1 Now Moses was looking after the flock of Jethro, his father-in-law, the priest of Midian: and he took the flock to the back of the waste land and came to Horeb, the mountain of God. Exo 3:2 And the angel of the Lord was seen by him in a flame of fire coming out of a thorn-tree: and he saw that the tree was on fire, but it was not burned up. Exo 3:3 And Moses said, I will go and see this strange thing, why the tree is not burned up, Exo 3:4 And when the Lord saw him turning to one side to see, God said his name out of the tree, crying, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I. Exo 3:5 And he said, Do not come near: take off your shoes from your feet, for the place where you are is holy. Exo 3:6 And he said, I am the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses kept his face covered for fear of looking on God. Exo 3:7 And God said, Truly, I have seen the grief of my people in Egypt, and their cry because of their cruel masters has come to my ears; for I have knowledge of their sorrows; Exo 3:8 And I have come down to take them out of the hands of the Egyptians, guiding them out of that land into a good land and wide, into a land flowing with milk and honey; into the place of the Canaanite and the Hittite and the Amorite and the Perizzite and the Hivite and the Jebusite. Exo 3:9 For now, truly, the cry of the children of Israel has come to me, and I have seen the cruel behaviour of the Egyptians to them. Exo 3:10 Come, then, and I will send you to Pharaoh, so that you may take my people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt. Exo 3:11 And Moses said to God, Who am I to go to Pharaoh and take the children of Israel out of Egypt? Exo 3:12 And he said, Truly I will be with you; and this will be the sign to you that I have sent you: when you have taken the children of Israel out of Egypt, you will give worship to God on this mountain. Exo 3:13 And Moses said to God, When I come to the children of Israel and say to them, The God of your fathers has sent me to you: and they say to me, What is his name? what am I to say to them? Exo 3:14 And God said to him, I AM WHAT I AM: and he said, Say to the children of Israel, I AM has sent me to you. Exo 3:15 And God went on to say to Moses, Say to the children of Israel, The Lord, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, has sent me to you: this is my name for ever, and this is my sign to all generations. Exo 3:16 Go and get together the chiefs of the children of Israel, and say to them, The Lord, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, has been seen by me, and has said, Truly I have taken up your cause, because of what is done to you in Egypt; Exo 3:17 And I have said, I will take you up out of the sorrows of Egypt into the land of the Canaanite and the Hittite and the Amorite and the Perizzite and the Hivite and the Jebusite, into a land flowing with milk and honey. Exo 3:18 And they will give ear to your voice: and you, with the chiefs of Israel, will go to Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, and say to him, The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has come to us: let us then go three days' journey into the waste land to make an offering to the Lord our God. Exo 3:19 And I am certain that the king of Egypt will not let you go without being forced. Exo 3:20 But I will put out my hand and overcome Egypt with all the wonders which I will do among them: and after that he will let you go. Exo 3:21 And I will give this people grace in the eyes of the Egyptians, so that when you go out you will go out with your hands full. Exo 3:22 For every woman will get from her neighbour and from the woman living in her house, ornaments of silver and gold, and clothing; and you will put them on your sons and your daughters; you will take the best of their goods from the Egyptians. Exo 4:1 And Moses, answering, said, It is certain that they will not have faith in me or give ear to my voice; for they will say, You have not seen the Lord. Exo 4:2 And the Lord said to him, What is that in your hand? And he said, A rod. Exo 4:3 And he said, Put it down on the earth. And he put it down on the earth and it became a snake; and Moses went running from it. Exo 4:4 And the Lord said to Moses, Put out your hand and take it by the tail: (and he put out his hand and took a grip of it and it became a rod in his hand:) Exo 4:5 So that they may be certain that the Lord, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, has been seen by you. Exo 4:6 Then the Lord said to him again, Put your hand inside your clothing. And he put his hand inside his robe: and when he took it out it was like the hand of a leper, as white as snow. Exo 4:7 And he said, Put your hand inside your robe again. (And he put his hand into his robe again, and when he took it out he saw that it had become like his other flesh.) Exo 4:8 And if they do not have faith in you or give ear to the voice of the first sign, they will have faith in the second sign. Exo 4:9 And if they have no faith even in these two signs and will not give ear to your voice, then you are to take the water of the Nile and put it on the dry land: and the water you take out of the river will become blood on the dry land. Exo 4:10 And Moses said to the Lord, O Lord, I am not a man of words; I have never been so, and am not now, even after what you have said to your servant: for talking is hard for me, and I am slow of tongue. Exo 4:11 And the Lord said to him, Who has made man's mouth? who takes away a man's voice or hearing, or makes him seeing or blind? Is it not I, the Lord? Exo 4:12 So go now, and I will be with your mouth, teaching you what to say. Exo 4:13 And he said, O Lord, send, if you will, by the hand of anyone whom it seems good to you to send. Exo 4:14 And the Lord was angry with Moses, and said, Is there not Aaron, your brother, the Levite? To my knowledge he is good at talking. And now he is coming out to you: and when he sees you he will be glad in his heart. Exo 4:15 Let him give ear to your voice, and you will put my words in his mouth; and I will be with your mouth and with his, teaching you what you have to do. Exo 4:16 And he will do the talking for you to the people: he will be to you as a mouth and you will be to him as God. Exo 4:17 And take in your hand this rod with which you will do the signs. Exo 4:18 And Moses went back to Jethro, his father-in-law, and said to him, Let me go back now to my relations in Egypt and see if they are still living. And Jethro said to Moses, Go in peace. Exo 4:19 And the Lord said to Moses in Midian, Go back to Egypt, for all the men are dead who were attempting to take your life. Exo 4:20 And Moses took his wife and his sons and put them on an ass and went back to the land of Egypt: and he took the rod of God in his hand. Exo 4:21 And the Lord said to Moses, When you go back to Egypt, see that you do before Pharaoh all the wonders which I have given you power to do: but I will make his heart hard and he will not let the people go. Exo 4:22 And you are to say to Pharaoh, The Lord says, Israel is the first of my sons: Exo 4:23 And I said to you, Let my son go, so that he may give me worship; and you did not let him go: so now I will put the first of your sons to death. Exo 4:24 Now on the journey, at the night's resting-place, the Lord came in his way and would have put him to death. Exo 4:25 Then Zipporah took a sharp stone, and cutting off the skin of her son's private parts, and touching his feet with it, she said, Truly you are a husband of blood to me. Exo 4:26 So he let him go. Then she said, You are a husband of blood because of the circumcision. Exo 4:27 And the Lord said to Aaron, Go into the waste land and you will see Moses. So he went and came across Moses at the mountain of God, and gave him a kiss. Exo 4:28 And Moses gave Aaron an account of all the words of the Lord which he had sent him to say, and of all the signs which he had given him orders to do. Exo 4:29 Then Moses and Aaron went and got together all the chiefs of the children of Israel: Exo 4:30 And Aaron said to them all the words the Lord had said to Moses, and did the signs before all the people. Exo 4:31 And the people had faith in them; and hearing that the Lord had taken up the cause of the children of Israel and had seen their troubles, with bent heads they gave him worship. Exo 5:1 And after that, Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh, and said, The Lord, the God of Israel, says, Let my people go so that they may keep a feast to me in the waste land. Exo 5:2 And Pharaoh said, Who is the Lord, to whose voice I am to give ear and let Israel go? I have no knowledge of the Lord and I will not let Israel go. Exo 5:3 And they said, The God of the Hebrews has come to us: let us then go three days' journey into the waste land to make an offering to the Lord our God, so that he may not send death on us by disease or the sword. Exo 5:4 And the king of Egypt said to them, Why do you, Moses and Aaron, take the people away from their work? get back to your work. Exo 5:5 And Pharaoh said, Truly, the people of the land are increasing in number, and you are keeping them back from their work. Exo 5:6 The same day Pharaoh gave orders to the overseers and those who were responsible for the work, saying, Exo 5:7 Give these men no more dry stems for their brick-making as you have been doing; let them go and get the material for themselves. Exo 5:8 But see that they make the same number of bricks as before, and no less: for they have no love for work; and so they are crying out and saying, Let us go and make an offering to our God. Exo 5:9 Give the men harder work, and see that they do it; let them not give attention to false words. Exo 5:10 And the overseers of the people and their responsible men went out and said to the people, Pharaoh says, I will give you no more dry stems. Exo 5:11 Go yourselves and get dry stems wherever you are able; for your work is not to be any less. Exo 5:12 So the people were sent in all directions through the land of Egypt to get dry grass for stems. Exo 5:13 And the overseers went on driving them and saying, Do your full day's work as before when there were dry stems for you. Exo 5:14 And the responsible men of the children of Israel, whom Pharaoh's overseers had put over them, were given blows, and they said to them, Why have you not done your regular work, in making bricks as before? Exo 5:15 Then the responsible men of the children of Israel came to Pharaoh, protesting and saying, Why are you acting in this way to your servants? Exo 5:16 They give us no dry stems and they say to us, Make bricks: and they give your servants blows; but it is your people who are in the wrong. Exo 5:17 But he said, You have no love for work: that is why you say, Let us go and make an offering to the Lord. Exo 5:18 Go now, get back to your work; no dry stems will be given to you, but you are to make the full number of bricks. Exo 5:19 Then the responsible men of the children of Israel saw that they were purposing evil when they said, The number of bricks which you have to make every day will be no less than before. Exo 5:20 And they came face to face with Moses and Aaron, who were in their way when they came out from Pharaoh: Exo 5:21 And they said to them, May the Lord take note of you and be your judge; for you have given Pharaoh and his servants a bad opinion of us, putting a sword in their hands for our destruction. Exo 5:22 And Moses went back to the Lord and said, Lord, why have you done evil to this people? why have you sent me? Exo 5:23 For from the time when I came to Pharaoh to put your words before him, he has done evil to this people, and you have given them no help. Exo 6:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Now you will see what I am about to do to Pharaoh; for by a strong hand he will be forced to let them go, driving them out of his land because of my outstretched arm. Exo 6:2 And God said to Moses, I am Yahweh: Exo 6:3 I let myself be seen by Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as God, the Ruler of all; but they had no knowledge of my name Yahweh. Exo 6:4 And I made an agreement with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their wanderings. Exo 6:5 And truly my ears are open to the cry of the children of Israel whom the Egyptians keep under their yoke; and I have kept in mind my agreement. Exo 6:6 Say then to the children of Israel, I am Yahweh, and I will take you out from under the yoke of the Egyptians, and make you safe from their power, and will make you free by the strength of my arm after great punishments. Exo 6:7 And I will take you to be my people and I will be your God; and you will be certain that I am the Lord your God, who takes you out from under the yoke of the Egyptians. Exo 6:8 And I will be your guide into the land which I made an oath to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it to you for your heritage: I am Yahweh. Exo 6:9 And Moses said these words to the children of Israel, but they gave no attention to him, because of the grief of their spirit and the cruel weight of their work. Exo 6:10 And the Lord said to Moses, Exo 6:11 Go in and say to Pharaoh, king of Egypt, that he is to let the children of Israel go out of his land. Exo 6:12 And Moses, answering the Lord, said, See, the children of Israel will not give ear to me; how then will Pharaoh give ear to me, whose lips are unclean? Exo 6:13 And the word of the Lord came to Moses and Aaron, with orders for the children of Israel and for Pharaoh, king of Egypt, to take the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt. Exo 6:14 These are the heads of their fathers' families: the sons of Reuben the oldest son of Israel: Hanoch and Pallu, Hezron and Carmi: these are the families of Reuben. Exo 6:15 And the sons of Simeon: Jemuel and Jamin and Ohad and Jachin and Zohar and Shaul, the son of a woman of Canaan: these are the families of Simeon. Exo 6:16 And these are the names of the sons of Levi in the order of their generations: Gershon and Kohath and Merari: and the years of Levi's life were a hundred and thirty-seven. Exo 6:17 The sons of Gershon: Libni and Shimei, in the order of their families. Exo 6:18 And the sons of Kohath: Amram and Izhar and Hebron and Uzziel: and the years of Kohath's life were a hundred and thirty-three. Exo 6:19 And the sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi: these are the families of the Levites, in the order of their generations. Exo 6:20 And Amram took Jochebed, his father's sister, as wife; and she gave birth to Aaron and Moses: and the years of Amram's life were a hundred and thirty-seven. Exo 6:21 And the sons of Izhar: Korah and Nepheg and Zichri. Exo 6:22 And the sons of Uzziel: Mishael and Elzaphan and Sithri. Exo 6:23 And Aaron took as his wife Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab, the sister of Nahshon; and she gave birth to Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. Exo 6:24 And the sons of Korah: Assir and Elkanah and Abiasaph: these are the families of the Korahites. Exo 6:25 And Eleazar, Aaron's son, took as his wife one of the daughters of Putiel; and she gave birth to Phinehas. These are the heads of the families of the Levites, in the order of their families. Exo 6:26 These are the same Aaron and Moses to whom the Lord said, Take the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt in their armies. Exo 6:27 These are the men who gave orders to Pharaoh to let the children of Israel go out of Egypt: these are the same Moses and Aaron. Exo 6:28 And on the day when the word of the Lord came to Moses in the land of Egypt, Exo 6:29 The Lord said to Moses, I am the Lord: say to Pharaoh, king of Egypt, everything I am saying to you. Exo 6:30 And Moses said to the Lord, My lips are unclean; how is it possible that Pharaoh will give me a hearing? Exo 7:1 And the Lord said to Moses, See I have made you a god to Pharaoh, and Aaron your brother will be your prophet. Exo 7:2 Say whatever I give you orders to say: and Aaron your brother will give word to Pharaoh to let the children of Israel go out of his land. Exo 7:3 And I will make Pharaoh's heart hard, and my signs and wonders will be increased in the land of Egypt. Exo 7:4 But Pharaoh will not give ear to you, and I will put my hand on Egypt, and take my armies, my people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt, after great punishments. Exo 7:5 And the Egyptians will see that I am the Lord, when my hand is stretched out over Egypt, and I take the children of Israel out from among them. Exo 7:6 And Moses and Aaron did so: as the Lord gave them orders, so they did. Exo 7:7 And Moses was eighty years old, and Aaron eighty-three years old, when they gave the Lord's word to Pharaoh. Exo 7:8 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, Exo 7:9 If Pharaoh says to you, Let me see a wonder: then say to Aaron, Take your rod and put it down on the earth before Pharaoh so that it may become a snake. Exo 7:10 Then Moses and Aaron went in to Pharaoh and they did as the Lord had said: and Aaron put his rod down on the earth before Pharaoh and his servants, and it became a snake. Exo 7:11 Then Pharaoh sent for the wise men and the wonder-workers, and they, the wonder-workers of Egypt, did the same with their secret arts. Exo 7:12 For every one of them put down his rod on the earth, and they became snakes: but Aaron's rod made a meal of their rods. Exo 7:13 But Pharaoh's heart was made hard, and he did not give ear to them, as the Lord had said. Exo 7:14 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, Pharaoh's heart is unchanged; he will not let the people go. Exo 7:15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning; when he goes out to the water, you will be waiting for him by the edge of the Nile, with the rod which was turned into a snake in your hand; Exo 7:16 And say to him, The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to you, saying, Let my people go so that they may give me worship in the waste land; but up to now you have not given ear to his words. Exo 7:17 So the Lord says, By this you may be certain that I am the Lord; see, by the touch of this rod in my hand the waters of the Nile will be turned to blood; Exo 7:18 And the fish in the Nile will come to destruction, and the river will send up a bad smell, and the Egyptians will not be able, for disgust, to make use of the water of the Nile for drinking. Exo 7:19 And the Lord said, Say to Aaron, Let the rod in your hand be stretched out over the waters of Egypt, and over the rivers and the streams and the pools, and over every stretch of water, so that they may be turned to blood; and there will be blood through all the land of Egypt, in vessels of wood and in vessels of stone. Exo 7:20 And Moses and Aaron did as the Lord had said; and when his rod had been lifted up and stretched out over the waters of the Nile before the eyes of Pharaoh and his servants, all the water in the Nile was turned to blood; Exo 7:21 And the fish in the Nile came to destruction, and a bad smell went up from the river, and the Egyptians were not able to make use of the water of the Nile for drinking; and there was blood through all the land of Egypt. Exo 7:22 And the wonder-workers of Egypt did the same with their secret arts: but Pharaoh's heart was made hard, and he would not give ear to them, as the Lord had said. Exo 7:23 Then Pharaoh went into his house, and did not take even this to heart. Exo 7:24 And all the Egyptians made holes round about the Nile to get drinking-water, for they were not able to make use of the Nile water. Exo 7:25 And seven days went past, after the Lord had put his hand on the Nile. Exo 8:1 And this is what the Lord said to Moses: Go to Pharaoh and say to him, The Lord says, Let my people go so that they may give me worship. Exo 8:2 And if you will not let them go, see, I will send frogs into every part of your land: Exo 8:3 The Nile will be full of frogs, and they will come up into your house and into your bedrooms and on your bed, and into the houses of your servants and your people, and into your ovens and into your bread-basins. Exo 8:4 The frogs will come up over you and your people and all your servants. Exo 8:5 And the Lord said to Moses, Say to Aaron, Let the rod in your hand be stretched out over the streams and the waterways and the pools, causing frogs to come up on the land of Egypt. Exo 8:6 And when Aaron put out his hand over the waters of Egypt, the frogs came up and all the land of Egypt was covered with them. Exo 8:7 And the wonder-workers did the same with their secret arts, making frogs come up over the land of Egypt. Exo 8:8 Then Pharaoh sent for Moses and Aaron and said, Make prayer to the Lord that he will take away these frogs from me and my people; and I will let the people go and make their offering to the Lord. Exo 8:9 And Moses said, I will let you have the honour of saying when I am to make prayer for you and your servants and your people, that the frogs may be sent away from you and your houses, and be only in the Nile. Exo 8:10 And he said, By tomorrow. And he said, Let it be as you say: so that you may see that there is no other like the Lord our God. Exo 8:11 And the frogs will be gone from you and from your houses and from your servants and from your people and will be only in the Nile. Exo 8:12 Then Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh; and Moses made prayer to the Lord about the frogs which he had sent on Pharaoh. Exo 8:13 And the Lord did as Moses said; and there was an end of all the frogs in the houses and in the open spaces and in the fields. Exo 8:14 And they put them together in masses, and a bad smell went up from the land. Exo 8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was peace for a time, he made his heart hard and did not give ear to them, as the Lord had said. Exo 8:16 And the Lord said to Moses, Say to Aaron, Let your rod be stretched out over the dust of the earth so that it may become insects through all the land of Egypt. Exo 8:17 And they did so; and Aaron, stretching out the rod in his hand, gave a touch to the dust of the earth, and insects came on man and on beast; all the dust of the earth was changed into insects through all the land of Egypt. Exo 8:18 And the wonder-workers with their secret arts, attempting to make insects, were unable to do so: and there were insects on man and on beast. Exo 8:19 Then the wonder-workers said to Pharaoh, This is the finger of God: but Pharaoh's heart was hard, and he did not give ear to them, as the Lord had said. Exo 8:20 And the Lord said to Moses, Get up early in the morning and take your place before Pharaoh when he comes out to the water; and say to him, This is what the Lord says: Let my people go to give me worship. Exo 8:21 For if you do not let my people go, see, I will send clouds of flies on you and on your servants and on your people and into their houses; and the houses of the Egyptians and the land where they are will be full of flies. Exo 8:22 And at that time I will make a division between your land and the land of Goshen where my people are, and no flies will be there; so that you may see that I am the Lord over all the earth. Exo 8:23 And I will put a division between my people and your people; tomorrow this sign will be seen. Exo 8:24 And the Lord did so; and great clouds of flies came into the house of Pharaoh and into his servants' houses, and all the land of Egypt was made waste because of the flies. Exo 8:25 And Pharaoh sent for Moses and Aaron and said, Go and make your offering to your God here in the land. Exo 8:26 And Moses said, It is not right to do so; for we make our offerings of that to which the Egyptians give worship; and if we do so before their eyes, certainly we will be stoned. Exo 8:27 But we will go three days' journey into the waste land and make an offering to the Lord our God as he may give us orders. Exo 8:28 Then Pharaoh said, I will let you go to make an offering to the Lord your God in the waste land; but do not go very far away, and make prayer for me. Exo 8:29 And Moses said, When I go out from you I will make prayer to the Lord that the cloud of flies may go away from Pharaoh and from his people and from his servants tomorrow: only let Pharaoh no longer by deceit keep back the people from making their offering to the Lord. Exo 8:30 Then Moses went out from Pharaoh and made prayer to the Lord. Exo 8:31 And the Lord did as Moses said, and took away the cloud of flies from Pharaoh and from his servants and from his people; not one was to be seen. Exo 8:32 But again Pharaoh made his heart hard and did not let the people go. Exo 9:1 Then the Lord said to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh and say to him, This is what the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, says: Let my people go so that they may give me worship. Exo 9:2 For if you will not let them go, but still keep them in your power, Exo 9:3 Then the hand of the Lord will put on your cattle in the field, on the horses and the asses and the camels, on the herds and the flocks, a very evil disease. Exo 9:4 And the Lord will make a division between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt; there will be no loss of any of the cattle of Israel. Exo 9:5 And the time was fixed by the Lord, and he said, Tomorrow the Lord will do this thing in the land. Exo 9:6 And on the day after, the Lord did as he had said, causing the death of all the cattle of Egypt, but there was no loss of any of the cattle of Israel. Exo 9:7 And Pharaoh sent and got word that there was no loss of any of the cattle of Israel. But the heart of Pharaoh was hard and he did not let the people go. Exo 9:8 And the Lord said to Moses and to Aaron, Take in your hand a little dust from the fire and let Moses send it in a shower up to heaven before the eyes of Pharaoh. Exo 9:9 And it will become small dust over all the land of Egypt, and will be a skin-disease bursting out in wounds on man and beast through all the land of Egypt. Exo 9:10 So they took some dust from the fire, and placing themselves before Pharaoh, Moses sent it out in a shower up to heaven; and it became a skin-disease bursting out on man and on beast. Exo 9:11 And the wonder-workers were not able to take their places before Moses, because of the disease; for the disease was on the wonder-workers and on all the Egyptians. Exo 9:12 And the Lord made Pharaoh's heart hard, and he would not give ear to them, as the Lord had said. Exo 9:13 And the Lord said to Moses, Get up early in the morning and take your place before Pharaoh, and say to him, This is what the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, says: Let my people go so that they may give me worship. Exo 9:14 For this time I will send all my punishments on yourself and on your servants and on your people; so that you may see that there is no other like me in all the earth. Exo 9:15 For if I had put the full weight of my hand on you and your people, you would have been cut off from the earth: Exo 9:16 But, for this very reason, I have kept you from destruction, to make clear to you my power, and so that my name may be honoured through all the earth. Exo 9:17 Are you still uplifted in pride against my people so that you will not let them go? Exo 9:18 Truly, tomorrow about this time I will send down an ice-storm, such as never was in Egypt from its earliest days till now. Exo 9:19 Then send quickly and get in your cattle and all you have from the fields; for if any man or beast in the field has not been put under cover, the ice-storm will come down on them with destruction. Exo 9:20 Then everyone among the servants of Pharaoh who had the fear of the Lord, made his servants and his cattle come quickly into the house: Exo 9:21 And he who gave no attention to the word of the Lord, kept his servants and his cattle in the field. Exo 9:22 And the Lord said to Moses, Now let your hand be stretched out to heaven so that there may be an ice-storm on all the land of Egypt, on man and on beast and on every plant of the field through all the land of Egypt. Exo 9:23 And Moses put out his rod to heaven: and the Lord sent thunder, and an ice-storm, and fire running down on the earth; the Lord sent an ice-storm on the land of Egypt. Exo 9:24 So there was an ice-storm with fire running through it, coming down with great force, such as never was in all the land of Egypt from the time when it became a nation. Exo 9:25 And through all the land of Egypt the ice-storm came down on everything which was in the fields, on man and on beast; and every green plant was crushed and every tree of the field broken. Exo 9:26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, there was no ice-storm. Exo 9:27 Then Pharaoh sent for Moses and Aaron, and said to them, I have done evil this time: the Lord is upright, and I and my people are sinners. Exo 9:28 Make prayer to the Lord; for there has been enough of these thunderings of God and this ice-storm; and I will let you go and will keep you no longer. Exo 9:29 And Moses said, When I am gone outside the town, my hands will be stretched out to the Lord; the thunders and the ice-storm will come to an end, so that you may see that the earth is the Lord's. Exo 9:30 But as for you and your servants, I am certain that even now the fear of the Lord God will not be in your hearts. Exo 9:31 And the flax and the barley were damaged, for the barley was almost ready to be cut and the flax was in flower. Exo 9:32 But the rest of the grain-plants were undamaged, for they had not come up. Exo 9:33 So Moses went out of the town, and stretching out his hands made prayer to God: and the thunders and the ice-storm came to an end; and the fall of rain was stopped. Exo 9:34 But when Pharaoh saw that the rain and the ice-storm and the thunders were ended, he went on sinning, and made his heart hard, he and his servants. Exo 9:35 And the heart of Pharaoh was hard, and he did not let the people go, as the Lord had said by the mouth of Moses. Exo 10:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh: for I have made his heart and the hearts of his servants hard, so that I may let my signs be seen among them: Exo 10:2 And so that you may be able to give to your son and to your son's son the story of my wonders in Egypt, and the signs which I have done among them; so that you may see that I am the Lord. Exo 10:3 Then Moses and Aaron went in to Pharaoh, and said to him, This is what the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, says: How long will you be lifted up in your pride before me? let my people go so that they may give me worship. Exo 10:4 For if you will not let my people go, tomorrow I will send locusts into your land: Exo 10:5 And the face of the earth will be covered with them, so that you will not be able to see the earth: and they will be the destruction of everything which up to now has not been damaged, everything which was not crushed by the ice-storm, and every tree still living in your fields. Exo 10:6 And your houses will be full of them, and the houses of your servants and of all the Egyptians; it will be worse than anything your fathers have seen or their fathers, from the day when they were living on the earth till this day. And so he went out from Pharaoh. Exo 10:7 And Pharaoh's servants said to him, How long is this man to be the cause of evil to us? let the men go so that they may give worship to the Lord their God: are you not awake to Egypt's danger? Exo 10:8 Then Moses and Aaron came in again before Pharaoh: and he said to them, Go and give worship to the Lord your God: but which of you are going? Exo 10:9 And Moses said, We will go with our young and our old, with our sons and our daughters, with our flocks and our herds; for we are to keep a feast to the Lord. Exo 10:10 And he said to them, May the Lord be with you, if I will let you and your little ones go! take care, for your purpose clearly is evil. Exo 10:11 Not so; but let your males go and give worship to the Lord, as your desire is. This he said, driving them out from before him. Exo 10:12 And the Lord said to Moses, Let your hand be stretched out over the land of Egypt so that the locusts may come up on the land for the destruction of every green plant in the land, even everything untouched by the ice-storm. Exo 10:13 And Moses' rod was stretched out over the land of Egypt, and the Lord sent an east wind over the land all that day and all the night; and in the morning the locusts came up with the east wind. Exo 10:14 And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt, resting on every part of the land, in very great numbers; such an army of locusts had never been seen before, and never will be again. Exo 10:15 For all the face of the earth was covered with them, so that the land was black; and every green plant and all the fruit of the trees which was untouched by the ice-storm they took for food: not one green thing, no plant or tree, was to be seen in all the land of Egypt. Exo 10:16 Then Pharaoh quickly sent for Moses and Aaron, and said, I have done evil against the Lord your God and against you. Exo 10:17 Let me now have forgiveness for my sin this time only, and make prayer to the Lord your God that he will take away from me this death only. Exo 10:18 So he went out from Pharaoh and made prayer to the Lord. Exo 10:19 And the Lord sent a very strong west wind, which took up the locusts, driving them into the Red Sea; not one locust was to be seen in any part of Egypt. Exo 10:20 But the Lord made Pharaoh's heart hard, and he did not let the children of Israel go. Exo 10:21 And the Lord said to Moses, Let your hand be stretched out to heaven, and all the land of Egypt will be dark, so that men will be feeling their way about in the dark. Exo 10:22 And when Moses' hand was stretched out, dark night came over all the land of Egypt for three days; Exo 10:23 They were not able to see one another, and no one got up from his place for three days: but where the children of Israel were living it was light. Exo 10:24 Then Pharaoh sent for Moses, and said, Go and give worship to the Lord; only let your flocks and your herds be kept here: your little ones may go with you. Exo 10:25 But Moses said, You will have to let us take burned offerings to put before the Lord our God. Exo 10:26 So our cattle will have to go with us, not one may be kept back; for they are needed for the worship of the Lord our God; we have no knowledge what offering we have to give till we come to the place. Exo 10:27 But the Lord made Pharaoh's heart hard, and he would not let them go. Exo 10:28 And Pharaoh said to him, Go away from me, take care that you come not again before me; for the day when you see my face again will be your last. Exo 10:29 And Moses said, You say truly; I will not see your face again. Exo 11:1 And the Lord said to Moses, I will send one more punishment on Pharaoh and on Egypt; after that he will let you go; and when he does let you go, he will not keep one of you back, but will send you out by force. Exo 11:2 So go now and give orders to the people that every man and every woman is to get from his or her neighbour ornaments of silver and of gold. Exo 11:3 And the Lord gave the people grace in the eyes of the Egyptians. For the man Moses was highly honoured in the land of Egypt, by Pharaoh's servants and the people. Exo 11:4 And Moses said, This is what the Lord says: About the middle of the night I will go out through Egypt: Exo 11:5 And death will come to every mother's first male child in all the land of Egypt, from the child of Pharaoh on his seat of power, to the child of the servant-girl crushing the grain; and the first births of all the cattle. Exo 11:6 And there will be a great cry through all the land of Egypt, such as never has been or will be again. Exo 11:7 But against the children of Israel, man or beast, not so much as the tongue of a dog will be moved: so that you may see how the Lord makes a division between Israel and the Egyptians. Exo 11:8 And all these your servants will come to me, going down on their faces before me and saying, Go out, and all your people with you: and after that I will go out. And he went away from Pharaoh burning with wrath. Exo 11:9 And the Lord said to Moses, Pharaoh will not give ear to you, so that my wonders may be increased in the land of Egypt. Exo 11:10 All these wonders Moses and Aaron did before Pharaoh: but the Lord made Pharaoh's heart hard, and he did not let the children of Israel go out of his land. Exo 12:1 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, Exo 12:2 Let this month be to you the first of months, the first month of the year. Exo 12:3 Say to all the children of Israel when they are come together, In the tenth day of this month every man is to take a lamb, by the number of their fathers' families, a lamb for every family: Exo 12:4 And if the lamb is more than enough for the family, let that family and its nearest neighbour have a lamb between them, taking into account the number of persons and how much food is needed for every man. Exo 12:5 Let your lamb be without a mark, a male in its first year: you may take it from among the sheep or the goats: Exo 12:6 Keep it till the fourteenth day of the same month, when everyone who is of the children of Israel is to put it to death between sundown and dark. Exo 12:7 Then take some of the blood and put it on the two sides of the door and over the door of the house where the meal is to be taken. Exo 12:8 And let your food that night be the flesh of the lamb, cooked with fire in the oven, together with unleavened bread and bitter-tasting plants. Exo 12:9 Do not take it uncooked or cooked with boiling water, but let it be cooked in the oven; its head with its legs and its inside parts. Exo 12:10 Do not keep any of it till the morning; anything which is not used is to be burned with fire. Exo 12:11 And take your meal dressed as if for a journey, with your shoes on your feet and your sticks in your hands: take it quickly: it is the Lord's Passover. Exo 12:12 For on that night I will go through the land of Egypt, sending death on every first male child, of man and of beast, and judging all the gods of Egypt: I am the Lord. Exo 12:13 And the blood will be a sign on the houses where you are: when I see the blood I will go over you, and no evil will come on you for your destruction, when my hand is on the land of Egypt. Exo 12:14 And this day is to be kept in your memories: you are to keep it as a feast to the Lord through all your generations, as an order for ever. Exo 12:15 For seven days let your food be unleavened bread; from the first day no leaven is to be seen in your houses: whoever takes bread with leaven in it, from the first till the seventh day, will be cut off from Israel. Exo 12:16 And on the first day there is to be a holy meeting and on the seventh day a holy meeting; no sort of work may be done on those days but only to make ready what is necessary for everyone's food. Exo 12:17 So keep the feast of unleavened bread; for on this very day I have taken your armies out of the land of Egypt: this day, then, is to be kept through all your generations by an order for ever. Exo 12:18 In the first month, from the evening of the fourteenth day, let your food be unleavened bread till the evening of the twenty-first day of the month. Exo 12:19 For seven days no leaven is to be seen in your houses: for whoever takes bread which is leavened will be cut off from the people of Israel, if he is from another country or if he is an Israelite by birth. Exo 12:20 Take nothing which has leaven in it; wherever you are living let your food be unleavened cakes. Exo 12:21 Then Moses sent for the chiefs of Israel, and said to them, See that lambs are marked out for yourselves and your families, and let the Passover lamb be put to death. Exo 12:22 And take some hyssop and put it in the blood in the basin, touching the two sides and the top of the doorway with the blood from the basin; and let not one of you go out of his house till the morning. Exo 12:23 For the Lord will go through the land, sending death on the Egyptians; and when he sees the blood on the two sides and the top of the door, the Lord will go over your door and will not let death come in for your destruction. Exo 12:24 And you are to keep this as an order to you and to your sons for ever. Exo 12:25 And when you come into the land which the Lord will make yours, as he gave his word, you are to keep this act of worship. Exo 12:26 And when your children say to you, What is the reason of this act of worship? Exo 12:27 Then you will say, This is the offering of the Lord's Passover; for he went over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he sent death on the Egyptians, and kept our families safe. And the people gave worship with bent heads. Exo 12:28 And the children of Israel went and did so; as the Lord had given orders to Moses and Aaron, so they did. Exo 12:29 And in the middle of the night the Lord sent death on every first male child in the land of Egypt, from the child of Pharaoh on his seat of power to the child of the prisoner in the prison; and the first births of all the cattle. Exo 12:30 Then Pharaoh got up in the night, he and all his servants and all the Egyptians; and a great cry went up from Egypt; for there was not a house where someone was not dead. Exo 12:31 And he sent for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Get up and go out from among my people, you and the children of Israel; go and give worship to the Lord as you have said. Exo 12:32 And take your flocks and your herds as you have said, and be gone; and give me your blessing. Exo 12:33 And the Egyptians were forcing the people on, to get them out of the land quickly; for they said, We are all dead men. Exo 12:34 And the people took their bread-paste before it was leavened, putting their basins in their clothing on their backs. Exo 12:35 And the children of Israel had done as Moses had said; and they got from the Egyptians ornaments of silver and of gold, and clothing: Exo 12:36 And the Lord had given the people grace in the eyes of the Egyptians so that they gave them whatever was requested. So they took away all their goods from the Egyptians. Exo 12:37 And the children of Israel made the journey from Rameses to Succoth; there were about six hundred thousand men on foot, as well as children. Exo 12:38 And a mixed band of people went with them; and flocks and herds in great numbers. Exo 12:39 And they made unleavened cakes from the paste which they had taken out of Egypt; it was not leavened, for they had been sent out of Egypt so quickly, that they had no time to make any food ready. Exo 12:40 Now the children of Israel had been living in Egypt for four hundred and thirty years. Exo 12:41 And at the end of four hundred and thirty years, to the very day, all the armies of the Lord went out of the land of Egypt. Exo 12:42 It is a watch-night before the Lord who took them out of the land of Egypt: this same night is a watch-night to the Lord for all the children of Israel, through all their generations. Exo 12:43 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, This is the law of the Passover: no man who is not an Israelite is to take of it: Exo 12:44 But every man's servant, whom he has got for money, may take of it, when he has had circumcision. Exo 12:45 A man from a strange country living among you, and a servant working for payment, may not take part in it. Exo 12:46 It is to be taken in one house; not a bit of the flesh is to be taken out of the house, and no bone of it may be broken. Exo 12:47 All Israel is to keep the feast. Exo 12:48 And if a man from another country is living with you, and has a desire to keep the Passover to the Lord, let all the males of his family undergo circumcision, and then let him come near and keep it; for he will then be as one of your people; but no one without circumcision may keep it. Exo 12:49 The law is the same for him who is an Israelite by birth and for the man from a strange country who is living with you. Exo 12:50 So the children of Israel did as the Lord gave orders to Moses and Aaron. Exo 12:51 And on that very day the Lord took the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies. Exo 13:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Exo 13:2 Let the first male child of every mother among the children of Israel be kept holy for me, even the first male birth among man or beast; for it is mine. Exo 13:3 And Moses said to the people, Let this day, on which you came out of Egypt, out of your prison-house, be kept for ever in memory; for by the strength of his hand the Lord has taken you out from this place; let no leavened bread be used. Exo 13:4 On this day, in the month Abib, you are going out. Exo 13:5 And it will be that, when the Lord takes you into the land of the Canaanite and the Hittite and the Amorite and the Hivite and the Jebusite, the land which he made an oath to your fathers that he would give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, you will do this act of worship in this month. Exo 13:6 For seven days let your food be unleavened cakes; and on the seventh day there is to be a feast to the Lord. Exo 13:7 Unleavened cakes are to be your food through all the seven days; let no leavened bread be seen among you, or any leaven, in any part of your land. Exo 13:8 And you will say to your son in that day, It is because of what the Lord did for me when I came out of Egypt. Exo 13:9 And this will be for a sign to you on your hand and for a mark on your brow, so that the law of the Lord may be in your mouth: for with a strong hand the Lord took you out of Egypt. Exo 13:10 So let this order be kept, at the right time, from year to year. Exo 13:11 And when the Lord takes you into the land of Canaan, as he made his oath to you and to your fathers, and gives it to you, Exo 13:12 You are to put on one side for the Lord every mother's first male child, the first-fruit of her body, and the first young one of every beast; every male is holy to the Lord. Exo 13:13 And for the young of an ass you may give a lamb in payment, or if you will not make payment for it, its neck is to be broken; but for all the first sons among your children, let payment be made. Exo 13:14 And when your son says to you in time to come, What is the reason for this? say to him, By the strength of his hand the Lord took us out of Egypt, out of the prison-house: Exo 13:15 And when Pharaoh made his heart hard and would not let us go, the Lord sent death on all the first sons in Egypt, of man and of beast: and so every first male who comes to birth is offered to the Lord; but for all the first of my sons I give a price. Exo 13:16 And this will be for a sign on your hand and for a mark on your brow: for by the strength of his hand the Lord took us out of Egypt. Exo 13:17 Now after Pharaoh had let the people go, God did not take them through the land of the Philistines, though that was near: for God said, If the people see war, they may have a change of heart and go back to Egypt. Exo 13:18 But God took the people round by the waste land near the Red Sea: and the children of Israel went up in fighting order out of the land of Egypt. Exo 13:19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for Joseph had made the children of Israel take an oath, saying, God will certainly keep you in mind; and you are to take my bones away with you. Exo 13:20 Then they went on their journey from Succoth, and put up their tents in Etham at the edge of the waste land. Exo 13:21 And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, guiding them on their way; and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light: so that they were able to go on day and night: Exo 13:22 The pillar of cloud went ever before them by day, and the pillar of fire by night. Exo 14:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Exo 14:2 Give orders to the children of Israel to go back and put up their tents before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, in front of Baal-zephon, opposite to which you are to put up your tents by the sea. Exo 14:3 And Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are wandering without direction, they are shut in by the waste land. Exo 14:4 And I will make Pharaoh's heart hard, and he will come after them and I will be honoured over Pharaoh and all his army, so that the Egyptians may see that I am the Lord. And they did so. Exo 14:5 And word came to Pharaoh of the flight of the people: and the feeling of Pharaoh and of his servants about the people was changed, and they said, Why have we let Israel go, so that they will do no more work for us? Exo 14:6 So he had his war-carriage made ready and took his people with him: Exo 14:7 And he took six hundred carriages, all the carriages of Egypt, and captains over all of them. Exo 14:8 And the Lord made the heart of Pharaoh hard, and he went after the children of Israel: for the children of Israel had gone out without fear. Exo 14:9 But the Egyptians went after them, all the horses and carriages of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them in their tents by the sea, by Pihahiroth, before Baal-zephon. Exo 14:10 And when Pharaoh came near, the children of Israel, lifting up their eyes, saw the Egyptians coming after them, and were full of fear; and their cry went up to God. Exo 14:11 And they said to Moses, Was there no resting-place for the dead in Egypt, that you have taken us away to come to our death in the waste land? why have you taken us out of Egypt? Exo 14:12 Did we not say to you in Egypt, Let us be as we are, working for the Egyptians? for it is better to be the servants of the Egyptians than to come to our death in the waste land. Exo 14:13 But Moses said, Keep where you are and have no fear; now you will see the salvation of the Lord which he will give you today; for the Egyptians whom you see today you will never see again. Exo 14:14 The Lord will make war for you, you have only to keep quiet. Exo 14:15 And the Lord said to Moses, Why are you crying out to me? give the children of Israel the order to go forward. Exo 14:16 And let your rod be lifted up and your hand stretched out over the sea, and it will be parted in two; and the children of Israel will go through on dry land. Exo 14:17 And I will make the heart of the Egyptians hard, and they will go in after them: and I will be honoured over Pharaoh and over his army, his war-carriages, and his horsemen. Exo 14:18 And the Egyptians will see that I am the Lord, when I get honour over Pharaoh and his war-carriages and his horsemen. Exo 14:19 Then the angel of God, who had been before the tents of Israel, took his place at their back; and the pillar of cloud, moving from before them, came to rest at their back: Exo 14:20 And it came between the army of Egypt and the army of Israel; and there was a dark cloud between them, and they went on through the night; but the one army came no nearer to the other all the night. Exo 14:21 And when Moses' hand was stretched out over the sea, the Lord with a strong east wind made the sea go back all night, and the waters were parted in two and the sea became dry land. Exo 14:22 And the children of Israel went through the sea on dry land: and the waters were a wall on their right side and on their left. Exo 14:23 Then the Egyptians went after them into the middle of the sea, all Pharaoh's horses and his war-carriages and his horsemen. Exo 14:24 And in the morning watch, the Lord, looking out on the armies of the Egyptians from the pillar of fire and cloud, sent trouble on the army of the Egyptians; Exo 14:25 And made the wheels of their war-carriages stiff, so that they had hard work driving them: so the Egyptians said, Let us go in flight from before the face of Israel, for the Lord is fighting for them against the Egyptians. Exo 14:26 And the Lord said to Moses, Let your hand be stretched out over the sea, and the waters will come back again on the Egyptians, and on their war-carriages and on their horsemen. Exo 14:27 And when Moses' hand was stretched out over the sea, at dawn the sea came flowing back, meeting the Egyptians in their flight, and the Lord sent destruction on the Egyptians in the middle of the sea. Exo 14:28 And the waters came back, covering the war-carriages and the horsemen and all the army of Pharaoh which went after them into the middle of the sea; not one of them was to be seen. Exo 14:29 But the children of Israel went through the sea walking on dry land, and the waters were a wall on their right side and on their left. Exo 14:30 So that day the Lord gave Israel salvation from the hands of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the sea's edge. Exo 14:31 And Israel saw the great work which the Lord had done against the Egyptians, and the fear of the Lord came on the people and they had faith in the Lord and in his servant Moses. Exo 15:1 Then Moses and the children of Israel made this song to the Lord, and said, I will make a song to the Lord, for he is lifted up in glory: the horse and the horseman he has sent down into the sea. Exo 15:2 The Lord is my strength and my strong helper, he has become my salvation: he is my God and I will give him praise; my father's God and I will give him glory. Exo 15:3 The Lord is a man of war: the Lord is his name. Exo 15:4 Pharaoh's war-carriages and his army he has sent down into the sea: the best of his captains have gone down into the Red Sea. Exo 15:5 They were covered by the deep waters: like a stone they went down under the waves. Exo 15:6 Full of glory, O Lord, is the power of your right hand; by your right hand those who came against you are broken. Exo 15:7 When you are lifted up in power, all those who come against you are crushed: when you send out your wrath, they are burned up like dry grass. Exo 15:8 By your breath the waves were massed together, the flowing waters were lifted up like a pillar; the deep waters became solid in the heart of the sea. Exo 15:9 Egypt said, I will go after them, I will overtake, I will make division of their goods: my desire will have its way with them; my sword will be uncovered, my hand will send destruction on them. Exo 15:10 You sent your wind and the sea came over them: they went down like lead into the great waters. Exo 15:11 Who is like you, O Lord, among the gods? who is like you, in holy glory, to be praised with fear, doing wonders? Exo 15:12 When your right hand was stretched out, the mouth of the earth was open for them. Exo 15:13 In your mercy you went before the people whom you have made yours; guiding them in your strength to your holy place. Exo 15:14 Hearing of you the peoples were shaking in fear: the people of Philistia were gripped with pain. Exo 15:15 The chiefs of Edom were troubled in heart; the strong men of Moab were in the grip of fear: all the people of Canaan became like water. Exo 15:16 Fear and grief came on them; by the strength of your arm they were turned to stone; till your people went over, O Lord, till the people went over whom you have made yours. Exo 15:17 You will take them in, planting them in the mountain of your heritage, the place, O Lord, where you have made your house, the holy place, O Lord, the building of your hands. Exo 15:18 The Lord is King for ever and ever. Exo 15:19 For the horses of Pharaoh, with his war-carriages and his horsemen, went into the sea, and the Lord sent the waters of the sea back over them; but the children of Israel went through the sea on dry land. Exo 15:20 And Miriam, the woman prophet, the sister of Aaron, took an instrument of music in her hand; and all the women went after her with music and dances. Exo 15:21 And Miriam, answering, said, Make a song to the Lord, for he is lifted up in glory; the horse and the horseman he has sent into the sea. Exo 15:22 Then Moses took Israel forward from the Red Sea, and they went out into the waste land of Shur; and for three days they were in the waste land where there was no water. Exo 15:23 And when they came to Marah, the water was no good for drinking, for the waters of Marah were bitter, which is why it was named Marah. Exo 15:24 And the people, crying out against Moses, said, What are we to have for drink? Exo 15:25 And in answer to his prayer, the Lord made him see a tree, and when he put it into the water, the water was made sweet. There he gave them a law and an order, testing them; Exo 15:26 And he said, If with all your heart you will give attention to the voice of the Lord your God, and do what is right in his eyes, giving ear to his orders and keeping his laws, I will not put on you any of the diseases which I put on the Egyptians: for I am the Lord your life-giver. Exo 15:27 And they came to Elim where there were twelve water-springs and seventy palm-trees: and they put up their tents there by the waters. Exo 16:1 And they went on their way from Elim, and all the children of Israel came into the waste land of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after they went out of the land of Egypt. Exo 16:2 And all the children of Israel were crying out against Moses and Aaron in the waste land: Exo 16:3 And the children of Israel said to them, It would have been better for the Lord to have put us to death in the land of Egypt, where we were seated by the flesh-pots and had bread enough for our needs; for you have taken us out to this waste of sand, to put all this people to death through need of food. Exo 16:4 Then the Lord said to Moses, See, I will send down bread from heaven for you; and the people will go out every day and get enough for the day's needs; so that I may put them to the test to see if they will keep my laws or not. Exo 16:5 And on the sixth day they are to make ready what they get in, and it will be twice as much as they get on the other days. Exo 16:6 And Moses and Aaron said to all the children of Israel, This evening it will be clear to you that it is the Lord who has taken you out of the land of Egypt: Exo 16:7 And in the morning you will see the glory of the Lord; for your angry words against the Lord have come to his ears: and what are we that you are crying out against us? Exo 16:8 And Moses said, The Lord will give you meat for your food at evening, and in the morning bread in full measure; for your outcry against the Lord has come to his ears: for what are we? your outcry is not against us but against the Lord. Exo 16:9 And Moses said to Aaron, Say to all the people of Israel, Come near before the Lord for he has given ear to your outcry. Exo 16:10 And while Aaron was talking to the children of Israel, their eyes were turned in the direction of the waste land, and they saw the glory of the Lord shining in the cloud. Exo 16:11 And the Lord said to Moses, Exo 16:12 The outcry of the children of Israel has come to my ears: say to them now, At nightfall you will have meat for your food, and in the morning bread in full measure; and you will see that I am the Lord your God. Exo 16:13 And it came about that in the evening little birds came up and the place was covered with them: and in the morning there was dew all round about the tents. Exo 16:14 And when the dew was gone, on the face of the earth was a small round thing, like small drops of ice on the earth. Exo 16:15 And when the children of Israel saw it, they said to one another, What is it? for they had no idea what it was. And Moses said to them, It is the bread which the Lord has given you for your food. Exo 16:16 This is what the Lord has said, Let every man take up as much as he has need of; at the rate of one omer for every person, let every man take as much as is needed for his family. Exo 16:17 And the children of Israel did so, and some took more and some less. Exo 16:18 And when it was measured, he who had taken up much had nothing over, and he who had little had enough; every man had taken what he was able to make use of. Exo 16:19 And Moses said to them, Let nothing be kept till the morning. Exo 16:20 But they gave no attention to Moses, and some of them kept it till the morning and there were worms in it and it had an evil smell: and Moses was angry with them. Exo 16:21 And they took it up morning by morning, every man as he had need: and when the sun was high it was gone. Exo 16:22 And on the sixth day they took up twice as much of the bread, two omers for every person: and all the rulers of the people gave Moses word of it. Exo 16:23 And he said, This is what the Lord has said, Tomorrow is a day of rest, a holy Sabbath to the Lord: what has to be cooked may be cooked; and what is over, put on one side to be kept till the morning. Exo 16:24 And they kept it till the morning as Moses had said: and no smell came from it, and it had no worms. Exo 16:25 And Moses said, Make your meal today of what you have, for this day is a Sabbath to the Lord: today you will not get any in the fields. Exo 16:26 For six days you will get it, but on the seventh day, the Sabbath, there will not be any. Exo 16:27 But still on the seventh day some of the people went out to get it, and there was not any. Exo 16:28 And the Lord said to Moses, How long will you go against my orders and my laws? Exo 16:29 See, because the Lord has given you the Sabbath, he gives you on the sixth day bread enough for two days; let every man keep where he is; let no man go out of his place on the seventh day. Exo 16:30 So the people took their rest on the seventh day. Exo 16:31 And this bread was named manna by Israel: it was white, like a grain seed, and its taste was like cakes made with honey. Exo 16:32 And Moses said, This is the order which the Lord has given: Let one omer of it be kept for future generations, so that they may see the bread which I gave you for your food in the waste land, when I took you out from the land of Egypt. Exo 16:33 And Moses said to Aaron, Take a pot and put one omer of manna in it, and put it away before the Lord, to be kept for future generations. Exo 16:34 So Aaron put it away in front of the holy chest to be kept, as the Lord gave orders to Moses. Exo 16:35 And the children of Israel had manna for their food for forty years, till they came to a land with people in it, till they came to the edge of the land of Canaan. Exo 16:36 Now an omer is the tenth part of an ephah. Exo 17:1 And the children of Israel went on from the waste land of Sin, by stages as the Lord gave them orders, and put up their tents in Rephidim: and there was no drinking-water for the people. Exo 17:2 So the people were angry with Moses, and said, Give us water for drinking. And Moses said, Why are you angry with me? and why do you put God to the test? Exo 17:3 And the people were in great need of water; and they made an outcry against Moses, and said, Why have you taken us out of Egypt to send death on us and our children and our cattle through need of water? Exo 17:4 And Moses, crying out to the Lord, said, What am I to do to this people? they are almost ready to put me to death by stoning. Exo 17:5 And the Lord said to Moses, Go on before the people, and take some of the chiefs of Israel with you, and take in your hand the rod which was stretched out over the Nile, and go. Exo 17:6 See, I will take my place before you on the rock in Horeb; and when you give the rock a blow, water will come out of it, and the people will have drink. And Moses did so before the eyes of the chiefs of Israel. Exo 17:7 And he gave that place the name Massah and Meribah, because the children of Israel were angry, and because they put the Lord to the test, saying, Is the Lord with us or not? Exo 17:8 Then Amalek came and made war on Israel in Rephidim. Exo 17:9 And Moses said to Joshua, Get together a band of men for us and go out, make war on Amalek: tomorrow I will take my place on the top of the hill with the rod of God in my hand. Exo 17:10 So Joshua did as Moses said to him, and went to war with Amalek: and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill. Exo 17:11 Now while Moses' hand was lifted up, Israel was the stronger: but when he let his hand go down, Amalek became the stronger. Exo 17:12 But Moses' hands became tired; so they put a stone under him and he took his seat on it, Aaron and Hur supporting his hands, one on one side and one on the other; so his hands were kept up without falling till the sun went down. Exo 17:13 And Joshua overcame Amalek and his people with the sword. Exo 17:14 And the Lord said to Moses, Make a record of this in a book, so that it may be kept in memory, and say it again in the ears of Joshua: that all memory of Amalek is to be completely uprooted from the earth. Exo 17:15 Then Moses put up an altar and gave it the name of Yahweh-nissi: Exo 17:16 For he said, The Lord has taken his oath that there will be war with Amalek from generation to generation. Exo 18:1 Now news came to Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses' father-in-law, of all God had done for Moses and for Israel his people, and how the Lord had taken Israel out of Egypt. Exo 18:2 And Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, took Zipporah, Moses' wife, after he had sent her away, Exo 18:3 And her two sons, one of whom was named Gershom, for he said, I have been living in a strange land: Exo 18:4 And the name of the other was Eliezer, for he said, The God of my father was my help, and kept me safe from the sword of Pharaoh: Exo 18:5 And Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, came with his sons and his wife to where Moses had put up his tent in the waste land, by the mountain of God. Exo 18:6 And he said to Moses, I, your father-in-law, have come to you, with your wife and your two sons. Exo 18:7 And Moses went out to his father-in-law, and went down on his face before him and gave him a kiss; and they said to one another, Are you well? and they came into the tent. Exo 18:8 And Moses gave his father-in-law an account of all the Lord had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians because of Israel, and of all the troubles which had come on them by the way, and how the Lord had given them salvation. Exo 18:9 And Jethro was glad because the Lord had been good to Israel, freeing them from the power of the Egyptians. Exo 18:10 And Jethro said, Praise be to the Lord, who has taken you out of the hand of Pharaoh and out of the hand of the Egyptians; freeing the people from the yoke of the Egyptians. Exo 18:11 Now I am certain that the Lord is greater than all gods, for he has overcome them in their pride. Exo 18:12 Then Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, made a burned offering to God: and Aaron came, with the chiefs of Israel, and had a meal with Moses' father-in-law, before God. Exo 18:13 Now on the day after, Moses took his seat to give decisions for the people: and the people were waiting before Moses from morning till evening. Exo 18:14 And when Moses' father-in-law saw all he was doing, he said, What is this you are doing for the people? why are you seated here by yourself, with all the people waiting before you from morning till evening? Exo 18:15 And Moses said to his father-in-law, Because the people come to me to get directions from God: Exo 18:16 And if they have any question between themselves, they come to me, and I am judge between a man and his neighbour, and I give them the orders and laws of God. Exo 18:17 And Moses' father-in-law said to him, What you are doing is not good. Exo 18:18 Your strength and that of the people will be completely used up: this work is more than you are able to do by yourself. Exo 18:19 Give ear now to my suggestion, and may God be with you: you are to be the people's representative before God, taking their causes to him: Exo 18:20 Teaching them his rules and his laws, guiding them in the way they have to go, and making clear to them the work they have to do. Exo 18:21 But for the rest, take from among the people able men, such as have the fear of God, true men hating profits wrongly made; and put such men over them, to be captains of thousands, captains of hundreds and of fifties and of tens; Exo 18:22 And let them be judges in the causes of the people at all times: and let them put before you all important questions, but in small things let them give decisions themselves: in this way, it will be less hard for you, and they will take the weight off you. Exo 18:23 If you do this, and God gives approval, then you will be able to go on without weariness, and all this people will go to their tents in peace. Exo 18:24 So Moses took note of the words of his father-in-law, and did as he had said. Exo 18:25 And he made selection of able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, captains of thousands, captains of hundreds and of fifties and of tens. Exo 18:26 And they were judges in the causes of the people at all times: the hard questions they put before Moses; but on every small point they gave decisions themselves. Exo 18:27 And Moses let his father-in-law go away, and he went back to his land. Exo 19:1 In the third month after the children of Israel went out from Egypt, on the same day, they came into the waste land of Sinai. Exo 19:2 And when they had gone away from Rephidim and had come into the waste land of Sinai, they put up their tents in the waste land before the mountain: there Israel put up its tents. Exo 19:3 And Moses went up to God, and the voice of the Lord came to him from the mountain, saying, Say to the family of Jacob, and give word to the children of Israel: Exo 19:4 You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I took you, as on eagles' wings, guiding you to myself. Exo 19:5 If now you will truly give ear to my voice and keep my agreement, you will be my special property out of all the peoples: for all the earth is mine: Exo 19:6 And you will be a kingdom of priests to me, and a holy nation. These are the words which you are to say to the children of Israel. Exo 19:7 And Moses came and sent for the chiefs of the people and put before them all these words which the Lord had given him orders to say. Exo 19:8 And all the people, answering together, said, Whatever the Lord has said we will do. And Moses took back to the Lord the words of the people. Exo 19:9 And the Lord said to Moses, See, I will come to you in a thick cloud, so that what I say to you may come to the ears of the people and they may have belief in you for ever. And Moses gave the Lord word of what the people had said. Exo 19:10 And the Lord said to Moses, Go to the people and make them holy today and tomorrow, and let their clothing be washed. Exo 19:11 And by the third day let them be ready: for on the third day the Lord will come down on Mount Sinai, before the eyes of all the people. Exo 19:12 And let limits be marked out for the people round the mountain, and say to them, Take care not to go up the mountain or near the sides of it: whoever puts his foot on the mountain will certainly come to his death: Exo 19:13 He is not to be touched by a hand, but is to be stoned or have an arrow put through him; man or beast, he is to be put to death: at the long sounding of a horn they may come up to the mountain. Exo 19:14 Then Moses went down from the mountain to the people, and made the people holy; and their clothing was washed. Exo 19:15 And he said to the people, Be ready by the third day: do not come near a woman. Exo 19:16 And when morning came on the third day, there were thunders and flames and a thick cloud on the mountain, and a horn sounding very loud; and all the people in the tents were shaking with fear. Exo 19:17 And Moses made the people come out of their tents and take their places before God; and they came to the foot of the mountain, Exo 19:18 And all the mountain of Sinai was smoking, for the Lord had come down on it in fire: and the smoke of it went up like the smoke of a great burning; and all the mountain was shaking. Exo 19:19 And when the sound of the horn became louder and louder, Moses' words were answered by the voice of God. Exo 19:20 Then the Lord came down on to Mount Sinai, to the top of the mountain, and the Lord sent for Moses to come up to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up. Exo 19:21 And the Lord said to Moses, Go down and give the people orders to keep back, for fear that a great number of them, forcing their way through to see the Lord, may come to destruction. Exo 19:22 And let the priests who come near to the Lord make themselves holy, for fear that the Lord may come on them suddenly. Exo 19:23 And Moses said to the Lord, The people will not be able to come up the mountain, for you gave us orders to put limits round the mountain, marking it out and making it holy. Exo 19:24 And the Lord said to him, Go down, and you and Aaron may come up; but let not the priests and the people make their way through to the Lord, or he will come on them suddenly. Exo 19:25 So Moses went down to the people and said this to them. Exo 20:1 And God said all these words: Exo 20:2 I am the Lord your God who took you out of the land of Egypt, out of the prison-house. Exo 20:3 You are to have no other gods but me. Exo 20:4 You are not to make an image or picture of anything in heaven or on the earth or in the waters under the earth: Exo 20:5 You may not go down on your faces before them or give them worship: for I, the Lord your God, am a God who will not give his honour to another; and I will send punishment on the children for the wrongdoing of their fathers, to the third and fourth generation of my haters; Exo 20:6 And I will have mercy through a thousand generations on those who have love for me and keep my laws. Exo 20:7 You are not to make use of the name of the Lord your God for an evil purpose; whoever takes the Lord's name on his lips for an evil purpose will be judged a sinner by the Lord Exo 20:8 Keep in memory the Sabbath and let it be a holy day. Exo 20:9 On six days do all your work: Exo 20:10 But the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God; on that day you are to do no work, you or your son or your daughter, your man-servant or your woman-servant, your cattle or the man from a strange country who is living among you: Exo 20:11 For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and the sea, and everything in them, and he took his rest on the seventh day: for this reason the Lord has given his blessing to the seventh day and made it holy. Exo 20:12 Give honour to your father and to your mother, so that your life may be long in the land which the Lord your God is giving you. Exo 20:13 Do not put anyone to death without cause. Exo 20:14 Do not be false to the married relation. Exo 20:15 Do not take the property of another. Exo 20:16 Do not give false witness against your neighbour. Exo 20:17 Let not your desire be turned to your neighbour's house, or his wife or his man-servant or his woman-servant or his ox or his ass or anything which is his. Exo 20:18 And all the people were watching the thunderings and the flames and the sound of the horn and the mountain smoking; and when they saw it, they kept far off, shaking with fear. Exo 20:19 And they said to Moses, To your words we will give ear, but let not the voice of God come to our ears, for fear death may come on us. Exo 20:20 And Moses said to the people, Have no fear: for God has come to put you to the test, so that fearing him you may be kept from sin. Exo 20:21 And the people kept their places far off, but Moses went near to the dark cloud where God was. Exo 20:22 And the Lord said to Moses, Say to the children of Israel, You yourselves have seen that my voice has come to you from heaven Exo 20:23 Gods of silver and gods of gold you are not to make for yourselves. Exo 20:24 Make for me an altar of earth, offering on it your burned offerings and your peace-offerings, your sheep and your oxen: in every place where I have put the memory of my name, I will come to you and give you my blessing. Exo 20:25 And if you make me an altar of stone do not make it of cut stones: for the touch of an instrument will make it unclean. Exo 20:26 And do not go up by steps to my altar, for fear that your bodies may be seen uncovered. Exo 21:1 Now these are the laws which you are to put before them. Exo 21:2 If you get a Hebrew servant for money, he is to be your servant for six years, and in the seventh year you are to let him go free without payment. Exo 21:3 If he comes to you by himself, let him go away by himself: if he is married, let his wife go away with him. Exo 21:4 If his master gives him a wife, and he gets sons or daughters by her, the wife and her children will be the property of the master, and the servant is to go away by himself. Exo 21:5 But if the servant says clearly, My master and my wife and children are dear to me; I have no desire to be free: Exo 21:6 Then his master is to take him to the gods of the house, and at the door, or at its framework, he is to make a hole in his ear with a sharp-pointed instrument; and he will be his servant for ever. Exo 21:7 And if a man gives his daughter for a price to be a servant, she is not to go away free as the men-servants do. Exo 21:8 If she is not pleasing to her master who has taken her for himself, let a payment be made for her so that she may go free; her master has no power to get a price for her and send her to a strange land, because he has been false to her. Exo 21:9 And if he gives her to his son, he is to do everything for her as if she was his daughter. Exo 21:10 And if he takes another woman, her food and clothing and her married rights are not to be less. Exo 21:11 And if he does not do these three things for her, she has the right to go free without payment. Exo 21:12 He who gives a man a death-blow is himself to be put to death. Exo 21:13 But if he had no evil purpose against him, and God gave him into his hand, I will give you a place to which he may go in flight. Exo 21:14 But if a man makes an attack on his neighbour on purpose, to put him to death by deceit, you are to take him from my altar and put him to death. Exo 21:15 Any man who gives a blow to his father or his mother is certainly to be put to death. Exo 21:16 Any man who gets another into his power in order to get a price for him is to be put to death, if you take him in the act. Exo 21:17 Any man cursing his father or his mother is to be put to death. Exo 21:18 If, in a fight, one man gives another a blow with a stone, or with the shut hand, not causing his death, but making him keep in bed; Exo 21:19 If he is able to get up again and go about with a stick, the other will be let off; only he will have to give him payment for the loss of his time, and see that he is cared for till he is well. Exo 21:20 If a man gives his man-servant or his woman-servant blows with a rod, causing death, he is certainly to undergo punishment. Exo 21:21 But, at the same time, if the servant goes on living for a day or two, the master is not to get punishment, for the servant is his property. Exo 21:22 If men, while fighting, do damage to a woman with child, causing the loss of the child, but no other evil comes to her, the man will have to make payment up to the amount fixed by her husband, in agreement with the decision of the judges. Exo 21:23 But if damage comes to her, let life be given in payment for life, Exo 21:24 Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, Exo 21:25 Burning for burning, wound for wound, blow for blow. Exo 21:26 If a man gives his man-servant or his woman-servant a blow in the eye, causing its destruction, he is to let him go free on account of the damage to his eye. Exo 21:27 Or if the loss of a tooth is caused by his blow, he will let him go free on account of his tooth. Exo 21:28 If an ox comes to be the cause of death to a man or a woman, the ox is to be stoned, and its flesh may not be used for food; but the owner will not be judged responsible. Exo 21:29 But if the ox has frequently done such damage in the past, and the owner has had word of it and has not kept it under control, so that it has been the cause of the death of a man or woman, not only is the ox to be stoned, but its owner is to be put to death. Exo 21:30 If a price is put on his life, let him make payment of whatever price is fixed. Exo 21:31 If the death of a son or of a daughter has been caused, the punishment is to be in agreement with this rule. Exo 21:32 If the death of a man-servant or of a woman-servant is caused by the ox, the owner is to give their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox is to be stoned. Exo 21:33 If a man makes a hole in the earth without covering it up, and an ox or an ass dropping into it comes to its death; Exo 21:34 The owner of the hole is responsible; he will have to make payment to their owner, but the dead beast will be his. Exo 21:35 And if one man's ox does damage to another man's ox, causing its death, then the living ox is to be exchanged for money, and division made of the price of it, and of the price of the dead one. Exo 21:36 But if it is common knowledge that the ox has frequently done such damage in the past, and its owner has not kept it under control, he will have to give ox for ox; and the dead beast will be his. Exo 22:1 If a man takes without right another man's ox or his sheep, and puts it to death or gets a price for it, he is to give five oxen for an ox, or four sheep for a sheep, in payment: the thief will have to make payment for what he has taken; if he has no money, he himself will have to be exchanged for money, so that payment may be made. Exo 22:2 If a thief is taken in the act of forcing his way into a house, and his death is caused by a blow, the owner of the house is not responsible for his blood. Exo 22:3 But if it is after dawn, he will be responsible. Exo 22:4 If he still has what he had taken, whatever it is, ox or ass or sheep, he is to give twice its value. Exo 22:5 If a man makes a fire in a field or a vine-garden, and lets the fire do damage to another man's field, he is to give of the best produce of his field or his vine-garden to make up for it. Exo 22:6 If there is a fire and the flames get to the thorns at the edge of the field, causing destruction of the cut grain or of the living grain, or of the field, he who made the fire will have to make up for the damage. Exo 22:7 If a man puts money or goods in the care of his neighbour to keep for him, and it is taken from the man's house, if they get the thief, he will have to make payment of twice the value. Exo 22:8 If they do not get the thief, let the master of the house come before the judges and take an oath that he has not put his hand on his neighbour's goods. Exo 22:9 In any question about an ox or an ass or a sheep or clothing, or about the loss of any property which anyone says is his, let the two sides put their cause before God; and he who is judged to be in the wrong is to make payment to his neighbour of twice the value. Exo 22:10 If a man puts an ass or an ox or a sheep or any beast into the keeping of his neighbour, and it comes to death or is damaged or is taken away, without any person seeing it: Exo 22:11 If he takes his oath before the Lord that he has not put his hand to his neighbour's goods, the owner is to take his word for it and he will not have to make payment for it. Exo 22:12 But if it is taken from him by a thief, he is to make up for the loss of it to its owner. Exo 22:13 But if it has been damaged by a beast, and he is able to make this clear, he will not have to make payment for what was damaged. Exo 22:14 If a man gets from his neighbour the use of one of his beasts, and it is damaged or put to death when the owner is not with it, he will certainly have to make payment for the loss. Exo 22:15 If the owner is with it, he will not have to make payment: if he gave money for the use of it, the loss is covered by the payment. Exo 22:16 If a man takes a virgin, who has not given her word to another man, and has connection with her, he will have to give a bride-price for her to be his wife. Exo 22:17 If her father will not give her to him on any account, he will have to give the regular payment for virgins. Exo 22:18 Any woman using unnatural powers or secret arts is to be put to death. Exo 22:19 Any man who has sex connection with a beast is to be put to death. Exo 22:20 Complete destruction will come on any man who makes offerings to any other god but the Lord. Exo 22:21 Do no wrong to a man from a strange country, and do not be hard on him; for you yourselves were living in a strange country, in the land of Egypt. Exo 22:22 Do no wrong to a widow, or to a child whose father is dead. Exo 22:23 If you are cruel to them in any way, and their cry comes up to me, I will certainly give ear; Exo 22:24 And in the heat of my wrath I will put you to death with the sword, so that your wives will be widows and your children without fathers. Exo 22:25 If you let any of the poor among my people have the use of your money, do not be a hard creditor to him, and do not take interest. Exo 22:26 If ever you take your neighbour's clothing in exchange for the use of your money, let him have it back before the sun goes down: Exo 22:27 For it is the only thing he has for covering his skin; what is he to go to sleep in? and when his cry comes up to me, I will give ear, for my mercy is great. Exo 22:28 You may not say evil of the judges, or put a curse on the ruler of your people. Exo 22:29 Do not keep back your offerings from the wealth of your grain and your vines. The first of your sons you are to give to me. Exo 22:30 In the same way with your oxen and your sheep: for seven days let the young one be with its mother; on the eighth day give it to me. Exo 22:31 You are to be holy men to me: the flesh of no animal whose death has been caused by the beasts of the field may be used for your food; it is to be given to the dogs. Exo 23:1 Do not let a false statement go further; do not make an agreement with evil-doers to be a false witness. Exo 23:2 Do not be moved to do wrong by the general opinion, or give the support of your words to a wrong decision: Exo 23:3 But, on the other hand, do not be turned from what is right in order to give support to a poor man's cause. Exo 23:4 If you come across the ox or the ass of one who is no friend to you wandering from its way, you are to take it back to him. Exo 23:5 If you see the ass of one who has no love for you bent down to the earth under the weight which is put on it, you are to come to its help, even against your desire. Exo 23:6 Let no wrong decisions be given in the poor man's cause. Exo 23:7 Keep yourselves far from any false business; never let the upright or him who has done no wrong be put to death: for I will make the evil-doer responsible for his sin. Exo 23:8 Take no rewards in a cause: for rewards make blind those who have eyes to see, and make the decisions of the upright false. Exo 23:9 Do not be hard on the man from a strange country who is living among you; for you have had experience of the feelings of one who is far from the land of his birth, because you yourselves were living in Egypt, in a strange land. Exo 23:10 For six years put seed into your fields and get in the increase; Exo 23:11 But in the seventh year let the land have a rest and be unplanted; so that the poor may have food from it: and let the beasts of the field take the rest. Do the same with your vine-gardens and your olive-trees. Exo 23:12 For six days do your work, and on the seventh day keep the Sabbath; so that your ox and your ass may have rest, together with the son of your servant and the man from a strange land living among you. Exo 23:13 Take note of all these things which I have said to you, and let not the names of other gods come into your minds or from your lips. Exo 23:14 Three times in the year you are to keep a feast to me. Exo 23:15 You are to keep the feast of unleavened bread; for seven days let your bread be without leaven, as I gave you orders, at the regular time in the month Abib (for in it you came out of Egypt); and let no one come before me without an offering: Exo 23:16 And the feast of the grain-cutting, the first-fruits of your planted fields: and the feast at the start of the year, when you have got in all the fruit from your fields. Exo 23:17 Three times in the year let all your males come before the Lord God. Exo 23:18 Do not give the blood of my offering with leavened bread; and do not let the fat of my feast be kept all night till the morning. Exo 23:19 The best of the first-fruits of your land are to be taken into the house of the Lord your God. The young goat is not to be cooked in its mother's milk. Exo 23:20 See, I am sending an angel before you, to keep you on your way and to be your guide into the place which I have made ready for you. Exo 23:21 Give attention to him and give ear to his voice; do not go against him; for your wrongdoing will not be overlooked by him, because my name is in him. Exo 23:22 But if you truly give ear to his voice, and do whatever I say, then I will be against those who are against you, fighting those who are fighting you. Exo 23:23 And my angel will go before you, guiding you into the land of the Amorite and the Hittite and the Perizzite and the Canaanite and the Hivite and the Jebusite, and they will be cut off by my hand. Exo 23:24 Do not go down on your faces and give worship to their gods, or do as they do; but overcome them completely, and let their pillars be broken down. Exo 23:25 And give worship to the Lord your God, who will send his blessing on your bread and on your water; and I will take all disease away from among you. Exo 23:26 All your animals will give birth without loss, not one will be without young in all your land; I will give you a full measure of life. Exo 23:27 I will send my fear before you, putting to flight all the people to whom you come; all those who are against you will go in flight, turning their backs before you. Exo 23:28 I will send hornets before you, driving out the Hivite and the Canaanite and the Hittite before your face. Exo 23:29 I will not send them all out in one year, for fear that their land may become waste, and the beasts of the field be increased overmuch against you. Exo 23:30 Little by little I will send them away before you, till your numbers are increased and you take up your heritage in the land. Exo 23:31 I will let the limits of your land be from the Red Sea to the sea of the Philistines, and from the waste land to the river Euphrates: for I will give the people of those lands into your power; and you will send them out before you. Exo 23:32 Make no agreement with them or with their gods. Exo 23:33 Let them not go on living in your land, or they will make you do evil against me: for if you give worship to their gods, it will certainly be a cause of sin to you. Exo 24:1 And he said to Moses, Come up to the Lord, you and Aaron, and Nadab and Abihu and seventy of the chiefs of Israel; and give me worship from a distance. Exo 24:2 And Moses only may come near to the Lord; but the others are not to come near, and the people may not come up with them. Exo 24:3 Then Moses came and put before the people all the words of the Lord and his laws: and all the people, answering with one voice, said, Whatever the Lord has said we will do. Exo 24:4 Then Moses put down in writing all the words of the Lord, and he got up early in the morning and made an altar at the foot of the mountain, with twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel. Exo 24:5 And he sent some of the young men of the children of Israel to make burned offerings and peace-offerings of oxen to the Lord. Exo 24:6 And Moses took half the blood and put it in basins; draining out half of the blood over the altar. Exo 24:7 And he took the book of the agreement, reading it in the hearing of the people: and they said, Everything which the Lord has said we will do, and we will keep his laws. Exo 24:8 Then Moses took the blood and let it come on the people, and said, This blood is the sign of the agreement which the Lord has made with you in these words. Exo 24:9 Then Moses and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the chiefs of Israel went up: Exo 24:10 And they saw the God of Israel; and under his feet there was, as it seemed, a jewelled floor, clear as the heavens. Exo 24:11 And he put not his hand on the chiefs of the children of Israel: they saw God, and took food and drink. Exo 24:12 And the Lord said to Moses, Come up to me on the mountain, and take your place there: and I will give you the stones on which I have put in writing the law and the orders, so that you may give the people knowledge of them. Exo 24:13 Then Moses and Joshua his servant got up; and Moses went up into the mountain of God. Exo 24:14 And he said to the chiefs, Keep your places here till we come back to you: Aaron and Hur are with you; if anyone has any cause let him go to them. Exo 24:15 And Moses went up into the mountain, and it was covered by the cloud. Exo 24:16 And the glory of the Lord was resting on Mount Sinai, and the cloud was over it for six days; and on the seventh day he said Moses' name out of the cloud. Exo 24:17 And the glory of the Lord was like a flame on the top of the mountain before the eyes of the children of Israel. Exo 24:18 And Moses went up the mountain, into the cloud, and was there for forty days and forty nights. Exo 25:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Exo 25:2 Say to the children of Israel that they are to make me an offering; from every man who has the impulse in his heart take an offering for me. Exo 25:3 And this is the offering you are to take from them: gold and silver and brass; Exo 25:4 And blue and purple and red, and the best linen, and goats' hair; Exo 25:5 And sheepskins coloured red, and leather, and hard wood; Exo 25:6 Oil for the light, spices for the sweet-smelling oil, sweet perfumes for burning; Exo 25:7 Beryls and stones of value to be put on the ephod and on the priest's bag. Exo 25:8 And let them make me a holy place, so that I may be ever present among them. Exo 25:9 Make the House and everything in it from the designs which I will give you. Exo 25:10 And they are to make an ark of hard wood; two and a half cubits long, and a cubit and a half wide and high. Exo 25:11 It is to be plated inside and out with the best gold, with an edge of gold all round it Exo 25:12 And make four rings of gold for it, to be fixed on its four feet, two rings on one side of it and two on the other. Exo 25:13 And make rods of the same wood, plating them with gold. Exo 25:14 And put the rods through the rings at the sides of the ark, for lifting it. Exo 25:15 The rods are to be kept in the rings, and never taken out. Exo 25:16 Inside the ark you are to put the record which I will give you. Exo 25:17 And you are to make a cover of the best gold, two and a half cubits long and a cubit and a half wide. Exo 25:18 And at the two ends of the cover you are to make two winged ones of hammered gold, Exo 25:19 One at one end and one at the other; the winged ones are to be part of the cover. Exo 25:20 And their wings are to be outstretched over the cover, and the winged ones are to be opposite one another, facing the cover. Exo 25:21 And put the cover over the ark, and in the ark the record which I will give you. Exo 25:22 And there, between the two winged ones on the cover of the ark, I will come to you, face to face, and make clear to you all the orders I have to give you for the children of Israel. Exo 25:23 And you are to make a table of the same wood, two cubits long, a cubit wide and a cubit and a half high, Exo 25:24 Plated with the best gold, with a gold edge all round it; Exo 25:25 And make a frame all round it, as wide as a man's hand, with a gold edge to the frame. Exo 25:26 And make four gold rings and put them at the four angles, on the four feet of the table; Exo 25:27 The rings are to be fixed under the frame to take the rods with which the table is to be lifted. Exo 25:28 Make rods of the same wood, plated with gold, for lifting the table. Exo 25:29 And make the table-vessels, the spoons and the cups and the basins for liquids, all of the best gold. Exo 25:30 And on the table at all times you are to keep my holy bread. Exo 25:31 And you are to make a support for lights, of the best gold; its base and its pillar are to be of hammered gold; its cups, its buds, and its flowers are to be made of the same metal. Exo 25:32 It is to have six branches coming out from its sides; three branches from one side and three from the other. Exo 25:33 Every branch having three cups made like almond flowers, every cup with a bud and a flower, on all the branches. Exo 25:34 And on the pillar, four cups like almond flowers, every one with its bud and its flower: Exo 25:35 And under every two branches a bud, made with the branch, for all the six branches of it. Exo 25:36 The buds and the branches are to be made of the same metal; all together one complete work of hammered gold. Exo 25:37 Then you are to make its seven vessels for the lights, putting them in their place so that they give light in front of it. Exo 25:38 And the instruments and trays for use with it are all to be of the best gold. Exo 25:39 A talent of gold will be needed for it, with all these vessels. Exo 25:40 And see that you make them from the design which you saw on the mountain. Exo 26:1 And you are to make a House for me, with ten curtains of the best linen, blue and purple and red, worked with designs of winged ones by a good workman. Exo 26:2 Every curtain is to be twenty-eight cubits long and four cubits wide, all of the same measure. Exo 26:3 Five curtains are to be joined together, and the other five are to be joined together. Exo 26:4 And you are to put twists of blue cord on the edge of the outside curtain of the first group of five, and on the edge of the outside curtain of the second group of five; Exo 26:5 Fifty twists on one curtain and fifty on the other, the twists to be opposite one another. Exo 26:6 Then make fifty gold hooks, joining the curtains together by the hooks, and in this way the House will be made. Exo 26:7 And you are to make curtains of goats' hair for a tent over the House, eleven curtains. Exo 26:8 Every curtain is to be thirty cubits long and four cubits wide, all of the same measure. Exo 26:9 Five of these curtains are to be joined together, and the other six are to be joined together, the sixth being folded over to make a hanging in front of the tent. Exo 26:10 And you are to put fifty twists of cord on the edge of the outside curtain of one group, and fifty twists on the edge of the outside curtain of the other group. Exo 26:11 Then make fifty brass hooks and put the hooks into the twists, joining the tent together to make it one. Exo 26:12 And the folded part which is over of the curtains of the tent, the half-curtain which is folded back, will be hanging down over the back of the House. Exo 26:13 And the cubit which is over of the ten curtains at the sides will be hanging over the two sides of the House as a cover. Exo 26:14 And then you are to make a cover for the tent, of sheepskins coloured red, and a cover of leather over that. Exo 26:15 And you are to make upright boards of hard wood for the House. Exo 26:16 Every board is to be ten cubits high and a cubit and a half wide. Exo 26:17 Every board is to be joined to the one nearest to it by two tongues, and so for every board in the House. Exo 26:18 These are the boards needed for the house; twenty boards for the south side, Exo 26:19 With forty silver bases under the twenty boards, two bases under every board to take its tongues. Exo 26:20 And twenty boards for the second side of the house on the north, Exo 26:21 With their forty silver bases, two under every board. Exo 26:22 And six boards for the back of the House on the west, Exo 26:23 With two boards for the angles of the House at the back. Exo 26:24 The two are to be joined together at the base and at the top to one ring, forming the two angles. Exo 26:25 So there are to be eight boards, with their sixteen silver bases, two bases under every board. Exo 26:26 And make rods of the same wood, five for the boards on the one side, Exo 26:27 And five for the boards on the other side of the House, and five for the west side of the House at the back. Exo 26:28 And the middle rod is to go through the rings of all the boards from end to end. Exo 26:29 And the boards are to be plated with gold, having gold rings for the rods to go through: and the rods are to be plated with gold. Exo 26:30 And you are to make the House from the design which you saw on the mountain. Exo 26:31 And you are to make a veil of the best linen, blue and purple and red, worked with designs of winged ones by a good workman: Exo 26:32 Hanging it by gold hooks from four pillars of wood, plated with gold and fixed in silver bases. Exo 26:33 And you are to put up the veil under the hooks, and put inside it the ark of the law: the veil is to be a division between the holy place and the most holy. Exo 26:34 You are to put the cover on the ark of the law, inside the most holy place. Exo 26:35 And outside the veil you are to put the table, and the support for the lights opposite the table on the south side of the House; and the table is to be on the north side. Exo 26:36 And you are to make a curtain for the doorway of the Tent, of the best linen with needlework of blue and purple and red. Exo 26:37 And make five pillars for the curtain, of hard wood plated with gold; their hooks are to be of gold and their bases of brass Exo 27:1 And make an altar of hard wood, a square altar, five cubits long, five cubits wide and three cubits high. Exo 27:2 Put horns at the four angles of it, made of the same, plating it all with brass. Exo 27:3 And make all its vessels, the baskets for taking away the dust of the fire, the spades and basins and meat-hooks and fire-trays, of brass. Exo 27:4 And make a network of brass, with four brass rings at its four angles. Exo 27:5 And put the network under the shelf round the altar so that the net comes half-way up the altar. Exo 27:6 And make rods for the altar, of hard wood, plated with brass. Exo 27:7 And put the rods through the rings at the two opposite sides of the altar, for lifting it. Exo 27:8 The altar is to be hollow, boarded in with wood; make it from the design which you saw on the mountain. Exo 27:9 And let there be an open space round the House, with hangings for its south side of the best linen, a hundred cubits long. Exo 27:10 Their twenty pillars and their twenty bases are to be of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their bands are to be of silver. Exo 27:11 And on the north side in the same way, hangings a hundred cubits long, with twenty pillars of brass on bases of brass; their hooks and their bands are to be of silver. Exo 27:12 And for the open space on the west side, the hangings are to be fifty cubits wide, with ten pillars and ten bases; Exo 27:13 And on the east side the space is to be fifty cubits wide. Exo 27:14 On the one side of the doorway will be hangings fifteen cubits long, with three pillars and three bases; Exo 27:15 And on the other side, hangings fifteen cubits long, with three pillars and three bases. Exo 27:16 And across the doorway, a veil of twenty cubits of the best linen, made of needlework of blue and purple and red, with four pillars and four bases. Exo 27:17 All the pillars round the open space are to have silver bands, with hooks of silver and bases of brass. Exo 27:18 The open space is to be a hundred cubits long, fifty cubits wide, with sides five cubits high, curtained with the best linen, with bases of brass. Exo 27:19 All the instruments for the work of the House, and all its nails, and the nails of the open space are to be of brass. Exo 27:20 Give orders to the children of Israel to give you clear olive oil for the lights, so that a light may be burning there at all times. Exo 27:21 Let Aaron and his sons put this in order, evening and morning, before the Lord, inside the Tent of meeting, outside the veil which is before the ark; this is to be an order for ever, from generation to generation, to be kept by the children of Israel. Exo 28:1 Now let Aaron your brother, and his sons with him, come near from among the children of Israel, so that they may be my priests, even Aaron, and Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar, his sons. Exo 28:2 And make holy robes for Aaron your brother, so that he may be clothed with glory and honour. Exo 28:3 Give orders to all the wise-hearted workmen, whom I have made full of the spirit of wisdom, to make robes for Aaron, so that he may be made holy as my priest. Exo 28:4 This is what they are to make: a priest's bag, an ephod, and a robe, and a coat of coloured needlework, a head-dress, and a linen band; they are to make holy robes for Aaron your brother and for his sons, so that they may do the work of priests for me. Exo 28:5 They are to take the gold and blue and purple and red and the best linen, Exo 28:6 And make the ephod of gold and blue and purple and red and the best linen, the work of a designer. Exo 28:7 It is to have two bands stitched to it at the top of the arms, joining it together. Exo 28:8 And the beautifully worked band, which goes on it, is to be of the same work and the same material, of gold and blue and purple and red and twisted linen-work. Exo 28:9 You are to take two beryl stones, on which the names of the children of Israel are to be cut: Exo 28:10 Six names on the one stone and six on the other, in the order of their birth. Exo 28:11 With the work of a jeweller, like the cutting of a stamp, the names of the children of Israel are to be cut on them, and they are to be fixed in twisted frames of gold. Exo 28:12 And the two stones are to be placed on the ephod, over the arm-holes, to be stones of memory for the children of Israel: Aaron will have their names on his arms when he goes in before the Lord, to keep the Lord in mind of them. Exo 28:13 And you are to make twisted frames of gold; Exo 28:14 And two chains of the best gold, twisted like cords; and have the chains fixed on to the frames. Exo 28:15 And make a priest's bag for giving decisions, designed like the ephod, made of gold and blue and purple and red and the best linen. Exo 28:16 It is to be square, folded in two, a hand-stretch long and a hand-stretch wide. Exo 28:17 And on it you are to put four lines of jewels; the first line is to be a cornelian, a chrysolite, and an emerald; Exo 28:18 The second, a ruby, a sapphire, and an onyx; Exo 28:19 The third, a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst; Exo 28:20 The fourth, a topaz, a beryl, and a jasper; they are to be fixed in twisted frames of gold. Exo 28:21 The jewels are to be twelve in number, for the names of the children of Israel; every jewel having the name of one of the twelve tribes cut on it as on a stamp. Exo 28:22 And you are to make two chains of gold, twisted like cords, to be fixed to the priest's bag. Exo 28:23 And put two gold rings on the two ends of the bag. Exo 28:24 Put the two gold chains on the two rings at the ends of the bag; Exo 28:25 Joining the other ends of the chains to the gold frames and putting them on the front of the ephod, at the top of the arms. Exo 28:26 Then make two gold rings and put them on the lower ends of the bag, at the edge of it on the inner side nearest to the ephod. Exo 28:27 And make two more gold rings and put them on the front of the ephod at the top of the arms, at the join, over the worked band: Exo 28:28 So that the rings on the bag may be fixed to the rings of the ephod by a blue cord and on to the band of the ephod, so that the bag may not come loose from the ephod. Exo 28:29 And so Aaron will have the names of the children of Israel on the priest's bag over his heart whenever he goes into the holy place, to keep the memory of them before the Lord. Exo 28:30 And in the bag you are to put the Urim and Thummim, so that they may be on Aaron's heart whenever he goes in before the Lord; and Aaron may have the power of making decisions for the children of Israel before the Lord at all times. Exo 28:31 The robe which goes with the ephod is to be made all of blue; Exo 28:32 With a hole at the top, in the middle of it; the hole is to be edged with a band to make it strong like the hole in the coat of a fighting-man, so that it may not be broken open. Exo 28:33 And round the skirts of it put fruits in blue and purple and red, with bells of gold between; Exo 28:34 A gold bell and a fruit in turn all round the skirts of the robe. Exo 28:35 Aaron is to put it on for his holy work; and the sound of it will be clear, when he goes into the holy place before the Lord, and when he comes out, keeping him safe from death. Exo 28:36 You are to make a plate of the best gold, cutting on it, as on a stamp, these words: HOLY TO THE LORD. Exo 28:37 Put a blue cord on it and put it on the front of the twisted head-dress: Exo 28:38 And it will be over Aaron's brow, so that Aaron will be responsible for any error in all the holy offerings made by the children of Israel; it will be on his brow at all times, so that their offerings may be pleasing to the Lord. Exo 28:39 The coat is to be made of the best linen, worked in squares; and you are to make a head-dress of linen, and a linen band worked in needlework. Exo 28:40 And for Aaron's sons you are to make coats, and bands, and head-dresses, so that they may be clothed with glory and honour. Exo 28:41 These you are to put on Aaron, your brother, and on his sons, putting oil on them, separating them and making them holy, to do the work of priests to me. Exo 28:42 And you are to make them linen trousers, covering their bodies from the middle to the knee; Exo 28:43 Aaron and his sons are to put these on whenever they go into the Tent of meeting or come near the altar, when they are doing the work of the holy place, so that they may be free from any sin causing death: this is to be an order for him and his seed after him for ever. Exo 29:1 This is what you are to do to make them holy, to do the work of priests to me: Take one young ox and two male sheep, without any mark on them, Exo 29:2 And unleavened bread, and unleavened cakes mixed with oil, and thin unleavened cakes on which oil has been put, made of the best bread-meal; Exo 29:3 Put these in a basket and take them, with the ox and the two sheep. Exo 29:4 And let Aaron and his sons come to the door of the Tent of meeting, and there let them be washed with water. Exo 29:5 Take the robes, and put the coat and the dress and the ephod and the priest's bag on Aaron; put the band of needlework round him, Exo 29:6 And let the head-dress be placed on his head and the holy crown on the head-dress. Exo 29:7 Then take the oil and put it on his head. Exo 29:8 And take his sons and put their robes on them; Exo 29:9 And put the linen bands round Aaron and his sons, and the head-dresses on them, to make them priests by my order for ever: so you are to make Aaron and his sons holy to me. Exo 29:10 Then let the ox be taken in front of the Tent of meeting: and let Aaron and his sons put their hands on its head. Exo 29:11 And you are to put the ox to death before the Lord at the door of the Tent of meeting. Exo 29:12 Then take some of the blood of the ox, and put it on the horns of the altar with your finger, draining out all the rest of the blood at the base of the altar. Exo 29:13 And take all the fat covering the inside of the ox, and the fat joining the liver and the two kidneys with the fat round them, and let them be burned on the altar; Exo 29:14 But the flesh of the ox and its skin and its waste parts are to be burned outside the circle of the tents, for it is a sin-offering. Exo 29:15 Then take one of the sheep, and let Aaron and his sons put their hands on its head. Exo 29:16 Then let it be put to death, so that the sides of the altar are marked with its blood. Exo 29:17 Then the sheep is to be cut up into its parts, and after washing its legs and its inside parts, you are to put them with the parts and the head, Exo 29:18 And let them all be burned on the altar as a burned offering to the Lord: a sweet smell, an offering made by fire to the Lord. Exo 29:19 Then take the other sheep; and after Aaron and his sons have put their hands on its head, Exo 29:20 You are to put the sheep to death, and take some of its blood and put it on the point of Aaron's right ear, and of the right ears of his sons, and on the thumbs of their right hands and the great toes of their right feet, dropping the rest of the blood on the sides of the altar. Exo 29:21 Then take some of the blood on the altar, and the oil, and put it on Aaron and his robes and on his sons and on their robes, so that he and his robes and his sons and their robes may be made holy. Exo 29:22 Then take the fat of the sheep, the fat tail, the fat covering the insides, and the fat joining the liver and the two kidneys with the fat round them, and the right leg; for by the offering of this sheep they are to be marked out as priests: Exo 29:23 And take one bit of bread and one cake of oiled bread and one thin cake out of the basket of unleavened bread which is before the Lord: Exo 29:24 And put them all on the hands of Aaron and of his sons, to be waved for a wave offering before the Lord. Exo 29:25 Then take them from their hands, and let them be burned on the burned offering on the altar, a sweet smell before the Lord, an offering made by fire to the Lord. Exo 29:26 Then take the breast of Aaron's sheep, waving it before the Lord; and it is to be your part of the offering. Exo 29:27 So you are to make holy the breast of the sheep which is waved and the leg which is lifted up on high, that is, of the sheep which is offered for Aaron and his sons; Exo 29:28 And it will be their part as a right for ever from the children of Israel, it is a special offering from the children of Israel, made from their peace-offerings, a special offering lifted up to the Lord. Exo 29:29 And Aaron's holy robes will be used by his sons after him; they will put them on when they are made priests. Exo 29:30 For seven days the son who becomes priest in his place will put them on when he comes into the Tent of meeting to do the work of the holy place. Exo 29:31 Then take the sheep of the wave offering and let its flesh be cooked in water in a holy place. Exo 29:32 And let Aaron and his sons make a meal of it, with the bread in the basket, at the door of the Tent of meeting. Exo 29:33 All those things which were used as offerings to take away sin, and to make them holy to be priests, they may have for food: but no one who is not a priest may have them, for they are holy food. Exo 29:34 And if any of the flesh of the offering or of the bread is over till the morning, let it be burned with fire; it is not to be used for food, for it is holy. Exo 29:35 All these things you are to do to Aaron and his sons as I have given you orders: for seven days the work of making them priests is to go on. Exo 29:36 Every day an ox is to be offered as a sin-offering, to take away sins: and by this offering on it, you will make the altar clean from sin; and you are to put oil on it and make it holy. Exo 29:37 For seven days you are to make offerings for the altar and make it holy, so that it may become completely holy, and anything touching it will become holy. Exo 29:38 Now this is the offering which you are to make on the altar: two lambs in their first year, every day regularly. Exo 29:39 One lamb is to be offered in the morning and the other in the evening: Exo 29:40 And with the one lamb, a tenth part of an ephah of the best meal, mixed with a fourth part of a hin of clear oil; and the fourth part of a hin of wine for a drink offering. Exo 29:41 And the other lamb is to be offered in the evening, and with it the same meal offering and drink offering, for a sweet smell, an offering made by fire to the Lord. Exo 29:42 This is to be a regular burned offering made from generation to generation, at the door of the Tent of meeting before the Lord, where I will come face to face with you and have talk with you. Exo 29:43 There I will come face to face with the children of Israel, and the Tent will be made holy by my glory Exo 29:44 I will make holy the Tent of meeting and the altar: and Aaron and his sons I will make holy, to be my priests Exo 29:45 Among the children of Israel I will make my living-place, and I will be their God. Exo 29:46 And they will see that I am the Lord their God, who took them out of the land of Egypt, so that I might be ever with them: I am the Lord their God. Exo 30:1 And you are to make an altar for the burning of perfume; of hard wood let it be made. Exo 30:2 The altar is to be square, a cubit long and a cubit wide, and two cubits high, and its horns are to be made of the same. Exo 30:3 It is to be plated with the best gold, the top of it and the sides and the horns, with an edging of gold all round it. Exo 30:4 Under the edge on the two opposite sides, you are to make two gold rings, to take the rods for lifting it. Exo 30:5 And make these rods of the same wood, plating them with gold. Exo 30:6 And let it be placed in front of the veil before the ark of the law, before the cover which is over the law, where I will come face to face with you. Exo 30:7 And on this altar sweet spices are to be burned by Aaron every morning when he sees to the lights. Exo 30:8 And every evening, when he puts the lights up in their places, the spices are to be burned, a sweet-smelling smoke going up before the Lord from generation to generation for ever. Exo 30:9 No strange perfume, no burned offering or meal offering, and no drink offering is to be offered on it. Exo 30:10 And once every year Aaron is to make its horns clean: with the blood of the sin-offering he is to make it clean once every year from generation to generation: it is most holy to the Lord. Exo 30:11 And the Lord said to Moses, Exo 30:12 When you are taking the number of the children of Israel, let every man who is numbered give to the Lord a price for his life, so that no disease may come on them when they are numbered. Exo 30:13 And this is what they are to give; let every man who is numbered give half a shekel, by the scale of the holy place: (the shekel being valued at twenty gerahs:) this money is an offering to the Lord. Exo 30:14 Everyone who is numbered, from twenty years old and over, is to give an offering to the Lord. Exo 30:15 The man of wealth is to give no more and the poor man no less than the half-shekel of silver, when the offering is made to the Lord as the price for your lives. Exo 30:16 And you are to take this money from the children of Israel to be used for the work of the Tent of meeting, to keep the memory of the children of Israel before the Lord and to be the price of your lives. Exo 30:17 And the Lord said to Moses, Exo 30:18 You are to make a brass washing-vessel, with a brass base; and put it between the Tent of meeting and the altar, with water in it; Exo 30:19 That it may be used by Aaron and his sons for washing their hands and feet; Exo 30:20 Whenever they go into the Tent of meeting they are to be washed with water, to keep them from death; and whenever they come near to do the work of the altar, or to make an offering by fire to the Lord, Exo 30:21 Their hands and feet are to be washed. so that they may be safe from death: this is an order to them for ever; to him and his seed from generation to generation. Exo 30:22 And the Lord said to Moses, Exo 30:23 Take the best spices, five hundred shekels' weight of liquid myrrh, and of sweet cinnamon half as much, that is, two hundred and fifty shekels, and two hundred and fifty shekels of sweet calamus, Exo 30:24 And of cassia, five hundred shekels' weight measured by the scale of the holy place, and of olive oil a hin: Exo 30:25 And make these into a holy oil, a perfume made by the art of the perfume-maker; it is to be a holy oil. Exo 30:26 This oil is to be put on the Tent of meeting, and on the ark of the law, Exo 30:27 And on the table and all its vessels, and on the support for the lights, with its vessels, and on the altar for burning spices, Exo 30:28 And on the altar of burned offerings with its vessels, and on the washing-vessel and its base. Exo 30:29 And you are to make them most holy; anything touching them will become holy. Exo 30:30 And put the oil on Aaron and his sons, making them holy to do the work of priests to me. Exo 30:31 And say to the children of Israel, This is to be the Lord's holy oil, from generation to generation. Exo 30:32 It is not to be used for man's flesh, and no other is to be made like it: holy it is, and you are to keep it holy. Exo 30:33 Whoever makes any like it, or puts it on one who is not a priest, will be cut off from his people. Exo 30:34 And the Lord said to Moses, Take sweet spices, stacte and onycha and galbanum, with the best frankincense, in equal weights; Exo 30:35 And make from them a perfume, such as is made by the art of the perfume-maker, mixed with salt, and clean and holy. Exo 30:36 And put some of it, crushed very small, in front of the ark in the Tent of meeting, where I will come face to face with you; it is to be most holy. Exo 30:37 You are not to make any perfume like it for yourselves: it is to be kept holy to the Lord. Exo 30:38 Whoever makes any like it, for its sweet smell, will be cut off from his people. Exo 31:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Exo 31:2 I have made selection of Bezalel, the son of Uri, by name, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah: Exo 31:3 And I have given him the spirit of God and made him wise and full of knowledge and expert in every sort of handwork, Exo 31:4 To do all sorts of delicate work in gold and silver and brass; Exo 31:5 In cutting stones for framing, and to do every form of woodwork. Exo 31:6 And I have made selection of Oholiab with him, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan; and in the hearts of all who are wise I have put the knowledge to make whatever I have given you orders to have made; Exo 31:7 The Tent of meeting, and the ark of the law, and the cover which is on it, and all the things for the tent, Exo 31:8 And the table with its vessels, and the holy light-support with all its vessels, and the altar for the burning of spices, Exo 31:9 And the altar of burned offerings with all its vessels, and the washing-vessel with its base, Exo 31:10 And the robes of needlework, the holy robes for Aaron and for his sons, for their use when acting as priests, Exo 31:11 And the holy oil, and the perfume of sweet spices for the holy place; they will do whatever I have given you orders to have done. Exo 31:12 And the Lord said to Moses, Exo 31:13 Say to the children of Israel that they are to keep my Sabbaths; for the Sabbath day is a sign between me and you through all your generations; so that you may see that I am the Lord who makes you holy. Exo 31:14 So you are to keep the Sabbath as a holy day; and anyone not honouring it will certainly be put to death: whoever does any work on that day will be cut off from his people. Exo 31:15 Six days may work be done, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of complete rest, holy to the Lord; whoever does any work on the Sabbath day is to be put to death. Exo 31:16 And the children of Israel are to keep the Sabbath holy, from generation to generation, by an eternal agreement. Exo 31:17 It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever; because in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he took his rest and had pleasure in it. Exo 31:18 And when his talk with Moses on Mount Sinai was ended, he gave him the two stones of the law, two stones on which was the writing made by the finger of God. Exo 32:1 And when the people saw that Moses was a long time coming down from the mountain, they all came to Aaron and said to him, Come, make us a god to go before us: as for this Moses, who took us up out of the land of Egypt, we have no idea what has become of him. Exo 32:2 Then Aaron said to them, Take off the gold rings which are in the ears of your wives and your sons and your daughters, and give them to me. Exo 32:3 And all the people took the gold rings from their ears and gave them to Aaron. Exo 32:4 And he took the gold from them and, hammering it with an instrument, he made it into the metal image of a young ox: and they said, This is your god, O Israel, who took you out of the land of Egypt. Exo 32:5 And when Aaron saw this, he made an altar before it, and made a public statement, saying, Tomorrow there will be a feast to the Lord. Exo 32:6 So early on the day after they got up and made burned offerings and peace-offerings; and took their seats at the feast, and then gave themselves to pleasure. Exo 32:7 And the Lord said to Moses, Go down quickly; for your people, whom you took out of the land of Egypt, are turned to evil ways; Exo 32:8 Even now they are turned away from the rule I gave them, and have made themselves a metal ox and given worship to it and offerings, saying, This is your god, O Israel, who took you up out of the land of Egypt. Exo 32:9 And the Lord said to Moses, I have been watching this people, and I see that they are a stiff-necked people. Exo 32:10 Now do not get in my way, for my wrath is burning against them; I will send destruction on them, but of you I will make a great nation. Exo 32:11 But Moses made prayer to God, saying, Lord, why is your wrath burning against your people whom you took out of the land of Egypt, with great power and with the strength of your hand? Exo 32:12 Why let the Egyptians say, He took them out to an evil fate, to put them to death on the mountains, cutting them off from the earth? Let your wrath be turned away from them, and send not this evil on your people. Exo 32:13 Have in mind Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, your servants, to whom you gave your oath, saying, I will make your seed like the stars of heaven in number, and all this land will I give to your seed, as I said, to be their heritage for ever. Exo 32:14 So the Lord let himself be turned from his purpose of sending punishment on his people. Exo 32:15 Then Moses came down the mountain with the two stones of the law in his hand; the stones had writing on their two sides, on the front and on the back. Exo 32:16 The stones were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, cut on the stones. Exo 32:17 Now when the noise and the voices of the people came to the ears of Joshua, he said to Moses, There is a noise of war in the tents. Exo 32:18 And Moses said, It is not the voice of men who are overcoming in the fight, or the cry of those who have been overcome; it is the sound of songs which comes to my ear. Exo 32:19 And when he came near the tents he saw the image of the ox, and the people dancing; and in his wrath Moses let the stones go from his hands, and they were broken at the foot of the mountain. Exo 32:20 And he took the ox which they had made, burning it in the fire and crushing it to powder, and he put it in the water and made the children of Israel take a drink of it. Exo 32:21 And Moses said to Aaron, What did the people do to you that you let this great sin come on them? Exo 32:22 And Aaron said, Let not my lord be angry; you have seen how the purposes of this people are evil. Exo 32:23 For they said to me, Make us a god to go before us: as for this Moses, who took us up out of the land of Egypt, we have no idea what has come to him. Exo 32:24 Then I said to them, Whoever has any gold, let him take it off; so they gave it to me, and I put it in the fire, and this image of an ox came out. Exo 32:25 And Moses saw that the people were out of control, for Aaron had let them loose to their shame before their haters: Exo 32:26 Then Moses took his place at the way into the tents, and said, Whoever is on the Lord's side, let him come to me. And all the sons of Levi came together to him. Exo 32:27 And he said to them, This is the word of the Lord, the God of Israel: Let every man take his sword at his side, and go from one end of the tents to the other, putting to death his brother and his friend and his neighbour. Exo 32:28 And the sons of Levi did as Moses said; and about three thousand of the people were put to death that day. Exo 32:29 And Moses said, You have made yourselves priests to the Lord this day; for every one of you has made the offering of his son and his brother; the blessing of the Lord is on you this day. Exo 32:30 And on the day after, Moses said to the people, Great has been your sin: but I will go up to the Lord, and see if I may get forgiveness for your sin. Exo 32:31 Then Moses went back to the Lord and said, This people has done a great sin, making themselves a god of gold; Exo 32:32 But now, if you will give them forgiveness--but if not, let my name be taken out of your book. Exo 32:33 And the Lord said to Moses, Whoever has done evil against me will be taken out of my book. Exo 32:34 But now, go, take the people into that place of which I have given you word; see, my angel will go before you: but when the time of my judging has come, I will send punishment on them for their sin. Exo 32:35 And the Lord sent punishment on the people because they gave worship to the ox which Aaron made. Exo 33:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Go forward from this place, you and the people whom you have taken up out of the land of Egypt, to that land about which I made an oath to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, saying, To your seed will I give it. Exo 33:2 And I will send an angel before you, driving out the Canaanite and the Amorite and the Hittite and the Perizzite and the Hivite and the Jebusite: Exo 33:3 Go up to that land flowing with milk and honey; but I will not go up among you, for you are a stiff-necked people, for fear that I send destruction on you while you are on the way. Exo 33:4 Hearing this bad news the people were full of grief, and no one put on his ornaments. Exo 33:5 And the Lord said to Moses, Say to the children of Israel, You are a stiff-necked people: if I come among you, even for a minute, I will send destruction on you; so take off all your ornaments, so that I may see what to do with you. Exo 33:6 So the children of Israel took off their ornaments at Mount Horeb, and did not put them on again. Exo 33:7 Now it was Moses' way to put up the Tent of meeting outside the tent-circle, at some distance away; giving it the name of The Tent of meeting. And everyone desiring to make his prayer to the Lord went to the Tent of meeting outside the tent-circle. Exo 33:8 And whenever Moses went out to the Tent of meeting, all the people got up and everyone went to the door of his tent, looking after Moses till he went inside the Tent. Exo 33:9 And whenever Moses went into the Tent, the pillar of cloud came down, and took its place by the door of the Tent, as long as the Lord was talking with Moses. Exo 33:10 And all the people saw the cloud at the door of the Tent, and they went down on their faces, everyone at the door of his tent. Exo 33:11 And the Lord had talk with Moses face to face, as a man may have talk with his friend. And when Moses came back to the tents, his servant, the young man Joshua, the son of Nun, did not come away from the Tent. Exo 33:12 And Moses said to the Lord, See, you say to me, Be this people's guide on their journey, but you have not made clear to me whom you will send with me. But you have said, I have knowledge of you by name, and you have grace in my eyes. Exo 33:13 If then I have grace in your eyes, let me see your ways, so that I may have knowledge of you and be certain of your grace; and my prayer is that you will keep in mind that this nation is your people. Exo 33:14 And he said, I myself will go with you and give you rest. Exo 33:15 And Moses said, If you yourself are not going with us, do not send us on from here. Exo 33:16 For is not the fact of your going with us the sign that I and this people have grace in your eyes, so that we, that is, I and your people, are separate from all other people on the face of the earth? Exo 33:17 And the Lord said to Moses, I will do as you say: for you have grace in my eyes, and I have knowledge of you by your name. Exo 33:18 And Moses said, O Lord, let me see your glory. Exo 33:19 And he said, I will make all the light of my being come before you, and will make clear to you what I am; I will be kind to those to whom I will be kind, and have mercy on those on whom I will have mercy. Exo 33:20 But it is not possible for you to see my face, for no man may see me and still go on living. Exo 33:21 And the Lord said, See, there is a place near me, and you may take your place on the rock: Exo 33:22 And when my glory goes by, I will put you in a hole in the rock, covering you with my hand till I have gone past: Exo 33:23 Then I will take away my hand, and you will see my back: but my face is not to be seen. Exo 34:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Make two other stones like the first two; and I will put on them the words which were on the first stones, which were broken by you. Exo 34:2 And be ready by the morning, and come up on Mount Sinai, and come before me there in the morning, on the top of the mountain. Exo 34:3 No one is to come up with you, and let no man be seen anywhere on the mountain; let no flocks or herds come near to get their food at its foot. Exo 34:4 So Moses got two stones cut like the first; and early in the morning he went up Mount Sinai, as the Lord had said, with the two stones in his hand. Exo 34:5 And the Lord came down in the cloud and took his place by the side of Moses, and Moses gave worship to the name of the Lord. Exo 34:6 And the Lord went past before his eyes, saying, The Lord, the Lord, a God full of pity and grace, slow to wrath and great in mercy and faith; Exo 34:7 Having mercy on thousands, overlooking evil and wrongdoing and sin; he will not let wrongdoers go free, but will send punishment on children for the sins of their fathers, and on their children's children to the third and fourth generation. Exo 34:8 Then Moses quickly went down on his face in worship. Exo 34:9 And he said, If now I have grace in your eyes, let the Lord go among us, for this is a stiff-necked people, and give us forgiveness for our wrongdoing and our sin, and take us for your heritage. Exo 34:10 And the Lord said, See, this is what I will undertake: before the eyes of your people I will do wonders, such as have not been done in all the earth or in any nation: and all your people will see the work of the Lord, for what I am about to do for you is greatly to be feared. Exo 34:11 Take care to do the orders which I give you today; I will send out from before you the Amorite and the Canaanite and the Hittite and the Perizzite and the Hivite and the Jebusite. Exo 34:12 But take care, and do not make any agreement with the people of the land where you are going, for it will be a cause of sin to you. Exo 34:13 But their altars are to be overturned and their pillars broken and their images cut down: Exo 34:14 For you are to be worshippers of no other god: for the Lord is a God who will not give his honour to another. Exo 34:15 So see that you make no agreement with the people of the land, and do not go after their gods, or take part in their offerings, or be guests at their feasts, Exo 34:16 Or take their daughters for your sons; for when their daughters give worship before their gods, they will make your sons take part with them. Exo 34:17 Make for yourselves no gods of metal. Exo 34:18 Keep the feast of unleavened bread; for seven days your food is to be bread without leaven, as I gave you orders, at the regular time in the month Abib; for in that month you came out of Egypt. Exo 34:19 Every first male child is mine; the first male birth of your cattle, the first male of every ox and sheep. Exo 34:20 A lamb may be given in payment for the young of an ass, but if you will not make payment for it, its neck will have to be broken. For all the first of your sons you are to make payment. No one is to come before me without an offering. Exo 34:21 Six days let work be done, but on the seventh day take your rest: at ploughing time and at the grain-cutting you are to have a day for rest. Exo 34:22 And you are to keep the feast of weeks when you get in the first-fruits of the grain, and the feast at the turn of the year when you take in the produce of your fields. Exo 34:23 Three times in the year let all your males come before the Lord, the God of Israel. Exo 34:24 For I will send out the nations before you and make wide the limits of your land; and no man will make an attempt to take your land while you go up to give worship to the Lord, three times in the year. Exo 34:25 No leaven is to be offered with the blood of my offering, and the offering of the Passover feast may not be kept till the morning. Exo 34:26 Take the first-fruits of your land as an offering to the house of the Lord your God. Let not the young goat be cooked in its mother's milk Exo 34:27 And the Lord said to Moses, Put all these words in writing; for on them is based the agreement which I will make with you. Exo 34:28 And for forty days and forty nights Moses was there with the Lord, and in that time he had no food or drink. And he put in writing on the stones the words of the agreement, the ten rules of the law. Exo 34:29 Now when Moses came down from Mount Sinai, with the two stones in his hand, he was not conscious that his face was shining because of his talk with God. Exo 34:30 But when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, and the shining of his face, they would not come near him for fear. Exo 34:31 Then Moses sent for them; and Aaron, with the chiefs of the people, came to him; and Moses had talk with them. Exo 34:32 And later, all the children of Israel came near, and he gave them all the orders which the Lord had given him on Mount Sinai. Exo 34:33 And at the end of his talk with them, Moses put a veil over his face. Exo 34:34 But whenever Moses went in before the Lord to have talk with him, he took off the veil till he came out. And whenever he came out he said to the children of Israel what he had been ordered to say; Exo 34:35 And the children of Israel saw that the face of Moses was shining: so Moses put the veil over his face again till he went to the Lord. Exo 35:1 And Moses sent for all the children of Israel to come together, and said to them, This is what the Lord has said and these are his orders. Exo 35:2 Six days let work be done, but the seventh day is to be a holy day to you, a Sabbath of rest to the Lord; whoever does any work on that day is to be put to death. Exo 35:3 No fire is to be lighted in any of your houses on the Sabbath day. Exo 35:4 And Moses said to all the meeting of the children of Israel, This is the order which the Lord has given: Exo 35:5 Take from among you an offering to the Lord; everyone who has the impulse in his heart, let him give his offering to the Lord; gold and silver and brass; Exo 35:6 And blue and purple and red and the best linen and goats' hair, Exo 35:7 And sheepskins coloured red, and leather, and hard wood, Exo 35:8 And oil for the lights, and spices for the holy oil and for the sweet perfumes for burning. Exo 35:9 And beryls and jewels to be cut for the ephod and for the priest's bag. Exo 35:10 And let every wise-hearted man among you come and make whatever has been ordered by the Lord; Exo 35:11 The House and its tent and its cover, its hooks and its boards, its rods and its pillars and its bases; Exo 35:12 The ark with its cover and its rods and the veil hanging before it; Exo 35:13 The table and its rods and all its vessels, and the holy bread; Exo 35:14 And the support for the lights, with its vessels and its lights and the oil for the light; Exo 35:15 And the altar for burning spices, with its rods, and the holy oil and the sweet perfume, and the curtain for the door, at the door of the House; Exo 35:16 The altar of burned offerings, with its network of brass, its rods, and all its vessels, the washing-vessel and its base; Exo 35:17 The hangings for the open space, its pillars and their bases, and the curtain for the doorway; Exo 35:18 The nails for the House, and the nails for the open space and their cords; Exo 35:19 The robes of needlework for the work of the holy place, the holy robes for Aaron the priest, and the robes for his sons when acting as priests. Exo 35:20 And all the children of Israel went away from Moses. Exo 35:21 And everyone whose heart was moved, everyone who was guided by the impulse of his spirit, came with his offering for the Lord, for whatever was needed for the Tent of meeting and its work and for the holy robes. Exo 35:22 They came, men and women, all who were ready to give, and gave pins and nose-rings and finger-rings and neck-ornaments, all of gold; everyone gave an offering of gold to the Lord. Exo 35:23 And everyone who had blue and purple and red and the best linen and goats' hair and sheepskins coloured red and leather, gave them. Exo 35:24 Everyone who had silver and brass gave an offering of them to the Lord; and everyone who had hard wood, such as was needed for the work, gave it. Exo 35:25 And all the women who were expert with their hands, made cloth, and gave the work of their hands, blue and purple and red and the best linen. Exo 35:26 And those women who had the knowledge, made the goats' hair into cloth. Exo 35:27 And the rulers gave the beryls and the cut jewels for the ephod and the priest's bag; Exo 35:28 And the spice and the oil for the light, and the holy oil and the sweet perfumes. Exo 35:29 The children of Israel, every man and woman, from the impulse of their hearts, gave their offerings freely to the Lord for the work which the Lord had given Moses orders to have done. Exo 35:30 And Moses said to the children of Israel, See, the Lord has made selection of Bezalel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah; Exo 35:31 And he has made him full of the spirit of God, in all wisdom and knowledge and art of every sort; Exo 35:32 As an expert designer of beautiful things, working in gold and silver and brass; Exo 35:33 Trained in the cutting of stones and the ornamenting of wood and in every sort of handwork. Exo 35:34 And he has given to him, and to Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, the power of training others. Exo 35:35 To them he has given knowledge of all the arts of the handworker, of the designer, and the expert workman; of the maker of needlework in blue and purple and red and the best linen, and of the maker of cloth; in all the arts of the designer and the trained workman they are expert. Exo 36:1 So let Bezalel and Oholiab get to work, with every wise-hearted man to whom the Lord has given wisdom and knowledge, to do whatever is necessary for the ordering of the holy place, as the Lord has given orders. Exo 36:2 Then Moses sent for Bezalel and Oholiab, and for all the wise-hearted men to whom the Lord had given wisdom, even everyone who was moved by the impulse of his heart to come and take part in the work: Exo 36:3 And they took from Moses all the offerings which the children of Israel had given for the building of the holy place. And still they went on giving him more free offerings every morning. Exo 36:4 Then the wise men, who were doing all the work of the holy place, came from their work; Exo 36:5 And said to Moses, The people are giving much more than is needed for the work which the Lord has given us orders to do. Exo 36:6 So Moses made an order and had it given out through all the tents, saying, Let no man or woman make any more offerings for the holy place. So the people were kept from giving more. Exo 36:7 For the material they had was enough and more than enough for all the work which had to be done. Exo 36:8 Then all the expert workmen among them made the House with its ten curtains; of the best linen, blue and purple and red, they made them, with winged ones worked by expert designers. Exo 36:9 Every curtain was twenty-eight cubits long and four cubits wide, all of the same measure. Exo 36:10 And five curtains were joined together, and the other five curtains were joined together. Exo 36:11 And they put twists of blue cord on the edge of the outside curtain of the first group, and in the same way on the outside curtain of the second group. Exo 36:12 Fifty twists on the one curtain and fifty on the edge of the curtain of the other group; the twists being opposite to one another. Exo 36:13 And they made fifty hooks of gold, joining the curtains one to another with the hooks; and so the House was made. Exo 36:14 And they made curtains of goats' hair for the tent; eleven curtains were made. Exo 36:15 Every curtain was thirty cubits long and four cubits wide, all of the same measure. Exo 36:16 Five curtains were joined together to make one group, and six curtains were joined together to make the other group. Exo 36:17 And they put fifty twists of cord on the edge of the outside curtain of the first group, and fifty twists on the edge of the outside curtain of the second group, Exo 36:18 And fifty hooks of brass for joining them together to make the tent. Exo 36:19 And they made a cover of sheepskins coloured red, to go over the tent, and a cover of leather over that. Exo 36:20 And for the uprights of the House they made boards of hard wood. Exo 36:21 The boards were ten cubits long and one cubit and a half wide. Exo 36:22 Every board had two tongues fixed into it; all the boards were made in this way. Exo 36:23 They made twenty boards for the south side of the House: Exo 36:24 And for these twenty boards, forty silver bases, two bases under every board, to take its tongues. Exo 36:25 And for the second side of the House, on the north, they made twenty boards, Exo 36:26 With their forty silver bases, two bases for every board. Exo 36:27 And for the west side of the House, at the back, they made six boards, Exo 36:28 And two boards for the angles at the back. Exo 36:29 These were joined together at the base and at the top to one ring, so forming the two angles. Exo 36:30 So there were eight boards with sixteen bases of silver, two bases under every board. Exo 36:31 And they made rods of hard wood; five for the boards on one side of the House, Exo 36:32 And five for the boards on the other side of the House, and five for the boards at the back, on the west. Exo 36:33 The middle rod was made to go right through the rings of all the boards from one end to the other. Exo 36:34 All the boards were plated with gold, and the rings through which the rods went were of gold, and the rods were plated with gold. Exo 36:35 And he made the veil of the best linen, blue and purple and red, worked with winged ones designed by expert workmen. Exo 36:36 And they made four pillars for it of hard wood plated with gold: they had hooks of gold and four silver bases. Exo 36:37 And they made a curtain for the door of the tent, of the best linen with needlework of blue and purple and red; Exo 36:38 And five pillars for the curtain, with their hooks; the heads of the pillars were of gold and they were circled with bands of gold; and their five bases were of brass. Exo 37:1 And Bezalel made the ark of hard wood, two and a half cubits long, a cubit and a half wide and a cubit and a half high; Exo 37:2 Plating it inside and out with the best gold, and putting an edge of gold all round it. Exo 37:3 And he made four gold rings for its four angles, two on one side and two on the other, Exo 37:4 And rods of the same wood plated with gold. Exo 37:5 These rods he put in the rings at the sides of the ark, for lifting it. Exo 37:6 And he made the cover all of gold, two and a half cubits long and a cubit and a half wide. Exo 37:7 And he made two winged ones, hammered out of one bit of gold, for the two ends of the cover; Exo 37:8 Placing one at one end and one at the other; the winged ones were part of the cover. Exo 37:9 And their wings were stretched out over the cover; the faces of the winged ones were opposite one another and facing the cover. Exo 37:10 And he made the table of hard wood, two cubits long, a cubit wide and a cubit and a half high; Exo 37:11 Plating it with the best gold and putting a gold edge all round it. Exo 37:12 And he made a frame all round it about as wide as a man's hand, edged with gold all round. Exo 37:13 And he made four gold rings, and put the rings at the angles of its four feet. Exo 37:14 The rings were fixed under the frame to take the rods with which the table was to be lifted. Exo 37:15 The rods for lifting the table he made of hard wood plated with gold. Exo 37:16 And all the table-vessels, the plates and spoons and basins and the cups for liquids, he made of the best gold. Exo 37:17 Then he made the support for the lights, all of the best gold; its base and its pillar were of hammered gold; its cups and buds and flowers were all made out of the same metal: Exo 37:18 It had six branches coming out from its sides, three from one side and three from the other; Exo 37:19 Every branch having three cups made like almond flowers, every cup with a bud and a flower on all the branches; Exo 37:20 And on its pillar, four cups like almond flowers, every one with its bud and its flower; Exo 37:21 And under every two branches a bud, made with the branch, for all six branches of it. Exo 37:22 The buds and the branches were made of the same metal, all together one complete work of the best hammered gold. Exo 37:23 And he made the seven vessels for the lights, and all the necessary instruments for it, of gold. Exo 37:24 A talent of the best gold was used for the making of it and its vessels. Exo 37:25 And he made the altar for the burning of spices, using the same hard wood; it was square, a cubit long and a cubit wide and two cubits high; the horns made of the same. Exo 37:26 The top and the sides and the horns were all plated with the best gold; and he put an edge of gold all round it. Exo 37:27 And he made two gold rings, placing them on the two opposite sides under the edge, to take the rods for lifting it. Exo 37:28 The rods he made of the same hard wood, plating them with gold. Exo 37:29 And he made the holy oil and the perfume of sweet spices for burning, after the art of the perfume-maker. Exo 38:1 The altar of burned offerings he made of hard wood; a square altar, five cubits long, five cubits wide and three cubits high, Exo 38:2 And he put horns at its four angles made of the same, plating it all with brass; Exo 38:3 And brass was used for all the vessels of the altar, the baskets and the spades, the basins and the meat-hooks and the fire-trays; all the vessels he made of brass Exo 38:4 And he made a network of brass for the altar, under the frame round it, stretching half-way up; Exo 38:5 And four rings for the four angles of this network, to take the rods. Exo 38:6 The rods he made of hard wood plated with brass. Exo 38:7 He put the rods through the rings at the opposite sides of the altar for lifting it; he made the altar hollow, boarded in with wood. Exo 38:8 And he made the washing-vessel of brass on a brass base, using the polished brass looking-glasses given by the women who did work at the doors of the Tent of meeting. Exo 38:9 To make the open space, he put hangings on the south side, of the best linen, a hundred cubits long: Exo 38:10 Their twenty pillars and their twenty bases were brass; and the hooks of the pillars and their bands were of silver. Exo 38:11 And for the north side. hangings a hundred cubits long, on twenty brass pillars in brass bases, with silver hooks and bands. Exo 38:12 And on the west side, hangings fifty cubits long, on ten pillars in ten bases, with silver bands. Exo 38:13 And on the east side, the open space was fifty cubits long. Exo 38:14 The hangings on one side of the doorway were fifteen cubits long, on three pillars with their three bases; Exo 38:15 And the same on the other side of the doorway; on this side and on that the hangings were fifteen cubits long, on three pillars with their three bases. Exo 38:16 All the hangings were of the best linen. Exo 38:17 And the bases of the pillars were of brass; their hooks and the bands round the tops of them were of silver; all the pillars were ringed with silver. Exo 38:18 And the curtain for the doorway of the open space was of the best linen, with designs of blue and purple and red in needlework; it was twenty cubits long and five cubits high, to go with the hangings round the sides. Exo 38:19 There were four pillars with their bases, all of brass, the hooks being of silver, and their tops and their bands being covered with silver. Exo 38:20 All the nails used for the House and the open space round it were of brass. Exo 38:21 This is the price of the making of the House, even the House of witness, as it was valued by the word of Moses, for the work of the Levites under the direction of Ithamar, the son of Aaron the priest. Exo 38:22 Bezalel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made everything as the Lord had given orders to Moses. Exo 38:23 And with him was Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan; a designer and a trained workman, expert in needlework of blue and purple and red and the best linen. Exo 38:24 The gold used for all the different work done for the holy place, the gold which was given, was twenty-nine talents, and seven hundred and thirty shekels in weight, by the scale of the holy place. Exo 38:25 And the silver given by those who were numbered of the people was a hundred talents, and a thousand, seven hundred and seventy-five shekels in weight, by the scale of the holy place. Exo 38:26 A beka, that is, half a shekel by the holy scale, for everyone who was numbered; there were six hundred and three thousand, five hundred and fifty men of twenty years old and over. Exo 38:27 Of this silver, a hundred talents was used for making the bases of the pillars of the holy place and of the veil; a talent for every base. Exo 38:28 And a thousand, seven hundred and seventy-five shekels of silver was used to make the hooks for the pillars, and for plating the tops of the pillars and for making their bands. Exo 38:29 The brass which was given was seventy talents, two thousand four hundred shekels; Exo 38:30 From it he made the bases of the doorway of the Tent of meeting and the brass altar and the network for it and all the vessels for the altar, Exo 38:31 And the bases for the open space all round and for its doorway, and all the nails for the House and for the open space. Exo 39:1 And from the needlework of blue and purple and red they made the robes used for the work of the holy place, and the holy robes for Aaron, as the Lord had given orders to Moses. Exo 39:2 The ephod he made of gold and blue and purple and red and the best linen; Exo 39:3 Hammering the gold into thin plates and cutting it into wires to be worked into the blue and the purple and the red and the linen by the designer. Exo 39:4 And they made two bands for joining its edges together at the top of the arms. Exo 39:5 And the beautifully worked band which went on it was of the same design and the same material, worked in gold and blue and purple and red and twisted linen-work, as the Lord gave orders to Moses. Exo 39:6 Then they made the beryl stones, fixed in twisted frames of gold and cut like the cutting of a stamp, with the names of the children of Israel. Exo 39:7 These he put on the ephod, over the arm-holes, to be stones of memory for the children of Israel, as the Lord had said to Moses. Exo 39:8 The priest's bag was designed like the ephod, of the best linen worked with gold and blue and purple and red. Exo 39:9 It was square and folded in two, as long and as wide as the stretch of a man's hand; Exo 39:10 And on it they put four lines of stones: in the first line was a carnelian, a chrysolite, and an emerald; Exo 39:11 In the second, a ruby, a sapphire, and an onyx; Exo 39:12 In the third, a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst; Exo 39:13 In the fourth, a topaz, a beryl, and a jasper; they were fixed in twisted frames of gold. Exo 39:14 There were twelve stones for the twelve tribes of Israel; on every one the name of one of the tribes of Israel was cut, like the cutting of a stamp. Exo 39:15 And on the bag they put gold chains, twisted like cords. Exo 39:16 And they made two gold frames and two gold rings, the rings being fixed to the ends of the priest's bag; Exo 39:17 And they put the two twisted chains on the two rings at the ends of the priest's bag; Exo 39:18 And the other two ends of the chains were joined to the two frames and fixed to the front of the ephod over the arm-holes. Exo 39:19 And they made two rings of gold and put them on the two lower ends of the bag, on the inner side nearest to the ephod. Exo 39:20 And two other gold rings were put on the front of the ephod, over the arm-holes, at the join, and over the worked band. Exo 39:21 And the rings on the bag were fixed to the rings of the ephod by a blue cord, keeping it in place over the band, so that the bag might not get loose, as the Lord gave orders to Moses. Exo 39:22 The robe which went with the ephod was made all of blue; Exo 39:23 With a hole at the top in the middle, like the hole in the coat of a fighting-man, edged with a band to make it strong. Exo 39:24 The skirts of the robe were worked all round with fruits in blue and purple and red made of twisted linen. Exo 39:25 And between the fruits all round the skirt they put gold bells, as the Lord gave orders to Moses. Exo 39:26 All round the skirt of the robe were bells and fruits in turn. Exo 39:27 The coats for Aaron and his sons they made of the best linen; Exo 39:28 And the twisted head-dress for Aaron, and beautiful head-dresses of linen, and linen trousers, Exo 39:29 And a linen band worked with a design of blue and purple and red, as the Lord had said to Moses. Exo 39:30 The plate for the holy crown was made of the best gold, and on it were cut these words, HOLY TO THE LORD. Exo 39:31 It was fixed to the head-dress by a blue cord, as the Lord had given orders to Moses. Exo 39:32 So all the work on the House of the Tent of meeting was done; as the Lord had given orders to Moses, so the children of Israel did it. Exo 39:33 Then they took the House to Moses, the tent with all the things for it; its hooks, its boards, its rods, its pillars, and its bases; Exo 39:34 The outer cover of sheepskins coloured red, and the cover of leather, and the veil for the doorway; Exo 39:35 The ark of the law, with its rods and its cover; Exo 39:36 The table, with all its vessels and the holy bread; Exo 39:37 The support for the lights, with the vessels for the lights to be put in their places on it, and all its vessels, and the oil for the lights; Exo 39:38 And the gold altar, and the holy oil, and the sweet perfume for burning, and the curtain for the doorway of the tent; Exo 39:39 And the brass altar, with its network of brass, and its rods and all its vessels, and the washing-vessel and its base; Exo 39:40 The hangings for the open space, with the pillars and their bases, and the curtain for the doorway, and the cords and nails, and all the instruments necessary for the work of the House of the Tent of meeting; Exo 39:41 The robes for use in the holy place, and the holy robes for Aaron and his sons when acting as priests. Exo 39:42 The children of Israel did everything as the Lord had given orders to Moses. Exo 39:43 Then Moses, when he saw all their work and saw that they had done everything as the Lord had said, gave them his blessing. Exo 40:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Exo 40:2 On the first day of the first month you are to put up the House of the Tent of meeting. Exo 40:3 And inside it put the ark of the law, hanging the veil before it. Exo 40:4 And put the table inside, placing all the things on it in order; and put in the support for the lights, and let its lights be burning. Exo 40:5 And put the gold altar for burning perfumes in front of the ark of the law, hanging the curtain over the doorway of the House. Exo 40:6 And put the altar of burned offerings before the doorway of the House of the Tent of meeting. Exo 40:7 And let the washing-vessel, with water in it, be put between the Tent of meeting and the altar. Exo 40:8 And put up the hangings forming the open space all round it, with the curtain over its doorway. Exo 40:9 And take the holy oil and put it on the House and everything in it, and make it and everything in it holy: Exo 40:10 And put oil on the altar of burned offering, and make it and all its vessels holy; this altar is to be most holy. Exo 40:11 And put oil on the washing-vessel and its base, and make them holy. Exo 40:12 Then let Aaron and his sons come to the door of the Tent of meeting; and after washing them with water, Exo 40:13 You are to put on Aaron the holy robes; and you are to put oil on him, and make him holy, so that he may be my priest. Exo 40:14 And take his sons with him and put coats on them; Exo 40:15 And put oil on them as you did on their father, so that they may be my priests: the putting on of oil will make them priests for ever, from generation to generation. Exo 40:16 And Moses did this; as the Lord gave him orders, so he did. Exo 40:17 So on the first day of the first month in the second year the House was put up. Exo 40:18 Moses put up the House; placing its bases in position and lifting up its uprights, putting in the rods and planting the pillars in their places; Exo 40:19 Stretching the outer tent over it, and covering it, as the Lord had given him orders. Exo 40:20 And he took the law and put it inside the ark, and put the rods at its side and the cover over it; Exo 40:21 And he took the ark into the House, hanging up the veil before it as the Lord had given him orders. Exo 40:22 And he put the table in the Tent of meeting, on the north side outside the veil. Exo 40:23 And he put the bread on it in order before the Lord, as the Lord had said. Exo 40:24 The support for the lights he put in the Tent of meeting, opposite the table, on the south side: Exo 40:25 Lighting the lights before the Lord, as the Lord had given him orders. Exo 40:26 And he put the gold altar in the Tent of meeting, in front of the veil: Exo 40:27 Burning sweet perfumes on it, as the Lord had given him orders. Exo 40:28 And he put up the curtain at the doorway of the House. Exo 40:29 And at the door of the House of the Tent of meeting, he put the altar of burned offerings, offering on it the burned offering and the meal offering, as the Lord had given him orders. Exo 40:30 And between the altar and the Tent of meeting he put the vessel with water in it for washing. Exo 40:31 In it the hands and feet of Moses and Aaron and his sons were washed, Exo 40:32 Whenever they went into the Tent of meeting, and when they came near the altar, as the Lord had given orders to Moses. Exo 40:33 And he put up the hangings forming the open space round the House and the altar, and put the curtain over the doorway. So Moses made the work complete. Exo 40:34 Then the cloud came down covering the Tent of meeting, and the House was full of the glory of the Lord; Exo 40:35 So that Moses was not able to go into the Tent of meeting, because the cloud was resting on it, and the House was full of the glory of the Lord. Exo 40:36 And whenever the cloud was taken up from the House, the children of Israel went forward on their journey: Exo 40:37 But while the cloud was there, they made no move till it was taken up. Exo 40:38 For the cloud of the Lord was resting on the House by day, and at night there was fire in the cloud, before the eyes of all the people of Israel, and so it was through all their journeys. Lev 1:1 And the voice of the Lord came to Moses out of the Tent of meeting, saying, Lev 1:2 Give these orders to the children of Israel: When anyone of you makes an offering to the Lord, you are to take it from the cattle, from the herd or from the flock. Lev 1:3 If the offering is a burned offering of the herd, let him give a male without a mark: he is to give it at the door of the Tent of meeting so that he may be pleasing to the Lord. Lev 1:4 And he is to put his hand on the head of the burned offering and it will be taken for him, to take away his sin. Lev 1:5 And the ox is to be put to death before the Lord: then Aaron's sons, the priests, are to take the blood and put some of it on and round the altar which is at the door of the Tent of meeting. Lev 1:6 And the burned offering is to be skinned and cut up into its parts. Lev 1:7 And Aaron's sons, the priests, are to put fire on the altar and put the wood in order on the fire: Lev 1:8 And Aaron's sons, the priests, are to put the parts, the head and the fat, in order on the wood which is on the fire on the altar: Lev 1:9 But its inside parts and its legs are to be washed with water, and it will all be burned on the altar by the priest for a burned offering, an offering made by fire, for a sweet smell to the Lord. Lev 1:10 And if his offering is of the flock, a burned offering of sheep or goats, let him give a male without a mark. Lev 1:11 And he is to put it to death on the north side of the altar before the Lord: and Aaron's sons, the priests, are to put some of the blood on and round the altar. Lev 1:12 And the offering is to be cut into its parts, with its head and its fat; and the priest is to put them in order on the wood which is on the fire on the altar: Lev 1:13 But the inside parts and the legs are to be washed with water; and the priest will make an offering of all of it, burning it on the altar: it is a burned offering, an offering made by fire, for a sweet smell to the Lord. Lev 1:14 And if his offering to the Lord is a burned offering of birds, then he is to make his offering of doves or of young pigeons. Lev 1:15 And the priest is to take it to the altar, and after its head has been twisted off, it is to be burned on the altar, and its blood drained out on the side of the altar: Lev 1:16 And he is to take away its stomach, with its feathers, and put it down by the east side of the altar, where the burned waste is put: Lev 1:17 And let it be broken open at the wings, but not cut in two; and let it be burned on the altar by the priest on the wood which is on the fire; it is a burned offering; an offering made by fire for a sweet smell to the Lord. Lev 2:1 And when anyone makes a meal offering to the Lord, let his offering be of the best meal, with oil on it and perfume: Lev 2:2 And let him take it to Aaron's sons, the priests; and having taken in his hand some of the meal and of the oil, with all the perfume, let him give it to the priest to be burned on the altar, as a sign, an offering made by fire, for a sweet smell to the Lord. Lev 2:3 And the rest of the meal offering will be for Aaron and his sons; it is most holy among the Lord's fire offerings. Lev 2:4 And when you give a meal offering cooked in the oven, let it be of unleavened cakes of the best meal mixed with oil, or thin unleavened cakes covered with oil. Lev 2:5 And if you give a meal offering cooked on a flat plate, let it be of the best meal, unleavened and mixed with oil. Lev 2:6 Let it be broken into bits, and put oil on it; it is a meal offering. Lev 2:7 And if your offering is of meal cooked in fat over the fire, let it be made of the best meal mixed with oil. Lev 2:8 And you are to give the meal offering made of these things to the Lord, and let the priest take it to the altar. Lev 2:9 And he is to take from the meal offering a part, for a sign, burning it on the altar; an offering made by fire for a sweet smell to the Lord. Lev 2:10 And the rest of the meal offering will be for Aaron and his sons; it is most holy among the Lord's fire offerings. Lev 2:11 No meal offering which you give to the Lord is to be made with leaven; no leaven or honey is to be burned as an offering made by fire to the Lord. Lev 2:12 You may give them as an offering of first-fruits to the Lord, but they are not to go up as a sweet smell on the altar. Lev 2:13 And every meal offering is to be salted with salt; your meal offering is not to be without the salt of the agreement of your God: with all your offerings give salt. Lev 2:14 And if you give a meal offering of first-fruits to the Lord, give, as your offering of first-fruits, new grain, made dry with fire, crushed new grain. Lev 2:15 And put oil on it and perfume: it is a meal offering. Lev 2:16 And part of the meal of the offering and part of the oil and all the perfume is to be burned for a sign by the priest: it is an offering made by fire to the Lord. Lev 3:1 And if his offering is given for a peace-offering; if he gives of the herd, male or female, let him give it without any mark on it, before the Lord. Lev 3:2 And he is to put his hand on the head of his offering and put it to death at the door of the Tent of meeting; and Aaron's sons, the priests, are to put some of the blood on and round the altar. Lev 3:3 And he is to give of the peace-offering, as an offering made by fire to the Lord; the fat covering the inside parts and all the fat on the inside parts, Lev 3:4 And the two kidneys, and the fat on them, which is by the top part of the legs, and the fat joining the liver and the kidneys, he is to take away; Lev 3:5 That it may be burned by Aaron's sons on the altar, on the burned offering which is on the wood on the fire: it is an offering made by fire of a sweet smell to the Lord. Lev 3:6 And if what he gives for a peace-offering to the Lord is of the flock, let him give a male or female, without any mark on it. Lev 3:7 If his offering is a lamb, then let it be placed before the Lord: Lev 3:8 And he is to put his hand on the head of his offering and put it to death before the Tent of meeting; and Aaron's sons are to put some of its blood on and round the altar. Lev 3:9 And of the peace-offering, let him give an offering made by fire to the Lord; the fat of it, all the fat tail, he is to take away near the backbone; and the fat covering the inside parts and all the fat on the inside parts, Lev 3:10 And the two kidneys, with the fat on them, which is by the top part of the legs, and the fat joining the liver and the kidneys, he is to take away; Lev 3:11 That it may be burned by the priest on the altar; it is the food of the offering made by fire to the Lord. Lev 3:12 And if his offering is a goat, then let it be placed before the Lord, Lev 3:13 And let him put his hand on the head of it and put it to death before the Tent of meeting; and the sons of Aaron are to put some of its blood on and round the altar. Lev 3:14 And of it let him make his offering, an offering made by fire to the Lord; the fat covering the inside parts and all the fat on the inside parts, Lev 3:15 And the two kidneys, with the fat on them, which is by the top part of the legs, and the fat joining the liver and the kidneys, let him take away; Lev 3:16 That it may be burned by the priest on the altar; it is the food of the offering made by fire for a sweet smell: all the fat is the Lord's. Lev 3:17 Let it be an order for ever, through all your generations, in all your houses, that you are not to take fat or blood for food. Lev 4:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 4:2 Say to the children of Israel: These are the offerings of anyone who does wrong through error, doing any of the things which by the Lord's order are not to be done: Lev 4:3 If the chief priest by doing wrong becomes a cause of sin to the people, then let him give to the Lord for the sin which he has done, an ox, without any mark, for a sin-offering. Lev 4:4 And he is to take the ox to the door of the Tent of meeting before the Lord; and put his hand on its head and put it to death before the Lord. Lev 4:5 And the chief priest is to take some of its blood and take it to the Tent of meeting; Lev 4:6 And the priest is to put his finger in the blood, shaking drops of it before the Lord seven times, in front of the veil of the holy place. Lev 4:7 And the priest is to put some of the blood on the horns of the altar on which perfume is burned before the Lord in the Tent of meeting, draining out all the rest of the blood of the ox at the base of the altar of burned offering which is at the door of the Tent of meeting. Lev 4:8 And he is to take away all the fat of the ox of the sin-offering; the fat covering the inside parts and all the fat of the inside parts, Lev 4:9 And the two kidneys, with the fat on them, which is by the top part of the legs, and the fat joining the liver and the kidneys, he is to take away, Lev 4:10 As it is taken from the ox of the peace-offering; and it is to be burned by the priest on the altar of burned offerings. Lev 4:11 And the skin of the ox and all its flesh, with its head and its legs and its inside parts and its waste, Lev 4:12 All the ox, he is to take away outside the circle of the tents into a clean place where the burned waste is put, and there it is to be burned on wood with fire. Lev 4:13 And if all the people of Israel do wrong, without anyone's knowledge; if they have done any of the things which by the Lord's order are not to be done, causing sin to come on them; Lev 4:14 When the sin which they have done comes to light, then let all the people give an ox for a sin-offering, and take it before the Tent of meeting. Lev 4:15 And let the chiefs of the people put their hands on its head before the Lord, and put the ox to death before the Lord. Lev 4:16 And the priest is to take some of its blood to the Tent of meeting; Lev 4:17 And put his finger in the blood, shaking drops of the blood seven times before the Lord in front of the veil. Lev 4:18 And he is to put some of the blood on the horns of the altar which is before the Lord in the Tent of meeting; and all the rest of the blood is to be drained out at the base of the altar of burned offering at the door of the Tent of meeting. Lev 4:19 And he is to take off all its fat, burning it on the altar. Lev 4:20 Let him do with the ox as he did with the ox of the sin-offering; and the priest will take away their sin and they will have forgiveness. Lev 4:21 Then let the ox be taken away outside the tent-circle, that it may be burned as the other ox was burned; it is the sin-offering for all the people. Lev 4:22 If a ruler does wrong, and in error does any of the things which, by the order of the Lord his God, are not to be done, causing sin to come on him; Lev 4:23 When the sin which he has done is made clear to him, let him give for his offering a goat, a male without any mark. Lev 4:24 And he is to put his hand on the head of the goat and put it to death in the place where they put to death the burned offering before the Lord: it is a sin-offering. Lev 4:25 And the priest is to take some of the blood of the offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burned offering, draining out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar of burned offering. Lev 4:26 And all the fat of it is to be burned on the altar like the fat of the peace-offering; and the priest will take away his sin and he will have forgiveness. Lev 4:27 And if any one of the common people does wrong in error, doing any of the things which the Lord has given orders are not to be done, causing sin to come on him; Lev 4:28 When the sin which he has done is made clear to him, then he is to give for his offering a goat, a female without any mark, for the sin which he has done. Lev 4:29 And he is to put his hand on the head of the sin-offering and put it to death in the place where they put to death the burned offering. Lev 4:30 And the priest is to take some of the blood with his finger, and put it on the horns of the altar of burned offering, and all the rest of its blood is to be drained out at the base of the altar. Lev 4:31 And let all its fat be taken away, as the fat is taken away from the peace-offerings, and let it be burned on the altar by the priest for a sweet smell to the Lord; and the priest will take away his sin and he will have forgiveness. Lev 4:32 And if he gives a lamb as his sin-offering, let it be a female without any mark; Lev 4:33 And he is to put his hand on the head of the offering and put it to death for a sin-offering in the place where they put to death the burned offering. Lev 4:34 And the priest is to take some of the blood of the offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burned offering, and all the rest of the blood is to be drained out at the base of the altar; Lev 4:35 And let him take away all its fat, as the fat is taken away from the lamb of the peace-offerings; and let it be burned by the priest on the altar among the offerings made by fire to the Lord: and the priest will take away his sin and he will have forgiveness. Lev 5:1 And if anyone does wrong by saying nothing when he is put under oath as a witness of something he has seen or had knowledge of, then he will be responsible: Lev 5:2 If anyone becomes unclean through touching unconsciously some unclean thing, such as the dead body of an unclean beast or of unclean cattle or of any unclean animal which goes flat on the earth, he will be responsible: Lev 5:3 Or if he becomes unclean through touching unconsciously any unclean thing of man, whatever it may be, when it is made clear to him he will be responsible: Lev 5:4 Or if anyone, without thought, takes an oath to do evil or to do good, whatever he says without thought, with an oath, having no knowledge of what he is doing; when it becomes clear to him, he will be responsible for any of these things. Lev 5:5 And whoever is responsible for any such sin, let him make a statement openly of his wrongdoing; Lev 5:6 And take to the Lord the offering for the wrong which he has done, a female from the flock, a lamb or a goat, for a sin-offering, and the priest will take away his sin. Lev 5:7 And if he has not money enough for a lamb, then let him give, for his offering to the Lord, two doves or two young pigeons; one for a sin-offering and one for a burned offering. Lev 5:8 And let him take them to the priest, who will first give the sin-offering, twisting off its head from its neck, but not cutting it in two; Lev 5:9 And he is to put drops of the blood of the offering on the side of the altar, and the rest of the blood is to be drained out at the base of the altar; it is a sin-offering. Lev 5:10 And the second is for a burned offering, in agreement with the law; and the priest will take away his sin and he will have forgiveness. Lev 5:11 But if he has not enough money for two doves or two young pigeons, then let him give, for the sin he has done, the tenth part of an ephah of the best meal, for a sin-offering; let him put no oil on it, and no perfume, for it is a sin-offering. Lev 5:12 And let him come to the priest with it, and the priest will take some of it in his hand, to be burned on the altar as a sign, among the offerings of the Lord made by fire: it is a sin-offering. Lev 5:13 And the priest will take away his sin and he will have forgiveness: and the rest of the offering will be the priest's, in the same way as the meal offering. Lev 5:14 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 5:15 If anyone is untrue, sinning in error in connection with the holy things of the Lord, let him take his offering to the Lord, a male sheep from the flock, without any mark, of the value fixed by you in silver by shekels, by the scale of the holy place. Lev 5:16 And he is to make payment to the priest for what he has done wrong in relation to the holy thing, together with a fifth part of its value in addition; and the priest will take away his sin by the sheep of his offering, and he will have forgiveness. Lev 5:17 And if anyone does wrong, and does any of the things which the Lord has given orders are not to be done, though he has no knowledge of it, still he is in the wrong and he is responsible. Lev 5:18 Let him come to the priest with a sheep, a male without any mark out of the flock, of the value fixed by you, as an offering for his error; and the priest will take away the sin which he did in error, and he will have forgiveness. Lev 5:19 It is an offering for his error: he is certainly responsible before the Lord. Lev 6:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 6:2 If anyone does wrong, and is untrue to the Lord, acting falsely to his neighbour in connection with something put in his care, or something given for a debt, or has taken away anything by force, or has been cruel to his neighbour, Lev 6:3 Or has taken a false oath about the loss of something which he has come across by chance; if a man has done any of these evil things, Lev 6:4 Causing sin to come on him, then he will have to give back the thing he took by force or got by cruel acts, or the goods which were put in his care or the thing he came on by chance, Lev 6:5 Or anything about which he took a false oath; he will have to give it all back, with the addition of a fifth of its value, to him whose property it is, when he has been judged to be in the wrong. Lev 6:6 Then let him take to the Lord the offering for his wrongdoing; giving to the priest for his offering, a male sheep from the flock, without any mark, of the value fixed by you: Lev 6:7 And the priest will take away his sin from before the Lord, and he will have forgiveness for whatever crime he has done Lev 6:8 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 6:9 Give orders to Aaron and to his sons, saying, This is the law for the burned offering: the offering is to be on the fire-wood on the altar all night till the morning; and the fire of the altar is to be kept burning. Lev 6:10 And the priest is to put on his linen robes and his linen trousers, and take up what is over of the offering after it has been burned on the altar, and put it by the side of the altar. Lev 6:11 Then having taken off his linen robes and put on other clothing, he is to take it away into a clean place, outside the tent-circle. Lev 6:12 The fire on the altar is to be kept burning; it is never to go out; every morning the priest is to put wood on it, placing the burned offering in order on it, and there the fat of the peace-offering is to be burned. Lev 6:13 Let the fire be kept burning on the altar at all times; it is never to go out. Lev 6:14 And this is the law for the meal offering: it is to be offered to the Lord before the altar by the sons of Aaron. Lev 6:15 The priest is to take in his hand some of the meal of the meal offering and of the oil of it, and all the perfume on it, burning it on the altar as a sign, for a sweet smell to the Lord. Lev 6:16 And whatever is over Aaron and his sons may have for their food, taking it without leaven in a holy place; in the open space of the Tent of meeting they may take a meal of it. Lev 6:17 It is not to be cooked with leaven. I have given it to them as their part of the offerings made by fire to me; it is most holy, as are the sin-offerings and the offerings for error. Lev 6:18 Every male among the children of Aaron may have it for food; it is their right for ever through all your generations, from the offerings made by fire to the Lord: anyone touching them will be holy. Lev 6:19 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 6:20 This is the offering which Aaron and his sons are to make to the Lord on the day when he is made a priest: the tenth part of an ephah of the best meal for a meal offering for ever; half of it in the morning and half in the evening. Lev 6:21 Let it be made with oil on a flat plate; when it is well mixed and cooked, let it be broken and taken in as a meal offering, for a sweet smell to the Lord. Lev 6:22 And the same offering is to be given by that one of his sons who takes his place as priest; by an order for ever, all of it is to be burned before the Lord. Lev 6:23 Every meal offering offered for the priest is to be completely burned: nothing of it is to be taken for food. Lev 6:24 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 6:25 Say to Aaron and his sons, This is the law for the sin-offering: the sin-offering is to be put to death before the Lord in the same place as the burned offering; it is most holy. Lev 6:26 The priest by whom it is offered for sin, is to take it for his food in a holy place, in the open space of the Tent of meeting. Lev 6:27 Anyone touching the flesh of it will be holy: and if any of the blood is dropped on any clothing, the thing on which the blood has been dropped is to be washed in a holy place. Lev 6:28 But the vessel of earth in which the flesh was cooked is to be broken; or if a brass vessel was used, it is to be rubbed clean and washed out with water. Lev 6:29 Every male among the priests may take it for his food: it is most holy. Lev 6:30 No sin-offering, the blood of which is taken into the Tent of meeting, to take away sin in the holy place, may be used for food: it is to be burned with fire. Lev 7:1 And this is the law of the offering for wrongdoing: it is most holy. Lev 7:2 They are to put to death the offering for wrongdoing in the same place as the burned offering; and the priest is to put the blood on and round the altar. Lev 7:3 And all the fat of it, the fat tail and the fat covering the inside parts, is to be given as an offering. Lev 7:4 And the two kidneys, and the fat on them, which is by the top of the legs, and the fat joining the liver and the kidneys, he is to take away: Lev 7:5 They are to be burned by the priest on the altar for an offering made by fire to the Lord: it is an offering for wrongdoing. Lev 7:6 Every male among the priests may have it as food in a holy place: it is most holy. Lev 7:7 As is the sin-offering, so is the offering for wrongdoing; there is one law for them: the priest who makes the offering to take away sin, he is to have it. Lev 7:8 And the priest offering any man's burned offering for him, may have the skin of the burned offering which is offered by him. Lev 7:9 And every meal offering which is cooked in the oven and everything made in a cooking pot or on a flat plate, is for the priest by whom it is offered. Lev 7:10 And every meal offering, mixed with oil or dry, is for all the sons of Aaron in equal measure. Lev 7:11 And this is the law for the peace-offerings offered to the Lord. Lev 7:12 If any man gives his offering as a praise-offering, then let him give with the offering, unleavened cakes mixed with oil and thin unleavened cakes covered with oil and cakes of the best meal well mixed with oil. Lev 7:13 With his peace-offering let him give cakes of leavened bread, as a praise-offering. Lev 7:14 And let him give one out of every offering to be lifted up before the Lord; that it may be for the priest who puts the blood of the peace-offering on the altar. Lev 7:15 And the flesh of the praise-offering is to be taken as food on the day when it is offered; no part of it may be kept till the morning. Lev 7:16 But if his offering is made because of an oath or given freely, it may be taken as food on the day when it is offered; and the rest may be used up on the day after: Lev 7:17 But if any of the flesh of the offering is still unused on the third day, it is to be burned with fire. Lev 7:18 And if any of the flesh of the peace-offering is taken as food on the third day, it will not be pleasing to God and will not be put to the account of him who gives it; it will be unclean and a cause of sin to him who takes it as food. Lev 7:19 And flesh touched by any unclean thing may not be taken for food: it is to be burned with fire; and as for the flesh of the peace-offerings, everyone who is clean may take it as food: Lev 7:20 But he who is unclean when he takes as food the flesh of the peace-offerings, which are the Lord's, will be cut off from his people. Lev 7:21 And anyone who, after touching any unclean thing of man or an unclean beast or any unclean and disgusting thing, takes as food the flesh of the peace-offerings, which are the Lord's, will be cut off from his people. Lev 7:22 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 7:23 Say to the children of Israel: You are not to take any fat, of ox or sheep or goat, for food. Lev 7:24 And the fat of that which comes to a natural death, and the fat of that which is attacked by beasts, may be used for other purposes, but not in any way for food. Lev 7:25 For anyone who takes as food the fat of any beast of which men make an offering by fire to the Lord, will be cut off from his people. Lev 7:26 And you are not to take for food any blood, of bird or of beast, in any of your houses. Lev 7:27 Whoever takes any blood for food will be cut off from his people. Lev 7:28 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 7:29 Say to the children of Israel: He who makes a peace-offering to the Lord, is to give an offering to the Lord out of his peace-offering: Lev 7:30 He himself is to take to the Lord the offering made by fire, even the fat with the breast, so that the breast may be waved for a wave offering before the Lord. Lev 7:31 And the fat is to be burned by the priest on the altar, but the breast is for Aaron and his sons. Lev 7:32 And the right leg you are to give to the priest for an offering to be lifted up out of what is given for your peace-offerings. Lev 7:33 That man, among the sons of Aaron, by whom the blood of the peace-offering and the fat are offered, is to have the right leg for his part. Lev 7:34 For the breast which is waved and the right leg which is lifted up on high I have taken from the children of Israel, from their peace-offerings, and have given them to Aaron the priest and to his sons as their right for ever from the children of Israel. Lev 7:35 This is the holy part given to Aaron and to his sons, out of the offerings made to the Lord by fire, on the day when they were made priests before the Lord; Lev 7:36 Which the Lord said the children of Israel were to give them, on the day when he made them his priests. It is their right for ever from generation to generation. Lev 7:37 These are the laws for the burned offering, the meal offering, and the offering for wrongdoing; and for the making of priests, and for the giving of peace-offerings; Lev 7:38 As they were given by the Lord to Moses on Mount Sinai, on the day when the Lord gave orders to the children of Israel to make their offerings to the Lord, in the waste land of Sinai. Lev 8:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 8:2 Take Aaron, and his sons with him, and the robes and the holy oil and the ox of the sin-offering and the two male sheep and the basket of unleavened bread; Lev 8:3 And let all the people come together at the door of the Tent of meeting. Lev 8:4 And Moses did as the Lord said, and all the people came together at the door of the Tent of meeting. Lev 8:5 And Moses said to the people, This is what the Lord has given orders to be done. Lev 8:6 Then Moses took Aaron and his sons; and after washing them with water, Lev 8:7 He put the coat on him, making it tight with its band, and then the robe, and over it the ephod, with its band of needlework to keep it in place. Lev 8:8 And he put the priest's bag on him, and in the bag he put the Urim and Thummim. Lev 8:9 And on his head he put the head-dress, and in front of the head-dress the plate of gold, the holy crown, as the Lord gave orders to Moses. Lev 8:10 And Moses took the holy oil and put it on the House and on all the things in it, to make them holy. Lev 8:11 Seven times he put oil on the altar and on all its vessels, and on the washing-basin and its base, to make them holy. Lev 8:12 And some of the oil he put on Aaron's head, to make him holy. Lev 8:13 Then he took Aaron's sons, clothing them with the coats, and putting the bands round them, and the head-dresses on their heads, as the Lord had given him orders. Lev 8:14 And he took the ox of the sin-offering: and Aaron and his sons put their hands on the head of the ox, Lev 8:15 And he put it to death; and Moses took the blood and put it on the horns of the altar and round it with his finger, and made the altar clean, draining out the blood at the base of the altar; so he made it holy, taking away what was unclean. Lev 8:16 And he took all the fat on the inside parts, and the fat on the liver, and the two kidneys with their fat, to be burned on the altar; Lev 8:17 But the ox, with its skin and its flesh and its waste, was burned with fire outside the tent-circle, as the Lord gave orders to Moses. Lev 8:18 And he put the male sheep of the burned offering before the Lord, and Aaron and his sons put their hands on its head, Lev 8:19 And he put it to death; and Moses put some of the blood on and round the altar. Lev 8:20 And when the sheep had been cut into parts, the head and the parts and the fat were burned by Moses. Lev 8:21 And the inside parts and the legs were washed with water and all the sheep was burned by Moses on the altar; it was a burned offering for a sweet smell: it was an offering made by fire to the Lord, as the Lord gave orders to Moses. Lev 8:22 And he put the other sheep before the Lord, the sheep with which they were made priests; and Aaron and his sons put their hands on the head of the sheep, Lev 8:23 And he put it to death; and Moses took some of the blood and put it on the point of Aaron's right ear and on the thumb of his right hand and on the great toe of his right foot. Lev 8:24 Then he took Aaron's sons, and Moses put some of the blood on the point of their right ears and on the thumbs of their right hands and on the great toes of their right feet: and Moses put the blood on and round the altar. Lev 8:25 And he took the fat, and the fat tail, and the fat on the inside parts, and the fat on the liver, and the two kidneys with their fat, and the right leg; Lev 8:26 And out of the basket of unleavened bread which was before the Lord he took one unleavened cake, and one cake of bread with oil on it, and one thin cake, and put them on the fat and on the right leg: Lev 8:27 And he put them all on the hands of Aaron and on the hands of his sons, waving them for a wave offering before the Lord. Lev 8:28 And Moses took them from their hands, and they were burned on the altar on the burned offering, as a priest's offering for a sweet smell, an offering made by fire to the Lord. Lev 8:29 And Moses took the breast, waving it for a wave offering before the Lord; it was Moses' part of the sheep of the priest's offering, as the Lord gave orders to Moses. Lev 8:30 And Moses took some of the holy oil and of the blood which was on the altar and put it on Aaron and on his robes, and on his sons and on his sons' robes; and made Aaron holy, and his robes and his sons and his sons' robes with him. Lev 8:31 And Moses said to Aaron and to his sons, The flesh is to be cooked in water at the door of the Tent of meeting, and there you are to take it as food, together with the bread in the basket, as I have given orders, saying, It is the food of Aaron and his sons. Lev 8:32 And that which is over of the flesh and of the bread is to be burned with fire. Lev 8:33 And you are not to go out from the door of the Tent of meeting for seven days, till the days for making you priest are ended; for this will be the work of seven days. Lev 8:34 What has been done this day, has been ordered by the Lord to take away your sin. Lev 8:35 And you are to keep watch for the Lord at the door of the Tent of meeting day and night for seven days, so that death may not come to you: for so he has given me orders. Lev 8:36 And Aaron and his sons did all the things about which the Lord had given orders through Moses. Lev 9:1 And on the eighth day Moses sent for Aaron and his sons and the responsible men of Israel; Lev 9:2 And he said to Aaron, Take a young ox for a sin-offering and a male sheep for a burned offering, without a mark, and make an offering of them before the Lord. Lev 9:3 And say to the children of Israel: Take a he-goat for a sin-offering, and a young ox and a lamb, in their first year, without any mark on them, for a burned offering; Lev 9:4 And an ox and a male sheep for peace-offerings, to be put to death before the Lord; and a meal offering mixed with oil: for this day you are to see the Lord. Lev 9:5 And they took the things ordered by Moses, before the Tent of meeting, and all the people came near, waiting before the Lord. Lev 9:6 And Moses said, This is what the Lord has said you are to do; and you will see the glory of the Lord. Lev 9:7 And Moses said to Aaron, Come near to the altar and make your sin-offering and your burned offering to take away your sin and the sin of the people, and make the people's offering to take away their sin; as the Lord has given orders. Lev 9:8 So Aaron came near to the altar and put to death the ox for the sin-offering for himself; Lev 9:9 And the sons of Aaron gave him the blood and he put his finger in the blood and put it on the horns of the altar, draining out the blood at the base of the altar; Lev 9:10 But the fat and the kidneys and the fat on the liver of the sin-offering were burned by him on the altar as the Lord gave orders to Moses. Lev 9:11 And the flesh and the skin were burned with fire outside the tent-circle; Lev 9:12 And he put to death the burned offering; and Aaron's sons gave him the blood and he put some of it on and round the altar; Lev 9:13 And they gave him the parts of the burned offering, in their order, and the head, to be burned on the altar. Lev 9:14 And the inside parts and the legs, when they had been washed with water, were burned on the burned offering on the altar. Lev 9:15 And he made an offering for the people and took the goat of the sin-offering for the people and put it to death, offering it for sin, in the same way as the first. Lev 9:16 And he took the burned offering, offering it in the ordered way; Lev 9:17 And he put the meal offering before the Lord, and taking some of it in his hand he had it burned on the altar, separately from the burned offering of the morning. Lev 9:18 And he put to death the ox and the sheep, which were the peace-offerings for the people; and Aaron's sons gave him the blood and he put some of it on and round the altar; Lev 9:19 And as for the fat of the ox and the fat tail of the sheep and the fat covering the inside parts and the kidneys and the fat on the liver; Lev 9:20 They put the fat on the breasts, and the fat was burned on the altar. Lev 9:21 And Aaron took the breasts and the right leg, waving them for a wave offering before the Lord, as Moses gave orders. Lev 9:22 And Aaron, lifting up his hands to the people, gave them a blessing; and he came down from offering the sin-offering, and the burned offering, and the peace-offerings. Lev 9:23 And Moses and Aaron went into the Tent of meeting, and came out and gave the people a blessing, and the glory of the Lord was seen by all the people. Lev 9:24 And fire came out from before the Lord, burning up the offering on the altar and the fat: and when all the people saw it, they gave a loud cry, falling down on their faces. Lev 10:1 And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took their vessels and put fire in them and perfume, burning strange fire before the Lord, which he had not given them orders to do. Lev 10:2 And fire came out from before the Lord, burning them up and causing their destruction before the Lord. Lev 10:3 Then Moses said to Aaron, This is what the Lord said, I will be holy in the eyes of all those who come near to me, and I will be honoured before all the people. And Aaron said nothing. Lev 10:4 And Moses sent for Mishael and Elzaphan, the sons of Uzziel, the brother of Aaron's father, and said to them, Come near and take your brothers away from before the holy place, outside the tent-circle. Lev 10:5 So they came and took them, in their coats, outside the tent-circle, as Moses had said. Lev 10:6 And Moses said to Aaron and to Eleazar and Ithamar, his sons, Do not let your hair be loose, and give no signs of grief; so that death may not overtake you, and his wrath come on all the people; but let there be weeping among your brothers and all the house of Israel for this burning of the Lord's fire. Lev 10:7 And do not go out from the door of the Tent of meeting, or death will come to you; for the holy oil of the Lord is on you. And they did as Moses said. Lev 10:8 And the Lord said to Aaron: Lev 10:9 Take no wine, or strong drink, you or your sons with you, when you go into the Tent of meeting, that it may not be the cause of death to you; this is an order for ever through all your generations. Lev 10:10 And make a division between the holy and the common, and between the unclean and the clean; Lev 10:11 Teaching the children of Israel all the laws which the Lord has given them by the hand of Moses. Lev 10:12 And Moses said to Aaron and to Eleazar and Ithamar, his sons who were still living, Take the rest of the meal offering from the offerings of the Lord made by fire, and take it for your food, without leaven, at the side of the altar, for it is most holy. Lev 10:13 It is to be for your food in a holy place, because it is your right and your sons' right, from the offerings of the Lord made by fire: for so am I ordered. Lev 10:14 And the breast which is waved and the leg which is lifted up on high, you are to take as your food in a clean place; you and your sons and your daughters with you: for they are given to you as your right and your sons' right, from the peace-offerings of the children of Israel. Lev 10:15 Let them take the breast which is waved and the leg which is lifted up on high, with the fat of the burned offering, to be waved for a wave offering before the Lord; and this will be for you and for your sons with you, for a right for ever, as the Lord has given orders. Lev 10:16 And Moses was looking for the goat of the sin-offering, but it was burned; and he was angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, the sons of Aaron, who were still living, saying, Lev 10:17 Why did you not make a meal of the sin-offering in the holy place? For it is most holy and he has given it to you, so that the sin of the people may be put on it, to take away their sin before the Lord. Lev 10:18 See, its blood was not taken into the holy place: certainly it was right for you to have taken it as food in the holy place, as I gave orders. Lev 10:19 And Aaron said to Moses, You have seen that today they have made their sin-offering and their burned offering before the Lord, and such things as these have come on me. If I had taken the sin-offering as food today, would it have been pleasing to the Lord? Lev 10:20 And after hearing this, Moses was no longer angry. Lev 11:1 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, Lev 11:2 Say to the children of Israel: These are the living things which you may have for food among all the beasts on the earth. Lev 11:3 You may have as food any beast which has a division in the horn of its foot, and whose food comes back into its mouth to be crushed again. Lev 11:4 But, at the same time, of those beasts, you may not take for food the camel, because its food comes back but the horn of its foot is not parted in two; it is unclean to you. Lev 11:5 And the rock-badger, for the same reason, is unclean to you. Lev 11:6 And the hare, because the horn of its foot is not parted in two, is unclean to you. Lev 11:7 And the pig is unclean to you, because though the horn of its foot is parted, its food does not come back. Lev 11:8 Their flesh may not be used for food, and their dead bodies may not even be touched; they are unclean to you. Lev 11:9 These you may have for food of all things living in the water: anything living in the water, in the seas or rivers, which has special parts for swimming and skin formed of thin plates, may be used for food. Lev 11:10 All other things living and moving in the water, in the sea or in the rivers, are a disgusting thing to you; Lev 11:11 They may not be used for food, and their dead bodies are disgusting to you. Lev 11:12 Anything in the water which has no special parts for swimming and no thin plates on its skin is disgusting to you. Lev 11:13 And among birds these are to be disgusting to you, and not to be used for food: the eagle and the gier-eagle and the ospray; Lev 11:14 And the kite and the falcon, and birds of that sort; Lev 11:15 Every raven, and birds of that sort; Lev 11:16 And the ostrich and the night-hawk and the sea-hawk, and birds of that sort; Lev 11:17 And the little owl and the cormorant and the great owl; Lev 11:18 And the water-hen and the pelican and the vulture; Lev 11:19 The stork and the heron, and birds of that sort, and the hoopoe and the bat. Lev 11:20 Every winged four-footed thing which goes on the earth is disgusting to you; Lev 11:21 But of the winged four-footed things, those which have long legs for jumping on the earth you may have for food; Lev 11:22 Such as all the different sorts of locust. Lev 11:23 But all other winged four-footed things which go on the earth are disgusting to you. Lev 11:24 By these you will be made unclean; anyone touching their dead bodies will be unclean till evening: Lev 11:25 Whoever takes away the dead body of one of them is to have his clothing washed, and will be unclean till evening. Lev 11:26 Every beast, in the horn of whose foot there is not a complete division, and whose food does not come back, is unclean to you: anyone touching one of these will be unclean. Lev 11:27 Any four-footed beast which goes on the ball of its foot, is unclean to you: anyone touching the dead body of one of these will be unclean till evening. Lev 11:28 Anyone who takes away the dead body of one of these is to have his clothing washed and be unclean till evening. Lev 11:29 And these are unclean to you among things which go low down on the earth; the weasel and the mouse and the great lizard, and animals of that sort; Lev 11:30 And the ferret and the land crocodile and the lizard and the sand-lizard and the chameleon. Lev 11:31 All these are unclean to you: anyone touching them when they are dead will be unclean till evening. Lev 11:32 The dead body of any of these, falling on anything, will make that thing unclean; if it is any vessel of wood, or clothing, or skin, or bag, whatever it is, if it is used for any purpose, it will have to be put into water, and will be unclean till evening; after that it will be clean. Lev 11:33 And if one of them gets into any vessel of earth, whatever is in the vessel will be unclean and the vessel will have to be broken. Lev 11:34 Any food in it, and anything on which water from it comes, will be unclean: any drink taken from such a vessel will be unclean. Lev 11:35 Any part of the dead body of one of these, falling on anything, will make it unclean; if it is an oven or a cooking-pot it will have to be broken: they are unclean and will be unclean to you. Lev 11:36 But at the same time a fountain or a place where water is stored for use will be clean; but anyone touching their dead bodies will be unclean. Lev 11:37 If any part of the dead body of one of these gets on to any seed for planting, it is clean; Lev 11:38 But if water is put on the seed, and any part of the dead body gets on to it, it will be unclean to you. Lev 11:39 And if any beast which may be used for food comes to a natural death, anyone touching its dead body will be unclean till evening. Lev 11:40 And he who makes use of any part of its body for food is to have his clothing washed and be unclean till evening; and anyone taking away its body is to have his clothing washed and be unclean till evening. Lev 11:41 Everything which goes flat on its body on the earth is disgusting, and is not to be used for food. Lev 11:42 Whatever goes on its stomach or on four feet or has a great number of feet, even all those going flat on the earth, may not be used for food, for they are disgusting. Lev 11:43 You are not to make yourselves disgusting with anything which goes about flat on the earth; you may not make yourselves unclean with them, in such a way that you are not holy to me. Lev 11:44 For I am the Lord your God: for this reason, make and keep yourselves holy, for I am holy; you are not to make yourselves unclean with any sort of thing which goes about flat on the earth. Lev 11:45 For I am the Lord, who took you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God; so be you holy, for I am holy. Lev 11:46 This is the law about beasts and birds and every living thing moving in the waters, and every living thing which goes flat on the earth: Lev 11:47 Marking out the unclean from the clean, and the living thing which may be used for food from that which may not. Lev 12:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 12:2 Say to the children of Israel, If a woman is with child and gives birth to a male child, she will be unclean for seven days, as when she is unwell. Lev 12:3 And on the eighth day let him be given circumcision. Lev 12:4 And she will be unclean for thirty-three days till the flow of her blood is stopped; no holy thing may be touched by her, and she may not come into the holy place, till the days for making her clean are ended. Lev 12:5 But if she gives birth to a female child, then she will be unclean for two weeks, as when she is unwell; and she will not be completely clean for sixty-six days. Lev 12:6 And when the days are ended for making her clean for a son or a daughter, let her take to the priest at the door of the Tent of meeting, a lamb of the first year for a burned offering and a young pigeon or a dove for a sin-offering: Lev 12:7 And the priest is to make an offering of it before the Lord and take away her sin, and she will be made clean from the flow of her blood. This is the law for a woman who gives birth to a male or a female. Lev 12:8 And if she has not money enough for a lamb, then let her take two doves or two young pigeons, one for a burned offering and the other for a sin-offering, and the priest will take away her sin and she will be clean, Lev 13:1 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, Lev 13:2 If a man has on his skin a growth or a mark or a white place, and it becomes the disease of a leper, let him be taken to Aaron the priest, or to one of the priests, his sons; Lev 13:3 And if, when the priest sees the mark on his skin, the hair on the place is turned white and the mark seems to go deeper than the skin, it is the mark of a leper: and the priest, after looking at him, will say that he is unclean. Lev 13:4 But if the mark on his skin is white, and does not seem to go deeper than the skin, and the hair on it is not turned white, then the priest will keep him shut up for seven days; Lev 13:5 And the priest is to see him on the seventh day; and if, in his opinion, the place on his skin has not become worse and is not increased in size, then the priest will keep him shut up for seven days more: Lev 13:6 And the priest is to see him again on the seventh day; and if the mark is less bright and is not increased on his skin, then let the priest say that he is clean: it is only a skin-mark, and after his clothing has been washed he will be clean. Lev 13:7 But if the size of the mark on his skin is increased after he has been seen by the priest, let him go to the priest again: Lev 13:8 And if, after looking at him, he sees that the mark is increased in his skin, let the priest say that he is unclean; he is a leper. Lev 13:9 When the disease of a leper is seen on a man, let him be taken to the priest; Lev 13:10 And if the priest sees that there is a white growth on the skin, and the hair is turned white, and there is diseased flesh in the growth, Lev 13:11 It is an old disease in the skin of his flesh, and the priest will say that he is unclean; he will not have to be shut up, for he is clearly unclean. Lev 13:12 And if the disease comes out all over his skin, from his head to his feet, as far as the priest is able to see, Lev 13:13 And if the priest sees that all his flesh is covered with the leper's disease, the priest will say that he is clean: it is all turned white, he is clean. Lev 13:14 But whenever diseased flesh is seen on him, he will be unclean. Lev 13:15 And when the priest sees the diseased flesh he will say that he is unclean; the diseased flesh is unclean, he is a leper. Lev 13:16 Or if the diseased flesh is turned again and changed to white then he is to come to the priest, Lev 13:17 And the priest will see him: and if the place is turned white, then the priest will say that he is free from the disease. Lev 13:18 And if a bad place has come out on the skin and is well again, Lev 13:19 And on the same place there is a white growth of a bright mark, red and white, then let the priest see it; Lev 13:20 And after looking at it, if it seems to go deeper than the skin, and the hair on it is turned white, then the priest will say that the man is unclean: it is the leper's disease, it has come out in the bad place. Lev 13:21 But if, after looking at it, he sees that there are no white hairs on it, and it is not deeper than the skin, and it is not very bright, then let the priest keep him shut up for seven days: Lev 13:22 And if it is increasing on the skin, the priest will say that he is unclean: it is a disease. Lev 13:23 But if the bright mark keeps in the same place and gets no greater, it is the mark of the old wound, and the priest will say that he is clean. Lev 13:24 Or if there is a burn on the skin of the flesh, and if the diseased flesh in the burn becomes a bright place, red and white or white, Lev 13:25 The priest is to see it: and if the hair on the bright place is turned white and it seems to go deeper than the skin, he is a leper: it has come out in the burn, and the priest will say that he is unclean: it is the leper's disease. Lev 13:26 But if, after looking at it, the priest sees that there is no white hair on the bright place, and it is not deeper than the skin, and is not very bright, then let the priest keep him shut up for seven days: Lev 13:27 And the priest is to see him again on the seventh day; if it is increased in the skin, then the priest will say that he is unclean: it is the leper's disease. Lev 13:28 And if the bright place keeps the same size and gets no greater on the skin, but is less bright, it is the effect of the burn, and the priest will say that he is clean: it is the mark of the burn. Lev 13:29 And when a man or a woman has a disease on the head, or in the hair of the chin, Lev 13:30 Then the priest is to see the diseased place: and if it seems to go deeper than the skin, and if there is thin yellow hair in it, then the priest will say that he is unclean: he has the mark of the leper's disease on his head or in the hair of his chin. Lev 13:31 And after looking at the diseased place, if it does not seem to go deeper than the skin, and there is no black hair in it, then the priest will have him shut up for seven days: Lev 13:32 And on the seventh day the priest will see the place: and if it is not increased, and there is no yellow hair in it, and it does not seem to go deeper than the skin, Lev 13:33 Then his hair is to be cut off, but not on the diseased place, and he is to be shut up for seven days more: Lev 13:34 And on the seventh day the priest will see the place: and if it is not increased, and does not seem to go deeper than the skin, the priest will say that he is clean: and after his clothing has been washed he will be clean. Lev 13:35 But if the disease in his skin becomes worse after he has been made clean, Lev 13:36 Then the priest is to see him: and if the mark is increased, the priest, without looking for the yellow hair, will say that he is unclean. Lev 13:37 But if, in his opinion, the growth is stopped, and black hair has come up on it, the disease has gone; he is clean and the priest will say that he is clean. Lev 13:38 And if a man or a woman has bright marks on the skin of their flesh, that is, bright white marks, Lev 13:39 Then the priest is to see them: and if the white marks on their skin are not very bright, it is a skin disease which has come out on the skin; he is clean. Lev 13:40 And if a man's hair has come out and he has no hair, still he is clean. Lev 13:41 And if the hair has gone from the front part of his head, so that he has no hair there, still he is clean. Lev 13:42 But if, on his head or on his brow, where he has no hair, there is a red and white place, it is the disease of the leper coming out on his head or on his brow. Lev 13:43 Then if the priest sees that the growth of the disease has become red and white on his head or on his brow where there is no hair, like the mark in the skin of a leper; Lev 13:44 He is a leper and unclean; the priest is to say that he is most certainly unclean: the disease is in his head. Lev 13:45 And the leper who has the disease on him is to go about with signs of grief, with his hair loose and his mouth covered, crying, Unclean, unclean. Lev 13:46 While the disease is on him, he will be unclean. He is unclean: let him keep by himself, living outside the tent-circle. Lev 13:47 And any clothing of wool or of linen in which is the mark of the disease; Lev 13:48 If it is in the threads of the linen or of the wool, or in leather, or in anything made of skin; Lev 13:49 If there are red or green marks on the clothing, or on the leather, or in the threads of the cloth, or in anything made of skin, it is the leper's disease: let the priest see it. Lev 13:50 And after it has been seen by the priest, the thing which is so marked is to be shut up for seven days: Lev 13:51 And he is to see the mark on the seventh day; if the mark is increased in the clothing, or in the threads of the material, or in the leather, whatever the leather is used for, it is the disease biting into it: it is unclean. Lev 13:52 And the clothing, or the wool or linen material, or anything of leather in which is the disease, is to be burned: for the disease is biting into it; let it be burned in the fire. Lev 13:53 And if the priest sees that the mark is not increased in the clothing or in any part of the material or in the leather, Lev 13:54 Then the priest will give orders for the thing on which the mark is, to be washed, and to be shut up for seven days more: Lev 13:55 And if, after the mark has been washed, the priest sees that the colour of it is not changed and it is not increased, it is to be burned in the fire: the disease is working in it, though the damage may be inside or outside. Lev 13:56 And if the priest sees that the mark is less bright after the washing, then let him have it cut out of the clothing or the leather or from the threads of the material: Lev 13:57 And if the mark is still seen in the clothing or in the threads of the material or in the leather, it is the disease coming out: the thing in which the disease is will have to be burned with fire. Lev 13:58 And the material of the clothing, or anything of skin, which has been washed, if the mark has gone out of it, let it be washed a second time and it will be clean. Lev 13:59 This is the law about the leper's disease in the thread of wool or linen material, in clothing or in anything of skin, saying how it is to be judged clean or unclean. Lev 14:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 14:2 This is the law of the leper on the day when he is made clean: he is to be taken to the priest; Lev 14:3 And the priest is to go outside the tent-circle; and if, after looking, the priest sees that the mark of the disease has gone from him, Lev 14:4 Then the priest is to give orders to take, for him who is to be made clean, two living clean birds and some cedar wood and red thread and hyssop. Lev 14:5 And the priest will give orders for one of the birds to be put to death in a vessel made of earth, over flowing water. Lev 14:6 And he will take the living bird and the wood and the red thread and the hyssop and put them in the blood of the bird which was put to death over flowing water. Lev 14:7 And shaking it seven times over the man who is to be made clean, he will say that he is clean and will let the living bird go free into the open country. Lev 14:8 And he who is to be made clean will have his clothing washed and his hair cut and have a bath, and he will be clean. And after that he will come back to the tent-circle; but he is to keep outside his tent for seven days. Lev 14:9 And on the seventh day he is to have all the hair cut off his head and his chin and over his eyes--all his hair is to be cut off--and he will have his clothing washed and his body bathed in water and he will be clean. Lev 14:10 And on the eighth day let him take two male lambs, without any marks on them, and one female lamb of the first year, without a mark, and three tenth parts of an ephah of the best meal, mixed with oil, and one log of oil. Lev 14:11 And the priest who is making him clean will put the man who is being made clean, together with these things, before the door of the Tent of meeting. Lev 14:12 And the priest is to take one of the male lambs and give it as an offering for wrongdoing, and the log of oil, waving them for a wave offering before the Lord; Lev 14:13 And he is to put the male lamb to death in the place where they put to death the sin-offering and the burned offering, in the holy place; for as the sin-offering is the property of the priest, so is the offering for wrongdoing: it is most holy. Lev 14:14 And let the priest take some of the blood of the offering for wrongdoing and put it on the point of the right ear of him who is to be made clean, and on the thumb of his right hand and on the great toe of his right foot; Lev 14:15 And take some of the oil and put it in the hollow of his left hand; Lev 14:16 And let the priest put his right finger in the oil which is in his left hand, shaking it out with his finger seven times before the Lord; Lev 14:17 And of the rest of the oil which is in his hand, the priest will put some on the point of the right ear of the man who is to be made clean, and on the thumb of his right hand and on the great toe of his right foot, over the blood of the offering for wrongdoing; Lev 14:18 And the rest of the oil in the priest's hand he will put on the head of him who is to be made clean; and so the priest will make him free from sin before the Lord. Lev 14:19 And the priest will give the sin-offering, and take away the sin of him who is to be made clean from his unclean condition; and after that he will put the burned offering to death. Lev 14:20 And the priest is to have the burned offering and the meal offering burned on the altar; and the priest will take away his sin and he will be clean. Lev 14:21 And if he is poor and not able to get so much, then he may take one male lamb as an offering for wrongdoing, to be waved to take away his sin, and one tenth part of an ephah of the best meal mixed with oil for a meal offering, and a log of oil; Lev 14:22 And two doves or two young pigeons, such as he is able to get; and one will be for a sin-offering and the other for a burned offering. Lev 14:23 And on the eighth day he will take them to the priest, to the door of the Tent of meeting before the Lord, so that he may be made clean. Lev 14:24 And the priest will take the lamb of the offering for wrongdoing and the oil, waving them for a wave offering before the Lord; Lev 14:25 And he will put to death the lamb of the offering for wrongdoing and the priest will take some of the blood of the offering for wrongdoing and put it on the point of the right ear of him who is to be made clean, and on the thumb of his right hand and on the great toe of his right foot; Lev 14:26 And the priest will put out some of the oil in the hollow of his left hand, Lev 14:27 Shaking out drops of oil with his right finger before the Lord seven times: Lev 14:28 And the priest will put some of the oil which is in his hand on the point of the ear of the man who is to be made clean and on the thumb of his right hand and on the great toe of his right foot, on the place where the blood of the offering for wrongdoing was put; Lev 14:29 And the rest of the oil which is in the priest's hand he will put on the head of him who is to be made clean, to take away his sin before the Lord. Lev 14:30 And he will make an offering of one of the doves or the young pigeons, such as he is able to get; Lev 14:31 And of these, he will give one for a sin-offering and one for a burned offering, with the meal offering; and the priest will take away the sin of him who is to be made clean before the Lord. Lev 14:32 This is the law for the man who has the disease of the leper on him, and who is not able to get that which is necessary for making himself clean. Lev 14:33 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, Lev 14:34 When you have come into the land of Canaan which I will give you for your heritage, if I put the leper's disease on a house in the land of your heritage, Lev 14:35 Then let the owner of the house come and say to the priest, It seems to me that there is a sort of leper's disease in the house. Lev 14:36 And the priest will give orders for everything to be taken out of the house, before he goes in to see the disease, so that the things in the house may not become unclean; and then the priest is to go in to see the house; Lev 14:37 And if he sees that the walls of the house are marked with hollows of green and red, and if it seems to go deeper than the face of the wall; Lev 14:38 Then the priest will go out of the door of the house, and keep the house shut up for seven days: Lev 14:39 And the priest is to come again on the seventh day and have a look and see if the marks on the walls of the house are increased in size; Lev 14:40 Then the priest will give orders to them to take out the stones in which the disease is seen, and put them out into an unclean place outside the town: Lev 14:41 And he will have the house rubbed all over inside, and the paste which is rubbed off will be put out into an unclean place outside the town: Lev 14:42 And they will take other stones and put them in place of those stones, and he will take other paste and put it on the walls of the house. Lev 14:43 And if the disease comes out again in the house after he has taken out the stones and after the walls have been rubbed and the new paste put on, Lev 14:44 Then the priest will come and see it; and if the disease in the house is increased in size, it is the leper's disease working out in the house: it is unclean. Lev 14:45 And the house will have to be pulled down, the stones of it and the wood and the paste; and everything is to be taken out to an unclean place outside the town. Lev 14:46 And, in addition, anyone who goes into the house at any time, while it is shut up, will be unclean till evening. Lev 14:47 And anyone who has been sleeping in the house will have to have his clothing washed; and anyone who takes food in that house will have to have his clothing washed. Lev 14:48 And if the priest comes in, and sees that the disease is not increased after the new paste has been put on the house, then the priest will say that the house is clean, because the disease is gone. Lev 14:49 And in order to make the house clean, let him take two birds and cedar-wood and red thread and hyssop; Lev 14:50 And put one of the birds to death in a vessel of earth over flowing water; Lev 14:51 And take the cedar-wood and the hyssop and the red thread and the living bird and put them in the blood of the dead bird and in the flowing water, shaking it over the house seven times. Lev 14:52 And he will make the house clean with the blood of the bird and the flowing water and with the living bird and with the cedar-wood and the hyssop and the red thread. Lev 14:53 But he will let the living bird go out of the town into the open country; so he will take away sin from the house and it will be clean. Lev 14:54 This is the law for all signs of the leper's disease and for skin diseases; Lev 14:55 And for signs of disease in clothing, or in a house; Lev 14:56 And for a growth or a bad place or a bright mark on the skin; Lev 14:57 To make clear when it is unclean and when it is clean: this is the law about the disease of the leper. Lev 15:1 And the Lord said to Moses and to Aaron, Lev 15:2 Say to the children of Israel: If a man has an unclean flow from his flesh, it will make him unclean. Lev 15:3 If the flow goes on or if the part is stopped up, to keep back the flow, he is still unclean. Lev 15:4 Every bed on which he has been resting will be unclean, and everything on which he has been seated will be unclean. Lev 15:5 And anyone touching his bed is to have his clothing washed and his body bathed in water and be unclean till evening. Lev 15:6 And he who has been seated on anything on which the unclean man has been seated is to have his clothing washed and his body bathed in water and be unclean till evening. Lev 15:7 And anyone touching the flesh of the unclean man is to have his clothing washed and his body bathed in water and be unclean till evening. Lev 15:8 And if liquid from the mouth of the unclean man comes on to him who is clean, then he is to have his clothing washed and his body bathed in water and be unclean till evening. Lev 15:9 And any leather seat on a horse on which the unclean man has been seated will be unclean. Lev 15:10 And anyone touching anything which was under him will be unclean till the evening; anyone taking up any of these things is to have his clothing washed and his body bathed in water and be unclean till evening. Lev 15:11 And anyone on whom the unclean man puts his hands, without washing them in water, is to have his clothing washed and his body bathed in water and be unclean till evening. Lev 15:12 And any vessel of earth which has been touched by the unclean man will have to be broken and any vessel of wood washed. Lev 15:13 And when a man who has a flow from his body is made clean from it, he is to take seven days to make himself clean, washing his clothing and bathing his body in flowing water, and then he will be clean. Lev 15:14 And on the eighth day he is to take two doves or two young pigeons and come before the Lord to the door of the Tent of meeting and give them to the priest: Lev 15:15 And they are to be offered by the priest, one for a sin-offering and one for a burned offering, and the priest will take away his sin before the Lord on account of his flow. Lev 15:16 And if a man's seed goes out from him, then all his body will have to be bathed in water and he will be unclean till evening. Lev 15:17 And any clothing or skin on which the seed comes is to be washed with water and be unclean till evening. Lev 15:18 And if a man has sex relations with a woman and his seed goes out from him, the two of them will have to be bathed in water and will be unclean till evening. Lev 15:19 And if a woman has a flow of blood from her body, she will have to be kept separate for seven days, and anyone touching her will be unclean till evening. Lev 15:20 And everything on which she has been resting, while she is kept separate, will be unclean, and everything on which she has been seated will be unclean. Lev 15:21 And anyone touching her bed will have to have his clothing washed and his body bathed in water and be unclean till evening. Lev 15:22 And anyone touching anything on which she has been seated will have to have his clothing washed and his body bathed in water and be unclean till evening. Lev 15:23 Anyone touching anything on the bed or on the thing on which she has been seated, will be unclean till evening. Lev 15:24 And if any man has sex relations with her so that her blood comes on him, he will be unclean for seven days and every bed on which he has been resting will be unclean. Lev 15:25 And if a woman has a flow of blood for a long time, not at the time when she generally has it, or if the flow goes on longer than the normal time, she will be unclean while the flow of blood goes on, as she is at other normal times. Lev 15:26 Every bed on which she has been resting will be unclean, as at the times when she normally has a flow of blood, and everything on which she has been seated will be unclean, in the same way. Lev 15:27 And anyone touching these things will be unclean, and his clothing will have to be washed and his body bathed in water and he will be unclean till evening. Lev 15:28 But when her flow of blood is stopped, after seven days she will be clean. Lev 15:29 And on the eighth day let her get two doves or two young pigeons and take them to the priest to the door of the Tent of meeting, Lev 15:30 To be offered by the priest, one for a sin-offering and one for a burned offering; and the priest will take away her sin before the Lord on account of her unclean condition. Lev 15:31 In this way may the children of Israel be made free from all sorts of unclean conditions, so that death may not overtake them when they are unclean and when they make unclean my holy place which is among them. Lev 15:32 This is the law for the man who has a flow from his body, or whose seed goes from him so that he is unclean; Lev 15:33 And for her who has a flow of blood, and for any man or woman who has an unclean flow, and for him who has sex relations with a woman when she is unclean. Lev 16:1 And the Lord said to Moses, after the death of the two sons of Aaron when they took in strange fire before the Lord and death overtook them; Lev 16:2 The Lord said to Moses, Say to Aaron, your brother, that he may not come at all times into the holy place inside the veil, before the cover which is on the ark, for fear that death may overtake him; for I will be seen in the cloud on the cover of the ark. Lev 16:3 Let Aaron come into the holy place in this way: with an ox for a sin-offering and a male sheep for a burned offering. Lev 16:4 Let him put on the holy linen coat, and the linen trousers on his body, and the linen band round him, and the linen head-dress on his head; for this is holy clothing, and before he puts them on his body is to be washed with water. Lev 16:5 And let him take from the children of Israel two he-goats for a sin-offering and one male sheep for a burned offering. Lev 16:6 And Aaron is to give the ox of the sin-offering for himself, to make himself and his house free from sin. Lev 16:7 And he is to take the two goats and put them before the Lord at the door of the Tent of meeting. Lev 16:8 And Aaron will make selection from the two goats by the decision of the Lord, one goat for the Lord and one for Azazel. Lev 16:9 And the goat which is marked out for the Lord, let Aaron give for a sin-offering. Lev 16:10 But the goat for Azazel is to be placed living before the Lord, for the taking away of sin, that it may be sent away for Azazel into the waste land. Lev 16:11 And Aaron is to give the ox of the sin-offering for himself and take away sin from himself and his house, and put to death the ox of the sin-offering which is for himself. Lev 16:12 And he is to take a vessel full of burning coal from the altar before the Lord and in his hand some sweet perfume crushed small, and take it inside the veil; Lev 16:13 And let him put the perfume on the fire before the Lord so that the ark may be covered with a cloud of the smoke of the perfume, in order that death may not overtake him. Lev 16:14 And let him take some of the blood of the ox, shaking drops of it from his finger on the cover of the ark on the east side, and before it, seven times. Lev 16:15 Then let him put to death the goat of the sin-offering for the people, and take its blood inside the veil and do with it as he did with the blood of the ox, shaking drops of it on and before the cover of the ark. Lev 16:16 And let him make the holy place free from whatever is unclean among the children of Israel and from their wrongdoing in all their sins; and let him do the same for the Tent of meeting, which has its place among an unclean people. Lev 16:17 And no man may be in the Tent of meeting from the time when Aaron goes in to take away sin in the holy place till he comes out, having made himself and his house and all the people of Israel free from sin. Lev 16:18 And he is to go out to the altar which is before the Lord and make it free from sin; and he is to take some of the blood of the ox and the blood of the goat and put it on the horns of the altar and round it; Lev 16:19 Shaking drops of the blood from his finger on it seven times to make it holy and clean from whatever is unclean among the children of Israel. Lev 16:20 And when he has done whatever is necessary to make the holy place and the Tent of meeting and the altar free from sin, let him put the living goat before the Lord; Lev 16:21 And Aaron, placing his two hands on the head of the living goat, will make a public statement over him of all the evil doings of the children of Israel and all their wrongdoing, in all their sins; and he will put them on the head of the goat and send him away, in the care of a man who will be waiting there, into the waste land. Lev 16:22 And the goat will take all their sins into a land cut off from men, and he will send the goat away into the waste land. Lev 16:23 Then let Aaron come into the Tent of meeting and take off the linen clothing which he put on when he went into the holy place, and put them down there; Lev 16:24 And after bathing his body in water in a holy place, he is to put on his clothing and come out and give his burned offering and the burned offering of the people, to take away his sin and the sin of the people. Lev 16:25 And the fat of the sin-offering is to be burned by him on the altar. Lev 16:26 And the man who takes away the goat for Azazel is to have his clothing washed and his body bathed in water and then he may come back to the tent-circle. Lev 16:27 And the ox of the sin-offering and the goat of the sin-offering, whose blood was taken in to make the holy place free from sin, are to be taken away outside the tent-circle and their skins and their flesh and their waste are to be burned with fire. Lev 16:28 And the man by whom they are burned is to have his clothing washed and his body bathed in water, and then he may come back to the tent-circle. Lev 16:29 And let this be an order to you for ever: in the seventh month, on the tenth day, you are to keep yourselves from pleasure and do no sort of work, those who are Israelites by birth and those from other lands who are living among you: Lev 16:30 For on this day your sin will be taken away and you will be clean: you will be made free from all your sins before the Lord. Lev 16:31 It is a special Sabbath for you, and you are to keep yourselves from pleasure; it is an order for ever. Lev 16:32 And the man on whose head the holy oil has been put, and who has been marked out to be a priest in his father's place, will do what is necessary to take away sin, and will put on the linen clothing, even the holy robes: Lev 16:33 And he will make the holy place and the Tent of meeting and the altar free from sin; he will take away sin from the priests and from all the people. Lev 16:34 And let this be an order for ever for you, so that the sin of the children of Israel may be taken away once every year. And he did as the Lord gave orders to Moses. Lev 17:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 17:2 Say to Aaron and to his sons and to all the children of Israel: This is the order which the Lord has given. Lev 17:3 If any man of Israel puts to death an ox or a lamb or a goat, in or outside the tent-circle; Lev 17:4 And has not taken it to the door of the Tent of meeting, to make an offering to the Lord, before the Lord's House, its blood will be on him, for he has taken life, and he will be cut off from among his people: Lev 17:5 So that the children of Israel may take to the Lord, to the door of the Tent of meeting and to the priest, the offerings which they have put to death in the open country, and that they may make their peace-offerings to the Lord. Lev 17:6 And the priest will put blood on the altar of the Lord at the door of the Tent of meeting, burning the fat for a sweet smell to the Lord. Lev 17:7 And let them make no more offerings to evil spirits, after which they have gone, turning away from the Lord. Let this be a law to them for ever, through all their generations. Lev 17:8 And say to them, If any man of Israel, or any other living among them, makes a burned offering or other offering, Lev 17:9 And does not take it to the door of the Tent of meeting to make an offering to the Lord, that man will be cut off from among his people. Lev 17:10 And if any man of Israel, or any other living among them, takes any sort of blood for food, my wrath will be turned against that man and he will be cut off from among his people. Lev 17:11 For the life of the flesh is in its blood; and I have given it to you on the altar to take away your sin: for it is the blood which makes free from sin because of the life in it. Lev 17:12 For this reason I have said to the children of Israel, No man among you, or any others living with you, may take blood as food. Lev 17:13 And any man of Israel, or any other living among them, who gets with his bow any beast or bird used for food, is to see that its blood is covered with earth. Lev 17:14 For the blood is the life of all flesh: and so I have said to the children of Israel, You may not take any sort of blood as food, and any man who does so will be cut of. Lev 17:15 And anyone who takes as food anything which has come to a natural end, or anything which has been put to death by beasts, if he is one of you by birth, or of another nation, will have to have his clothing washed and his body bathed in water and be unclean till evening, and then he will be clean. Lev 17:16 But if his clothing is not washed and his body bathed, his sin will be on him. Lev 18:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 18:2 Say to the children of Israel, I am the Lord your God. Lev 18:3 You may not do those things which were done in the land of Egypt where you were living; and you may not do those things which are done in the land of Canaan where I am taking you, or be guided in your behaviour by their rules. Lev 18:4 But you are to be guided by my decisions and keep my rules, and be guided by them: I am the Lord your God. Lev 18:5 So keep my rules and my decisions, which, if a man does them, will be life to him: I am the Lord. Lev 18:6 You may not have sex connection with anyone who is a near relation: I am the Lord. Lev 18:7 You may not have sex relations with your father or your mother: she is your mother, you may not take her. Lev 18:8 And you may not have sex relations with your father's wife: she is your father's. Lev 18:9 You may not take your sister, the daughter of your father or of your mother, wherever her birth took place, among you or in another country. Lev 18:10 You may not have sex relations with your son's daughter or your daughter's daughter, for they are part of yourself; Lev 18:11 Or your father's wife's daughter, the child of your father, for she is your sister. Lev 18:12 You may not have sex connection with your father's sister, for she is your father's near relation. Lev 18:13 You may not have sex connection with your mother's sister, for she is your mother's near relation. Lev 18:14 You may not have sex relations with the wife of your father's brother, for she is of your family; Lev 18:15 Or with your daughter-in-law, for she is your son's wife, and you may not take her. Lev 18:16 You may not have sex relations with your brother's wife, for she is your brother's. Lev 18:17 You may not take as wife a woman and her daughter, or her son's daughter or her daughter's daughter, for they are of one family: it is an act of shame. Lev 18:18 And you may not take as wife a woman and at the same time her sister, to be in competition with her in her life-time. Lev 18:19 And you may not go near a woman or have sex relations with her when she is unclean, at her regular time. Lev 18:20 And you may not have sex relations with your neighbour's wife, making yourself unclean with her. Lev 18:21 And you may not make any of your children go through the fire as an offering to Molech, and you may not put shame on the name of your God: I am the Lord. Lev 18:22 You may not have sex relations with men, as you do with women: it is a disgusting thing. Lev 18:23 And you may not have sex relations with a beast, making yourself unclean with it; and a woman may not give herself to a beast: it is an unnatural act. Lev 18:24 Do not make yourself unclean in any of these ways; for so have those nations whom I am driving out from before you made themselves unclean: Lev 18:25 And the land itself has become unclean; so that I have sent on it the reward of its wrongdoing, and the land itself puts out those who are living in it. Lev 18:26 So then keep my rules and my decisions, and do not do any of these disgusting things, those of you who are Israelites by birth, or any others who are living with you: Lev 18:27 (For all these disgusting things were done by the men of this country who were there before you, and the land has been made unclean by them;) Lev 18:28 So that the land may not put you out from it, when you make it unclean, as it put out the nations which were there before you. Lev 18:29 For all those who do any of these disgusting things will be cut off from among their people. Lev 18:30 So then, keep my orders, so that you may not do any of these disgusting things which were done before you, or make yourselves unclean through them: I am the Lord your God. Lev 19:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 19:2 Say to all the people of Israel, You are to be holy, for I, the Lord your God, am holy. Lev 19:3 Let every man give honour to his mother and to his father and keep my Sabbaths: I am the Lord your God. Lev 19:4 Do not go after false gods, and do not make metal images of gods for yourselves: I am the Lord your God. Lev 19:5 And when you give a peace offering to the Lord, do it in the way which is pleasing to the Lord. Lev 19:6 Let it be used for food on the same day on which it is offered, or on the day after; and whatever is over on the third day is to be burned with fire. Lev 19:7 If any of it is used for food on the third day, it is a disgusting thing and will not be pleasing to the Lord. Lev 19:8 And as for anyone who takes it for food, his sin will be on him, for he has put shame on the holy thing of the Lord: he will be cut off from his people. Lev 19:9 And when you get in the grain from your land, do not let all the grain be cut from the edges of the field, or take up what has been dropped on the earth after the getting in of the grain. Lev 19:10 And do not take all the grapes from your vine-garden, or the fruit dropped on the earth; let the poor man, and the man from another country, have these: I am the Lord your God. Lev 19:11 Do not take anyone's property or be false in act or word to another. Lev 19:12 And do not take an oath in my name falsely, putting shame on the name of your God: I am the Lord. Lev 19:13 Do not be cruel to your neighbour or take what is his; do not keep back a servant's payment from him all night till the morning. Lev 19:14 Do not put a curse on those who have no hearing, or put a cause of falling in the way of the blind, but keep the fear of your God before you: I am the Lord. Lev 19:15 Do no wrong in your judging: do not give thought to the position of the poor, or honour to the position of the great; but be a judge to your neighbour in righteousness. Lev 19:16 Do not go about saying untrue things among your people, or take away the life of your neighbour by false witness: I am the Lord. Lev 19:17 Let there be no hate in your heart for your brother; but you may make a protest to your neighbour, so that he may be stopped from doing evil. Lev 19:18 Do not make attempts to get equal with one who has done you wrong, or keep hard feelings against the children of your people, but have love for your neighbour as for yourself: I am the Lord. Lev 19:19 Keep my laws. Do not let your cattle have offspring by those of a different sort; do not put mixed seed into your field; do not put on a robe made of two sorts of cloth. Lev 19:20 If any man has sex relations with a servant-woman who has given her word to be married to a man, and has not been made free for a price or in any other way, the thing will be looked into; but they will not be put to death because she was not a free woman. Lev 19:21 Let him take his offering for wrongdoing to the Lord, to the door of the Tent of meeting; let him give a male sheep as an offering for wrongdoing. Lev 19:22 And the priest will take away his sin before the Lord with the sheep which is offered for his wrongdoing, and he will have forgiveness for the sin which he has done. Lev 19:23 And when you have come into the land, and have put in all sorts of fruit-trees, their fruit will be as if they had not had circumcision, and for three years their fruit may not be used for food. Lev 19:24 And in the fourth year all the fruit will be holy as a praise-offering to the Lord. Lev 19:25 But in the fifth year you may take the fruit and the increase of it for your food: I am the Lord your God. Lev 19:26 Nothing may be used for food with its blood in it; you may not make use of strange arts, or go in search of signs and wonders. Lev 19:27 The ends of the hair round your face and on your chin may not be cut off. Lev 19:28 You may not make cuts in your flesh in respect for the dead, or have marks printed on your bodies: I am the Lord. Lev 19:29 Do not make your daughter common by letting her become a loose woman, for fear that the land may become full of shame. Lev 19:30 Keep my Sabbaths and have respect for my holy place: I am the Lord. Lev 19:31 Do not go after those who make use of spirits, or wonder-workers; do not go in their ways or become unclean through them: I am the Lord your God. Lev 19:32 Get up from your seats before the white-haired, and give honour to the old, and let the fear of your God be before you: I am the Lord. Lev 19:33 And if a man from another country is living in your land with you, do not make life hard for him; Lev 19:34 Let him be to you as one of your countrymen and have love for him as for yourself; for you were living in a strange land, in the land of Egypt: I am the Lord your God. Lev 19:35 Do not make false decisions in questions of yard-sticks and weights and measures. Lev 19:36 Have true scales, true weights and measures for all things: I am the Lord your God, who took you out of the land of Egypt; Lev 19:37 You are to keep all my rules and my decisions and do them: I am the Lord. Lev 20:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 20:2 Again, say to the children of Israel, If any man of the children of Israel, or any other man living in Israel, gives his offspring to Molech, he is certainly to be put to death: he is to be stoned by the people of the land; Lev 20:3 And my face will be turned against that man, and he will be cut off from his people; because he has given his offspring to Molech, making my holy place unclean, and making my holy name common. Lev 20:4 And if the people of the land do not take note of that man when he gives his offspring to Molech, and do not put him to death, Lev 20:5 Then my face will be turned against him and his family, and he and all those who do evil with him will be cut off from among their people. Lev 20:6 And whoever goes after those who make use of spirits and wonder-workers, doing evil with them, against him will my face be turned, and he will be cut off from among his people. Lev 20:7 So make and keep yourselves holy, for I am the Lord your God. Lev 20:8 And keep my rules and do them: I am the Lord, who make you holy. Lev 20:9 Every man cursing his father or his mother is certainly to be put to death; because of his curse on his father or his mother, his blood will be on him. Lev 20:10 And if a man has sex relations with another man's wife, even the wife of his neighbour, he and she are certainly to be put to death. Lev 20:11 And the man who has sex relations with his father's wife has put shame on his father: the two of them are to be put to death; their blood will be on them. Lev 20:12 And if a man has sex relations with his son's wife, the two of them are to be put to death: it is unnatural; their blood will be on them. Lev 20:13 And if a man has sex relations with a man, the two of them have done a disgusting thing: let them be put to death; their blood will be on them. Lev 20:14 And if a man takes as wife a woman and her mother, it is an act of shame; let them be burned with fire, all three of them, so that there may be no shame among you. Lev 20:15 And if a man has sex relations with a beast, let him be put to death, and let the beast be put to destruction. Lev 20:16 And if a woman goes near a beast and has sex relations with it, you will put an end to the woman and the beast: their blood will be on them. Lev 20:17 And if a man takes his sister, daughter of his father or his mother, and has sex relations with her and she with him, it is an act of shame: they are to be cut off before the children of their people; he has had sex relations with his sister, and his sin will be on him. Lev 20:18 And if a man has sex relations with a woman at the time when she is unwell, he has seen her fountain and she has let the fountain of her blood be uncovered, and the two of them are to be cut off from among their people. Lev 20:19 And you may not have sex connection with your mother's sister or your father's sister, for they are his near relations: their sin will be on them. Lev 20:20 And if a man has sex relations with the wife of his father's brother, he has put shame on his father's brother: their sin will be on them; till the day of their death they will have no children. Lev 20:21 And if a man takes his brother's wife, it is an unclean act; he has put shame on his brother; they will have no children. Lev 20:22 So then, keep my rules and my decisions and do them, so that the land which I am giving you as your resting-place may not violently send you out again. Lev 20:23 And do not keep the rules of the nations which I am driving out before you; for they did all these things, and for that reason my soul was turned against them. Lev 20:24 But I have said to you, You will take their land and I will give it to you for your heritage, a land flowing with milk and honey: I am the Lord your God who have made you separate from all other peoples. Lev 20:25 So then, make division between the clean beast and the unclean, and between the clean bird and the unclean: do not make yourselves disgusting by any beast or bird or anything which goes flat on the earth, which has been marked by me as unclean for you. Lev 20:26 And you are to be holy to me; for I the Lord am holy and have made you separate from the nations, so that you may be my people. Lev 20:27 Any man or woman who makes use of spirits, or who is a wonder-worker, is to be put to death: they are to be stoned with stones: their blood will be on them. Lev 21:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Say to the priests, the sons of Aaron, Let no man make himself unclean for the dead among his people; Lev 21:2 But only for his near relations, for his mother or his father, his son or his daughter, and his brother; Lev 21:3 And for his sister, a virgin, for she is his near relation and has had no husband, he may make himself unclean. Lev 21:4 But let him, being a chief among his people, not make himself unclean in such a way as to put shame on himself. Lev 21:5 They are not to have their hair cut off for the dead, or the hair on their chins cut short, or make cuts in their flesh. Lev 21:6 Let them be holy to their God and not make the name of their God common; for the fire offerings of the Lord and the bread of their God are offered by them, and they are to be holy. Lev 21:7 They may not take as wife a loose or common woman, or one who has been put away by her husband: for the priest is holy to his God. Lev 21:8 And he is to be holy in your eyes, for by him the bread of your God is offered; he is to be holy in your eyes, for I the Lord, who make you holy, am holy. Lev 21:9 And if the daughter of a priest makes herself common and by her loose behaviour puts shame on her father, let her be burned with fire. Lev 21:10 And he who is the chief priest among his brothers, on whose head the holy oil has been put, who is marked out to put on the holy robes, may not let his hair go loose or have his clothing out of order as a sign of sorrow. Lev 21:11 He may not go near any dead body or make himself unclean for his father or his mother; Lev 21:12 He may not go out of the holy place or make the holy place of his God common; for the crown of the holy oil of his God is on him: I am the Lord. Lev 21:13 And let him take as his wife one who has not had relations with a man. Lev 21:14 A widow, or one whose husband has put her away, or a common woman of loose behaviour, may not be the wife of a priest; but let him take a virgin from among his people. Lev 21:15 And he may not make his seed unclean among his people, for I the Lord have made him holy. Lev 21:16 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 21:17 Say to Aaron, If a man of your family, in any generation, is damaged in body, let him not come near to make the offering of the bread of his God. Lev 21:18 For any man whose body is damaged may not come near: one who is blind, or has not the use of his legs, or one who has a broken nose or any unnatural growth, Lev 21:19 Or a man with broken feet or hands, Lev 21:20 Or one whose back is bent, or one who is unnaturally small, or one who has a damaged eye, or whose skin is diseased, or whose sex parts are damaged; Lev 21:21 No man of the offspring of Aaron whose body is damaged in any way may come near to give the fire offerings of the Lord: he is damaged, he may not come near to make the offerings. Lev 21:22 He may take of the bread of God, the holy and the most holy; Lev 21:23 But he may not go inside the veil or come near the altar, because he is damaged; and he may not make my holy places common; for I the Lord have made them holy. Lev 21:24 These are the words which Moses said to Aaron and to his sons and to all the children of Israel. Lev 22:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 22:2 Give orders to Aaron and to his sons to keep themselves separate from the holy things of the children of Israel which they give to me, and not to make my holy name common: I am the Lord, Lev 22:3 Say to them, If any man of all your seed through all your generations, being unclean, comes near the holy things which the children of Israel make holy to the Lord, he will be cut off from before me: I am the Lord. Lev 22:4 No man of the seed of Aaron who is a leper, or who has a flow from his body, may take of the holy food till he is clean. And any man touching anything which is unclean because of the dead, or any man whose seed goes from him; Lev 22:5 Or anyone touching any unclean thing which goes flat on the earth, or someone by whom he may be made unclean in any way whatever; Lev 22:6 Any person touching any such unclean thing will be unclean till evening, and may not take of the holy food till his flesh has been bathed in water; Lev 22:7 And when the sun has gone down he will be clean; and after that he may take part in the holy food, because it is his bread. Lev 22:8 That which comes to a natural death, or is attacked by beasts, he may not take as food, for it will make him unclean: I am the Lord. Lev 22:9 So then, let them keep what I have put into their care, for fear that sin may come on them because of it, so causing their death because they have made it common: I am the Lord, who make them holy. Lev 22:10 No outside person may take of the holy food, or one living as a guest in the priest's house, or a servant working for payment. Lev 22:11 But any person for whom the priest has given money, to make him his, may take of it with him; and those who come to birth in his house may take of his bread. Lev 22:12 And if the daughter of a priest is married to an outside person she may not take of the holy things which are lifted up as offerings. Lev 22:13 But if a priest's daughter is a widow, or parted from her husband, and has no child, and has come back to her father's house as when she was a girl, she may take of her father's bread; but no outside person may do so. Lev 22:14 And if a man takes the holy food in error, he will have to give the holy thing back to the priest, with the addition of a fifth part. Lev 22:15 And they may not make common the holy things which the children of Israel give to the Lord, Lev 22:16 So causing sin to come on them when they take their holy things for food: I am the Lord who make them holy. Lev 22:17 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 22:18 Say to Aaron and to his sons and to all the children of Israel, If any man of the children of Israel, or of another nation living in Israel, makes an offering, given because of an oath or freely given to the Lord for a burned offering; Lev 22:19 So that it may be pleasing to the Lord, let him give a male, without any mark, from among the oxen or the sheep or the goats. Lev 22:20 But anything which has a mark you may not give; it will not make you pleasing to the Lord. Lev 22:21 And whoever makes a peace-offering to the Lord, in payment of an oath or as a free offering, from the herd or the flock, if it is to be pleasing to the Lord, let it be free from any mark or damage. Lev 22:22 Anything blind or broken or damaged or having any disease or any mark on it may not be offered to the Lord; you may not make an offering of it by fire on the altar to the Lord. Lev 22:23 An ox or a lamb which has more or less than its natural parts, may be given as a free offering; but it will not be taken in payment of an oath. Lev 22:24 An animal which has its sex parts damaged or crushed or broken or cut, may not be offered to the Lord; such a thing may not be done anywhere in your land. Lev 22:25 And from one who is not an Israelite you may not take any of these for an offering to the Lord; for they are unclean, there is a mark on them, and the Lord will not be pleased with them. Lev 22:26 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 22:27 When an ox or a sheep or a goat is given birth, let it be with its mother for seven days; and after the eighth day it may be taken as an offering made by fire to the Lord. Lev 22:28 A cow or a sheep may not be put to death with its young on the same day. Lev 22:29 And when you make an offering of praise to the Lord, make it in a way which is pleasing to him. Lev 22:30 Let it be used for food on the same day; do not keep any part of it till the morning: I am the Lord. Lev 22:31 So then, keep my orders and do them: I am the Lord. Lev 22:32 And do not make my holy name common; so that it may be kept holy by the children of Israel: I am the Lord who make you holy, Lev 22:33 Who took you out of the land of Egypt that I might be your God: I am the Lord. Lev 23:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 23:2 Say to the children of Israel, These are the fixed feasts of the Lord, which you will keep for holy meetings: these are my feasts. Lev 23:3 On six days work may be done; but the seventh day is a special day of rest, a time for worship; you may do no sort of work: it is a Sabbath to the Lord wherever you may be living. Lev 23:4 These are the fixed feasts of the Lord, the holy days of worship which you will keep at their regular times. Lev 23:5 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at nightfall, is the Lord's Passover; Lev 23:6 And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread; for seven days let your food be unleavened bread. Lev 23:7 On the first day you will have a holy meeting; you may do no sort of field-work. Lev 23:8 And every day for seven days you will give a burned offering to the Lord; and on the seventh day there will be a holy meeting; you may do no field-work. Lev 23:9 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 23:10 Say to the children of Israel, When you have come to the land which I will give you, and have got in the grain from its fields, take some of the first-fruits of the grain to the priest; Lev 23:11 And let the grain be waved before the Lord, so that you may be pleasing to him; on the day after the Sabbath let it be waved by the priest. Lev 23:12 And on the day of the waving of the grain, you are to give a male lamb of the first year, without any mark, for a burned offering to the Lord. Lev 23:13 And let the meal offering with it be two tenth parts of an ephah of the best meal mixed with oil, an offering made by fire to the Lord for a sweet smell; and the drink offering with it is to be of wine, the fourth part of a hin. Lev 23:14 And you may take no bread or dry grain or new grain for food till the very day on which you have given the offering for your God: this is a rule for ever through all your generations wherever you are living. Lev 23:15 And let seven full weeks be numbered from the day after the Sabbath, the day when you give the grain for the wave offering; Lev 23:16 Let fifty days be numbered, to the day after the seventh Sabbath; then you are to give a new meal offering to the Lord. Lev 23:17 Take from your houses two cakes of bread, made of a fifth part of an ephah of the best meal, cooked with leaven, to be waved for first-fruits to the Lord. Lev 23:18 And with the bread, take seven lambs of the first year, without any marks, and one ox and two male sheep, to be a burned offering to the Lord, with their meal offering and their drink offerings, an offering of a sweet smell made by fire to the Lord. Lev 23:19 And you are to give one male goat for a sin-offering and two male lambs of the first year for peace-offerings. Lev 23:20 And these will be waved by the priest, with the bread of the first-fruits, for a wave offering to the Lord, with the two lambs: they will be holy to the Lord for the priest. Lev 23:21 And on the same day, let it be given out that there will be a holy meeting for you: you may do no field-work on that day: it is a rule for ever through all your generations wherever you are living. Lev 23:22 And when you get in the grain from your land, do not let all the grain at the edges of the field be cut, and do not take up the grain which has been dropped in the field; let that be for the poor, and for the man from another country: I am the Lord your God. Lev 23:23 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 23:24 Say to the children of Israel, In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, let there be a special day of rest for you, a day of memory, marked by the blowing of horns, a meeting for worship. Lev 23:25 Do no field-work and give to the Lord an offering made by fire. Lev 23:26 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 23:27 The tenth day of this seventh month is the day for the taking away of sin; let it be a holy day of worship; you are to keep from pleasure, and give to the Lord an offering made by fire. Lev 23:28 And on that day you may do no sort of work, for it is a day of taking away sin, to make you clean before the Lord your God. Lev 23:29 For any person, whoever he may be, who takes his pleasure on that day will be cut off from his people. Lev 23:30 And if any person, whoever he may be, on that day does any sort of work, I will send destruction on him from among his people. Lev 23:31 You may not do any sort of work: this is an order for ever through all your generations wherever you may be living. Lev 23:32 Let this be a Sabbath of special rest to you, and keep yourselves from all pleasure; on the ninth day of the month at nightfall from evening to evening, let this Sabbath be kept. Lev 23:33 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 23:34 Say to the children of Israel, On the fifteenth day of this seventh month let the feast of tents be kept to the Lord for seven days. Lev 23:35 On the first day there will be a holy meeting: do no field-work. Lev 23:36 Every day for seven days give an offering made by fire to the Lord; and on the eighth day there is to be a holy meeting, when you are to give an offering made by fire to the Lord; this is a special holy day: you may do no field-work on that day. Lev 23:37 These are the fixed feasts of the Lord, to be kept by you as holy days of worship, for making an offering by fire to the Lord; a burned offering, a meal offering, an offering of beasts, and drink offerings; every one on its special day; Lev 23:38 In addition to the Sabbaths of the Lord, and in addition to the things you give and the oaths you make and the free offerings to the Lord. Lev 23:39 But on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have got in all the fruits of the land, you will keep the feast of the Lord for seven days: the first day will be a Sabbath, and the eighth day the same. Lev 23:40 On the first day, take the fruit of fair trees, branches of palm-trees, and branches of thick trees and trees from the riverside, and be glad before the Lord for seven days. Lev 23:41 And let this feast be kept before the Lord for seven days in the year: it is a rule for ever from generation to generation; in the seventh month let it be kept. Lev 23:42 For seven days you will be living in tents; all those who are Israelites by birth are to make tents their living-places: Lev 23:43 So that future generations may keep in mind how I gave the children of Israel tents as their living-places when I took them out of the land of Egypt: I am the Lord your God. Lev 23:44 And Moses made clear to the children of Israel the orders about the fixed feasts of the Lord. Lev 24:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 24:2 Give orders to the children of Israel to give you clean olive oil for the light, so that a light may be burning at all times, Lev 24:3 Outside the veil of the ark in the Tent of meeting; let Aaron see that it is burning from evening till morning at all times before the Lord: it is a rule for ever through all your generations. Lev 24:4 Let Aaron put the lights in order on the support before the Lord at all times. Lev 24:5 And take the best meal and make twelve cakes of it, a fifth part of an ephah in every cake. Lev 24:6 And put them in two lines, six in a line, on the holy table before the Lord. Lev 24:7 And on the lines of cakes put clean sweet-smelling spices, for a sign on the bread, an offering made by fire to the Lord. Lev 24:8 Every Sabbath day regularly, the priest is to put it in order before the Lord: it is offered for the children of Israel, an agreement made for ever. Lev 24:9 And it will be for Aaron and his sons; they are to take it for food in a holy place: it is the most holy of all the offerings made by fire to the Lord, a rule for ever. Lev 24:10 And a son of an Israelite woman, whose father was an Egyptian, went out among the children of Israel and had a fight with a man of Israel by the tents; Lev 24:11 And the son of the Israelite woman said evil against the holy Name, with curses; and they took him to Moses. His mother's name was Shelomith, the daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan. Lev 24:12 And they kept him shut up, till a decision might be given by the mouth of the Lord. Lev 24:13 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 24:14 Take the curser outside the tent-circle; and let all in whose hearing the words were said put their hands on his head, and let him be stoned by all the people. Lev 24:15 And say to the children of Israel, As for any man cursing God, his sin will be on his head. Lev 24:16 And he who says evil against the name of the Lord will certainly be put to death; he will be stoned by all the people; the man who is not of your nation and one who is an Israelite by birth, whoever says evil against the holy Name is to be put to death. Lev 24:17 And anyone who takes another's life is certainly to be put to death. Lev 24:18 And anyone wounding a beast and causing its death, will have to make payment for it: a life for a life. Lev 24:19 And if a man does damage to his neighbour, as he has done, so let it be done to him; Lev 24:20 Wound for wound, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; whatever damage he has done, so let it be done to him. Lev 24:21 He who puts a beast to death will have to make payment for it; he who puts a man to death will himself be put to death. Lev 24:22 You are to have the same law for a man of another nation living among you as for an Israelite; for I am the Lord your God. Lev 24:23 And Moses said these words to the children of Israel, and they took the man who had been cursing outside the tent-circle and had him stoned. The children of Israel did as the Lord gave orders to Moses. Lev 25:1 And the Lord said to Moses on Mount Sinai, Lev 25:2 Say to the children of Israel, When you come into the land which I will give you, let the land keep a Sabbath to the Lord. Lev 25:3 For six years put seed into your land, and for six years give care to your vines and get in the produce of them; Lev 25:4 But let the seventh year be a Sabbath of rest for the land, a Sabbath to the Lord; do not put seed into your land or have your vines cut. Lev 25:5 That which comes to growth of itself may not be cut, and the grapes of your uncared-for vines may not be taken off; let it be a year of rest for the land. Lev 25:6 And the Sabbath of the land will give food for you and your man-servant and your woman-servant and those working for payment, and for those of another country who are living among you; Lev 25:7 And for your cattle and the beasts on the land; all the natural increase of the land will be for food. Lev 25:8 And let seven Sabbaths of years be numbered to you, seven times seven years; even the days of seven Sabbaths of years, that is forty-nine years; Lev 25:9 Then let the loud horn be sounded far and wide on the tenth day of the seventh month; on the day of taking away sin let the horn be sounded through all your land. Lev 25:10 And let this fiftieth year be kept holy, and say publicly that everyone in the land is free from debt: it is the Jubilee, and every man may go back to his heritage and to his family. Lev 25:11 Let this fiftieth year be the Jubilee: no seed may be planted, and that which comes to growth of itself may not be cut, and the grapes may not be taken from the uncared-for vines. Lev 25:12 For it is the Jubilee, and it is holy to you; your food will be the natural increase of the field. Lev 25:13 In this year of Jubilee, let every man go back to his heritage. Lev 25:14 And in the business of trading goods for money, do no wrong to one another. Lev 25:15 Let your exchange of goods with your neighbours have relation to the number of years after the year of Jubilee, and the number of times the earth has given her produce. Lev 25:16 If the number of years is great, the price will be increased, and if the number of years is small, the price will be less, for it is the produce of a certain number of years which the man is giving you. Lev 25:17 And do no wrong, one to another, but let the fear of your God be before you; for I am the Lord your God. Lev 25:18 So keep my rules and my decisions and do them, and you will be safe in your land. Lev 25:19 And the land will give her fruit, and you will have food in full measure and be safe in the land. Lev 25:20 And if you say, Where will our food come from in the seventh year, when we may not put in seed, or get in the increase Lev 25:21 Then I will send my blessing on you in the sixth year, and the land will give fruit enough for three years. Lev 25:22 And in the eighth year you will put in your seed, and get your food from the old stores, till the fruit of the ninth year is ready. Lev 25:23 No exchange of land may be for ever, for the land is mine, and you are as my guests, living with me for a time. Lev 25:24 Wherever there is property in land, the owner is to have the right of getting it back. Lev 25:25 If your brother becomes poor, and has to give up some of his land for money, his nearest relation may come and get back that which his brother has given up. Lev 25:26 And if he has no one to get it back for him, and later he himself gets wealth and has enough money to get it back; Lev 25:27 Then let him take into account the years from the time when he gave it up, and make up the loss for the rest of the years to him who took it, and so get back his property. Lev 25:28 But if he is not able to get it back for himself, then it will be kept by him who gave a price for it, till the year of Jubilee; and in that year it will go back to its first owner and he will have his property again. Lev 25:29 And if a man gives his house in a walled town for money, he has the right to get it back for the space of a full year after he has given it up. Lev 25:30 And if he does not get it back by the end of the year, then the house in the town will become the property of him who gave the money for it, and of his children for ever; it will not go from him in the year of Jubilee. Lev 25:31 But houses in small unwalled towns will be the same as property in the country; they may be got back, and they will go back to their owners in the year of Jubilee. Lev 25:32 But the houses in the towns of the Levites may be got back by the Levites at any time. Lev 25:33 And if a Levite does not give money to get back his property, his house in the town which was exchanged for money will come back to him in the year of Jubilee. For the houses of the towns of the Levites are their property among the children of Israel. Lev 25:34 But the land on the outskirts of their towns may not be exchanged for money, for it is their property for ever. Lev 25:35 And if your brother becomes poor and is not able to make a living, then you are to keep him with you, helping him as you would a man from another country who is living among you. Lev 25:36 Take no interest from him, in money or in goods, but have the fear of your God before you, and let your brother make a living among you. Lev 25:37 Do not take interest on the money which you let him have or on the food which you give him. Lev 25:38 I am the Lord your God, who took you out of the land of Egypt to give you the land of Canaan, that I might be your God. Lev 25:39 And if your brother becomes poor and gives himself to you for money, do not make use of him like a servant who is your property; Lev 25:40 But let him be with you as a servant working for payment, till the year of Jubilee; Lev 25:41 Then he will go out from you, he and his children with him, and go back to his family and to the property of his fathers. Lev 25:42 For they are my servants whom I took out from the land of Egypt; they may not become the property of another. Lev 25:43 Do not be a hard master to him, but have the fear of God before you. Lev 25:44 But you may get servants as property from among the nations round about; from them you may take men-servants and women-servants. Lev 25:45 And in addition, you may get, for money, servants from among the children of other nations who are living with you, and from their families which have come to birth in your land; and these will be your property. Lev 25:46 And they will be your children's heritage after you, to keep as their property; they will be your servants for ever; but you may not be hard masters to your countrymen, the children of Israel. Lev 25:47 And if one from another nation living among you gets wealth, and your countryman, at his side, becomes poor and gives himself for money to the man from another nation or to one of his family; Lev 25:48 After he has given himself he has the right to be made free, for a price, by one of his brothers, Lev 25:49 Or his father's brother, or the son of his father's brother, or any near relation; or if he gets money, he may make himself free. Lev 25:50 And let the years be numbered from the time when he gave himself to his owner till the year of Jubilee, and the price given for him will be in relation to the number of years, on the scale of the payment of a servant. Lev 25:51 If there is still a long time, he will give back, on account of it, a part of the price which was given for him. Lev 25:52 And if there is only a short time, he will take account of it with his master, and in relation to the number of years he will give back the price of making him free. Lev 25:53 And he will be with him as a servant working for payment year by year; his master is not to be cruel to him before your eyes. Lev 25:54 And if he is not made free in this way, he will go out in the year of Jubilee, he and his children with him. Lev 25:55 For the children of Israel are servants to me; they are my servants whom I took out of the land of Egypt: I am the Lord your God. Lev 26:1 Do not make images of false gods, or put up an image cut in stone or a pillar or any pictured stone in your land, to give worship to it; for I am the Lord your God. Lev 26:2 Keep my Sabbaths and give honour to my holy place: I am the Lord. Lev 26:3 If you are guided by my rules, and keep my laws and do them, Lev 26:4 Then I will give you rain at the right time, and the land will give her increase and the trees of the field will give their fruit; Lev 26:5 And the crushing of the grain will overtake the cutting of the grapes, and the cutting of the grapes will overtake the planting of the seed, and there will be bread in full measure, and you will be living in your land safely. Lev 26:6 And I will give you peace in the land, and you will take your rest and no one will give you cause for fear; and I will put an end to all evil beasts in the land, and no sword of war will go through your land. Lev 26:7 And you will put to flight those who are against you, and they will be put to death by your swords. Lev 26:8 Then five of you will put to flight a hundred, and a hundred of you will put to flight ten thousand, and all who are against you will be put to death by your swords. Lev 26:9 And I will have pleasure in you and make you fertile and greater in number; and I will keep my agreement with you. Lev 26:10 And old stores long kept will be your food, and you will take out the old because of the new; Lev 26:11 And I will put my holy House among you, and my soul will not be turned away from you in disgust. Lev 26:12 And I will be present among you and will be your God and you will be my people. Lev 26:13 I am the Lord your God, who took you out of the land of Egypt so that you might not be servants to them; by me the cords of your yoke were broken and I made you go upright. Lev 26:14 But if you do not give ear to me, and do not keep all these my laws; Lev 26:15 And if you go against my rules and if you have hate in your souls for my decisions and you do not do all my orders, but go against my agreement; Lev 26:16 This will I do to you: I will put fear in your hearts, even wasting disease and burning pain, drying up the eyes and making the soul feeble, and you will get no profit from your seed, for your haters will take it for food. Lev 26:17 And my face will be turned from you, and you will be broken before those who are against you, and your haters will become your rulers, and you will go in flight when no man comes after you. Lev 26:18 And if, even after these things, you will not give ear to me, then I will send you punishment seven times more for your sins. Lev 26:19 And the pride of your strength will be broken, and I will make your heaven as iron and your earth as brass; Lev 26:20 And your strength will be used up without profit; for your land will not give her increase and the trees of the field will not give their fruit. Lev 26:21 And if you still go against me and will not give ear to me, I will put seven times more punishments on you because of your sins. Lev 26:22 I will let loose the beasts of the field among you, and they will take away your children and send destruction on your cattle, so that your numbers will become small and your roads become waste. Lev 26:23 And if by these things you will not be turned to me, but still go against me; Lev 26:24 Then I will go against you, and I will give you punishment, I myself, seven times for all your sins. Lev 26:25 And I will send a sword on you to give effect to the punishment of my agreement; and when you come together into your towns I will send disease among you and you will be given up into the hands of your haters. Lev 26:26 When I take away your bread of life, ten women will be cooking bread in one oven, and your bread will be measured out by weight; you will have food but never enough. Lev 26:27 And if, after all this, you do not give ear to me, but go against me still, Lev 26:28 Then my wrath will be burning against you, and I will give you punishment, I myself, seven times for your sins. Lev 26:29 Then you will take the flesh of your sons and the flesh of your daughters for food; Lev 26:30 And I will send destruction on your high places, overturning your perfume altars, and will put your dead bodies on your broken images, and my soul will be turned from you in disgust. Lev 26:31 And I will make your towns waste and send destruction on your holy places; I will take no pleasure in the smell of your sweet perfumes; Lev 26:32 And I will make your land a waste, a wonder to your haters living in it. Lev 26:33 And I will send you out in all directions among the nations, and my sword will be uncovered against you, and your land will be without any living thing, and your towns will be made waste. Lev 26:34 Then will the land take pleasure in its Sabbaths while it is waste and you are living in the land of your haters; then will the land have rest. Lev 26:35 All the days while it is waste will the land have rest, such rest as it never had in your Sabbaths, when you were living in it. Lev 26:36 And as for the rest of you, I will make their hearts feeble in the land of their haters, and the sound of a leaf moved by the wind will send them in flight, and they will go in flight as from the sword, falling down when no one comes after them; Lev 26:37 Falling on one another, as before the sword, when no one comes after them; you will give way before your haters. Lev 26:38 And death will overtake you among strange nations, and the land of your haters will be your destruction. Lev 26:39 And those of you who are still living will be wasting away in their sins in the land of your haters; in the sins of their fathers they will be wasting away. Lev 26:40 And they will have grief for their sins and for the sins of their fathers, when their hearts were untrue to me, and they went against me; Lev 26:41 So that I went against them and sent them away into the land of their haters: if then the pride of their hearts is broken and they take the punishment of their sins, Lev 26:42 Then I will keep in mind the agreement which I made with Jacob and with Isaac and with Abraham, and I will keep in mind the land. Lev 26:43 And the land, while she is without them, will keep her Sabbaths; and they will undergo the punishment of their sins, because they were turned away from my decisions and in their souls was hate for my laws. Lev 26:44 But for all that, when they are in the land of their haters I will not let them go, or be turned away from them, or give them up completely; my agreement with them will not be broken, for I am the Lord their God. Lev 26:45 And because of them I will keep in mind the agreement which I made with their fathers, whom I took out of the land of Egypt before the eyes of the nations, to be their God: I am the Lord. Lev 26:46 These are the rules, decisions, and laws, which the Lord made between himself and the children of Israel in Mount Sinai, by the hand of Moses. Lev 27:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Lev 27:2 Say to the children of Israel, If a man makes a special oath, you will give your decision as to the value of the persons for the Lord. Lev 27:3 And you will put the value of a male from twenty years to sixty years old at fifty shekels of silver, by the scale of the holy place. Lev 27:4 And if it is a female, the value will be thirty shekels. Lev 27:5 And if the person is from five to twenty years old, the value will be twenty shekels for a male, and ten for a female. Lev 27:6 And if the person is from one month to five years old, then the value for a male will be five shekels of silver, and for a female three shekels. Lev 27:7 And for sixty years old and over, for a male the value will be fifteen shekels, and for a female, ten. Lev 27:8 But if he is poorer than the value which you have put on him, then let him be taken to the priest, and the priest will put a value on him, such as it is possible for him to give. Lev 27:9 And if it is a beast of which men make offerings to the Lord, whatever any man gives of such to the Lord will be holy. Lev 27:10 It may not be changed in any way, a good given for a bad, or a bad for a good; if one beast is changed for another, the two will be holy. Lev 27:11 And if it is any unclean beast, of which offerings are not made to the Lord, then let him take the beast before the priest; Lev 27:12 And let the priest put a value on it, if it is good or bad; whatever value the priest puts on it, so will it be. Lev 27:13 But if he has a desire to get it back for himself, let him give a fifth more than your value. Lev 27:14 And if a man has given his house as holy to the Lord, then the priest will put a value on it, if it is good or bad; as the priest gives decision so will the value be fixed. Lev 27:15 And if the owner has a desire to get back his house, let him give a fifth more than your value, and it will be his. Lev 27:16 And if a man gives to the Lord part of the field which is his property, then let your value be in relation to the seed which is planted in it; a measure of barley grain will be valued at fifty shekels of silver. Lev 27:17 If he gives his field from the year of Jubilee, the value will be fixed by your decision. Lev 27:18 But if he gives his field after the year of Jubilee, the amount of the money will be worked out by the priest in relation to the number of years till the coming year of Jubilee, and the necessary amount will be taken off your value. Lev 27:19 And if the man who has given the field has a desire to get it back, let him give a fifth more than the price at which it was valued and it will be his. Lev 27:20 But if he has no desire to get it back, or if he has given it for a price to another man, it may not be got back again. Lev 27:21 But the field, when it becomes free at the year of Jubilee, will be holy to the Lord, as a field given under oath: it will be the property of the priest. Lev 27:22 And if a man gives to the Lord a field which he has got for money from another, which is not part of his heritage; Lev 27:23 Then the value fixed by you up to the year of Jubilee will be worked out for him by the priest, and in that day he will give the amount of your value as holy to the Lord. Lev 27:24 In the year of Jubilee the field will go back to him from whom he got it, that is, to him whose heritage it was. Lev 27:25 And let all your values be based on the shekel of the holy place, that is, twenty gerahs to the shekel. Lev 27:26 But a man may not give by oath to the Lord the first-fruits of cattle which are offered to the Lord: if it is an ox or a sheep it is the Lord's. Lev 27:27 And if it is an unclean beast, then the owner of it may give money to get it back, in agreement with the value fixed by you, by giving a fifth more; or if it is not taken back, let it be given for money in agreement with your valuing. Lev 27:28 But nothing which a man has given completely to the Lord, out of all his property, of man or beast, or of the land which is his heritage, may be given away or got back in exchange for money; anything completely given is most holy to the Lord. Lev 27:29 Any man given completely to the Lord may not be got back: he is certainly to be put to death. Lev 27:30 And every tenth part of the land, of the seed planted, or of the fruit of trees, is holy to the Lord. Lev 27:31 And if a man has a desire to get back any of the tenth part which he has given, let him give a fifth more. Lev 27:32 And a tenth part of the herd and of the flock, whatever goes under the rod of the valuer, will be holy to the Lord. Lev 27:33 He may not make search to see if it is good or bad, or make any changes in it; and if he makes exchange of it for another, the two will be holy; he will not get them back again. Lev 27:34 These are the orders which the Lord gave to Moses for the children of Israel in Mount Sinai. Num 1:1 And the Lord said to Moses in the waste land of Sinai, in the Tent of meeting, on the first day of the second month, in the second year after they came out of the land of Egypt, Num 1:2 Take the full number of the children of Israel, by their families, and by their fathers' houses, every male by name; Num 1:3 All those of twenty years old and over, who are able to go to war in Israel, are to be numbered by you and Aaron. Num 1:4 And to give you help, take one man from every tribe, the head of his father's house. Num 1:5 These are the names of those who are to be your helpers: from Reuben, Elizur, the son of Shedeur; Num 1:6 From Simeon, Shelumiel, the son of Zurishaddai; Num 1:7 From Judah, Nahshon, the son of Amminadab; Num 1:8 From Issachar, Nethanel, the son of Zuar; Num 1:9 From Zebulun, Eliab, the son of Helon; Num 1:10 Of the children of Joseph: from Ephraim, Elishama, the son of Ammihud; from Manasseh, Gamaliel, the son of Pedahzur, Num 1:11 From Benjamin, Abidan, the son of Gideoni; Num 1:12 From Dan, Ahiezer, the son of Ammi-shaddai; Num 1:13 From Asher, Pagiel, the son of Ochran; Num 1:14 From Gad, Eliasaph, the son of Reuel; Num 1:15 From Naphtali, Ahira, the son of Enan. Num 1:16 These are the men named out of all the people, chiefs of their fathers' houses, heads of the tribes of Israel. Num 1:17 And Moses and Aaron took these men, marked out by name; Num 1:18 And they got together all the people on the first day of the second month; and everyone made clear his family and his father's house, by the number of the names, from twenty years old and over. Num 1:19 As the Lord had given orders to Moses, so they were numbered by him in the waste place of Sinai. Num 1:20 The generations of the sons of Reuben, the oldest son of Israel, were numbered by their families and their fathers' houses, every male of twenty years old and over, who was able to go to war; Num 1:21 Forty-six thousand, five hundred of the tribe of Reuben were numbered. Num 1:22 The generations of the sons of Simeon were numbered by their families and their fathers' houses, every male of twenty years old and over, who was able to go to war; Num 1:23 Fifty-nine thousand, three hundred of the tribe of Simeon were numbered. Num 1:24 The generations of the sons of Gad were numbered by their families and their fathers' houses, every male of twenty years old and over who was able to go to war; Num 1:25 Forty-five thousand, six hundred and fifty of the tribe of Gad were numbered. Num 1:26 The generations of the sons of Judah were numbered by their families and their fathers' houses, every male of twenty years old and over who was able to go to war; Num 1:27 Seventy-four thousand, six hundred of the tribe of Judah were numbered. Num 1:28 The generations of the sons of Issachar were numbered by their families and their fathers' houses, every male of twenty years old and over who was able to go to war; Num 1:29 Fifty-four thousand, four hundred of the tribe of Issachar were numbered. Num 1:30 The generations of the sons of Zebulun were numbered by their families and their fathers' houses, every male of twenty years old and over who was able to go to war; Num 1:31 Fifty-seven thousand, four hundred of the tribe of Zebulun were numbered. Num 1:32 The generations of the sons of Joseph were numbered by their families and their fathers' houses, every male of twenty years old and over who was able to go to war; Num 1:33 Forty thousand, five hundred of the tribe of Ephraim were numbered. Num 1:34 The generations of the sons of Manasseh were numbered by their families and their fathers' houses, every male of twenty years old and over who was able to go to war; Num 1:35 Thirty-two thousand, two hundred of the tribe of Manasseh were numbered. Num 1:36 The generations of the sons of Benjamin were numbered by their families and their fathers' houses, every male of twenty years old and over who was able to go to war; Num 1:37 Thirty-five thousand, four hundred of the tribe of Benjamin were numbered. Num 1:38 The generations of the sons of Dan were numbered by their families and their fathers' houses, every male of twenty years and over who was able to go to war; Num 1:39 Sixty-two thousand, seven hundred of the tribe of Dan were numbered. Num 1:40 The generations of the sons of Asher were numbered by their families and their fathers' houses, every male of twenty years old and over who was able to go to war; Num 1:41 Forty-one thousand, five hundred of the tribe of Asher were numbered. Num 1:42 The generations of the sons of Naphtali were numbered by their families and their fathers' houses, every male of twenty years old and over who was able to go to war; Num 1:43 Fifty-three thousand, four hundred of the tribe of Naphtali were numbered. Num 1:44 These are they who were numbered by Moses and Aaron and by the twelve chiefs of Israel, one from every tribe. Num 1:45 So all those who were numbered of the children of Israel, by their families, all those of twenty years old and over who were able to go to war, Num 1:46 Were six hundred and three thousand, five hundred and fifty. Num 1:47 But the Levites, of the tribe of their fathers, were not numbered among them. Num 1:48 For the Lord said to Moses, Num 1:49 Only the tribe of Levi is not to be numbered among the children of Israel, Num 1:50 But to them you are to give the care of the Tent of meeting with its vessels and everything in it: they are to take up the Tent, and be responsible for everything to do with it, and put up their tents round it. Num 1:51 And when the Tent of meeting goes forward, the Levites are to take it down; and when it is to be put up, they are to do it: any strange person who comes near it is to be put to death. Num 1:52 The children of Israel are to put up their tents, every man in his tent-circle round his flag. Num 1:53 But the tents of the Levites are to be round the Tent of meeting, so that wrath may not come on the children of Israel: the Tent of meeting is to be in the care of the Levites. Num 1:54 So the children of Israel did as the Lord had given orders to Moses. Num 2:1 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, Num 2:2 The children of Israel are to put up their tents in the order of their families, by the flags of their fathers' houses, facing the Tent of meeting on every side. Num 2:3 Those whose tents are on the east side, looking to the dawn, will be round the flag of the children of Judah, with Nahshon, the son of Amminadab, as their chief. Num 2:4 The number of his army was seventy-four thousand, six hundred. Num 2:5 And nearest to him will be the tribe of Issachar, with Nethanel, the son of Zuar, as their chief. Num 2:6 The number of his army was fifty-four thousand, four hundred. Num 2:7 After him, the tribe of Zebulun, with Eliab, the son of Helon, as their chief. Num 2:8 The number of his army was fifty-seven thousand, four hundred. Num 2:9 The number of all the armies of Judah was a hundred and eighty-six thousand, four hundred. They go forward first. Num 2:10 On the south side is the flag of the children of Reuben, in the order of their armies, with Elizur, the son of Shedeur, as their chief. Num 2:11 The number of his army was forty-six thousand, five hundred. Num 2:12 And nearest to him, the tribe of Simeon, with Shelumiel, the son of Zurishaddai, as their chief. Num 2:13 The number of his army was fifty-nine thousand, three hundred. Num 2:14 Then the tribe of Gad, with Eliasaph, son of Reuel, as their chief. Num 2:15 The number of his army was forty-five thousand, six hundred and fifty. Num 2:16 The number of all the armies of Reuben together came to a hundred and fifty-one thousand, four hundred and fifty. They go forward second. Num 2:17 Then the Tent of meeting is to go forward, with the tents of the Levites, in the middle of the armies; in the same order as their tents are placed, they are to go forward, every man under his flag. Num 2:18 On the west side will be the flag of the children of Ephraim, with Elishama, the son of Ammihud, as their chief. Num 2:19 The number of his army was forty thousand, five hundred. Num 2:20 And by him the tribe of Manasseh with Gamaliel, the son of Pedahzur, as their chief. Num 2:21 The number of his army was thirty-two thousand, two hundred. Num 2:22 Then the tribe of Benjamin, with Abidan, the son of Gideoni, as their chief. Num 2:23 The number of his army was thirty-five thousand, four hundred. Num 2:24 The number of all the armies of Ephraim was a hundred and eight thousand, one hundred. They go forward third. Num 2:25 On the north side will be the flag of the children of Dan, with Ahiezer, the son of Ammishaddai, as their chief. Num 2:26 The number of his army was sixty-two thousand, seven hundred. Num 2:27 Nearest to him will be the tribe of Asher, with Pagiel, the son of Ochran, as their chief. Num 2:28 The number of his army was forty-one thousand, five hundred; Num 2:29 Then the tribe of Naphtali, with Ahira, the son of Enan, as their chief. Num 2:30 The number of his army was fifty-three thousand, four hundred. Num 2:31 The number of all the armies in the tents of Dan was a hundred and fifty-seven thousand, six hundred. They will go forward last, by their flags. Num 2:32 These are all who were numbered of the children of Israel, in the order of their fathers' families: all the armies in their tents together came to six hundred and three thousand, five hundred and fifty. Num 2:33 But the Levites were not numbered among the children of Israel, as the Lord said to Moses. Num 2:34 So the children of Israel did as the Lord said to Moses, so they put up their tents by their flags, and they went forward in the same order, by their families, and by their fathers' houses. Num 3:1 Now these are the generations of Aaron and Moses, in the day when the word of the Lord came to Moses on Mount Sinai. Num 3:2 These are the names of the sons of Aaron: Nadab the oldest, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. Num 3:3 These are the names of the sons of Aaron, the priests, on whom the holy oil was put, who were marked out as priests. Num 3:4 And Nadab and Abihu were put to death before the Lord when they made an offering of strange fire before the Lord, in the waste land of Sinai, and they had no children: and Eleazar and Ithamar did the work of priests before Aaron their father. Num 3:5 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 3:6 Make the tribe of Levi come near, and put them before Aaron the priest, to be his helpers, Num 3:7 In order that they may be responsible to him and to all Israel for the care of the Tent of meeting, and to do the work of the House; Num 3:8 And they will have the care of all the vessels of the Tent of meeting, and will do for the children of Israel all the necessary work of the House. Num 3:9 Give the Levites to Aaron and his sons; so that they may be his without question from among the children of Israel. Num 3:10 And give orders that Aaron and his sons are to keep their place as priests; any strange person who comes near is to be put to death. Num 3:11 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 3:12 See, I have taken the Levites out of the children of Israel to be mine in place of the first sons of the children of Israel; Num 3:13 For all the first sons are mine; on the day when I put to death all the first sons in the land of Egypt, I took for myself every first male birth of man and beast. They are mine; I am the Lord. Num 3:14 And the Lord said to Moses in the waste land of Sinai, Num 3:15 Let all the children of Levi be numbered by their families and their fathers' houses; let every male of a month old and over be numbered. Num 3:16 So Moses did as the Lord said, numbering them as he had been ordered. Num 3:17 These were the sons of Levi by name: Gershon and Kohath and Merari. Num 3:18 And these are the names of the sons of Gershon, by their families: Libni and Shimei. Num 3:19 And the sons of Kohath, by their families: Amram and Izhar and Hebron and Uzziel. Num 3:20 And the sons of Merari by their families: Mahli and Mushi. These are the families of the Levites in the order of their fathers' houses. Num 3:21 From Gershon come the Libnites and the Shimeites; these are the families of the Gershonites. Num 3:22 Those who were numbered of them, the males from one month old and over, were seven thousand, five hundred. Num 3:23 The tents of the Gershonites are to be placed at the back of the House, to the west. Num 3:24 The chief of the Gershonites is Eliasaph, the son of Lael. Num 3:25 In the Tent of meeting, the Gershonites are to have the care of the House, and the Tent with its cover, and the veil for the door of the Tent of meeting, Num 3:26 And the hangings for the open space round the House and the altar, and the curtain for its doorway, and all the cords needed for its use. Num 3:27 From Kohath come the Amramites and the Izharites and the Hebronites and the Uzzielites; these are the families of the Kohathites. Num 3:28 Those who were numbered of them, the males from one month old and over, were eight thousand, six hundred, who were responsible for the care of the holy place. Num 3:29 The tents of the Kohathites are to be placed on the south side of the House. Num 3:30 Their chief is Elizaphan, the son of Uzziel. Num 3:31 In their care are the ark, and the table, and the lights, and the altars, and all the vessels used in the holy place, and the veil, and all they are used for. Num 3:32 Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, will be head over all the Levites and overseer of those responsible for the care of the holy place. Num 3:33 From Merari come the Mahlites and the Mushites; these are the families of Merari. Num 3:34 Those who were numbered of them, the males of a month old and over, were six thousand, two hundred. Num 3:35 The chief of the families of Merari was Zuriel, the son of Abihail: their tents are to be placed on the north side of the House. Num 3:36 And in their care are to be all the boards of the Tent, with their rods and pillars and bases, and all the instruments, and all they are used for, Num 3:37 And the pillars of the open space round it, with their bases and nails and cords. Num 3:38 And those whose tents are to be placed on the east side of the House in front of the Tent of meeting, looking to the dawn, are Moses and Aaron and his sons, who will do the work of the holy place for the children of Israel; and any strange person who comes near will be put to death. Num 3:39 All the Levites numbered by Moses and Aaron at the order of the Lord, all the males of one month old and over numbered in the order of their families, were twenty-two thousand. Num 3:40 And the Lord said to Moses, Let all the first male children be numbered, and take the number of their names. Num 3:41 And give to me the Levites (I am the Lord) in place of the first sons of the children of Israel; and the cattle of the Levites in place of the first births among the cattle of the children of Israel. Num 3:42 So Moses had all the first sons among the children of Israel numbered, as the Lord said to him. Num 3:43 Every first son from a month old and over was numbered by name, and the number came to twenty-two thousand, two hundred and seventy-three. Num 3:44 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 3:45 Take the Levites in place of all the first sons of the children of Israel, and the cattle of the Levites in place of their cattle; the Levites are to be mine; I am the Lord. Num 3:46 And the price you have to give for the two hundred and seventy-three first sons of the children of Israel which are in addition to the number of the Levites, Num 3:47 Will be five shekels for every one, by the scale of the holy place (the shekel is twenty gerahs); Num 3:48 And this money, the price of those over the number of the Levites, is to be given to Aaron and his sons. Num 3:49 So Moses took the money, the price of those whose place had not been taken by the Levites; Num 3:50 From the first sons of Israel he took it, a thousand, three hundred and sixty-five shekels, by the scale of the holy place; Num 3:51 And he gave the money to Aaron and his sons, as the Lord had said. Num 4:1 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, Num 4:2 Let the sons of Kohath, from among the sons of Levi, be numbered by their families, in the order of their fathers' houses; Num 4:3 All those from thirty to fifty years old who are able to do the work of the Tent of meeting. Num 4:4 And this is to be the work of the sons of Kohath in connection with the most holy things. Num 4:5 When all the people go forward, Aaron is to go in with his sons, and take down the veil of the curtain, covering the ark of witness with it; Num 4:6 And putting over it the leather cover and over that a blue cloth; and putting its rods in place. Num 4:7 And on the table of the holy bread they are to put a blue cloth, and on it all the vessels, the spoons and the basins and the cups; and the holy bread with them; Num 4:8 And over them they are to put a red cloth, covering it with a leather cover, and putting its rods in their places. Num 4:9 And they are to take a blue cloth, covering with it the light-support with its lights and its instruments and its trays and all the oil vessels which are used for it: Num 4:10 All these they are to put in a leather cover, and put it on the frame. Num 4:11 On the gold altar they are to put a blue cloth, covering it with a leather cover; and they are to put its rods in their places. Num 4:12 All the vessels which are used in the holy place they are to put in a blue cloth, covering them with a leather cover, and put them on the frame. Num 4:13 And they are to take away the burned waste from the altar, and put a purple cloth on it; Num 4:14 Placing on the cloth all its vessels, the fire-baskets, the meat-hooks, the spades, and the basins; all the vessels of the altar; they are to put a leather cover over all these, and put its rods in their places. Num 4:15 And after the holy place and all its vessels have been covered up by Aaron and his sons, when the tents of the people go forward, the sons of Kohath are to come and take it up; but the holy things may not be touched by them for fear of death. Num 4:16 And Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, is to be responsible for the oil for the light, and the sweet perfumes for burning, and the regular meal offering, and the holy oil; the House and the holy place and everything in it will be in his care. Num 4:17 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, Num 4:18 Do not let the family of the Kohathites be cut off from among the Levites; Num 4:19 But do this to them, so that life and not death may be theirs when they come near the most holy things; let Aaron and his sons go in and give to every one his work and that which he is to take up; Num 4:20 But they themselves are not to go in to see the holy place, even for a minute, for fear of death. Num 4:21 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 4:22 Let the sons of Gershon be numbered by families, in the order of their fathers' houses; Num 4:23 All those from thirty to fifty years old who are able to do the work of the Tent of meeting. Num 4:24 This is to be the work of the Gershonites, the things they are to do and take up. Num 4:25 They are to take up the curtains of the House, and the Tent of meeting with its cover and the leather cover over it, and the hangings for the door of the Tent of meeting; Num 4:26 And the hangings for the open space round the House and the altar, and the curtain for its doorway, with the cords and all the things used for them; whatever is necessary for these, they are to do. Num 4:27 From the mouth of Aaron and his sons the Gershonites will have word about all the things they are to do and take up; you are to give them their orders. Num 4:28 This is the work of the family of the Gershonites in the Tent of meeting, and they will be under the direction of Ithamar, the son of Aaron the priest. Num 4:29 The sons of Merari are to be numbered by families, in the order of their fathers' houses; Num 4:30 Every one from thirty to fifty years old who is able to do the work of the Tent of meeting. Num 4:31 And this is their part in the work of the Tent of meeting: the transport of the boards and the rods of the Tent, with the pillars and their bases; Num 4:32 And the pillars of the open space outside it, with their bases and their nails and cords and all the instruments used, and everything which has to be done there; all the instruments for which they are responsible are to be numbered by name. Num 4:33 This is the work which the sons of Merari are to do in connection with the Tent of meeting, under the direction of Ithamar, the son of Aaron the priest. Num 4:34 So Moses and Aaron and the chiefs of the people took in hand the numbering of the sons of the Kohathites, by families, in the order of their fathers' houses; Num 4:35 Numbering all those from thirty to fifty years old who were able to do the work in the Tent of meeting; Num 4:36 And the number of all these was two thousand, seven hundred and fifty. Num 4:37 This is the number of those of the Kohathites who did the work in the Tent of meeting, as they were numbered by Moses and Aaron at the order of the Lord. Num 4:38 And those of the sons of Gershon who were numbered by families, Num 4:39 All those from thirty to fifty years old who were able to do the work in the Tent of meeting, Num 4:40 Who were numbered by families in the order of their fathers' houses, were two thousand, six hundred and thirty. Num 4:41 This is the number of the sons of Gershon who did the work in the Tent of meeting, as they were numbered by Moses and Aaron at the order of the Lord. Num 4:42 And those of the sons of Merari who were numbered by families, in the order of their fathers' houses, Num 4:43 All those from thirty to fifty years old who did the work in the Tent of meeting, Num 4:44 Who were numbered by families, were three thousand, two hundred. Num 4:45 This is the number of the sons of Merari, numbered by Moses and Aaron at the order of the Lord. Num 4:46 And all the Levites who were numbered by Moses and Aaron and the chiefs of the people, by families, in the order of their fathers' houses, Num 4:47 Those from thirty to fifty years old who were able to do the work of the Tent of meeting and of its transport, Num 4:48 Came to eight thousand, five hundred and eighty. Num 4:49 At the order of the Lord they were numbered by Moses, every one in relation to his work and to his part in the transport; so they were numbered by Moses at the order of the Lord. Num 5:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 5:2 Give orders to the children of Israel to put outside the tent-circle every leper, and anyone who has any sort of flow from his body, and anyone who is unclean from the touch of the dead; Num 5:3 Male or female they are to be put outside the tent-circle, so that they may not make unclean my resting-place among them. Num 5:4 So the children of Israel did as the Lord had said to Moses, and put them outside the tent-circle. Num 5:5 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 5:6 Say to the children of Israel, If a man or a woman does any of the sins of men, going against the word of the Lord, and is in the wrong; Num 5:7 Let them say openly what they have done; and make payment for the wrong done, with the addition of a fifth part, and give it to him to whom the wrong was done. Num 5:8 But if the man has no relation to whom the payment may be made, then the payment for sin made to the Lord will be the priest's, in addition to the sheep offered to take away his sin. Num 5:9 And every offering lifted up of all the holy things which the children of Israel give to the priest, will be his. Num 5:10 And every man's holy things will be his: whatever a man gives to the priest will be his. Num 5:11 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 5:12 Say to the children of Israel, If any man's wife does wrong, sinning against him Num 5:13 By taking as her lover another man, and keeps it secret so that her husband has no knowledge of it, and there is no witness against her, and she is not taken in the act; Num 5:14 If the spirit of doubt comes into her husband's heart, and he has doubts of his wife, with good cause; or if he has doubts of her without cause: Num 5:15 Then let him take her to the priest, offering for her the tenth part of an ephah of barley meal, without oil or perfume; for it is a meal offering of a bitter spirit, a meal offering keeping wrongdoing in mind. Num 5:16 And the priest will make her come near and put her before the Lord; Num 5:17 And the priest will take holy water in a pot and put in it dust from the floor of the House; Num 5:18 And he will make the woman come before the Lord with her hair loose, and will put the meal offering, the offering of a bitter spirit, in her hands; and the priest will take in his hand the bitter water causing the curse; Num 5:19 And he will make her take an oath, and say to her, If no man has been your lover and you have not been with another in place of your husband, you are free from this bitter water causing the curse; Num 5:20 But if you have been with another in place of your husband and have made yourself unclean with a lover: Num 5:21 Then the priest will put the oath of the curse on the woman, and say to her, May the Lord make you a curse and an oath among your people, sending on you wasting of the legs and disease of the stomach; Num 5:22 And this water of the curse will go into your body, causing disease of your stomach and wasting of your legs: and the woman will say, So be it. Num 5:23 And the priest will put these curses in a book, washing out the writing with the bitter water; Num 5:24 And he will give to the woman the bitter water for drink; and the bitter water causing the curse will go into her. Num 5:25 And the priest will take from her hand the meal offering of doubt, waving it before the Lord, and will take it to the altar; Num 5:26 And he will take some of it in his hand, burning it on the altar as a sign, and then he will give the woman the bitter water. Num 5:27 And it will be that if the woman has become unclean, sinning against her husband, when she has taken the bitter water it will go into her body, causing disease of the stomach and wasting of the legs, and she will be a curse among her people. Num 5:28 But if she is clean she will be free and will have offspring. Num 5:29 This is the law for testing a wife who goes with another in place of her husband and becomes unclean; Num 5:30 Or for a husband who, in a bitter spirit, has doubts in his heart about his wife; let him take her to the priest, who will put in force this law. Num 5:31 Then the man will be free from all wrong, and the woman's sin will be on her. Num 6:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 6:2 Say to the children of Israel, If a man or a woman takes an oath to keep himself separate and give himself to the Lord; Num 6:3 He is to keep himself from wine and strong drink, and take no mixed wine or strong drink or any drink made from grapes, or any grapes, green or dry. Num 6:4 All the time he is separate he may take nothing made from the grape-vine, from its seeds to its skin. Num 6:5 All the time he is under his oath let no blade come near his head; till the days while he is separate are ended he is holy and his hair may not be cut. Num 6:6 All the time he is separate he may not come near any dead body. Num 6:7 He may not make himself unclean for his father or his mother, his sister or his brother, if death comes to them; because he is under an oath to keep himself separate for God. Num 6:8 All the time he is separate he is holy to the Lord. Num 6:9 If death comes suddenly to a man at his side, so that he becomes unclean, let his hair be cut off on the day when he is made clean, on the seventh day. Num 6:10 And on the eighth day let him take to the priest, at the door of the Tent of meeting, two doves or two young pigeons; Num 6:11 And the priest will give one for a sin-offering and the other for a burned offering to take away the sin which came on him on account of the dead, and he will make his head holy that same day. Num 6:12 And he will give to the Lord his days of being separate, offering a he-lamb of the first year as an offering for error: but the earlier days will be a loss, because he became unclean. Num 6:13 And this is the law for him who is separate, when the necessary days are ended: he is to come to the door of the Tent of meeting, Num 6:14 And make his offering to the Lord; one he-lamb of the first year, without a mark, for a burned offering, and one female lamb of the first year, without a mark, for a sin-offering, and one male sheep, without a mark, for peace-offerings, Num 6:15 And a basket of unleavened bread, cakes of the best meal mixed with oil, and thin unleavened cakes covered with oil, with their meal offering and drink offerings. Num 6:16 And the priest will take them before the Lord, and make his sin-offering and his burned offering; Num 6:17 Giving the sheep of the peace-offerings, with the basket of unleavened bread; and at the same time, the priest will make his meal offering and his drink offering. Num 6:18 Then let his long hair, the sign of his oath, be cut off at the door of the Tent of meeting, and let him put it on the fire on which the peace-offerings are burning. Num 6:19 And the priest will take the cooked leg of the sheep and one unleavened cake and one thin cake out of the basket, and put them on the hands of the separate one after his hair has been cut, Num 6:20 Waving them for a wave offering before the Lord; this is holy for the priest, together with the waved breast and the leg which is lifted up; after that, the man may take wine. Num 6:21 This is the law for him who takes an oath to keep himself separate, and for his offering to the Lord on that account, in addition to what he may be able to get; this is the law of his oath, which he will have to keep. Num 6:22 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 6:23 Say to Aaron and his sons, These are the words of blessing which are to be used by you in blessing the children of Israel; say to them, Num 6:24 May the Lord send his blessing on you and keep you: Num 6:25 May the light of the Lord's face be shining on you in grace: Num 6:26 May the Lord's approval be resting on you and may he give you peace. Num 6:27 So they will put my name on the children of Israel, and I will give them my blessing. Num 7:1 And when Moses had put up the House completely, and had put oil on it and made it holy, with all the things in it, and had made the altar and all its vessels holy with oil; Num 7:2 Then the chiefs of Israel, the heads of their fathers' houses, made offerings; these were the chiefs of the tribes, who were over those who were numbered. Num 7:3 And they came with their offerings before the Lord, six covered carts and twelve oxen; a cart for every two of the chiefs, and for every one an ox. Num 7:4 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 7:5 Take the things from them, to be used for the work of the Tent of meeting; and give them to the Levites, to every man what is needed for his work. Num 7:6 So Moses took the carts and the oxen and gave them to the Levites. Num 7:7 Two carts and four oxen he gave to the sons of Gershon for their work; Num 7:8 And four carts and eight oxen he gave to the sons of Merari for their work, under the direction of Ithamar, the son of Aaron the priest. Num 7:9 But to the sons of Kohath he gave nothing; because they had the care of the holy place, taking it about on their backs. Num 7:10 And the chiefs gave an offering for the altar on the day when the holy oil was put on it; they made their offering before the altar. Num 7:11 And the Lord said to Moses, Let every chief on his day give his offering to make the altar holy. Num 7:12 And he who made his offering on the first day was Nahshon, the son of Amminadab, of the tribe of Judah: Num 7:13 And his offering was one silver plate, a hundred and thirty shekels in weight, one silver basin of seventy shekels, by the scale of the holy place; the two of them full of the best meal mixed with oil for a meal offering; Num 7:14 One gold spoon of ten shekels, full of spice for burning; Num 7:15 One young ox, one male sheep, one he-lamb of the first year, for a burned offering; Num 7:16 One male of the goats for a sin-offering; Num 7:17 And for the peace-offerings, two oxen, five male sheep, five he-goats, five he-lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Nahshon, the son of Amminadab. Num 7:18 On the second day Nethanel, the son of Zuar, chief of Issachar, made his offering: Num 7:19 He gave one silver plate, a hundred and thirty shekels in weight, one silver basin of seventy shekels, by the scale of the holy place; the two of them full of the best meal mixed with oil for a meal offering; Num 7:20 One gold spoon of ten shekels, full of spice; Num 7:21 One young ox, one male sheep, one he-lamb of the first year, for a burned offering; Num 7:22 One male of the goats for a sin-offering; Num 7:23 And for the peace-offerings, two oxen, five male sheep, five he-goats, five he-lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Nethanel, the son of Zuar. Num 7:24 On the third day Eliab, the son of Helon, chief of the children of Zebulun: Num 7:25 His offering was one silver plate, a hundred and thirty shekels in weight, one silver basin of seventy shekels, by the scale of the holy place; the two of them full of the best meal mixed with oil for a meal offering; Num 7:26 One gold spoon of ten shekels, full of spice; Num 7:27 One young ox, one male sheep, one he-lamb of the first year, for a burned offering; Num 7:28 One male of the goats for a sin-offering; Num 7:29 And for the peace-offerings, two oxen, five male sheep, five he-goats, five he-lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Eliab, the son of Helon. Num 7:30 On the fourth day Elizur, the son of Shedeur, chief of the children of Reuben: Num 7:31 His offering was one silver plate, a hundred and thirty shekels in weight, one silver basin of seventy shekels, by the scale of the holy place; the two of them full of the best meal mixed with oil for a meal offering; Num 7:32 One gold spoon of ten shekels, full of spice; Num 7:33 One young ox, one male sheep, one he-lamb of the first year, for a burned offering; Num 7:34 One male of the goats for a sin-offering; Num 7:35 And for the peace-offerings, two oxen, five male sheep, five he-goats, five he-lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Elizur, the son of Shedeur. Num 7:36 On the fifth day Shelumiel, the son of Zurishaddai, chief of the children of Simeon: Num 7:37 His offering was one silver plate, a hundred and thirty shekels in weight, one silver basin of seventy shekels, by the scale of the holy place; the two of them full of the best meal mixed with oil for a meal offering; Num 7:38 One gold spoon of ten shekels, full of spice; Num 7:39 One young ox, one male sheep, one he-lamb of the first year, for a burned offering; Num 7:40 One male of the goats for a sin-offering; Num 7:41 And for the peace-offerings, two oxen, five male sheep, five he-goats, five he-lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Shelumiel, the son of Zurishaddai. Num 7:42 On the sixth day Eliasaph, the son of Reuel, chief of the children of Gad: Num 7:43 His offering was one silver plate, a hundred and thirty shekels in weight, one silver basin of seventy shekels, by the scale of the holy place; the two of them full of the best meal mixed with oil for a meal offering; Num 7:44 One gold spoon of ten shekels, full of spice; Num 7:45 One young ox, one male sheep, one he-lamb of the first year, for a burned offering; Num 7:46 One male of the goats for a sin-offering; Num 7:47 And for the peace-offerings, two oxen, five male sheep, five he-goats, five he-lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Eliasaph, the son of Reuel Num 7:48 On the seventh day Elishama, the son of Ammihud, chief of the children of Ephraim: Num 7:49 His offering was one silver plate, a hundred and thirty shekels in weight, one silver basin of seventy shekels, by the scale of the holy place; the two of them full of the best meal mixed with oil for a meal offering; Num 7:50 One gold spoon of ten shekels, full of spice; Num 7:51 One young ox, one male sheep, one he-lamb of the first year, for a burned offering; Num 7:52 One male of the goats for a sin-offering; Num 7:53 And for the peace-offerings, two oxen, five male sheep, five he-goats, five he-lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Elishama, the son of Ammihud. Num 7:54 On the eighth day Gamaliel, the son of Pedahzur, chief of the children of Manasseh: Num 7:55 His offering was one silver plate, a hundred and thirty shekels in weight, one silver basin of seventy shekels, by the scale of the holy place; the two of them full of the best meal mixed with oil for a meal offering; Num 7:56 One gold spoon of ten shekels, full of spice; Num 7:57 One young ox, one male sheep, one he-lamb of the first year, for a burned offering; Num 7:58 One male of the goats for a sin-offering; Num 7:59 And for the peace-offerings, two oxen, five male sheep, five he-goats, five he-lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Gamaliel, the son of Pedahzur. Num 7:60 On the ninth day Abidan, the son of Gideoni, chief of the children of Benjamin: Num 7:61 His offering was one silver plate, a hundred and thirty shekels in weight, one silver basin of seventy shekels, by the scale of the holy place; the two of them full of the best meal mixed with oil for a meal offering; Num 7:62 One gold spoon of ten shekels, full of spice; Num 7:63 One young ox, one male sheep, one he-lamb of the first year for a burned offering; Num 7:64 One male of the goats for a sin-offering; Num 7:65 And for the peace-offerings, two oxen, five male sheep, five he-goats, five he-lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Abidan, the son of Gideoni. Num 7:66 On the tenth day Ahiezer; the son of Ammishaddai, chief of the children of Dan: Num 7:67 His offering was one silver plate, a hundred and thirty shekels in weight, one silver basin of seventy shekels, by the scale of the holy place; the two of them full of the best meal mixed with oil for a meal offering; Num 7:68 One gold spoon of ten shekels, full of spice; Num 7:69 One young ox, one male sheep, one he-lamb of the first year, for a burned offering; Num 7:70 One male of the goats for a sin-offering; Num 7:71 And for the peace-offerings, two oxen, five male sheep, five he-goats, five he-lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Ahiezer, the son of Ammishaddai. Num 7:72 On the eleventh day Pagiel, the son of Ochran, chief of the children of Asher: Num 7:73 His offering was one silver plate; a hundred and thirty shekels in weight, one silver basin of seventy shekels, by the scale of the holy place; the two of them full of the best meal mixed with oil for a meal offering; Num 7:74 One gold spoon of ten shekels, full of spice; Num 7:75 One young ox, one male sheep, one he-lamb of the first year, for a burned offering; Num 7:76 One male of the goats for a sin-offering; Num 7:77 And for the peace-offerings, two oxen, five male sheep, five he-goats, five he-lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Pagiel, the son of Ochran. Num 7:78 On the twelfth day Ahira, the son of Enan, chief of the children of Naphtali: Num 7:79 His offering was one silver plate, a hundred and thirty shekels in weight, one silver basin of seventy shekels, by the scale of the holy place; the two of them full of the best meal mixed with oil for a meal offering; Num 7:80 One gold spoon of ten shekels, full of spice; Num 7:81 One young ox, one male sheep, one he-lamb of the first year, for a burned offering; Num 7:82 One male of the goats for a sin-offering; Num 7:83 And for the peace-offerings, two oxen, five male sheep, five he-goats, five he-lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Ahira, the son of Enan. Num 7:84 These were the offerings given for the altar by the chiefs of Israel, when the holy oil was put on it: twelve silver plates, twelve silver basins, twelve gold spoons; Num 7:85 The weight of every silver plate was a hundred and thirty shekels, and of every basin seventy; the weight of all the silver of the vessels was two thousand and four hundred shekels, by the scale of the holy place; Num 7:86 The weight of the twelve gold spoons of spice for burning was ten shekels for every one, by the scale of the holy place; all the gold of the spoons was a hundred and twenty shekels; Num 7:87 All the oxen, for the burned offering were twelve, the male sheep twelve, the he-lambs of the first year twelve, with their meal offering; and the males of the goats for sin-offering twelve; Num 7:88 And all the oxen for the peace-offerings, twenty-four oxen, the male sheep sixty, and the he-goats sixty, the he-lambs of the first year sixty. This was given for the altar after the holy oil was put on it. Num 7:89 And when Moses went into the Tent of meeting to have talk with him, then the Voice came to his ears from over the cover which was on the ark of witness, from between the two winged ones. And he had talk with him. Num 8:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 8:2 Say to Aaron, When you put the lights in their places, the seven lights will give light in front of the support. Num 8:3 And Aaron did so; he put the lights in their places so that they gave light in front of the support, as the Lord gave orders to Moses. Num 8:4 The support for the lights was of hammered gold work, from its base to its flowers it was of hammered work; from the design which the Lord had given to Moses, he made the support for the lights. Num 8:5 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 8:6 Take the Levites out from among the children of Israel and make them clean. Num 8:7 And this is how you are to make them clean: let the holy water which takes away sin be put on them, and let the hair all over their bodies be cut off with a sharp blade, and let their clothing be washed and their bodies made clean. Num 8:8 Then let them take a young ox and its meal offering, crushed grain mixed with oil, and take another ox for a sin-offering. Num 8:9 And make the Levites come forward in front of the Tent of meeting, and let all the children of Israel come together: Num 8:10 And you are to take the Levites before the Lord: and the children of Israel are to put their hands on them: Num 8:11 And Aaron is to give the Levites to the Lord as a wave offering from the children of Israel, so that they may do the Lord's work. Num 8:12 And the Levites are to put their hands on the heads of the oxen, and one of the oxen is to be offered for a sin-offering and the other for a burned offering to the Lord to take away the sin of the Levites. Num 8:13 Then the Levites are to be put before Aaron and his sons, to be offered as a wave offering to the Lord. Num 8:14 So you are to make the Levites separate from the children of Israel, and the Levites will be mine. Num 8:15 After that, the Levites will go in to do whatever has to be done in the Tent of meeting; you are to make them clean and give them as a wave offering. Num 8:16 For they have been given to me from among the children of Israel; in place of every mother's first son, the first to come to birth in Israel, I have taken them for myself. Num 8:17 For every mother's first son among the children of Israel is mine, the first male birth of man or beast: on the day when I sent death on all the first sons in the land of Egypt, I made them mine. Num 8:18 And in place of the first sons among the children of Israel, I have taken the Levites. Num 8:19 And I have given them to Aaron and to his sons, from among the children of Israel, to undertake for them all the work of the Tent of meeting, and to take away sin from the children of Israel so that no evil may come on them when they come near the holy place. Num 8:20 All these things Moses and Aaron and the children of Israel did to the Levites; as the Lord gave orders to Moses about the Levites, so the children of Israel did. Num 8:21 And the Levites were made clean from sin, and their clothing was washed, and Aaron gave them for a wave offering before the Lord; and Aaron took away their sin and made them clean. Num 8:22 And then the Levites went in to do their work in the Tent of meeting before Aaron and his sons: all the orders which the Lord had given Moses about the Levites were put into effect. Num 8:23 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 8:24 This is the rule for the Levites: those of twenty-five years old and over are to go in and do the work of the Tent of meeting; Num 8:25 But after they are fifty years old, they are to give up their work and do no more; Num 8:26 But be with their brothers in the Tent of meeting, taking care of it but doing no work. This is what you are to do in connection with the Levites and their work. Num 9:1 And the Lord said to Moses, in the waste land of Sinai, in the first month of the second year after they had come out of the land of Egypt, Num 9:2 Let the children of Israel keep the Passover at its regular time. Num 9:3 In the fourteenth day of this month, at evening, you are to keep it at the regular time, and in the way ordered in the law. Num 9:4 And Moses gave orders to the children of Israel to keep the Passover. Num 9:5 So they kept the Passover in the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, at evening, in the waste land of Sinai: as the Lord gave orders to Moses, so the children of Israel did. Num 9:6 And there were certain men who were unclean because of a dead body, so that they were not able to keep the Passover on that day; and they came before Moses and before Aaron on that day: Num 9:7 And these men said to him, We have been made unclean by the dead body of a man; why may we not make the offering of the Lord at the regular time among the children of Israel? Num 9:8 And Moses said to them, Do nothing till the Lord gives me directions about you. Num 9:9 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 9:10 Say to the children of Israel, If any one of you or of your families is unclean because of a dead body, or is on a journey far away, still he is to keep the Passover to the Lord: Num 9:11 In the second month, on the fourteenth day, in the evening, they are to keep it, taking it with unleavened bread and bitter-tasting plants; Num 9:12 Nothing of it is to be kept till the morning, and no bone of it is to be broken: they are to keep it by the rules of the Passover. Num 9:13 But the man who, not being unclean or on a journey, does not keep the Passover, will be cut off from his people: because he did not make the offering of the Lord at the regular time, his sin will be on him. Num 9:14 And if a man from another country is among you and has a desire to keep the Passover to the Lord, let him do as is ordered in the law of the Passover: there is to be the same rule for the man from another nation and for him who had his birth in the land. Num 9:15 And on the day when the House was put up, the cloud came down on it, on the Tent of witness; and in the evening there was a light like fire over the House till the morning. Num 9:16 And so it was at all times: it was covered by the cloud, and by a light as of fire by night. Num 9:17 And whenever the cloud was taken up from over the House, then the children of Israel went journeying on; and in the place where the cloud came to rest, there the children of Israel put up their tents. Num 9:18 At the order of the Lord the children of Israel went forward, and at the order of the Lord they put up their tents: as long as the cloud was resting on the House, they did not go away from that place. Num 9:19 When the cloud was resting on the House for a long time the children of Israel, waiting for the order of the Lord, did not go on. Num 9:20 Sometimes the cloud was resting on the House for two or three days; then, by the order of the Lord, they kept their tents in that place, and when the Lord gave the order they went on. Num 9:21 And sometimes the cloud was there only from evening to morning; and when the cloud was taken up in the morning they went on their journey again: or if it was resting there by day and by night, whenever the cloud was taken up they went forward. Num 9:22 Or if the cloud came to rest on the House for two days or a month or a year without moving, the children of Israel went on waiting there and did not go on; but whenever it was taken up they went forward on their journey. Num 9:23 At the word of the Lord they put up their tents, and at the word of the Lord they went forward on their journey: they kept the orders of the Lord as he gave them by Moses. Num 10:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 10:2 Make two silver horns of hammered work, to be used for getting the people together and to give the sign for the moving of the tents. Num 10:3 When they are sounded, all the people are to come together to you at the door of the Tent of meeting. Num 10:4 If only one of them is sounded, then the chiefs, the heads of the thousands of Israel, are to come to you. Num 10:5 When a loud note is sounded, the tents placed on the east side are to go forward. Num 10:6 At the sound of a second loud note, the tents on the south side are to go forward: the loud note will be the sign to go forward. Num 10:7 But when all the people are to come together, the horn is to be sounded but not loudly. Num 10:8 The horns are to be sounded by the sons of Aaron, the priests; this is to be a law for you for ever, from generation to generation. Num 10:9 And if you go to war in your land against any who do you wrong, then let the loud note of the horn be sounded; and the Lord your God will keep you in mind and give you salvation from those who are against you. Num 10:10 And on days of joy and on your regular feasts and on the first day of every month, let the horns be sounded over your burned offerings and your peace-offerings; and they will put the Lord in mind of you: I am the Lord your God. Num 10:11 Now in the second year, on the twentieth day of the second month, the cloud was taken up from over the Tent of witness. Num 10:12 And the children of Israel went on their journey out of the waste land of Sinai; and the cloud came to rest in the waste land of Paran. Num 10:13 They went forward for the first time on their journey as the Lord had given orders by the hand of Moses. Num 10:14 First the flag of the children of Judah went forward with their armies: and at the head of his army was Nahshon, the son of Amminadab. Num 10:15 And at the head of the army of the children of Issachar was Nethanel, the son of Zuar. Num 10:16 And at the head of the army of the children of Zebulun was Eliab, the son of Helon. Num 10:17 Then the House was taken down; and the sons of Gershon and the sons of Merari, who were responsible for moving the House, went forward. Num 10:18 Then the flag of the children of Reuben went forward with their armies: and at the head of his army was Elizur, the son of Shedeur. Num 10:19 And at the head of the army of the children of Simeon was Shelumiel, the son of Zurishaddai. Num 10:20 At the head of the army of the children of Gad was Eliasaph, the son of Reuel. Num 10:21 Then the Kohathites went forward with the holy place; the others put up the House ready for their coming. Num 10:22 Then the flag of the children of Ephraim went forward with their armies: and at the head of his army was Elishama, the son of Ammihud. Num 10:23 At the head of the army of the children of Manasseh was Gamaliel, the son of Pedahzur. Num 10:24 At the head of the army of the children of Benjamin was Abidan, the son of Gideoni. Num 10:25 And the flag of the children of Dan, whose tents were moved last of all, went forward with their armies: and at the head of his army was Ahiezer, the son of Ammishaddai. Num 10:26 At the head of the army of the children of Asher was Pagiel, the son of Ochran. Num 10:27 And at the head of the army of the children of Naphtali was Ahira, the son of Enan. Num 10:28 This was the order in which the children of Israel were journeying by armies; so they went forward. Num 10:29 Then Moses said to Hobab, the son of his father-in-law Reuel the Midianite, We are journeying to that place of which the Lord has said, I will give it to you: so come with us, and it will be for your profit: for the Lord has good things in store for Israel. Num 10:30 But he said, I will not go with you, I will go back to the land of my birth and to my relations. Num 10:31 And he said, Do not go from us; for you will be eyes for us, guiding us to the right places in the waste land to put up our tents. Num 10:32 And if you come with us, we will give you a part in whatever good the Lord does for us. Num 10:33 So they went forward three days' journey from the mountain of the Lord; and the ark of the Lord's agreement went three days' journey before them, looking for a resting-place for them; Num 10:34 And by day the cloud of the Lord went over them, when they went forward from the place where they had put up their tents. Num 10:35 And when the ark went forward Moses said, Come up, O Lord, and let the armies of those who are against you be broken, and let your haters go in flight before you. Num 10:36 And when it came to rest, he said, Take rest, O Lord, and give a blessing to the families of Israel. Num 11:1 Now the people were saying evil against the Lord; and the Lord, hearing it, was angry and sent fire on them, burning the outer parts of the tent-circle. Num 11:2 And the people made an outcry to Moses, and Moses made prayer to the Lord, and the fire was stopped. Num 11:3 So that place was named Taberah, because of the fire of the Lord which had been burning among them. Num 11:4 And the mixed band of people who went with them were overcome by desire: and the children of Israel, weeping again, said, Who will give us flesh for our food? Num 11:5 Sweet is the memory of the fish we had in Egypt for nothing, and the fruit and green plants of every sort, sharp and pleasing to the taste: Num 11:6 But now our soul is wasted away; there is nothing at all: we have nothing but this manna before our eyes. Num 11:7 Now the manna was like a seed of grain, like small clear drops. Num 11:8 The people went about taking it up from the earth, crushing it between stones or hammering it to powder, and boiling it in pots, and they made cakes of it: its taste was like the taste of cakes cooked with oil. Num 11:9 When the dew came down on the tents at night, the manna came down with it. Num 11:10 And at the sound of the people weeping, every man at his tent-door, the wrath of the Lord was great, and Moses was very angry. Num 11:11 And Moses said to the Lord, Why have you done me this evil? and why have I not grace in your eyes, that you have put on me the care of all this people? Num 11:12 Am I the father of all this people? have I given them birth, that you say to me, Take them in your arms, like a child at the breast, to the land which you gave by an oath to their fathers? Num 11:13 Where am I to get flesh to give to all this people? For they are weeping to me and saying, Give us flesh for our food. Num 11:14 I am not able by myself to take the weight of all this people, for it is more than my strength. Num 11:15 If this is to be my fate, put me to death now in answer to my prayer, if I have grace in your eyes; and let me not see my shame. Num 11:16 And the Lord said to Moses, Send for seventy of the responsible men of Israel, who are in your opinion men of weight and authority over the people; make them come to the Tent of meeting and be there with you. Num 11:17 And I will come down and have talk with you there: and I will take some of the spirit which is on you and put it on them, and they will take part of the weight of the people off you, so that you do not have to take it by yourself. Num 11:18 And say to the people, Make yourselves clean before tomorrow and you will have flesh for your food: for in the ears of the Lord you have been weeping and saying, Who will give us flesh for food? for we were well off in Egypt: and so the Lord will give you flesh, and it will be your food; Num 11:19 Not for one day only, or even for five or ten or twenty days; Num 11:20 But every day for a month, till you are tired of it, turning from it in disgust: because you have gone against the Lord who is with you, and have been weeping before him saying, Why did we come out of Egypt? Num 11:21 Then Moses said, The people, among whom I am, are six hundred thousand men on foot; and you have said, I will give them flesh to be their food for a month. Num 11:22 Are flocks and herds to be put to death for them? or are all the fish in the sea to be got together so that they may be full? Num 11:23 And the Lord said to Moses, Has the Lord's hand become short? Now you will see if my word comes true for you or not. Num 11:24 And Moses went out and gave the people the words of the Lord: and he took seventy of the responsible men of the people, placing them round the Tent. Num 11:25 Then the Lord came down in the cloud and had talk with him, and put on the seventy men some of the spirit which was on him: now when the spirit came to rest on them, they were like prophets, but only at that time. Num 11:26 But two men were still in the tent-circle one of them named Eldad and the other Medad: and the spirit came to rest on them; they were among those who had been sent for, but they had not gone out to the Tent: and the prophet's power came on them in the tent-circle. Num 11:27 And a young man went running to Moses and said, Eldad and Medad are acting as prophets in the tent-circle. Num 11:28 Then Joshua, the son of Nun, who had been Moses' servant from the time when he was a child, said, My lord Moses, let them be stopped. Num 11:29 And Moses said to him, Are you moved by envy on my account? If only all the Lord's people were prophets, and the Lord might put his spirit on them! Num 11:30 Then Moses, with the responsible men of Israel, went back to the tent-circle. Num 11:31 Then the Lord sent a wind, driving little birds from the sea, so that they came down on the tents, and all round the tent-circle, about a day's journey on this side and on that, in masses about two cubits high over the face of the earth. Num 11:32 And all that day and all night and the day after, the people were taking up the birds; the smallest amount which anyone got was ten homers: and they put them out all round the tents. Num 11:33 But while the meat was still between their teeth, before it was tasted, the wrath of the Lord was moved against the people and he sent a great outburst of disease on them. Num 11:34 So that place was named Kibroth-hattaavah; because there they put in the earth the bodies of the people who had given way to their desires. Num 11:35 From Kibroth-hattaavah the people went on to Hazeroth; and there they put up their tents. Num 12:1 Now Miriam and Aaron said evil against Moses, because of the Cushite woman to whom he was married, for he had taken a Cushite woman as his wife. Num 12:2 And they said, Have the words of the Lord been given to Moses only? have they not come to us? And the Lord took note of it. Num 12:3 Now the man Moses was more gentle than any other man on earth. Num 12:4 And suddenly the Lord said to Moses and Aaron and Miriam, Come out, you three, to the Tent of meeting. And the three of them went out. Num 12:5 And the Lord came down in a pillar of cloud, taking his place at the door of the Tent, and made Aaron and Miriam come before him. Num 12:6 And he said, Now give ear to my words: if there is a prophet among you I will give him knowledge of myself in a vision and will let my words come to him in a dream. Num 12:7 My servant Moses is not so; he is true to me in all my house: Num 12:8 With him I will have talk mouth to mouth, openly and not in dark sayings; and with his eyes he will see the form of the Lord: why then had you no fear of saying evil against my servant Moses? Num 12:9 And burning with wrath against them, the Lord went away. Num 12:10 And the cloud was moved from over the Tent; and straight away Miriam became a leper, as white as snow: and Aaron, looking at Miriam, saw that she was a leper. Num 12:11 Then Aaron said to Moses, O my lord, let not our sin be on our heads, for we have done foolishly and are sinners. Num 12:12 Let her not be as one dead, whose flesh is half wasted when he comes out from the body of his mother. Num 12:13 And Moses, crying to the Lord, said, Let my prayer come before you, O God, and make her well. Num 12:14 And the Lord said to Moses, If her father had put a mark of shame on her, would she not be shamed for seven days? Let her be shut up outside the tent-circle for seven days, and after that she may come in again. Num 12:15 So Miriam was shut up outside the tent-circle for seven days: and the people did not go forward on their journey till Miriam had come in again. Num 12:16 After that, the people went on from Hazeroth and put up their tents in the waste land of Paran. Num 13:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 13:2 Send men to get knowledge about the land of Canaan, which I am giving to the children of Israel; from every tribe of their fathers you are to send a man, every one a chief among them. Num 13:3 And Moses sent them from the waste land of Paran as the Lord gave orders, all of them men who were heads of the children of Israel. Num 13:4 And these were their names: of the tribe of Reuben, Shammua, the son of Zaccur. Num 13:5 Of the tribe of Simeon, Shaphat, the son of Hori. Num 13:6 Of the tribe of Judah, Caleb, the son of Jephunneh. Num 13:7 Of the tribe of Issachar, Igal, the son of Joseph. Num 13:8 Of the tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea, the son of Nun. Num 13:9 Of the tribe of Benjamin, Palti, the son of Raphu. Num 13:10 Of the tribe of Zebulun, Gaddiel, the son of Sodi. Num 13:11 Of the tribe of Joseph, that is of the family of Manasseh, Gaddi, the son of Susi. Num 13:12 Of the tribe of Dan, Ammiel, the son of Gemalli. Num 13:13 Of the tribe of Asher, Sethur, the son of Michael Num 13:14 Of the tribe of Naphtali, Nahbi, the son of Vophsi. Num 13:15 Of the tribe of Gad, Gevel, the son of Machi. Num 13:16 These are the names of the men whom Moses sent to get knowledge about the land. And Moses gave to Hoshea, the son of Nun, the name of Joshua. Num 13:17 So Moses sent them to have a look at the land of Canaan, and said to them, Go up into the South and into the hill-country; Num 13:18 And see what the land is like; and if the people living in it are strong or feeble, small or great in number; Num 13:19 And what sort of land they are living in, if it is good or bad; and what their living-places are, tent-circles or walled towns; Num 13:20 And if the land is fertile or poor, and if there is wood in it or not. And be of good heart, and come back with some of the produce of the land. Now it was the time when the first grapes were ready. Num 13:21 So they went up and got a view of the land, from the waste land of Zin to Rehob, on the way to Hamath. Num 13:22 They went up into the South and came to Hebron; and Ahiman and Sheshai and Talmai, the children of Anak, were living there. (Now the building of Hebron took place seven years before that of Zoan in Egypt.) Num 13:23 And they came to the valley of Eshcol, and cutting down a vine-branch with its grapes, two of them took it on a rod between them; and they took some pomegranates and figs. Num 13:24 That place was named the valley of Eshcol because of the grapes which the children of Israel took from there. Num 13:25 At the end of forty days they came back from viewing the land. Num 13:26 And they came back to Moses and Aaron and all the children of Israel, to Kadesh in the waste land of Paran; and gave an account to them and to all the people and let them see the produce of the land. Num 13:27 And they said, We came to the land where you sent us, and truly it is flowing with milk and honey: and here is some of the produce of it. Num 13:28 But the people living in the land are strong, and the towns are walled and very great; further, we saw the children of Anak there. Num 13:29 And the Amalekites are in the South; and the Hittites and the Jebusites and the Amorites are living in the hill-country; and the Canaanites by the sea and by the side of Jordan. Num 13:30 Then Caleb made signs to the people to keep quiet, and said to Moses, Let us go up straight away and take this land; for we are well able to overcome it. Num 13:31 But the men who had gone up with him said, We are not able to go up against the people, for they are stronger than we. Num 13:32 And they gave the children of Israel a bad account of the land they had been to see, saying, This land through which we went is a land causing destruction to those living in it; and all the people we saw there are men of more than common size. Num 13:33 There we saw those great men, the sons of Anak, offspring of the Nephilim: and we seemed to ourselves no more than insects, and so we seemed to them. Num 14:1 Then all the people gave load cries of grief, and all that night they gave themselves up to weeping. Num 14:2 And all the children of Israel, crying out against Moses and Aaron, said, If only we had come to our death in the land of Egypt, or even in this waste land! Num 14:3 Why is the Lord taking us into this land to come to our death by the sword? Our wives and our little ones will get into strange hands: would it not be better for us to go back to Egypt? Num 14:4 And they said to one another, Let us make a captain over us, and go back to Egypt. Num 14:5 Then Moses and Aaron went down on their faces before the meeting of the people. Num 14:6 And Joshua, the son of Nun, and Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, two of those who had been to see the land, giving signs of grief, Num 14:7 Said to all the children of Israel, This land which we went through to see is a very good land. Num 14:8 And if the Lord has delight in us, he will take us into this land and give it to us, a land flowing with milk and honey. Num 14:9 Only, do not go against the Lord or go in fear of the people of the land, for they will be our food; their strength has been taken from them and the Lord is with us: have no fear of them. Num 14:10 But all the people said they were to be stoned. Then the glory of the Lord was seen in the Tent of meeting, before the eyes of all the children of Israel. Num 14:11 And the Lord said to Moses, How long will this people have no respect for me? how long will they be without faith, in the face of all the signs I have done among them? Num 14:12 I will send disease on them for their destruction, and take away their heritage, and I will make of you a nation greater and stronger than they. Num 14:13 And Moses said to the Lord, Then it will come to the ears of the Egyptians; for by your power you took this people out from among them; Num 14:14 And they will give the news to the people of this land: they have had word that you, Lord, are present with this people, letting yourself be seen face to face, and that your cloud is resting over them, and that you go before them in a pillar of cloud by day and in a pillar of fire by night. Num 14:15 Now if you put to death all this people as one man, then the nations who have had word of your glory will say, Num 14:16 Because the Lord was not able to take this people into the land which he made an oath to give them, he sent destruction on them in the waste land. Num 14:17 So now, may my prayer come before you, and let the power of the Lord be great, as you said: Num 14:18 The Lord is slow to wrath and great in mercy, overlooking wrongdoing and evil, and will not let wrongdoers go free; sending punishment on children for the sins of their fathers, to the third and fourth generation. Num 14:19 May the sin of this people have forgiveness, in the measure of your great mercy, as you have had mercy on them from Egypt up till now. Num 14:20 And the Lord said, I have had mercy, as you say: Num 14:21 But truly, as I am living, and as all the earth will be full of the glory of the Lord; Num 14:22 Because all these men, having seen my glory and the signs which I have done in Egypt and in the waste land, still have put me to the test ten times, and have not given ear to my voice; Num 14:23 They will not see the land about which I made an oath to their fathers; not one of these by whom I have not been honoured will see it. Num 14:24 But my servant Caleb, because he had a different spirit in him, and has been true to me with all his heart, him I will take into that land into which he went, and his seed will have it for their heritage. Num 14:25 Now the Amalekites and the Canaanites are in the valley; tomorrow, turning round, go into the waste land by the way to the Red Sea. Num 14:26 Then the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, Num 14:27 How long am I to put up with this evil people and their outcries against me? The words which they say against me have come to my ears. Num 14:28 Say to them, By my life, says the Lord, as certainly as your words have come to my ears, so certainly will I do this to you: Num 14:29 Your dead bodies will be stretched out in this waste land; and of all your number, all those of twenty years old and over who have been crying out against me, Num 14:30 Not one will come into the land which I gave my word you would have for your resting-place, but only Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, and Joshua, the son of Nun. Num 14:31 And your little ones, whom you said would come into strange hands, I will take in, and they will see the land which you would not have. Num 14:32 But as for you, your dead bodies will be stretched in this waste land. Num 14:33 And your children will be wanderers in the waste land for forty years, undergoing punishment for your false ways, till your bodies become dust in the waste land. Num 14:34 And as you went through the land viewing it for forty days, so for forty years, a year for every day, you will undergo punishment for your wrongdoing, and you will see that I am against you. Num 14:35 I the Lord have said it, and this I will certainly do to all this evil people who have come together against me: in this waste land destruction will come on them, and death will be their fate. Num 14:36 And the men whom Moses sent to see the land, and who, by the bad account they gave of the land, were the cause of the outcry the people made against Moses, Num 14:37 Those same men who said evil of the land, came to their death by disease before the Lord. Num 14:38 But Joshua, the son of Nun, and Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, of those who went to see the land, were not touched by disease. Num 14:39 And when Moses put these words before the children of Israel, the people were full of grief. Num 14:40 And early in the morning they got up and went to the top of the mountain, saying, We are here and we will go up to the place which the Lord said he would give us: for we have done wrong. Num 14:41 And Moses said, Why are you now acting against the Lord's order, seeing that no good will come of it? Num 14:42 Go not up, for the Lord is not with you, and you will be overcome by those who are fighting against you. Num 14:43 For the Amalekites and the Canaanites are there before you, and you will be put to death by their swords: because you have gone back from the way of the Lord, the Lord will not be with you. Num 14:44 But they gave no attention to his words and went to the top of the mountain, though Moses and the ark of the Lord's agreement did not go out of the tent-circle. Num 14:45 Then the Amalekites came down, and the Canaanites who were living in the hill-country, and overcame them completely, driving them back as far as Hormah. Num 15:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 15:2 Say to the children of Israel, When you have come into the land which I am giving to you for your resting-place, Num 15:3 And are going to make an offering by fire to the Lord, a burned offering or an offering in connection with an oath, or an offering freely given, or at your regular feasts, an offering for a sweet smell to the Lord, from the herd or the flock: Num 15:4 Then let him who is making his offering, give to the Lord a meal offering of a tenth part of a measure of the best meal mixed with a fourth part of a hin of oil: Num 15:5 And for the drink offering, you are to give with the burned offering or other offering, the fourth part of a hin of wine for every lamb. Num 15:6 Or for a male sheep, give as a meal offering two tenth parts of a measure of the best meal mixed with a third part of a hin of oil: Num 15:7 And for the drink offering give a third part of a hin of wine, for a sweet smell to the Lord. Num 15:8 And when you make ready a young ox for a burned or other offering, or for the effecting of an oath, or for peace-offerings to the Lord: Num 15:9 Then with the ox give a meal offering of three tenth parts of a measure of the best meal mixed with half a hin of oil. Num 15:10 And for the drink offering: give half a hin of wine, for an offering made by fire for a sweet smell to the Lord. Num 15:11 This is to be done for every young ox and for every male sheep or he-lamb or young goat. Num 15:12 Whatever number you make ready, so you are to do for every one. Num 15:13 All those who are Israelites by birth are to do these things in this way, when giving an offering made by fire of a sweet smell to the Lord. Num 15:14 And if a man from another country or any other person living among you, through all your generations, has the desire to give an offering made by fire of a sweet smell to the Lord, let him do as you do. Num 15:15 There is to be one law for you and for the man of another country living with you, one law for ever from generation to generation; as you are, so is he to be before the Lord. Num 15:16 The law and the rule are to be the same for you and for those from other lands living with you. Num 15:17 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 15:18 Say to the children of Israel, When you come into the land where I am guiding you, Num 15:19 Then, when you take for your food the produce of the land, you are to give an offering lifted up before the Lord. Num 15:20 Of the first of your rough meal you are to give a cake for a lifted offering, lifting it up before the Lord as the offering of the grain-floor is lifted up. Num 15:21 From generation to generation you are to give to the Lord a lifted offering from the first of your rough meal. Num 15:22 And if in error you go against any of these laws which the Lord has given to Moses, Num 15:23 All the laws which the Lord has given you by the hand of Moses, from the day when the Lord gave them, and ever after from generation to generation; Num 15:24 Then, if the wrong is done in error, without the knowledge of the meeting of the people, let all the meeting give a young ox as a burned offering, a sweet smell to the Lord, with its meal offering and its drink offering, as is ordered in the law, together with a he-goat for a sin-offering. Num 15:25 So the priest will make the people free from sin, and they will have forgiveness; for it was an error, and they have given their offering made by fire to the Lord, and their sin-offering before the Lord, on account of their error: Num 15:26 And all the meeting of the children of Israel, as well as those from other lands living among them, will have forgiveness; for it was an error on the part of the people. Num 15:27 And if one person does wrong, without being conscious of it, then let him give a she-goat of the first year for a sin-offering. Num 15:28 And the priest will take away the sin of the person who has done wrong, if the wrong was done unconsciously, and he will have forgiveness. Num 15:29 The law in connection with wrong done unconsciously is to be the same for him who is an Israelite by birth and for the man from another country who is living among them. Num 15:30 But the person who does wrong in the pride of his heart, if he is one of you or of another nation by birth, is acting without respect for the Lord, and will be cut off from his people. Num 15:31 Because he had no respect for the word of the Lord, and did not keep his law, that man will be cut off without mercy and his sin will be on him. Num 15:32 Now while the children of Israel were in the waste land, they saw a man who was getting sticks on the Sabbath day. Num 15:33 And those who saw him getting sticks took him before Moses and Aaron and all the people. Num 15:34 And they had him shut up, because they had no directions about what was to be done with him. Num 15:35 Then the Lord said to Moses, Certainly the man is to be put to death: let him be stoned by all the people outside the tent-circle. Num 15:36 So all the people took him outside the tent-circle and he was stoned to death there, as the Lord gave orders to Moses. Num 15:37 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 15:38 Say to the children of Israel that through all their generations they are to put on the edges of their robes an ornament of twisted threads, and in every ornament a blue cord; Num 15:39 So that, looking on these ornaments, you may keep in mind the orders of the Lord and do them; and not be guided by the desires of your hearts and eyes, through which you have been untrue to me: Num 15:40 And that you may keep in mind all my orders and do them and be holy to your God. Num 15:41 I am the Lord your God, who took you out of the land of Egypt, so that I might be your God: I am the Lord your God. Num 16:1 Now Korah, the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, with Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab, and On, the son of Pallu, the son of Reuben, made themselves ready, Num 16:2 And came before Moses, with certain of the children of Israel, two hundred and fifty chiefs of the people, men of good name who had a place in the meeting of the people. Num 16:3 They came together against Moses and against Aaron, and said to them, You take overmuch on yourselves, seeing that all the people are holy, every one of them, and the Lord is among them; why then have you put yourselves in authority over the people of the Lord? Num 16:4 And Moses, hearing this, went down on his face; Num 16:5 And he said to Korah and his band, In the morning the Lord will make clear who are his, and who is holy, and who may come near him: the man of his selection will be caused to come near him. Num 16:6 So do this: let Korah and all his band take vessels for burning perfumes; Num 16:7 And put spices on the fire in them before the Lord tomorrow; then the man marked out by the Lord will be holy: you take overmuch on yourselves, you sons of Levi. Num 16:8 And Moses said to Korah, Give ear now, you sons of Levi: Num 16:9 Does it seem only a small thing to you that the God of Israel has made you separate from the rest of Israel, letting you come near himself to do the work of the House of the Lord, and to take your place before the people to do what has to be done for them; Num 16:10 Letting you, and all your brothers the sons of Levi, come near to him? and would you now be priests? Num 16:11 So you and all your band have come together against the Lord; and Aaron, who is he, that you are crying out against him? Num 16:12 Then Moses sent for Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab: and they said, We will not come up: Num 16:13 Is it not enough that you have taken us from a land flowing with milk and honey, to put us to death in the waste land, but now you are desiring to make yourself a chief over us? Num 16:14 And more than this, you have not taken us into a land flowing with milk and honey, or given us a heritage of fields and vine-gardens: will you put out the eyes of these men? We will not come up. Num 16:15 Then Moses was very angry, and said to the Lord, Give no attention to their offering: not one of their asses have I taken, or done wrong to any of them. Num 16:16 And Moses said to Korah, You and all your band are to come before the Lord tomorrow, you and they and Aaron: Num 16:17 And let every man take a vessel for burning perfumes, and put sweet spices in them; let every man take his vessel before the Lord, two hundred and fifty vessels; you and Aaron and everyone with his vessel. Num 16:18 So every man took his vessel and they put fire in them, with spices, and came to the door of the Tent of meeting with Moses and Aaron. Num 16:19 And Korah made all the people come together against them to the door of the Tent of meeting: and the glory of the Lord was seen by all the people. Num 16:20 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, Num 16:21 Come out from among this people, so that I may send sudden destruction on them. Num 16:22 Then falling down on their faces they said, O God, the God of the spirits of all flesh, because of one man's sin will your wrath be moved against all the people? Num 16:23 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 16:24 Say to the people, Come away from the tent of Korah Dathan, and Abiram. Num 16:25 So Moses got up and went to Dathan and Abiram, and the responsible men of Israel went with him. Num 16:26 And he said to the people, Come away now from the tents of these evil men, without touching anything of theirs, or you may be taken in the punishment of their sins. Num 16:27 So on every side they went away from the tent of Korah Dathan, and Abiram: and Dathan and Abiram came out to the door of their tents, with their wives and their sons and their little ones. Num 16:28 And Moses said, Now you will see that the Lord has sent me to do all these works, and I have not done them of myself. Num 16:29 If these men have the common death of men, or if the natural fate of all men overtakes them, then the Lord has not sent me. Num 16:30 But if the Lord does something new, opening the earth to take them in, with everything which is theirs, and they go down living into the underworld, then it will be clear to you that the Lord has not been honoured by these men. Num 16:31 And while these words were on his lips, the earth under them was parted in two; Num 16:32 And the earth, opening her mouth, took them in, with their families, and all the men who were joined to Korah, and their goods. Num 16:33 So they and all theirs went down living into the underworld, and the earth was shut over them, and they were cut off from among the meeting of the people. Num 16:34 And all Israel round about them went in flight at their cry, For fear, said they, that we go down into the heart of the earth. Num 16:35 Then fire came out from the Lord, burning up the two hundred and fifty men who were offering the perfume. Num 16:36 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 16:37 Say to Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, that he is to take out of the flames the vessels with the perfumes in them, turning the fire out of them, for they are holy; Num 16:38 And let the vessels of those men, who with their lives have made payment for their sin, be hammered out into plates as a cover for the altar; for they have been offered before the Lord and are holy; so that they may be a sign to the children of Israel. Num 16:39 So Eleazar the priest took the brass vessels which had been offered by those who were burned up, and they were hammered out to make a cover for the altar: Num 16:40 To be a sign, kept in memory for ever by the children of Israel, that no man who is not of the seed of Aaron has the right of burning spices before the Lord, so that he may not be like Korah and his band: as the Lord said to him by the mouth of Moses. Num 16:41 But on the day after, all the children of Israel made an outcry against Moses and against Aaron, saying, You have put to death the Lord's people. Num 16:42 Now when the people had come together against Moses and Aaron, looking in the direction of the Tent of meeting, they saw the cloud covering it, and the glory of the Lord came before their eyes. Num 16:43 Then Moses and Aaron came to the front of the Tent of meeting. Num 16:44 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 16:45 Come out from among this people, so that I may send sudden destruction on them. And they went down on their faces. Num 16:46 And Moses said to Aaron, Take your vessel and put in it fire from the altar, and sweet spices, and take it quickly into the meeting of the people, and make them free from sin: for wrath has gone out from the Lord, and the disease is starting. Num 16:47 And at the words of Moses, Aaron took his vessel, and went running among the people; and even then the disease had made a start among them; and he put spices in his vessel to take away the sin of the people. Num 16:48 And he took his place between the dead and the living: and the disease was stopped. Num 16:49 Now fourteen thousand, seven hundred deaths were caused by that disease, in addition to those who came to their end because of what Korah had done. Num 16:50 Then Aaron went back to Moses to the door of the Tent of meeting: and the disease came to a stop. Num 17:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 17:2 Say to the children of Israel that they are to give you rods, one for every family, for every chief, the head of his father's house, making twelve rods; let every man's name be placed on his rod. Num 17:3 And let Aaron's name be placed on the rod of Levi: for there is to be one rod for the head of every family. Num 17:4 And let them be stored up in the Tent of meeting, in front of the ark of witness where I come to you. Num 17:5 And the rod of that man who is marked out by me for myself will have buds on it; so I will put a stop to the outcries which the children of Israel make to me against you. Num 17:6 So Moses gave these orders to the children of Israel, and all their chiefs gave him rods, one for the head of every family, making twelve rods: and Aaron's rod was among them. Num 17:7 And Moses put the rods before the Lord in the Tent of witness. Num 17:8 Now on the day after, Moses went into the Tent of witness; and he saw that Aaron's rod, the rod of the house of Levi, had put out buds, and was covered with buds and flowers and fruit. Num 17:9 Then Moses took out all the rods from before the Lord, and gave them back to the children of Israel: and they saw them, and every man took his rod. Num 17:10 And the Lord said to Moses, Put Aaron's rod back in front of the ark of witness, to be kept for a sign against this false-hearted people, so that you may put a stop to their outcries against me, and death may not overtake them. Num 17:11 This Moses did: as the Lord gave orders, so he did. Num 17:12 And the children of Israel said to Moses, Truly, destruction has come on us; an evil fate has overtaken us all. Num 17:13 Death will overtake everyone who comes near, who comes near the House of the Lord: are we all to come to destruction? Num 18:1 And the Lord said to Aaron, You and your sons and your father's family are to be responsible for all wrongdoing in relation to the holy place: and you and your sons are to be responsible for the errors which come about in your work as priests. Num 18:2 Let your brothers, the family of Levi, come near with you, so that they may be joined with you and be your servants: but you and your sons with you are to go in before the ark of witness. Num 18:3 They are to do your orders and be responsible for the work of the Tent; but they may not come near the vessels of the holy place or the altar, so that death may not overtake them or you. Num 18:4 They are to be joined with you in the care of the Tent of meeting, doing whatever is needed for the Tent: and no one of any other family may come near you. Num 18:5 You are to be responsible for the holy place and the altar, so that wrath may never again come on the children of Israel. Num 18:6 Now, see, I have taken your brothers the Levites from among the children of Israel: they are given to you and to the Lord, to do the work of the Tent of meeting. Num 18:7 And you and your sons with you are to be responsible as priests for the altar and everything on it, and everything inside the veil; you are to do the work of priests; I have given you your position as priests; and any other man who comes near will be put to death. Num 18:8 And the Lord said to Aaron, See, I have given into your care my lifted offerings; even all the holy things of the children of Israel I have given to you and to your sons as your right for ever, because you have been marked with the holy oil. Num 18:9 This is to be yours of the most holy things, out of the fire offerings; every offering of theirs, every meal offering and sin-offering, and every offering which they make on account of error, is to be most holy for you and your sons. Num 18:10 As most holy things they are to be your food: let every male have them for food; it is to be holy to you. Num 18:11 And this is yours: the lifted offering which they give and all the wave offerings of the children of Israel I have given to you and to your sons and to your daughters as your right for ever: everyone in your house who is clean may have them for food. Num 18:12 All the best of the oil and the wine and the grain, the first-fruits of them which they give to the Lord, to you have I given them. Num 18:13 The earliest produce from their land which they take to the Lord is to be yours; everyone in your house who is clean may have it for his food. Num 18:14 Everything given by oath to the Lord in Israel is to be yours. Num 18:15 The first birth of every living thing which is offered to the Lord, of man or beast, is to be yours; but for the first sons of man payment is to be made, and for the first young of unclean beasts. Num 18:16 Payment is to be made for these when they are a month old, at the value fixed by you, a price of five shekels by the scale of the holy place, that is, twenty gerahs to the shekel. Num 18:17 But no such payment may be made for the first birth of an ox or a sheep or a goat; these are holy: their blood is to be dropped on the altar, and their fat burned for an offering made by fire, a sweet smell to the Lord. Num 18:18 Their flesh is to be yours; like the breast of the wave offering and the right leg, it is to be yours. Num 18:19 All the lifted offerings of the holy things which the children of Israel give to the Lord, I have given to you and to your sons and to your daughters as a right for ever. This is an agreement made with salt before the Lord, to you and to your seed for ever. Num 18:20 And the Lord said to Aaron, You will have no heritage in their land, or any part among them; I am your part and your heritage among the children of Israel. Num 18:21 And to the children of Levi I have given as their heritage all the tenths offered in Israel, as payment for the work they do, the work of the Tent of meeting. Num 18:22 In future the children of Israel are not to come near the Tent of meeting, so that death may not come to them because of sin. Num 18:23 But the Levites are to do the work of the Tent of meeting, and be responsible for errors in connection with it: this is a law for ever through all your generations; and among the children of Israel they will have no heritage. Num 18:24 For the tenths which the children of Israel give as a lifted offering to the Lord I have given to the Levites as their heritage. and so I have said to them, Among the children of Israel they will have no heritage. Num 18:25 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 18:26 Say to the Levites, When you take from the children of Israel the tenth which I have given to you from them as your heritage, a tenth part of that tenth is to be offered as an offering lifted up before the Lord. Num 18:27 And this lifted offering is to be put to your credit as if it was grain from the grain-floor and wine from the vines. Num 18:28 So you are to make an offering lifted up to the Lord from all the tenths which you get from the children of Israel, giving out of it the Lord's lifted offering to Aaron the priest. Num 18:29 From everything given to you, let the best of it, the holy part of it, be offered as a lifted offering to the Lord. Num 18:30 Say to them, then, When the best of it is lifted up on high, it is to be put to the account of the Levites as the increase of the grain-floor and of the place where the grapes are crushed. Num 18:31 It is to be your food, for you and your families in every place: it is your reward for your work in the Tent of meeting. Num 18:32 And no sin will be yours on account of it, when the best of it has been lifted up on high; you are not to make a wrong use of the holy things of the children of Israel, so that death may not overtake you. Num 19:1 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, Num 19:2 This is the rule of the law which the Lord has made, saying, Give orders to the children of Israel to give you a red cow without any mark on her, and on which the yoke has never been put: Num 19:3 Give her to Eleazar the priest and let him take her outside the tent-circle and have her put to death before him. Num 19:4 Then let Eleazar the priest take some of her blood on his finger, shaking the blood seven times in the direction of the front of the Tent of meeting: Num 19:5 And the cow is to be burned before him, her skin and her flesh and her blood and her waste are to be burned: Num 19:6 Then let the priest take cedar-wood and hyssop and red thread, and put them into the fire where the cow is burning. Num 19:7 And the priest, after washing his clothing and bathing his body in water, may come back to the tent-circle, and will be unclean till evening. Num 19:8 And he who does the burning is to have his clothing washed and his body bathed in water and be unclean till evening. Num 19:9 Then let a man who is clean take the dust of the burned cow and put it outside the tent-circle in a clean place, where it is to be kept for the children of Israel and used in making the water which takes away what is unclean: it is a sin-offering. Num 19:10 And he who takes up the dust of the burned cow is to have his clothing washed with water and be unclean till evening: this is to be a law for ever, for the children of Israel as well as for the man from another country who is living among them. Num 19:11 Anyone touching a dead body will be unclean for seven days: Num 19:12 On the third day and on the seventh day he is to make himself clean with the water, and so he will be clean: but if he does not do this on the third day and on the seventh day, he will not be clean. Num 19:13 Anyone touching the body of a dead man without making himself clean in this way, makes the House of the Lord unclean; and that man will be cut off from Israel: because the water was not put on him, he will be unclean; his unclean condition is unchanged. Num 19:14 This is the law when death comes to a man in his tent: everyone who comes into the tent, and everyone who is in the tent, will be unclean for seven days. Num 19:15 And every open vessel without a cover fixed on it will be unclean. Num 19:16 And anyone touching one who has been put to death with the sword in the open country, or the body of one who has come to his end by a natural death, or a man's bone, or the resting-place of a dead body, will be unclean for seven days. Num 19:17 And for the unclean, they are to take the dust of the burning of the sin-offering, and put flowing water on it in a vessel: Num 19:18 And a clean person is to take hyssop and put it in the water, shaking it over the tent, and all the vessels, and the people who were there, and over him by whom the bone, or the body of one who has been put to death with the sword, or the body of one who has come to his end by a natural death, or the resting-place was touched. Num 19:19 Let the clean person do this to the unclean on the third day and on the seventh day: and on the seventh day he is to make him clean; and after washing his clothing and bathing himself in water, he will be clean in the evening. Num 19:20 But the man who, being unclean, does not make himself clean in this way, will be cut off from the meeting of the people, because he has made the holy place of the Lord unclean: the water has not been put on him, he is unclean. Num 19:21 This is to be a law for them for ever: he who puts the water on the unclean person is to have his clothing washed; and anyone touching the water will be unclean till evening. Num 19:22 Anything touched by the unclean person will be unclean; and any person touching it will be unclean till evening. Num 20:1 In the first month all the children of Israel came into the waste land of Zin, and put up their tents in Kadesh; there death came to Miriam, and they put her body to rest in the earth. Num 20:2 And there was no water for the people: and they came together against Moses and against Aaron. Num 20:3 And the people were angry with Moses and said, If only death had overtaken us when our brothers came to their death before the Lord! Num 20:4 Why have you taken the Lord's people into this waste, for death to come to us and to our cattle there? Num 20:5 Why have you made us come out of Egypt into this evil place? This is no place of seed or figs or vines or other fruits, and there is no water for drinking. Num 20:6 Then Moses and Aaron went away from the people to the door of the Tent of meeting; and, falling on their faces there, they saw the glory of the Lord. Num 20:7 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 20:8 Take the rod, you and Aaron, your brother, and make all the people come together, and before their eyes give orders to the rock to give out its water; and so make water come out of the rock for them, and give the people and their cattle drink. Num 20:9 And Moses took the rod from before the Lord as he gave him orders. Num 20:10 Then Moses and Aaron made the people come together in front of the rock, and he said to them, Give ear now, you people whose hearts are turned from the Lord; are we to get water for you out of the rock? Num 20:11 And lifting up his hand, Moses gave the rock two blows with his rod: and water came streaming out, and the people and their cattle had drink enough. Num 20:12 Then the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, Because you had not enough faith in me to keep my name holy before the children of Israel, you will not take this people into the land which I have given them. Num 20:13 These are the waters of Meribah; because the children of Israel went against the Lord, and they saw that he was holy among them. Num 20:14 Then Moses sent men from Kadesh to the king of Edom to say to him, Your brother Israel says, You have knowledge of all the things we have been through; Num 20:15 How our fathers went down into Egypt, and we were living in Egypt for a long time; and the Egyptians were cruel to us and to our fathers: Num 20:16 And the Lord gave ear to the voice of our cry, and sent an angel and took us out of Egypt: and now we are in Kadesh, a town on the edge of your land; Num 20:17 Let us now go through your land: we will not go into field or vine-garden, or take the water of the springs; we will go by the highway, not turning to the right or to the left, till we have gone past the limits of your land. Num 20:18 And Edom said, You are not to go through my land, for if you do I will come out against you with the sword. Num 20:19 And the children of Israel said to him, We will go up by the highway: and if we or our cattle take of your water, we will give you a price for it: only let us go through on our feet, nothing more. Num 20:20 But he said, You are not to go through. And Edom came out against them in his strength, with a great army. Num 20:21 So Edom would not let Israel go through his land; and Israel went in another direction. Num 20:22 And they went on from Kadesh, and came, with all their people, to Mount Hor. Num 20:23 And at Mount Hor, at the edge of the land of Edom, the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, Num 20:24 Aaron will be put to rest with his people; he will not go into the land which I have given to the children of Israel, because you went against my word at the waters of Meribah. Num 20:25 So take Aaron and Eleazar, his son, up into Mount Hor; Num 20:26 And take Aaron's robes off him and put them on Eleazar, his son: and death will come to Aaron there, and he will be put to rest with his people. Num 20:27 So Moses did as the Lord had said, and before the eyes of all the people they went up Mount Hor. Num 20:28 And Moses took off Aaron's robes, and put them on Eleazar, his son; and there on the top of the mountain death came to Aaron: then Moses and Eleazar came down from the mountain. Num 20:29 And when the people saw that Aaron was dead, all the children of Israel gave themselves up to weeping for him for thirty days. Num 21:1 And it came to the ears of the Canaanite, the king of Arad, living in the South, that Israel was coming by the way of Atharim, and he came out against them and took some of them prisoners. Num 21:2 Then Israel made an oath to the Lord, and said, If you will give up this people into my hands, then I will send complete destruction on all their towns. Num 21:3 And the Lord, in answer to the voice of Israel, gave the Canaanites up to them; and they put them and their towns completely to destruction: and that place was named Hormah. Num 21:4 Then they went on from Mount Hor by the way to the Red Sea, going round the land of Edom: and the spirit of the people was overcome with weariness on the way. Num 21:5 And crying out against God and against Moses, they said, Why have you taken us out of Egypt to come to our death in the waste land? For there is no bread and no water, and this poor bread is disgusting to us. Num 21:6 Then the Lord sent poison-snakes among the people; and their bites were a cause of death to numbers of the people of Israel. Num 21:7 Then the people came to Moses and said, We have done wrong in crying out against the Lord and against you: make prayer to the Lord to take away the snakes from us. So Moses made prayer for the people. Num 21:8 And the Lord said to Moses, Make an image of a snake and put it on a rod, and anyone who has been wounded by the snakes, looking on it will be made well. Num 21:9 So Moses made a snake of brass and put it on a rod; and anyone who had a snakebite, after looking on the snake of brass, was made well. Num 21:10 Then the children of Israel went on and put up their tents in Oboth. Num 21:11 And journeying on again from Oboth, they put up their tents in Iye-abarim, in the waste land before Moab looking east. Num 21:12 And moving on from there, they put up their tents in the valley of Zered. Num 21:13 From there they went on and put up their tents on the other side of the Arnon, which is on the waste land at the edge of the land of the Amorites; for the Arnon is the line of division between Moab and the Amorites: Num 21:14 As it says in the book of the Wars of the Lord, Vaheb in Suphah, and the valley of the Amon; Num 21:15 The slope of the valleys going down to the tents of Ar and touching the edge of Moab. Num 21:16 From there they went on to Beer, the water-spring of which the Lord said to Moses, Make the people come together and I will give them water. Num 21:17 Then Israel gave voice to this song: Come up, O water-spring, let us make a song to it: Num 21:18 The fountain made by the chiefs, made deep by the great ones of the people, with the law-givers' rod, and with their sticks. Then from the waste land they went on to Mattanah: Num 21:19 And from Mattanah to Nahaliel: and from Nahaliel to Bamoth: Num 21:20 And from Bamoth to the valley in the open country of Moab, and to the top of Pisgah looking over Jeshimon. Num 21:21 And Israel sent men to Sihon, king of the Amorites, saying, Num 21:22 Let me go through your land: we will not go into field or vine-garden, or take the water of the springs; we will go by the highway till we have gone past the limits of your land. Num 21:23 And Sihon would not let Israel go through his land; but got all his people together and went out against Israel into the waste land, as far as Jahaz, to make war on Israel. Num 21:24 But Israel overcame him, and took all his land from the Arnon to the Jabbok, as far as the country of the children of Ammon, for the country of the children of Ammon was strongly armed. Num 21:25 And Israel took all their towns, living in Heshbon and all the towns and small places of the Amorites. Num 21:26 For Heshbon was the town of Sihon, king of the Amorites, who had made war against an earlier king of Moab and taken from him all his land as far as the Arnon. Num 21:27 So the makers of wise sayings say, Come to Heshbon, building up the town of Sihon and making it strong: Num 21:28 For a fire has gone out of Heshbon, a flame from the town of Sihon: for the destruction of Ar in Moab, and the lords of the high places of the Arnon. Num 21:29 Sorrow is yours, O Moab! Destruction is your fate, O people of Chemosh: his sons have gone in flight, and his daughters are prisoners, in the hands of Sihon, king of the Amorites. Num 21:30 They are wounded with our arrows; destruction has come on Heshbon, even to Dibon; and we have made the land waste as far as Nophah, stretching out to Medeba. Num 21:31 So Israel put up their tents in the land of the Amorites. Num 21:32 And Moses sent men secretly to Jazer, and they took its towns, driving out the Amorites who were living there. Num 21:33 Then turning they went up by the way of Bashan; and Og, king of Bashan, went out against them with all his people, to the fight at Edrei. Num 21:34 And the Lord said to Moses, Have no fear of him: for I have given him up into your hands, with all his people and his land; do to him as you did to Sihon, king of the Amorites, at Heshbon. Num 21:35 So they overcame him and his sons and his people, driving them all out: and they took his land for their heritage. Num 22:1 Then the children of Israel, journeying on, put up their tents in the lowlands of Moab, on the other side of Jordan at Jericho. Num 22:2 Now Balak, the son of Zippor, saw what Israel had done to the Amorites. Num 22:3 And in Moab there was great fear of the people, because their numbers were so great: and the feeling of Moab was bitter against the children of Israel. Num 22:4 Then Moab said to the responsible men of Midian, It is clear that this great people will be the destruction of everything round us, making a meal of us as the ox does of the grass of the field. At that time Balak, the son of Zippor, was king of Moab. Num 22:5 So he sent men to Balaam, son of Beor, at Pethor by the River in the land of the children of his people, saying to him, See, a people has come out of Egypt, covering all the face of the earth, and they have put up their tents opposite to me: Num 22:6 Come now, in answer to my prayer, and put a curse on this people, for they are greater than I: and then I may be strong enough to overcome them and send them out of the land: for it is clear that good comes to him who has your blessing, but he on whom you put your curse is cursed. Num 22:7 So the responsible men of Moab and Midian went away, taking in their hands rewards for the prophet; and they came to Balaam and said to him what Balak had given them orders to say. Num 22:8 And he said to them, Take your rest here tonight, and I will give you an answer after hearing what the Lord says; so the chiefs of Moab kept there with Balaam that night. Num 22:9 And God came to Balaam and said, Who are these men with you? Num 22:10 And Balaam said to God, Balak, the son of Zippor, king of Moab, has sent them to me, saying, Num 22:11 See, the people who have come out of Egypt are covering all the earth: now, put a curse on this people for me, so that I may be able to make war on them, driving them out of the land. Num 22:12 And God said to Balaam, You are not to go with them, or put a curse on this people, for they have my blessing. Num 22:13 In the morning Balaam got up and said to the chiefs of Balak, Go back to your land, for the Lord will not let me go with you. Num 22:14 So the chiefs of Moab went back to Balak and said, Balaam will not come with us. Num 22:15 So Balak sent more chiefs, greater in number and of higher position than the others. Num 22:16 And they came to Balaam and said, Balak, son of Zippor, says, Let nothing keep you from coming to me: Num 22:17 For I will give you a place of very great honour, and whatever you say to me I will do; so come, in answer to my prayer, and put a curse on this people. Num 22:18 But Balaam, in answer; said to the servants of Balak, Even if Balak gave me his house full of silver and gold, it would not be possible for me to do anything more or less than the orders of the Lord my God. Num 22:19 So take your rest here this night, till I have knowledge what more the Lord has to say to me. Num 22:20 And that night God came to Balaam and said to him, If these men have come for you, go with them: but do only what I say to you. Num 22:21 So in the morning Balaam got up and, making his ass ready, went with the chiefs of Moab. Num 22:22 But God was moved to wrath because he went: and the angel of the Lord took up a position in the road to keep him from his purpose. Now he was seated on his ass, and his two servants were with him. Num 22:23 And the ass saw the angel of the Lord waiting in the road with his sword in his hand; and turning from the road, the ass went into the field; and Balaam gave the ass blows, to get her back on to the road. Num 22:24 Then the angel of the Lord took up his position in a narrow road through the vine-gardens, with a wall on this side and on that. Num 22:25 And the ass saw the angel of the Lord, and went near the wall, crushing Balaam's foot against the wall; and he gave her more blows. Num 22:26 Then the angel of the Lord went further, stopping in a narrow place where there was no room for turning to the right or to the left. Num 22:27 And the ass saw the angel of the Lord and went down on the earth under Balaam; and full of wrath, Balaam gave her hard blows with his stick. Num 22:28 Then the Lord gave the ass the power of talking, and opening her mouth she said to Balaam, What have I done to you that you have given me blows these three times? Num 22:29 And Balaam said to the ass, You have made me seem foolish: if only I had a sword in my hand I would put you to death. Num 22:30 And the ass said to Balaam, Am I not your ass upon which you have gone all your life till this day? and have I ever done this to you before? And he said, No. Num 22:31 Then the Lord made Balaam's eyes open, and he saw the angel of the Lord in the way with his sword in his hand: and he went down on his face to the earth. Num 22:32 And the angel of the Lord said to him, Why have you given your ass blows these three times? See, I have come out against you to keep you back, because your purpose is not pleasing to me. Num 22:33 And the ass saw me, turning to one side from me three times: if she had not gone to one side, I would certainly have put you to death and kept her safe. Num 22:34 And Balaam said to the angel of the Lord, I have done wrong, for I did not see that you were in the way against me: but now, if it is evil in your eyes, I will go back again. Num 22:35 And the angel of the Lord said to Balaam, Go with the men; but say only what I give you to say. Then Balaam went on with the chiefs of Balak. Num 22:36 Now Balak, hearing that Balaam had come, went to the chief town of Moab, on the edge of the Arnon, in the farthest part of the land, for the purpose of meeting him. Num 22:37 And Balak said to Balaam, Did I not send to you, requesting you with all my heart to come to me? why did you not come? am I not able to give you a place of honour? Num 22:38 Then Balaam said to Balak, Now I have come to you; but have I power to say anything? Only what God puts into my mouth may I say. Num 22:39 And Balaam went with Balak to Kiriath-huzoth. Num 22:40 And Balak made offerings of oxen and sheep, and sent to Balaam and the chiefs who were with him. Num 22:41 And in the morning Balak took Balaam up to the high places of Baal, and from there he was able to see the outer limits of the people. Num 23:1 And Balaam said to Balak, Make me here seven altars and get ready seven oxen and seven male sheep. Num 23:2 And Balak did as Balaam had said; and Balak and Balaam made an offering on every altar of an ox and a male sheep. Num 23:3 Then Balaam said to Balak, Take your place by your burned offering, and I will go and see if the Lord comes to me: and I will give you word of whatever he says to me. And he went to an open place on a hill. Num 23:4 And God came to Balaam, and Balaam said to him, I have made ready seven altars, offering an ox and a male sheep on every altar. Num 23:5 And the Lord put words in Balaam's mouth, and said, Go back to Balak, and this is what you are to say. Num 23:6 So he went back to him where he was waiting by his burned offering with all the chiefs of Moab. Num 23:7 And in the words which the Lord had given him he said, From Aram Balak has sent for me, the king of Moab from the mountains of the East: come, put curses on Jacob for me and be angry with Israel. Num 23:8 How may I put curses on him who is not cursed by God? how may I be angry with him with whom the Lord is not angry? Num 23:9 From the top of the rocks I see him, looking down on him from the hills: it is a people made separate, not to be numbered among the nations. Num 23:10 Who is able to take the measure of the dust of Jacob or the number of the thousands of Israel? May my death be the death of the upright and my last end like his! Num 23:11 Then Balak said to Balaam, What have you done to me? I sent for you so that my haters might be cursed, and see, you have given them a blessing. Num 23:12 And in answer he said, Am I not ordered to say only what the Lord puts into my mouth? Num 23:13 And Balak said to him, Come with me now into another place from which you will not be able to see them all, but only the outskirts of them; and you will send curses on them from there. Num 23:14 So he took him into the country of Zophim, to the top of Pisgah, and there they made seven altars, offering an ox and a male sheep on every altar. Num 23:15 Then he said to Balak, Take your place here by your burned offering, while I go over there to the Lord. Num 23:16 And the Lord came to Balaam, and put words in his mouth, and said, Go back to Balak, and this is what you are to say. Num 23:17 So he came to him where he was waiting by his burned offering with the chiefs of Moab by his side. And Balak said to him, What has the Lord said? Num 23:18 And in the words which the Lord had given him he said, Up! Balak, and give ear; give attention to me, O son of Zippor: Num 23:19 God is not a man, to say what is false; or the son of man, that his purpose may be changed: what he has said, will he not do? and will he not give effect to the words of his mouth? Num 23:20 See, I have had orders to give blessing: and he has given a blessing which I have no power to take away. Num 23:21 He has seen no evil in Jacob or wrongdoing in Israel: the Lord his God is with him, and the glad cry of a king is among them. Num 23:22 It is God who has taken them out of Egypt; his horns are like those of the mountain ox. Num 23:23 No evil power has effect against Jacob, no secret arts against Israel; at the right time it will be said of Jacob and of Israel, See what God has done! Num 23:24 See, Israel comes up like a she-lion, lifting himself up like a lion: he will take no rest till he has made a meal of those he has overcome, drinking the blood of those he has put to death. Num 23:25 Then Balak said to Balaam, If you will not put a curse on them, at all events do not give them a blessing. Num 23:26 But Balaam in answer said to Balak, Did I not say to you, I may only do what the Lord says? Num 23:27 Then Balak said to Balaam, Come now, I will take you to another place; it may be that God will let you put a curse on them from there. Num 23:28 So Balak took Balaam to the top of Peor, looking down over the waste land. Num 23:29 And Balaam said to Balak, Make me seven altars here and get seven oxen and seven male sheep ready for me. Num 23:30 And Balak did as Balaam said, offering an ox and a male sheep on every altar. Num 24:1 Now when Balaam saw that it was the Lord's pleasure to give his blessing to Israel, he did not, as at other times, make use of secret arts, but turning his face to the waste land, Num 24:2 And lifting up his eyes, he saw Israel there, with their tents in the order of their tribes: and the spirit of God came on him. Num 24:3 And moved by the spirit, he said, These are the words of Balaam, son of Beor, the words of the man whose eyes are open: Num 24:4 He says, whose ears are open to the words of God, who has seen the vision of the Ruler of all, falling down, but having his eyes open: Num 24:5 How fair are your tents, O Jacob, your houses, O Israel! Num 24:6 They are stretched out like valleys, like gardens by the riverside, like flowering trees planted by the Lord, like cedar-trees by the waters. Num 24:7 Peoples will be in fear before his strength, his arm will be on great nations: his king will be higher than Agag, and his kingdom made great in honour. Num 24:8 It is God who has taken him out of Egypt; his horns are like those of the mountain ox; the nations warring against him will be his food, their bones will be broken, they will be wounded with his arrows. Num 24:9 He took his sleep stretched out like a lion, and like a she-lion: by whom will his rest be broken? May a blessing be on everyone who gives you blessing, and a curse on everyone by whom you are cursed. Num 24:10 Then Balak was full of wrath against Balaam, and angrily waving his hands he said to Balaam, I sent for you so that those who are against me might be cursed, but now, see, three times you have given them a blessing. Num 24:11 Go back quickly to the place you came from: it was my purpose to give you a place of honour, but now the Lord has kept you back from honour. Num 24:12 Then Balaam said to Balak, Did I not say to the men you sent to me, Num 24:13 Even if Balak gave me his house full of silver and gold, it would not be possible for me to go outside the orders of the Lord, doing good or evil at the impulse of my mind; whatever the Lord says I will say? Num 24:14 So now I will go back to my people: but first let me make clear to you what this people will do to your people in days to come. Num 24:15 Then he went on with his story and said, These are the words of Balaam, the son of Beor, the words of him whose eyes are open: Num 24:16 He says, whose ear is open to the words of God, who has knowledge of the Most High, who has seen the vision of the Ruler of all, falling down and having his eyes open: Num 24:17 I see him, but not now: looking on him, but not near: a star will come out of Jacob, and a rod of authority out of Israel, sending destruction to the farthest limits of Moab and on the head of all the sons of Sheth. Num 24:18 Edom will be his heritage, and he will put an end to the last of the people of Seir. Num 24:19 And Israel will go on in strength, and Jacob will have rule over his haters. Num 24:20 Then, turning his eyes to Amalek, he went on with his story and said, Amalek was the first of the nations, but his part will be destruction for ever. Num 24:21 And looking on the Kenites he went on with his story and said, Strong is your living-place, and your secret place is safe in the rock. Num 24:22 But still the Kenites will be wasted, till Asshur takes you away prisoner. Num 24:23 Then he went on with his story and said, But who may keep his life when God does this? Num 24:24 But ships will come from the direction of Kittim, troubling Asshur and troubling Eber, and like the others their fate will be destruction. Num 24:25 Then Balaam got up and went back to his place: and Balak went away. Num 25:1 Now when Israel was living in Shittim the people became false to the Lord, doing evil with the daughters of Moab: Num 25:2 For they sent for the people to be present at the offerings made to their gods; and the people took part in their feasts and gave honour to their gods. Num 25:3 So Israel had relations with the women of Moab in honour of the Baal of Peor: and the Lord was moved to wrath against Israel. Num 25:4 Then the Lord said to Moses, Take all the chiefs of the people, hanging them up in the sun before the Lord, so that the wrath of the Lord may be turned from Israel. Num 25:5 So Moses said to the judges of Israel, Let everyone put to death those of his men who have had relations with the women of Moab in honour of the Baal of Peor. Num 25:6 Then one of the children of Israel came to his brothers, taking with him a woman of Midian, before the eyes of Moses and all the meeting of the people, while they were weeping at the door of the Tent of meeting. Num 25:7 And Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, seeing it, got up from among the people and took a spear in his hand, Num 25:8 And went after the man of Israel into the tent, driving the spear through the two of them, through the man of Israel and through the stomach of the woman. So the disease was stopped among the children of Israel. Num 25:9 But twenty-four thousand of them had come to their death by the disease. Num 25:10 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 25:11 Through Phinehas, and because of his passion for my honour, my wrath has been turned away from the children of Israel, so that I have not sent destruction on them all in my wrath. Num 25:12 So say to them that I will make with him an agreement of peace: Num 25:13 And by this agreement, he and his sons after him have the right to be priests for ever; because, by his care for the honour of his God, he took away the sin of the children of Israel. Num 25:14 Now the man of Israel who was put to death with the woman of Midian was Zimri, the son of Salu, a chief of one of the families of the Simeonites. Num 25:15 And the woman of Midian who was put to death was Cozbi, the daughter of Zur; he was the head of a family in Midian. Num 25:16 Then the Lord said to Moses, Num 25:17 Take up arms against the Midianites and overcome them; Num 25:18 For they are a danger to you with their false ways, causing sin to come on you in the question of Peor, and because of Cozbi, their sister, the daughter of the chief of Midian, who was put to death at the time of the disease which came on you because of Peor. Num 26:1 Now after the disease was over, the Lord said to Moses and Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, Num 26:2 Let all the children of Israel be numbered, by the names of their fathers' families, all those of twenty years old and over who are able to go to war in Israel. Num 26:3 So Moses and Eleazar the priest gave them the order in the lowlands of Moab by Jordan at Jericho, saying, Num 26:4 Let all the people of twenty years old and over be numbered, as the Lord has given orders to Moses and the children of Israel who have come out of Egypt. Num 26:5 Reuben, the first son of Israel: the sons of Reuben by their families: of Hanoch, the family of the Hanochites: of Pallu, the family of the Palluites: Num 26:6 Of Hezron, the family of the Hezronites: of Carmi, the family of the Carmites. Num 26:7 These are the families of the Reubenites: their number was forty-three thousand, seven hundred and thirty. Num 26:8 And the sons of Pallu, Eliab Num 26:9 And the sons of Eliab: Nemuel and Dathan and Abiram. These are the same Dathan and Abiram who had a place in the meeting of the people, who together with Korah made an outcry against Moses and Aaron and against the Lord: Num 26:10 And they went down into the open mouth of the earth, together with Korah, when death overtook him and all his band; at the time when two hundred and fifty men were burned in the fire, and they became a sign. Num 26:11 But death did not overtake the sons of Korah. Num 26:12 The sons of Simeon by their families: of Nemuel, the family of the Nemuelites: of Jamin, the family of the Jaminites: of Jachin, the family of the Jachinites: Num 26:13 Of Zerah, the family of the Zerahites: of Shaul, the family of the Shaulites. Num 26:14 These are the families of the Simeonites, twenty-two thousand, two hundred. Num 26:15 The sons of Gad by their families: of Zephon, the family of the Zephonites: of Haggi, the family of the Haggites: of Shuni, the family of the Shunites: Num 26:16 Of Ozni, the family of the Oznites: of Eri, the family of the Erites: Num 26:17 Of Arod, the family of the Arodites: of Areli, the family of the Arelites. Num 26:18 These are the families of the sons of Gad as they were numbered, forty thousand, five hundred. Num 26:19 The sons of Judah, Er and Onan: and Er and Onan had come to their death in the land of Canaan. Num 26:20 And the sons of Judah by their families were: of Shelah, the family of the Shelahites: of Perez, the family of the Perezites: of Zerah, the family of the Zerahites. Num 26:21 And the sons of Perez were: of Hezron, the family of the Hezronites: of Hamul, the family of the Hamulites. Num 26:22 These are the families of Judah as they were numbered, seventy-six thousand, five hundred. Num 26:23 The sons of Issachar by their families: of Tola, the family of the Tolaites: of Puvah, the family of the Punites: Num 26:24 Of Jashub, the family of the Jashubites: of Shimron, the family of the Shimronites. Num 26:25 These are the families of Issachar, as they were numbered, sixty-four thousand, three hundred. Num 26:26 The sons of Zebulun by their families: of Sered, the family of the Seredites: of Elon, the family of the Elonites: of Jahleel, the family of the Jahleelites. Num 26:27 These are the families of the Zebulunites as they were numbered, sixty thousand, five hundred. Num 26:28 The sons of Joseph by their families: Manasseh and Ephraim. Num 26:29 The sons of Manasseh: of Machir, the family of the Machirites: and Machir was the father of Gilead: of Gilead, the family of the Gileadites. Num 26:30 These are the sons of Gilead: of Iezer, the family of the Iezerites: of Helek, the family of the Helekites: Num 26:31 And of Asriel, the family of the Asrielites: and of Shechem, the family of the Shechemites: Num 26:32 And of Shemida, the family of the Shemidaites: and of Hepher, the family of the Hepherites. Num 26:33 And Zelophehad, the son of Hepher, had no sons, but only daughters, and the names of the daughters of Zelophehad were Mahlah, and Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah. Num 26:34 These are the families of Manasseh; and those who were numbered of them were fifty-two thousand, seven hundred. Num 26:35 These are the sons of Ephraim by their families: of Shuthelah, the family of the Shuthelahites: of Becher, the family of the Becherites: of Tahan, the family of the Tahanites. Num 26:36 And these are the sons of Shuthelah: of Eran, the family of the Eranites: Num 26:37 These are the families of Ephraim as they were numbered, thirty-two thousand, five hundred. These are the sons of Joseph by their families. Num 26:38 The sons of Benjamin by their families: of Bela, the family of the Belaites: of Ashbel, the family of the Ashbelites: of Ahiram, the family of the Ahiramites: Num 26:39 Of Shephupham, the family of the Shuphamites: and of Hupham, the family of the Huphamites. Num 26:40 And the sons of Bela were Ard and Naaman: of Ard, the family of the Ardites: of Naaman, the family of the Naamites. Num 26:41 These are the sons of Benjamin by their families: and those who were numbered of them were forty-five thousand, six hundred. Num 26:42 These are the sons of Dan by their families: of Shuham, the family of the Shuhamites. These are the families of Dan by their families. Num 26:43 All the families of the Shuhamites, as they were numbered, were sixty-four thousand, four hundred. Num 26:44 The sons of Asher by their families: of Imnah, the family of the Imnites: of Ishvi, the family of the Ishvites: of Beriah, the family of the Beriites. Num 26:45 Of the sons of Beriah: of Heber, the family of the Heberites: of Malchiel, the family of the Malchielites: Num 26:46 And the name of the daughter of Asher was Serah. Num 26:47 These are the families of the sons of Asher as they were numbered, fifty-three thousand, four hundred. Num 26:48 The sons of Naphtali by their families: of Jahzeel, the family of the Jahzeelites: of Guni, the family of the Gunites: Num 26:49 Of Jezer, the family of the Jezerites: of Shillem, the family of the Shillemites. Num 26:50 These are the families of Naphtali by their families: and those who were numbered of them were forty-five thousand, four hundred. Num 26:51 Those who were numbered of the children of Israel were six hundred and one thousand, seven hundred and thirty. Num 26:52 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 26:53 Let there be a division of the land among these, for their heritage, in relation to the number of names. Num 26:54 To those families who are more in number, give a greater heritage; to those who are less in number, a smaller part: to every one let the heritage be given in relation to the number in his family. Num 26:55 But let the distribution of the land be made by the decision of the Lord: by the names of the tribes of their fathers let their heritage be given them. Num 26:56 As it is ordered by the decision of the Lord, let distribution be made between those who are more in number and those who are less. Num 26:57 These were those of the Levites who were numbered by their families: of Gershon, the family of the Gershonites: of Kohath, the family of the Kohathites: of Merari, the family of the Merarites. Num 26:58 These are the families of Levi: the family of the Libnites, the family of the Hebronites, the family of the Mahlites, the family of the Mushites, the family of the Korahites. And Kohath was the father of Amram. Num 26:59 Amram's wife was Jochebed, the daughter of Levi, whom he had in Egypt: by Amram she had Moses and Aaron and their sister Miriam. Num 26:60 Aaron's sons were Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. Num 26:61 Death overtook Nadab and Abihu when they made an offering of strange fire before the Lord. Num 26:62 Of these, twenty-three thousand males, from one month old and over, were numbered: they were not numbered with the rest of the children of Israel, for they had no heritage among the children of Israel. Num 26:63 All these were numbered by Moses and Eleazar the priest when the children of Israel were numbered in the lowlands of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho. Num 26:64 But among all these was not one of those numbered by Moses and Aaron the priest when the children of Israel were numbered in the waste land of Sinai. Num 26:65 For the Lord had said of them, Death will certainly overtake them in the waste land. And of them all, only Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, and Joshua, the son of Nun, were still living. Num 27:1 Then the daughters of Zelophehad, the son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, of the families of Manasseh, the son of Joseph, came forward: their names are Mahlah, Noah, and Hoglah, and Milcah, and Tirzah. Num 27:2 They came before Moses and Eleazar the priest and the chiefs and all the people at the door of the Tent of meeting, and said, Num 27:3 Death overtook our father in the waste land; he was not among those who were banded together with Korah against the Lord; but death came to him in his sin; and he had no sons. Num 27:4 Why is the name of our father to be taken away from among his family, because he had no son? Give us a heritage among our father's brothers. Num 27:5 So Moses put their cause before the Lord. Num 27:6 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 27:7 What the daughters of Zelophehad say is right: certainly you are to give them a heritage among their father's brothers: and let the property which would have been their father's go to them. Num 27:8 And say to the children of Israel, If a man has no son at the time of his death, let his heritage go to his daughter. Num 27:9 And if he has no daughter, then give his heritage to his brothers. Num 27:10 And if he has no brothers, then give his heritage to his father's brothers. Num 27:11 And if his father has no brothers, then give it to his nearest relation in the family, as his heritage: this is to be a decision made by law for the children of Israel, as the Lord gave orders to Moses. Num 27:12 And the Lord said to Moses, Go up into this mountain of Abarim so that you may see the land which I have given to the children of Israel. Num 27:13 And when you have seen it, you will be put to rest with your people, as your brother Aaron was: Num 27:14 Because in the waste land of Zin, when the people were angry, you and he went against my word and did not keep my name holy before their eyes, at the waters. (These are the waters of Meribah in Kadesh in the waste land of Zin.) Num 27:15 Then Moses said to the Lord, Num 27:16 Let the Lord, the God of the spirits of all flesh, put a man at the head of this people, Num 27:17 To go out and come in before them and be their guide; so that the people of the Lord may not be like sheep without a keeper. Num 27:18 And the Lord said to Moses, Take Joshua, the son of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit, and put your hand on him; Num 27:19 And take him before Eleazar the priest and all the meeting of the people, and give him his orders before their eyes. Num 27:20 And put your honour on him, so that all the children of Israel may be under his authority. Num 27:21 He will take his place before Eleazar the priest, so that he may get directions from the Lord for him, with the Urim: at his word they will go out, and at his word they will come in, he and all the children of Israel. Num 27:22 So Moses did as the Lord said: he took Joshua and put him before Eleazar the priest and the meeting of the people: Num 27:23 And he put his hands on him and gave him his orders, as the Lord had said by Moses. Num 28:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 28:2 Give orders to the children of Israel and say to them, Let it be your care to give me my offerings at their regular times, the food of the offerings made by fire to me for a sweet smell. Num 28:3 Say to them, This is the offering made by fire which you are to give to the Lord; he-lambs of the first year without any mark, two every day as a regular burned offering. Num 28:4 Let one be offered in the morning, and the other at evening; Num 28:5 And the tenth part of an ephah of the best meal for a meal offering mixed with the fourth part of a hin of clear oil. Num 28:6 It is a regular burned offering, as it was ordered in Mount Sinai, for a sweet smell, an offering made by fire to the Lord. Num 28:7 And for its drink offering take the fourth part of a hin for one lamb: in the holy place let the wine be drained out for a drink offering for the Lord. Num 28:8 Let the other lamb be offered at evening; like the meal offering of the morning and its drink offering, let it be offered as an offering made by fire for a sweet smell to the Lord. Num 28:9 And on the Sabbath day, two he-lambs of the first year, without any mark, and two tenth parts of the best meal for a meal offering mixed with oil, and its drink offering: Num 28:10 This is the burned offering for every Sabbath day, in addition to the regular burned offering, and its drink offering. Num 28:11 And on the first day of every month you are to give a burned offering to the Lord; two oxen, one male sheep, and seven he-lambs of the first year, without any mark; Num 28:12 And three tenth parts of the best meal for a meal offering mixed with oil, for every ox; and two tenth parts of the best meal for a meal offering mixed with oil, for the one sheep; Num 28:13 And a separate tenth part of the best meal mixed with oil for a meal offering for every lamb; for a burned offering of a sweet smell, an offering made by fire to the Lord. Num 28:14 And their drink offerings are to be half a hin of wine for an ox, and the third part of a hin for a male sheep, and the fourth part of a hin for a lamb: this is the burned offering for every month through all the months of the year. Num 28:15 And one he-goat for a sin-offering to the Lord; it is to be offered in addition to the regular burned offering and its drink offering. Num 28:16 And in the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, is the Lord's Passover. Num 28:17 On the fifteenth day of this month there is to be a feast; for seven days let your food be unleavened cakes. Num 28:18 On the first day there is to be a holy meeting: you may do no sort of field-work: Num 28:19 And you are to give an offering made by fire, a burned offering to the Lord; two oxen, one male sheep, and seven he-lambs of the first year, without any mark: Num 28:20 And their meal offering, the best meal mixed with oil: let three tenth parts of an ephah be offered for an ox and two tenth parts for a male sheep; Num 28:21 And a separate tenth part for every one of the seven lambs; Num 28:22 And one he-goat for a sin-offering to take away your sin. Num 28:23 These are to be offered in addition to the morning burned offering, which is a regular burned offering at all times. Num 28:24 In this way, every day for seven days, give the food of the offering made by fire, a sweet smell to the Lord: it is to be offered in addition to the regular burned offering, and its drink offering. Num 28:25 Then on the seventh day there will be a holy meeting; you may do no field-work. Num 28:26 And at the time of the first-fruits, when you give an offering of new meal to the Lord at your feast of weeks, there is to be a holy meeting: you may do no field-work: Num 28:27 And give a burned offering for a sweet smell to the Lord; two oxen, one male sheep, and seven he-lambs of the first year; Num 28:28 And their meal offering, the best meal mixed with oil, three tenth parts for an ox, two tenth parts for a male sheep, Num 28:29 And a separate tenth part for every one of the seven lambs; Num 28:30 And one he-goat to take away your sin. Num 28:31 These are in addition to the regular burned offering and its meal offering; take care that they are without any mark, and let them be offered with their drink offerings. Num 29:1 In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, let there be a holy meeting; on it you may do no field-work; let the day be marked by the blowing of horns; Num 29:2 And give to the Lord a burned offering for a sweet smell; one ox, one male sheep, seven he-lambs of the first year, without any mark on them: Num 29:3 And their meal offering, the best meal mixed with oil, three tenth parts for an ox, two tenth parts for a male sheep, Num 29:4 And a separate tenth part for every one of the seven lambs; Num 29:5 And one he-goat for a sin-offering, to take away your sin: Num 29:6 In addition to the burned offering of the new moon, and its meal offering, and the regular burned offering and its meal offering, and their drink offerings, as they are ordered, for a sweet smell, an offering made by fire to the Lord. Num 29:7 And on the tenth day of this seventh month there will be a holy meeting; keep yourselves from pleasure, and do no sort of work; Num 29:8 And give to the Lord a burned offering for a sweet smell; one ox, one male sheep, seven he-lambs of the first year: only those without any mark on them may be used: Num 29:9 And their meal offering, the best meal mixed with oil, three tenth parts for an ox, two tenth parts for a male sheep, Num 29:10 A separate tenth part for every one of the seven lambs; Num 29:11 One he-goat for a sin-offering; in addition to the offering for taking away your sin, and the regular burned offering and its meal offering, and their drink offerings. Num 29:12 And on the fifteenth day of the seventh month let there be a holy meeting; do no field-work, and keep a feast to the Lord for seven days; Num 29:13 And give a burned offering, an offering made by fire of a sweet smell to the Lord, thirteen oxen, two male sheep, fourteen he-lambs of the first year, all without any mark on them; Num 29:14 And their meal offering, the best meal mixed with oil, three tenth parts for every one of the thirteen oxen, two tenth parts for every male sheep, Num 29:15 And a separate tenth part for every one of the fourteen lambs; Num 29:16 And one he-goat for a sin-offering; in addition to the regular burned offering, and its meal offering, and its drink offering. Num 29:17 On the second day of the feast give an offering of twelve oxen, two male sheep, fourteen he-lambs of the first year, without any mark on them; Num 29:18 And their meal offering and their drink offerings for the oxen and the sheep and the lambs, in relation to their number, as it is ordered: Num 29:19 And one he-goat for a sin-offering in addition to the regular burned offering, and its meal offering, and their drink offerings. Num 29:20 And on the third day eleven oxen, two male sheep, fourteen he-lambs of the first year, without any mark; Num 29:21 And their meal offering and drink offerings for the oxen, for the male sheep, and for the lambs, in relation to their number, as it is ordered: Num 29:22 And one he-goat for a sin-offering; in addition to the regular burned offering, and its meal offering, and its drink offering. Num 29:23 And on the fourth day ten oxen, two male sheep, fourteen he-lambs of the first year, without any mark: Num 29:24 And their meal offering and their drink offerings for the oxen, for the male sheep, and for the lambs, in relation to their number, as it is ordered. Num 29:25 And one he-goat for a sin-offering; in addition to the regular burned offering, and its meal offering, and its drink offering. Num 29:26 And on the fifth day nine oxen, two male sheep, fourteen he-lambs of the first year, without any mark: Num 29:27 And their meal offering and their drink offerings for the oxen, for the male sheep, and for the lambs, in relation to their number, as it is ordered: Num 29:28 And one he-goat for a sin-offering; in addition to the regular burned offering, and its meal offering, and its drink offering. Num 29:29 And on the sixth day eight oxen, two male sheep, fourteen he-lambs of the first year, without any mark: Num 29:30 And their meal offering and their drink offerings for the oxen, for the male sheep, and for the lambs, in relation to their number, as it is ordered: Num 29:31 And one he-goat for a sin-offering; in addition to the regular burned offering, its meal offering, and its drink offerings. Num 29:32 And on the seventh day seven oxen, two male sheep, fourteen he-lambs of the first year, without any mark: Num 29:33 And their meal offering and their drink offerings for the oxen, for the male sheep, and for the lambs, in relation to their number, as it is ordered: Num 29:34 And one he-goat for a sin-offering; in addition to the regular burned offering, its meal offering, and its drink offering. Num 29:35 On the eighth day let there be a holy meeting: you may do no field-work; Num 29:36 And give a burned offering, an offering made by fire of a sweet smell to the Lord: one ox, one male sheep, seven he-lambs of the first year, without any mark: Num 29:37 With the meal offering and the drink offerings for the ox, the male sheep, and the lambs, in relation to their number, as it is ordered: Num 29:38 And one he-goat for a sin-offering; in addition to the regular burned offering, and its meal offering, and its drink offering. Num 29:39 These are the offerings which you are to give to the Lord at your regular feasts, in addition to the offerings for an oath, and the free offerings you give, for your burned offerings and your drink offerings and your peace-offerings. Num 29:40 So Moses gave the children of Israel all these directions as the Lord had given him orders. Num 30:1 And Moses said to the heads of the tribes of the children of Israel, This is the order of the Lord. Num 30:2 When a man takes an oath to the Lord, or gives an undertaking having the force of an oath, let him not go back from his word, but let him do whatever he has said he will do. Num 30:3 If a woman, being young and under the authority of her father, takes an oath to the Lord or gives an undertaking; Num 30:4 If her father, hearing of her oath or the undertaking she has given, says nothing to her, then all her oaths and every undertaking she has given will have force. Num 30:5 But if her father, hearing of it, makes her take back her word, then the oaths or the undertakings she has given will have no force; and she will have forgiveness from the Lord, because her oath was broken by her father. Num 30:6 And if she is married to a husband at the time when she is under an oath or an undertaking given without thought; Num 30:7 If her husband, hearing of it, says nothing to her at the time, then the oaths she made and the undertakings she gave will have force. Num 30:8 But if her husband, hearing of it, makes her take it back, then the oath she made and the undertaking she gave without thought will have no force or effect, and she will have the Lord's forgiveness. Num 30:9 But an oath made by a widow or one who is no longer married to her husband, and every undertaking she has given, will have force. Num 30:10 If she made an oath while she was under the authority of her husband, Num 30:11 And her husband, hearing of it, said nothing to her and did not put a stop to it, then all her oaths and every undertaking she gave will have force. Num 30:12 But if her husband, on hearing of it, made them without force or effect, then whatever she has said about her oaths or her undertaking has no force: her husband has made them without effect, and she will have the Lord's forgiveness. Num 30:13 Every oath, and every undertaking which she gives, to keep herself from pleasure, may be supported or broken by her husband. Num 30:14 But if the days go on, and her husband says nothing whatever to her, then he is giving the support of his authority to her oaths and undertakings, because at the time of hearing them he said nothing to her. Num 30:15 But if at some time after hearing of them, he makes them without force, then he is responsible for her wrongdoing. Num 30:16 These are the laws which the Lord gave Moses in relation to a man and his wife, or a father and a young daughter who is under his authority. Num 31:1 Then the Lord said to Moses, Num 31:2 Give the Midianites punishment for the wrong they did to the children of Israel: and after that you will go to rest with your people. Num 31:3 So Moses said to the people, Let men from among you be armed for war to put into effect against Midian the Lord's punishment on them. Num 31:4 From every tribe of Israel send a thousand to the war. Num 31:5 So from the thousands of Israel a thousand were taken from every tribe, twelve thousand men armed for war. Num 31:6 And Moses sent them out to war, a thousand from every tribe, and with them Phinehas, the son of Eleazar the priest, taking in his hands the vessels of the holy place and the horns for sounding the note of war. Num 31:7 And they made war on Midian, as the Lord gave orders to Moses; and they put to death every male. Num 31:8 They put the kings of Midian to death with the rest, Evi and Reken and Zur and Hur and Reba, the five kings of Midian: and Balaam, the son of Beor, they put to death with the sword. Num 31:9 The women of Midian with their little ones the children of Israel took prisoner; and all their cattle and flocks and all their goods they took for themselves; Num 31:10 And after burning all their towns and all their tent-circles, Num 31:11 They went away with the goods they had taken, man and beast. Num 31:12 And the prisoners and the goods and everything they had taken, they took to Moses and Eleazar the priest and the people of Israel, to the tent-circle in the lowlands of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho. Num 31:13 Then Moses and Eleazar the priest and the chiefs of the people went out to them before they had come into the tent-circle. Num 31:14 And Moses was angry with the chiefs of the army, the captains of thousands and the captains of hundreds who had come back from the war. Num 31:15 And Moses said to them, Why have you kept all the women safe? Num 31:16 It was these who, moved by Balaam, were the cause of Israel's sin against the Lord in the question of Peor, because of which disease came on the people of the Lord. Num 31:17 So now put every male child to death, and every woman who has had sex relations with a man. Num 31:18 But all the female children who have had no sex relations with men, you may keep for yourselves. Num 31:19 You yourselves will have to keep outside the tent-circle for seven days, anyone of you who has put any person to death or come near a dead body; and on the third day and on the seventh day make yourselves and your prisoners clean. Num 31:20 And every bit of clothing, and anything made of leather or goats' hair or wood, you are to make clean. Num 31:21 Then Eleazar the priest said to the men of war who had been to the fight, This is the rule of the law which the Lord has given to Moses: Num 31:22 But gold and silver and brass and iron and tin and lead, Num 31:23 And anything which may be heated, is to go through the fire and be made clean; but in addition it is to be put in the water of cleaning: and anything which may not go through the fire is to be put in the water. Num 31:24 And on the seventh day, after washing your clothing, you will be clean, and then you may come into the tent-circle. Num 31:25 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 31:26 Get an account of everything which was taken in the war, of man and of beast, you and Eleazar the priest and the heads of families of the people: Num 31:27 And let division be made of it into two parts, one for the men of war who went out to the fight, and one for all the people: Num 31:28 And from the men of war who went out let there be offered to the Lord one out of every five hundred, from the persons, and from the oxen and asses and sheep: Num 31:29 Take this from their part and give it to Eleazar the priest as an offering to be lifted up to the Lord. Num 31:30 And from the part given to the children of Israel, take one out of every fifty, from the persons, and from the oxen and asses and sheep, and give it to the Levites who have the care of the House of the Lord. Num 31:31 So Eleazar and Moses did as the Lord had given orders to Moses. Num 31:32 Now the beasts taken, in addition to what the fighting-men took for themselves, were six hundred and seventy-five thousand sheep, Num 31:33 And seventy-two thousand oxen, Num 31:34 And sixty-one thousand asses; Num 31:35 And thirty-two thousand persons, that is, women who had never had sex relations with a man. Num 31:36 And the half given as their part to the men who went to the war, was three hundred and thirty-seven thousand, five hundred sheep, Num 31:37 Of which the Lord's part was six hundred and seventy-five. Num 31:38 The number of oxen was thirty-six thousand, of which the Lord's part was seventy-two; Num 31:39 The number of asses was thirty thousand, five hundred, of which the Lord's part was sixty-one. Num 31:40 And the number of persons was sixteen thousand, of which the Lord's part was thirty-two persons. Num 31:41 And Moses gave the Lord's part, lifted up as an offering, to Eleazar the priest, as the Lord had given orders to Moses. Num 31:42 And from the half given to the children of Israel, which Moses had kept separate from that given to the fighting-men, Num 31:43 (Now the people's half was three hundred and thirty-seven thousand, five hundred sheep, Num 31:44 And thirty-six thousand oxen, Num 31:45 And thirty thousand, five hundred asses, Num 31:46 And sixteen thousand persons;) Num 31:47 Even from the children of Israel's half, Moses took one out of every fifty, men and beasts, and gave them to the Levites who had the care of the House of the Lord; as the Lord gave orders to Moses. Num 31:48 Then the men in authority over the thousands of the army, the captains of thousands and captains of hundreds, came to Moses, Num 31:49 And said to him, Your servants have taken note of the number of all the fighting-men under our orders, and every one is present; Num 31:50 And we have here an offering for the Lord from what every man took in the war, ornaments of gold, leg-chains and arm-rings, finger-rings, ear-rings, and neck-ornaments, to make our souls free from sin before the Lord. Num 31:51 So Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold from them, even all the worked ornaments. Num 31:52 And the gold which the captains of thousands and captains of hundreds gave, as an offering to be lifted up before the Lord, came to sixteen thousand, seven hundred and fifty shekels. Num 31:53 (For every man of the army had taken goods for himself in the war.) Num 31:54 Then Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold given by the captains of thousands and captains of hundreds, and took it into the Tent of meeting, to be a sign in memory of the children of Israel before the Lord. Num 32:1 Now the children of Reuben and the children of Gad had a great number of cattle: and when they saw that the land of Jazer and the land of Gilead was a good place for cattle; Num 32:2 The children of Gad and the children of Reuben came and said to Moses and to Eleazar the priest and to the chiefs of the meeting, Num 32:3 Ataroth, and Dibon, and Jazer, and Nimrah, and Heshbon, and Elealeh, and Sebam, and Nebo, and Beon, Num 32:4 The land which the Lord gave into the hands of the children of Israel, is a land for cattle, and your servants have cattle. Num 32:5 And they said, With your approval, let this land be given to your servants as their heritage: do not take us over Jordan. Num 32:6 And Moses said to the children of Gad and the children of Reuben, Are your brothers to go to the war, while you take your rest here? Num 32:7 Why would you take from the children of Israel the desire to go over into the land which the Lord has given them? Num 32:8 So did your fathers, when I sent them from Kadesh-barnea to see the land. Num 32:9 For when they went up to the valley of Eshcol, and saw the land, they took from the children of Israel the desire to go into the land which the Lord had given them. Num 32:10 And at that time the Lord was moved to wrath, and made an oath, saying, Num 32:11 Truly, not one of the men of twenty years old and over who came out of Egypt will see the land which I gave by oath to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; because they have not been true to me with all their heart; Num 32:12 But only Caleb, the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite, and Joshua, the son of Nun: because they have been true to the Lord. Num 32:13 Then the Lord was angry with Israel, and he made them wanderers in the waste land for forty years? till all that generation who had done evil in the eyes of the Lord was dead. Num 32:14 And now you have come to take the place of your fathers, another generation of sinners, increasing the wrath of the Lord against Israel. Num 32:15 For if you are turned away from him, he will send them wandering again in the waste land; and you will be the cause of the destruction of all this people. Num 32:16 Then they came to him, and said, We will make safe places for our cattle here, and towns for our little ones; Num 32:17 But we ourselves will be ready armed to go before the children of Israel till we have taken them to their place: but our little ones will be safe in the walled towns against the people of the land. Num 32:18 We will not come back to our houses till every one of the children of Israel has come into his heritage. Num 32:19 For we will not have our heritage with them on the other side of Jordan and forward; because our heritage has come to us on this side of Jordan to the east. Num 32:20 Then Moses said to them, If you will do this, arming yourselves to go before the Lord to the war, Num 32:21 Every armed man of you going across Jordan before the Lord till he has overcome and sent in flight all who are against him, Num 32:22 And the land is under the rule of the Lord: then after that you may come back, having done no wrong to the Lord and to Israel; and this land will be yours for your heritage before the Lord. Num 32:23 But if you do not do this, then you are sinners against the Lord; and you may be certain that your sin will have its reward. Num 32:24 So get to work building your towns for your little ones, and safe places for your sheep; and do as you have said. Num 32:25 And the children of Gad and the children of Reuben said to Moses, Your servants will do as my lord says. Num 32:26 Our little ones, our wives, and our flocks, and all our cattle, will be there in the towns of Gilead; Num 32:27 But your servants will go over, every man armed for war, before the Lord to the fight, as my lord says. Num 32:28 So Moses gave orders about them to Eleazar the priest and to Joshua, the son of Nun, and to the heads of families of the tribes of the children of Israel. Num 32:29 And Moses said to them, If the children of Gad and the children of Reuben go with you over Jordan, every man armed for the fight before the Lord, and all the land is given into your hands, then let them have the land of Gilead for a heritage: Num 32:30 But if they do not go over with you armed, they will have to take their heritage with you in the land of Canaan. Num 32:31 Then the children of Gad and the children of Reuben said, As the Lord has said to your servants, so will we do. Num 32:32 We will go over armed before the Lord into the land of Canaan, and you will give us our heritage on this side of Jordan. Num 32:33 So Moses gave to them, even to the children of Gad and the children of Reuben and to the half-tribe of Manasseh, the son of Joseph, the kingdom of Sihon, king of the Amorites and Og, king of Bashan, all the land with its towns and the country round them. Num 32:34 And the children of Gad were the builders of Dibon and Ataroth and Aroer; Num 32:35 And Atroth-shophan and Jazer and Jogbehah; Num 32:36 And Beth-nimrah and Beth-haran: walled towns and shut-in places for sheep. Num 32:37 And the children of Reuben were the builders of Heshbon and Elealeh and Kiriathaim; Num 32:38 And Nebo and Baal-meon, (their names being changed,) and Sibmah: and they gave other names to the towns they made. Num 32:39 And the children of Machir, the son of Manasseh, went to Gilead and took it, driving out the Amorites who were living there. Num 32:40 And Moses gave Gilead to Machir, the son of Manasseh; and he made it his living-place. Num 32:41 And Jair, the son of Manasseh, went and took the towns of Gilead, naming them Havvoth-Jair. Num 32:42 And Nobah went and took Kenath and its small towns, naming it Nobah, after himself. Num 33:1 These are the journeys of the children of Israel, when they went out of the land of Egypt in their armies, under the direction of Moses and Aaron. Num 33:2 And the stages of their journey on their way out were put down in writing by Moses at the order of the Lord: these are the stages of their journey and the way they went. Num 33:3 On the fifteenth day of the first month they went out from Rameses; on the day after the Passover the children of Israel went out by the power of the Lord before the eyes of all the Egyptians, Num 33:4 While the Egyptians were placing in the earth the bodies of their sons on whom the Lord had sent destruction: and their gods had been judged by him. Num 33:5 So the children of Israel went from Rameses and put up their tents in Succoth. Num 33:6 And they went on from Succoth and put up their tents in Etham on the edge of the waste land. Num 33:7 And from Etham, turning back to Pi-hahiroth which is before Baal-zephon, they put up their tents before Migdol. Num 33:8 And journeying on from before Hahiroth, they went through the sea into the waste land: they went three days' journey through the waste land of Etham and put up their tents in Marah. Num 33:9 And from Marah they went on to Elim: and in Elim there were twelve water-springs and seventy palm-trees; and they put up their tents there. Num 33:10 And they went on from Elim and put up their tents by the Red Sea. Num 33:11 Then from the Red Sea they went on and put up their tents in the waste land of Sin. Num 33:12 And they went on from the waste land of Sin, and put up their tents in Dophkah. Num 33:13 And they went on from Dophkah, and put up their tents in Alush. Num 33:14 And they went on from Alush, and put up their tents in Rephidim, where there was no drinking-water for the people. Num 33:15 And they went on from Rephidim, and put up their tents in the waste land of Sinai. Num 33:16 And they went on from the waste land of Sinai and put up their tents in Kibroth-hattaavah. Num 33:17 And they went on from Kibroth-hattaavah, and put up their tents in Hazeroth. Num 33:18 And they went on from Hazeroth, and put up their tents in Rithmah. Num 33:19 And they went on from Rithmah, and put up their tents in Rimmon-perez. Num 33:20 And they went on from Rimmon-perez, and put up their tents in Libnah. Num 33:21 And they went on from Libnah, and put up their tents in Rissah. Num 33:22 And they went on from Rissah, and put up their tents in Kehelathah. Num 33:23 And they went on from Kehelathah, and put up their tents in Mount Shepher. Num 33:24 And they went on from Mount Shepher, and put up their tents in Haradah. Num 33:25 And they went on from Haradah, and put up their tents in Makheloth. Num 33:26 And they went on from Makheloth, and put up their tents in Tahath. Num 33:27 And they went on from Tahath, and put up their tents in Terah. Num 33:28 And they went on from Terah, and put up their tents in Mithkah. Num 33:29 And they went on from Mithkah, and put up their tents in Hashmonah. Num 33:30 And they went on from Hashmonah, and put up their tents in Moseroth. Num 33:31 And they went on from Moseroth, and put up their tents in Bene-jaakan. Num 33:32 And they went on from Bene-jaakan, and put up their tents in Hor-haggidgad. Num 33:33 And they went on from Hor-haggidgad, and put up their tents in Jotbathah. Num 33:34 And they went on from Jotbathah, and put up their tents in Abronah. Num 33:35 And they went on from Abronah, and put up their tents in Ezion-geber. Num 33:36 And they went on from Ezion-geber, and put up their tents in the waste land of Zin (which is Kadesh). Num 33:37 And they went on from Kadesh, and put up their tents in Mount Hor, on the edge of the land of Edom. Num 33:38 And Aaron the priest went up into the mountain at the order of the Lord, and came to his death there, in the fortieth year after the children of Israel had come out of the land of Egypt, in the fifth month, on the first day of the month. Num 33:39 Aaron was a hundred and twenty-three years old at the time of his death in Mount Hor. Num 33:40 And news of the coming of the children of Israel came to the king of Arad, the Canaanite, who was living in the South in the land of Canaan. Num 33:41 And from Mount Hor they went on, and put up their tents in Zalmonah. Num 33:42 And they went on from Zalmonah, and put up their tents in Punon. Num 33:43 And they went on from Punon, and put up their tents in Oboth. Num 33:44 And they went on from Oboth, and put up their tents in Iye-abarim at the edge of Moab. Num 33:45 And they went on from Iyim, and put up their tents in Dibon-gad. Num 33:46 And from Dibon-gad they went on, and put up their tents in Almon-diblathaim. Num 33:47 And from Almon-diblathaim they went on, and put up their tents in the mountains of Abarim, before Nebo. Num 33:48 And they went on from the mountains of Abarim, and put up their tents in the lowlands of Moab by Jordan at Jericho; Num 33:49 Planting their tents by the side of Jordan from Beth-jeshimoth as far as Abel-shittim in the lowlands of Moab. Num 33:50 And in the lowlands of Moab by Jordan at Jericho, the Lord said to Moses, Num 33:51 Say to the children of Israel, When you go over Jordan into the land of Canaan, Num 33:52 See that all the people of the land are forced out from before you, and put to destruction all their pictured stones, and all their metal images, and all their high places: Num 33:53 And take the land for yourselves, for your resting-place: for to you I have given the land as your heritage. Num 33:54 And you will take up your heritage in the land by the decision of the Lord, to every family its part; the greater the family the greater its heritage, and the smaller the family the smaller will be its heritage; wherever the decision of the Lord gives to any man his part, that will be his; distribution will be made to you by your fathers' tribes. Num 33:55 But if you are slow in driving out the people of the land, then those of them who are still there will be like pin-points in your eyes and like thorns in your sides, troubling you in the land where you are living. Num 33:56 And it will come about that as it was my purpose to do to them, so I will do to you. Num 34:1 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 34:2 Give orders to the children of Israel and say to them, When you come into the land of Canaan; (this is the land which is to be your heritage, the land of Canaan inside these limits,) Num 34:3 Then your south quarter will be from the waste land of Zin by the side of Edom, and your limit on the south will be from the east end of the Salt Sea, Num 34:4 And round to the south of the slope of Akrabbim, and on to Zin: and its direction will be south of Kadesh-barnea, and it will go as far as Hazar-addar and on to Azmon: Num 34:5 And from Azmon it will go round to the stream of Egypt as far as the sea. Num 34:6 And for your limit on the west you will have the Great Sea and its edge: this will be your limit on the west. Num 34:7 And your limit on the north will be the line from the Great Sea to Mount Hor: Num 34:8 And from Mount Hor the line will go in the direction of Hamath; the farthest point of it will be at Zedad: Num 34:9 And the limit will go on to Ziphron, with its farthest point at Hazar-enan: this will be your limit on the north. Num 34:10 And on the east, your limit will be marked out from Hazar-enan to Shepham, Num 34:11 Going down from Shepham to Riblah on the east side of Ain, and on as far as the east side of the sea of Chinnereth: Num 34:12 And so down to Jordan, stretching to the Salt Sea: all the land inside these limits will be yours. Num 34:13 And Moses gave orders to the children of Israel saying, This is the land which is to be your heritage, by the decision of the Lord, which by the Lord's order is to be given to the nine tribes and the half-tribe: Num 34:14 For the tribe of the children of Reuben, by their fathers' families, and the tribe of the children of Gad, by their fathers' families, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, have been given their heritage: Num 34:15 The two tribes and the half-tribe have been given their heritage on the other side of Jordan at Jericho, on the east looking to the dawn. Num 34:16 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 34:17 These are the names of the men who are to make the distribution of the land among you: Eleazar the priest and Joshua, the son of Nun. Num 34:18 And you are to take one chief from every tribe to make the distribution of the land. Num 34:19 And these are the names of the men: of the tribe of Judah, Caleb, the son of Jephunneh. Num 34:20 And of the tribe of the children of Simeon, Shemuel, the son of Ammihud. Num 34:21 Of the tribe of Benjamin, Elidad, the son of Chislon. Num 34:22 And of the tribe of the children of Dan, a chief, Bukki, the son of Jogli. Num 34:23 Of the children of Joseph: of the tribe of the children of Manasseh, a chief, Hanniel, the son of Ephod: Num 34:24 And of the tribe of the children of Ephraim, a chief, Kemuel, the son of Shiphtan. Num 34:25 And of the tribe of the children of Zebulun, a chief, Elizaphan, the son of Parnach. Num 34:26 And of the tribe of the children of Issachar, a chief, Paltiel, the son of Azzan. Num 34:27 And of the tribe of the children of Asher, a chief, Ahihud, the son of Shelomi. Num 34:28 And of the tribe of the children of Naphtali, a chief, Pedahel, the son of Ammihud. Num 34:29 These are they to whom the Lord gave orders to make the distribution of the heritage among the children of Israel in the land of Canaan. Num 35:1 And the Lord said to Moses in the lowlands of Moab by Jordan at Jericho, Num 35:2 Give orders to the children of Israel to give to the Levites, from the heritage which is theirs, towns for themselves, with land on the outskirts of the towns. Num 35:3 These towns are to be their living-places, with land round them for their cattle and their food and all their beasts, Num 35:4 Stretching from the wall of the towns a distance of a thousand cubits all round. Num 35:5 The measure of this space of land is to be two thousand cubits outside the town on the east, and two thousand cubits on the south and on the west and on the north, the town being in the middle. This space will be the outskirts of their towns. Num 35:6 And the towns which you give the Levites are to be the six safe places to which the taker of life may go in flight; and in addition you are to give them forty-two towns. Num 35:7 Forty-eight towns are to be given to the Levites, all with land round them. Num 35:8 And these towns are to be given out of the heritage of the children of Israel, taking the greater number from those who have much, and a smaller number from those who have little: everyone, in the measure of his heritage, is to give of his property to the Levites. Num 35:9 And the Lord said to Moses, Num 35:10 Say to the children of Israel, when you have gone over Jordan into the land of Canaan; Num 35:11 Then let certain towns be marked out as safe places to which anyone who takes the life of another in error may go in flight. Num 35:12 In these towns you may be safe from him who has the right of punishment; so that death may not overtake the taker of life till he has been judged by the meeting of the people. Num 35:13 Six of the towns which you give will be such safe places; Num 35:14 Three on the other side of Jordan and three in the land of Canaan, to be safe places for flight. Num 35:15 For the children of Israel and for the man from another country who is living among them, these six towns are to be safe places, where anyone causing the death of another through error may go in flight. Num 35:16 But if a man gives another man a blow with an iron instrument, causing his death, he is a taker of life and is certainly to be put to death. Num 35:17 Or if he gives him a blow with a stone in his hand, causing his death, he is a taker of life and is certainly to be put to death. Num 35:18 Or if he gave him blows with a wood instrument in his hands, causing his death, he is a taker of life and is certainly to be put to death. Num 35:19 He whose right it is to give punishment for blood, may himself put to death the taker of life when he comes face to face with him. Num 35:20 If in his hate he put a sword through him, or waiting secretly for him sent a spear or stone at him, causing his death; Num 35:21 Or in hate gave him blows with his hand, causing death; he who gave the death-blow is to be put to death; he is a taker of life: he whose right it is to give punishment for blood may put to death the taker of life when he comes face to face with him. Num 35:22 But if a man has given a wound to another suddenly and not in hate, or without design has sent something against him, Num 35:23 Or has given him a blow with a stone, without seeing him, so causing his death, though he had nothing against him and no desire to do him evil: Num 35:24 Then let the meeting of the people be judge between the man responsible for the death and him who has the right of punishment for blood, acting by these rules: Num 35:25 And let the people keep the man responsible for the death safe from the hands of him who has the right of punishment for blood, and send him back to his safe town where he had gone in flight: there let him be till the death of the high priest who was marked with the holy oil. Num 35:26 But if ever he goes outside the walls of the safe town where he had gone in flight, Num 35:27 And the giver of punishment, meeting him outside the walls of the town, puts him to death, he will not be responsible for his blood: Num 35:28 Because he had been ordered to keep inside the safe town till the death of the high priest: but after the death of the high priest the taker of life may come back to the place of his heritage. Num 35:29 These rules are to be your guide in judging through all your generations wherever you may be living. Num 35:30 Anyone causing the death of another is himself to be put to death on the word of witnesses: but the word of one witness is not enough. Num 35:31 Further, no price may be given for the life of one who has taken life and whose right reward is death: he is certainly to be put to death. Num 35:32 And no price may be offered for one who has gone in flight to a safe town, for the purpose of letting him come back to his place before the death of the high priest. Num 35:33 So do not make the land where you are living unholy: for blood makes the land unholy: and there is no way of making the land free from the blood which has come on it, but only by the death of him who was the cause of it. Num 35:34 Do not make unclean the land where you are living and in which is my House: for I the Lord am present among the children of Israel. Num 36:1 Now the heads of the families of the children of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, of the families of the sons of Joseph, came to Moses, the chiefs and the heads of families of the children of Israel being present, Num 36:2 And said, The Lord gave orders to my lord to make distribution of the land as their heritage to the children of Israel: and my lord was ordered by the Lord to give the heritage of Zelophehad, our brother, to his daughters. Num 36:3 Now if they get married to any of the sons of other tribes of the children of Israel, then their property will be taken away from the heritage of our fathers, and become part of the heritage of the tribe into which they get married: and their heritage will be taken away from the heritage of our tribe. Num 36:4 And at the time of the Jubilee of the children of Israel, their property will be joined to the heritage of the tribe of which they are part and will be taken away from the heritage of the tribe of our fathers. Num 36:5 So by the direction of the Lord, Moses gave orders to the children of Israel, saying, What the tribe of the sons of Joseph have said is right. Num 36:6 This is the order of the Lord about the daughters of Zelophehad: The Lord says, Let them take as their husbands whoever is most pleasing to them, but only among the family of their father's tribe. Num 36:7 And so no property will be handed from tribe to tribe among the children of Israel; but every one of the children of Israel will keep the heritage of his father's tribe. Num 36:8 And every daughter owning property in any tribe of the children of Israel is to be married to one of the family of her father's tribe, so that every man of the children of Israel may keep the heritage of his fathers. Num 36:9 And no property will be handed from one tribe to another, but every tribe of the children of Israel will keep its heritage. Num 36:10 So the daughters of Zelophehad did as the Lord gave orders to Moses: Num 36:11 For Mahlah, Tirzah, and Hoglah, and Milcah, and Noah, the daughters of Zelophehad, took as their husbands the sons of their father's brothers: Num 36:12 And were married into the families of the sons of Manasseh, the son of Joseph, and their property was kept in the tribe of their father's family Num 36:13 These are the laws and the orders which the Lord gave to the children of Israel by Moses, in the lowlands of Moab by Jordan at Jericho. Deu 1:1 These are the words which Moses said to all Israel on the far side of Jordan, in the waste land in the Arabah opposite Suph, between Paran on the one side, and Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab on the other. Deu 1:2 It is eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir to Kadesh-barnea. Deu 1:3 Now in the fortieth year, on the first day of the eleventh month, Moses gave to the children of Israel all the orders which the Lord had given him for them; Deu 1:4 After he had overcome Sihon, king of the Amorites, ruling in Heshbon, and Og, king of Bashan, ruling in Ashtaroth, at Edrei: Deu 1:5 On the far side of Jordan in the land of Moab, Moses gave the people this law, saying, Deu 1:6 The Lord our God said to us in Horeb, You have been long enough in this mountain: Deu 1:7 Make a move now, and go on your way into the hill-country of the Amorites and the places near it, in the Arabah and the hill-country and in the lowlands and in the South and by the seaside, all the land of the Canaanites, and Lebanon, as far as the great river, the river Euphrates. Deu 1:8 See, all the land is before you: go in and take for yourselves the land which the Lord gave by an oath to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and to their seed after them. Deu 1:9 At that time I said to you, I am not able to undertake the care of you by myself; Deu 1:10 The Lord your God has given you increase, and now you are like the stars of heaven in number. Deu 1:11 May the Lord, the God of your fathers, make you a thousand times greater in number than you are, and give you his blessing as he has said! Deu 1:12 How is it possible for me by myself to be responsible for you, and undertake the weight of all your troubles and your arguments? Deu 1:13 Take for yourselves men who are wise, far-seeing, and respected among you, from your tribes, and I will make them rulers over you. Deu 1:14 And you made answer and said to me, It is good for us to do as you say. Deu 1:15 So I took the heads of your tribes, wise men and respected, and made them rulers over you, captains of thousands and captains of hundreds and captains of fifties and captains of tens, and overseers of your tribes. Deu 1:16 And at that time I gave orders to your judges, saying, Let all questions between your brothers come before you for hearing, and give decisions uprightly between a man and his brother or one from another nation who is with him. Deu 1:17 In judging, do not let a man's position have any weight with you; give hearing equally to small and great; have no fear of any man, for it is God who is judge: and any cause in which you are not able to give a decision, you are to put before me and I will give it a hearing. Deu 1:18 And at that time I gave you all the orders which you were to do. Deu 1:19 Then we went on from Horeb, through all that great and cruel waste which you saw, on our way to the hill-country of the Amorites, as the Lord gave us orders; and we came to Kadesh-barnea. Deu 1:20 And I said to you, You have come to the hill-country of the Amorites, which the Lord our God is giving us. Deu 1:21 See now, the Lord your God has put the land into your hands: go up and take it, as the Lord, the God of your fathers, has said to you; have no fear and do not be troubled. Deu 1:22 And you came near to me, every one of you, and said, Let us send men before us to go through the land with care and give us an account of the way we are to go and the towns to which we will come. Deu 1:23 And what you said seemed good to me, and I took twelve men from among you, one from every tribe; Deu 1:24 And they went up into the hill-country and came to the valley of Eshcol, and saw what was there. Deu 1:25 And taking in their hands some of the fruit of the land, they came down again to us, and gave us their account, saying, It is a good land which the Lord our God is giving us. Deu 1:26 But going against the order of the Lord your God, you would not go up: Deu 1:27 And you made an angry outcry in your tents, and said, In his hate for us the Lord has taken us out of the land of Egypt, to give us up into the hands of the Amorites for our destruction. Deu 1:28 Where are we going up? Our brothers have made our hearts feeble with fear by saying, The people are greater and taller than we are, and the towns are great and walled up to heaven; and more than this, we have seen the sons of the Anakim there. Deu 1:29 Then I said to you, Have no fear of them. Deu 1:30 The Lord your God who goes before you will be fighting for you, and will do such wonders as he did for you in Egypt before your eyes; Deu 1:31 And in the waste land, where you have seen how the Lord was supporting you, as a man does his son, in all your journeying till you came to this place. Deu 1:32 But for all this, you had no faith in the Lord your God, Deu 1:33 Who goes before you on your way, looking for a place where you may put up your tents, in fire by night, lighting up the way you are to go, and in a cloud by day. Deu 1:34 And the Lord, hearing your words, was angry, and said with an oath, Deu 1:35 Truly, not one of this evil generation will see that good land which I said I would give to your fathers, Deu 1:36 But only Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, he will see it; and to him and to his children I will give the land over which his feet have gone, because he has been true to the Lord with all his heart. Deu 1:37 And, in addition, the Lord was angry with me because of you, saying, You yourself will not go into it: Deu 1:38 Joshua, the son of Nun, your servant, he will go into the land: say to him that he is to be strong, for he will be Israel's guide into their heritage. Deu 1:39 And your little ones, who, you said, would come into strange hands, your children, who now have no knowledge of good or evil, they will go into that land, and to them I will give it and it will be theirs. Deu 1:40 But as for you, go back, journeying into the waste land by the way of the Red Sea. Deu 1:41 Then you said to me, We have done evil against the Lord, we will go up to the attack, as the Lord our God has given us orders. And arming yourselves every one, you made ready to go up without care into the hill-country. Deu 1:42 And the Lord said to me, Say to them, Do not go up to the attack; for I am not among you, and you will be overcome by those who are against you. Deu 1:43 This I said to you, but you gave no attention and went against the orders of the Lord, and in your pride went up into the hill-country. Deu 1:44 And the Amorites who were in the hill-country came out against you and put you to flight, rushing after you like bees, and overcame you in Seir, driving you even as far as Hormah. Deu 1:45 And you came back, weeping before the Lord; but the Lord gave no attention to your cries and did not give ear to you. Deu 1:46 So you were kept waiting in Kadesh for a long time. Deu 2:1 Then we went back, journeying into the waste land by the way to the Red Sea, as the Lord had said to me: and we were a long time going round Mount Seir. Deu 2:2 And the Lord said to me, Deu 2:3 You have been journeying round this mountain long enough: now go to the north; Deu 2:4 And give the people orders, saying, You are about to go through the land of your brothers, the children of Esau, who are living in Seir; and they will have fear of you; so take care what you do: Deu 2:5 Make no attack on them, for I will not give you any of their land, not even space enough for a man's foot: because I have given Mount Seir to Esau for his heritage. Deu 2:6 You may get food for your needs from them for a price, and water for drinking. Deu 2:7 For the blessing of the Lord your God has been on you in all the work of your hands: he has knowledge of your wanderings through this great waste: these forty years the Lord your God has been with you, and you have been short of nothing. Deu 2:8 So we went on past our brothers, the children of Esau, living in Seir, by the road through the Arabah, from Elath and Ezion-geber. And turning, we went by the road through the waste land of Moab. Deu 2:9 And the Lord said to me, Make no attack on Moab and do not go to war with them, for I will not give you any of his land: because I have given Ar to the children of Lot for their heritage. Deu 2:10 (In the past the Emim were living there; a great people, equal in numbers to the Anakim and as tall; Deu 2:11 They are numbered among the Rephaim, like the Anakim; but are named Emim by the Moabites. Deu 2:12 And the Horites in earlier times were living in Seir, but the children of Esau took their place; they sent destruction on them and took their land for themselves, as Israel did to the land of his heritage which the Lord gave them.) Deu 2:13 Get up now, and go over the stream Zered. So we went over the stream Zered. Deu 2:14 Thirty-eight years had gone by from the time when we came away from Kadesh-barnea till we went over the stream Zered; by that time all the generation of the men of war among us were dead, as the Lord had said. Deu 2:15 For the hand of the Lord was against them, working their destruction, till all were dead. Deu 2:16 So when death had overtaken all the men of war among the people, Deu 2:17 The word of the Lord came to me, saying, Deu 2:18 You are about to go by Ar, the limit of the country of Moab; Deu 2:19 And when you come near the land of the children of Ammon, give them no cause of trouble and do not make war on them, for I will not give you any of the land of the children of Ammon for your heritage: because I have given it to the children of Lot. Deu 2:20 (That land is said to have been a land of the Rephaim, for Rephaim had been living there in earlier times, but they were named Zamzummim by the Ammonites; Deu 2:21 They were a great people, tall as the Anakim, and equal to them in number; but the Lord sent destruction on them and the children of Ammon took their place, living in their land; Deu 2:22 As he did for the children of Esau living in Seir, when he sent destruction on the Horites before them, and they took their land where they are living to this day: Deu 2:23 And the Avvim, living in the small towns as far as Gaza, came to destruction by the hands of the Caphtorim who came out from Caphtor and took their land.) Deu 2:24 Get up now, and go on your journey, crossing over the valley of the Arnon: see, I have given into your hands Sihon, the Amorite, king of Heshbon, and all his land: go forward to make it yours, and make war on him, Deu 2:25 From now on I will put the fear of you in all peoples under heaven, who, hearing of you, will be shaking with fear and grief of heart because of you. Deu 2:26 Then from the waste land of Kedemoth I sent representatives to Sihon, king of Heshbon, with words of peace, saying, Deu 2:27 Let me go through your land: I will keep to the highway, not turning to the right or to the left; Deu 2:28 Let me have food, at a price, for my needs, and water for drinking: only let me go through on foot; Deu 2:29 As the children of Esau did for me in Seir and the Moabites in Ar; till I have gone over Jordan into the land which the Lord our God is giving us. Deu 2:30 But Sihon, king of Heshbon, would not let us go through; for the Lord your God made his spirit hard and his heart strong, so that he might give him up into your hands as at this day. Deu 2:31 And the Lord said to me, See, from now on I have given Sihon and his land into your hands: go forward now to take his land and make it yours. Deu 2:32 Then Sihon came out against us with all his people, to make an attack on us at Jahaz. Deu 2:33 And the Lord our God gave him into our hands; and we overcame him and his sons and all his people. Deu 2:34 At that time we took all his towns, and gave them over to complete destruction, together with men, women, and children; we had no mercy on any: Deu 2:35 Only the cattle we took for ourselves, with the goods from the towns we had taken. Deu 2:36 From Aroer on the edge of the valley of the Arnon and from the town in the valley as far as Gilead, no town was strong enough to keep us out; the Lord our God gave them all into our hands: Deu 2:37 But you did not go near the land of the children of Ammon, that is, all the side of the river Jabbok or the towns of the hill-country, wherever the Lord our God had said we were not to go. Deu 3:1 Then turning we took the road to Bashan: and Og, king of Bashan, came out against us with all his people, and made an attack on us at Edrei. Deu 3:2 And the Lord said to me, Have no fear of him: for I have given him and all his people and his land into your hands; do to him as you did to Sihon, king of the Amorites, who was ruling in Heshbon. Deu 3:3 So the Lord our God gave up Og, king of Bashan, and all his people into our hands; and we overcame him so completely that all his people came to their end in the fight. Deu 3:4 At that time we took all his towns; there was not one town of the sixty towns, all the country of Argob, the kingdom of Og in Bashan, which we did not take. Deu 3:5 All these towns had high walls round them with doors and locks; and in addition we took a great number of unwalled towns. Deu 3:6 And we put them to the curse, every town together with men, women, and children. Deu 3:7 But we took for ourselves all the cattle and the stored wealth of the towns. Deu 3:8 At that time we took their land from the two kings of the Amorites on the far side of Jordan, from the valley of the Arnon to Mount Hermon; Deu 3:9 (By the Sidonians, Hermon is named Sirion, and by the Amorites Shenir;) Deu 3:10 All the towns of the table-land and all Gilead and Bashan as far as Salecah and Edrei, towns of the kingdom of Og in Bashan. Deu 3:11 (For Og, king of Bashan, was the last of all the Rephaim; his bed was made of iron; is it not in Rabbah, in the land of the children of Ammon? It was nine cubits long and four cubits wide, measured by the common cubit.) Deu 3:12 And this land which we took at that time, from Aroer by the valley of the Arnon, and half the hill-country of Gilead with its towns, I gave to the Reubenites and the Gadites. Deu 3:13 The rest of Gilead and all Bashan, the kingdom of Og, all the land of Argob, together with Bashan, I gave to the half-tribe of Manasseh. (This land is named the land of the Rephaim. Deu 3:14 Jair, the son of Manasseh, took all the land of Argob, as far as the country of the Geshurites and the Maacathites, naming it, Bashan, Havvoth-Jair after himself, as it is to this day.) Deu 3:15 And Gilead I gave to Machir. Deu 3:16 And the land from Gilead to the valley of the Arnon, with the middle of the valley as a limit, as far as the river Jabbok which is the limit of the country of the children of Ammon, I gave to the Reubenites and the Gadites; Deu 3:17 As well as the Arabah, with the river Jordan as their limit, from Chinnereth to the Salt Sea, under the slopes of Pisgah to the east. Deu 3:18 At that time I gave you orders, saying, The Lord has given you this land for your heritage: all the men of war are to go over armed before your brothers the children of Israel. Deu 3:19 But your wives and your little ones and your cattle (for it is clear that you have much cattle) may go on living in the towns I have given you; Deu 3:20 Till the Lord has given rest to your brothers as to you, and till they have taken for themselves the land which the Lord your God is giving them on the other side of Jordan: then you may go back, every man of you, to the heritage which I have given you. Deu 3:21 And I gave orders to Joshua at that time, saying, Your eyes have seen what the Lord your God has done to these two kings: so will the Lord do to all the kingdoms into which you come. Deu 3:22 Have no fear of them, for the Lord your God will be fighting for you. Deu 3:23 And at that time I made request to the Lord, saying, Deu 3:24 O Lord God, you have now for the first time let your servant see your great power and the strength of your hand; for what god is there in heaven or on earth able to do such great works and such acts of power? Deu 3:25 Let me go over, O Lord, and see the good land on the other side of Jordan, and that fair mountain country, even Lebanon. Deu 3:26 But the Lord was angry with me because of you and would not give ear to my prayer; and the Lord said to me, Let it be enough, say no more about this thing. Deu 3:27 Go up to the top of Pisgah, and turning your eyes to the west and the north, to the south and the east, see the land with your eyes: for you are not to go over Jordan. Deu 3:28 But give my orders to Joshua, comforting him and making him strong; for he is to go over Jordan at the head of this people, and he will give them this land which you will see for their heritage. Deu 3:29 So we were waiting in the valley facing Beth-peor. Deu 4:1 And now give ear, O Israel, to the laws and the decisions which I am teaching you, and do them; so that life may be yours, and you may go in and take for yourselves the land which the Lord, the God of your fathers, is giving you. Deu 4:2 Make no addition to the orders which I give you, and take nothing from them, but keep the orders of the Lord your God which I give you. Deu 4:3 Your eyes have seen what the Lord did because of Baal-peor: for destruction came from the Lord on all those among you who went after Baal-peor. Deu 4:4 But you who kept faith with the Lord are living, every one of you, today. Deu 4:5 I have been teaching you laws and decisions, as I was ordered to do by the Lord my God, so that you might keep them in the land to which you are going to take it for your heritage. Deu 4:6 So keep these laws and do them; for so will your wisdom and good sense be clear in the eyes of the peoples, who hearing all these laws will say, Truly, this great nation is a wise and far-seeing people. Deu 4:7 For what great nation has a god so near to them as the Lord our God is, whenever we are turned to him in prayer? Deu 4:8 And what great nation has laws and decisions so right as all this law which I put before you today? Deu 4:9 Only take care, and keep watch on your soul, for fear that the things which your eyes have seen go from your memory and from your heart all the days of your life; but let the knowledge of them be given to your children and to your children's children; Deu 4:10 That day when you were waiting before the Lord your God in Horeb, and the Lord said to me, Make all the people come together, so that hearing my words they may go in fear of me all the days of their life on earth and give this teaching to their children. Deu 4:11 And you came near, waiting at the foot of the mountain; and flames of fire went up from the mountain to the heart of heaven, with dark clouds, and all was black as night. Deu 4:12 And the voice of the Lord came to you out of the fire: the sound of his words came to your ears but you saw no form; there was nothing but a voice. Deu 4:13 And he gave you his agreement with you, the ten rules which you were to keep, which he put in writing on the two stones of the law. Deu 4:14 And the Lord gave me orders at that time to make clear to you these laws and decisions, so that you might do them in the land to which you are going, and which is to be your heritage. Deu 4:15 So keep watch on yourselves with care; for you saw no form of any sort on the day when the voice of the Lord came to you in Horeb out of the heart of the fire: Deu 4:16 So that you may not be turned to evil ways and make for yourselves an image in the form of any living thing, male or female, Deu 4:17 Or any beast of the earth, or winged bird of the air, Deu 4:18 Or of anything which goes flat on the earth, or any fish in the water under the earth. Deu 4:19 And when your eyes are lifted up to heaven, and you see the sun and the moon and the stars, all the army of heaven, do not let yourselves be moved to give them worship, or become the servants of what the Lord has given equally to all peoples under heaven. Deu 4:20 But the Lord has taken you out of the flaming fire, out of Egypt, to be to him the people of his heritage, as you are today. Deu 4:21 And the Lord was angry with me because of you, and made an oath that I was not to go over Jordan into the good land which the Lord is giving you for your heritage: Deu 4:22 But death is to come to me in this land, I may not go over Jordan: but you will go over and take that good land for your heritage. Deu 4:23 Take care that you do not let the agreement of the Lord your God, which he has made with you, go out of your mind, or make for yourselves images of any sort, against the orders which the Lord your God has given you. Deu 4:24 For the Lord your God is an all-burning fire, and he will not let the honour which is his be given to any other. Deu 4:25 If, when you have had children and children's children, and have been living a long time in the land, you are turned to evil ways, and make an image of any sort, and do evil in the eyes of the Lord your God, moving him to wrath: Deu 4:26 May heaven and earth be my witnesses against you today, that destruction will quickly overtake you, cutting you off from that land which you are going over Jordan to take; your days will not be long in that land, but you will come to a complete end. Deu 4:27 And the Lord will send you wandering among the peoples; only a small band of you will be kept from death among the nations where the Lord will send you. Deu 4:28 There you will be the servants of gods, made by men's hands, of wood and stone, having no power of seeing or hearing or taking food or smelling. Deu 4:29 But if in those lands you are turned again to the Lord your God, searching for him with all your heart and soul, he will not keep himself from you. Deu 4:30 When you are in trouble and all these things have come on you, if, in the future, you are turned again to the Lord your God, and give ear to his voice: Deu 4:31 Because the Lord your God is a God of mercy, he will not take away his help from you or let destruction overtake you, or be false to the agreement which he made by an oath with your fathers. Deu 4:32 Give thought now to the days which are past, before your time, from the day when God first gave life to man on the earth, and searching from one end of heaven to the other, see if such a great thing as this has ever been, or if anything like it has been talked of in story. Deu 4:33 Has any people ever gone on living after hearing the voice of God out of the heart of the fire as you did? Deu 4:34 Has God ever before taken a nation for himself from out of another nation, by punishments and signs and wonders, by war and by a strong hand and a stretched-out arm and great acts of wonder and fear, as the Lord your God did for you in Egypt, before your very eyes? Deu 4:35 All this he let you see, so that you might be certain that the Lord is God and there is no other. Deu 4:36 Out of heaven itself his voice came to you, teaching you; and on earth he let you see his great fire; and his words came to your ears out of the heart of the fire. Deu 4:37 And because of his love for your fathers, he took their seed and made it his, and he himself, present among you, took you out of Egypt by his great power; Deu 4:38 Driving out before you nations greater and stronger than you, to take you into their land and give it to you for your heritage, as at this day. Deu 4:39 So today be certain, and keep the knowledge deep in your hearts, that the Lord is God, in heaven on high and here on earth; there is no other God. Deu 4:40 Then keep his laws and his orders which I give you today, so that it may be well for you and for your children after you, and that your lives may be long in the land which the Lord your God is giving you for ever. Deu 4:41 Then Moses had three towns marked out on the far side of Jordan looking to the east; Deu 4:42 To which anyone causing the death of his neighbour in error and not through hate, might go in flight; so that in one of these towns he might be kept from death: Deu 4:43 The names of the towns were Bezer in the waste land, in the table-land, for the Reubenites; and Ramoth in Gilead for the Gadites; and Golan in Bashan for Manasseh. Deu 4:44 This is the law which Moses put before the children of Israel: Deu 4:45 These are the rules and the laws and the decisions which Moses gave to the children of Israel after they came out of Egypt; Deu 4:46 On the far side of Jordan, in the valley facing Beth-peor, in the land of Sihon, king of the Amorites, who was ruling in Heshbon, whom Moses and the children of Israel overcame after they had come out of Egypt: Deu 4:47 And they took his land for a heritage, and the land of Og, king of Bashan, the two kings of the Amorites, whose lands were on the other side of Jordan to the east; Deu 4:48 From Aroer on the edge of the valley of the Arnon as far as Mount Sion, which is Hermon, Deu 4:49 And all the Arabah on the far side of Jordan to the east, as far as the sea of the Arabah under the slopes of Pisgah. Deu 5:1 And Moses sent for all Israel, and said to them, Give ear, O Israel, to the laws and the decisions which I give you today, and give attention to them so that you may keep and do them. Deu 5:2 The Lord our God made an agreement with us in Horeb. Deu 5:3 The Lord did not make this agreement with our fathers but with us, who are all living and present here today. Deu 5:4 The word of the Lord came to you face to face on the mountain, out of the heart of the fire, Deu 5:5 (I was between the Lord and you at that time, to make clear to you the word of the Lord: because, through fear of the fire, you did not go up the mountain;) saying, Deu 5:6 I am the Lord your God, who took you out of the land of Egypt, out of the prison-house. Deu 5:7 You are to have no other gods but me. Deu 5:8 You may not make for yourselves an image in the form of anything in heaven or on earth or in the waters under the earth: Deu 5:9 You may not go down on your faces before them or give them worship: for I, the Lord your God, am a God who will not give his honour to another; and I will send punishment on the children for the wrongdoing of their fathers, to the third and fourth generation of my haters; Deu 5:10 And I will have mercy through a thousand generations on those who have love for me and keep my laws. Deu 5:11 You are not to make use of the name of the Lord your God for an evil purpose; whoever takes the Lord's name on his lips for an evil purpose will be judged as a sinner by the Lord. Deu 5:12 Keep the Sabbath day as a holy day, as you have been ordered by the Lord your God. Deu 5:13 On six days do all your work: Deu 5:14 But the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God; on that day do no work, you or your son or your daughter, or your man-servant or your woman-servant, or your ox or your ass or any of your cattle, or the man from a strange country who is living among you; so that your man-servant and your woman-servant may have rest as well as you. Deu 5:15 And keep in mind that you were a servant in the land of Egypt, and that the Lord your God took you out of that land by his strong hand and his stretched-out arm: for this reason the Lord has given you orders to keep the Sabbath day. Deu 5:16 Give honour to your father and your mother, as you have been ordered by the Lord your God; so that your life may be long and all may be well for you in the land which the Lord your God is giving you. Deu 5:17 Do not put anyone to death without cause. Deu 5:18 Do not be false to the married relation. Deu 5:19 Do not take the property of another. Deu 5:20 Do not give false witness against your neighbour; Deu 5:21 Or let your desire be turned to your neighbour's wife, or his house or his field or his man-servant or his woman-servant or his ox or his ass or anything which is your neighbour's. Deu 5:22 These words the Lord said to all of you together on the mountain, out of the heart of the fire, out of the cloud and the dark, with a great voice: and he said no more; he put them in writing on the two stones of the law and gave them to me. Deu 5:23 And after hearing the voice which came out of the dark while the mountain was burning with fire, all the heads of your tribes and your chiefs came to me, Deu 5:24 And said, The Lord has let us see his glory and his power, and his voice has come to us out of the fire: today we have seen that a man may go on living even after hearing the voice of God. Deu 5:25 Why then is death to be our fate? For if the voice of the Lord our God comes to us any more, death will overtake us, and we will be burned up in this great fire. Deu 5:26 For what man is there in all the earth, who, hearing the voice of the living God as we have, out of the heart of the fire, has been kept from death? Deu 5:27 Do you go near: and after hearing everything which the Lord our God has to say, give us an account of all he has said to you, and we will give ear, and do it. Deu 5:28 Then the Lord, hearing your words to me, said to me, The words which this people have said to you have come to my ears: what they have said is well said. Deu 5:29 If only they had such a heart in them at all times, so that they might go in fear of me and keep my orders and that it might be well for them and for their children for ever! Deu 5:30 Now say to them, Go back to your tents. Deu 5:31 But as for you, keep your place here by me, and I will give you all the orders and the laws and the decisions which you are to make clear to them, so that they may do them in the land which I am giving them for their heritage. Deu 5:32 Take care, then, to do whatever the Lord your God has given you orders to do; let there be no turning away to the right hand or to the left. Deu 5:33 Go on walking in the way ordered for you by the Lord your God, so that life may be yours and it may be well for you, and your days may be long in the land of your heritage. Deu 6:1 Now these are the orders and the laws and the decisions which the Lord your God gave me for your teaching, so that you might do them in the land of your heritage to which you are going: Deu 6:2 So that living in the fear of the Lord your God, you may keep all his laws and his orders, which I give you: you and your son and your son's son, all the days of your life; and so that your life may be long. Deu 6:3 So give ear, O Israel, and take care to do this; so that it may be well for you, and you may be greatly increased, as the Lord the God of your fathers has given you his word, in a land flowing with milk and honey. Deu 6:4 Give ear, O Israel: the Lord our God is one Lord: Deu 6:5 And the Lord your God is to be loved with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength. Deu 6:6 Keep these words, which I say to you this day, deep in your hearts; Deu 6:7 Teaching them to your children with all care, talking of them when you are at rest in your house or walking by the way, when you go to sleep and when you get up. Deu 6:8 Let them be fixed as a sign on your hand, and marked on your brow; Deu 6:9 Have them lettered on the pillars of your houses and over the doors of your towns. Deu 6:10 And when the Lord your God has taken you into the land which he gave his oath to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, that he would give you; with great and fair towns which were not of your building; Deu 6:11 And houses full of good things not stored up by you, and places for storing water which you did not make, and vine-gardens and olive-trees not of your planting; and you have taken food and are full; Deu 6:12 Then take care that you keep your hearts true to the Lord, who took you out of the land of Egypt, out of the prison-house. Deu 6:13 Let the fear of the Lord your God be in your hearts, and be his servants, taking your oaths by his name. Deu 6:14 Do not go after other gods, the gods of the peoples round about you; Deu 6:15 For the Lord your God who is with you is a God who will not let his honour be given to another; or the wrath of the Lord will be burning against you, causing your destruction from the face of the earth. Deu 6:16 Do not put the Lord your God to the test as you did in Massah. Deu 6:17 Keep with care the orders of the Lord your God, and his rules and his laws which he has given you; Deu 6:18 And do what is upright and good in the eyes of the Lord your God, so that it may be well for you and you may go in and take for your heritage that good land from which the Lord undertook by an oath to your fathers, Deu 6:19 To send out from before you all those who are against you. Deu 6:20 And when your son says to you in time to come, What is the reason for these rules and laws and decisions which the Lord our God has given you? Deu 6:21 Then you will say to your son, We were servants under Pharaoh's yoke in Egypt; and the Lord took us out of Egypt with a strong hand: Deu 6:22 And the Lord did great signs and wonders against Egypt, and against Pharaoh and all his house, before our eyes: Deu 6:23 And he took us out from that place, guiding us here to give us this land, as he said in his oath to our fathers. Deu 6:24 And the Lord gave us orders to keep all these laws, in the fear of the Lord our God, so that it might be well for us for ever, and that he might keep us from death, as he has done to this day. Deu 6:25 And it will be our righteousness if we take care to keep all this order before the Lord our God as he has given it to us. Deu 7:1 When the Lord your God takes you into the land where you are going, which is to be your heritage, and has sent out the nations before you, the Hittites and the Girgashites and the Amorites and the Canaanites and the Perizzites and the Hivites and the Jebusites, seven nations greater and stronger than you; Deu 7:2 And when the Lord has given them up into your hands and you have overcome them, give them up to complete destruction: make no agreement with them, and have no mercy on them: Deu 7:3 Do not take wives or husbands from among them; do not give your daughters to their sons, or take their daughters for your sons. Deu 7:4 For through them your sons will be turned from me to the worship of other gods: and the Lord will be moved to wrath against you and send destruction on you quickly. Deu 7:5 But this is what you are to do to them: their altars are to be pulled down and their pillars broken, and their holy trees cut down and their images burned with fire. Deu 7:6 For you are a holy people to the Lord your God: marked out by the Lord your God to be his special people out of all the nations on the face of the earth. Deu 7:7 The Lord did not give you his love or take you for himself because you were more in number than any other people; for you were the smallest of the nations: Deu 7:8 But because of his love for you, and in order to keep his oath to your fathers, the Lord took you out with the strength of his hand, making you free from the prison-house and from the hand of Pharaoh, king of Egypt. Deu 7:9 Be certain, then, that the Lord your God is God; whose faith and mercy are unchanging, who keeps his word through a thousand generations to those who have love for him and keep his laws; Deu 7:10 Rewarding his haters to their face with destruction; he will have no mercy on his hater, but will give him open punishment. Deu 7:11 So keep the orders and the laws and the decisions which I give you today and do them. Deu 7:12 And it will be, that if you give attention to these decisions and keep and do them, then the Lord will keep his agreement with you and his mercy, as he said in his oath to your fathers. Deu 7:13 And he will give you his love, blessing you and increasing you: he will send his blessing on the offspring of your body and the fruit of your land, your grain and your wine and your oil, the increase of your cattle and the young of your flock, in the land which by his oath to your fathers he undertook to give you. Deu 7:14 You will have greater blessings than any other people: no male or female among you or among your cattle will be without offspring. Deu 7:15 And the Lord will take away from you all disease, and will not put on you any of the evil diseases of Egypt which you have seen, but will put them on your haters. Deu 7:16 And you are to send destruction on all the peoples which the Lord your God gives into your hands; have no pity on them, and do not give worship to their gods; for that will be a cause of sin to you. Deu 7:17 If you say in your hearts, These nations are greater in number than we are: how are we to take their land from them? Deu 7:18 Have no fear of them, but keep well in mind what the Lord your God did to Pharaoh and to all Egypt; Deu 7:19 The great punishments which your eyes saw, and the signs and the wonders and the strong hand and the stretched-out arm, by which the Lord your God took you out: so will the Lord your God do to all the peoples who are the cause of your fears. Deu 7:20 And the Lord will send a hornet among them, till all the rest who have kept themselves safe from you in secret places have been cut off. Deu 7:21 Have no fear of them: for the Lord your God is with you, a great God greatly to be feared. Deu 7:22 The Lord your God will send out the nations before you little by little; they are not to be rooted out quickly, for fear that the beasts of the field may be increased overmuch against you. Deu 7:23 But the Lord your God will give them up into your hands, overpowering them till their destruction is complete. Deu 7:24 He will give their kings into your hands, and you will put their names out of existence under heaven; there is not one of them who will not give way before you, till their destruction is complete. Deu 7:25 The images of their gods are to be burned with fire: have no desire for the gold and silver on them, and do not take it for yourselves, for it will be a danger to you: it is a thing disgusting to the Lord your God: Deu 7:26 And you may not take a disgusting thing into your house, and so become cursed with its curse: but keep yourselves from it, turning from it with fear and hate, for it is a cursed thing. Deu 8:1 Take care to keep all the orders which I give you today, so that you may have life and be increased and go in and take as a heritage the land which the Lord, by his oath to your fathers, undertook to give you. Deu 8:2 And keep in mind the way by which the Lord your God has taken you through the waste land these forty years, so that he might make low your pride and put you to the test, to see what was in your heart and if you would keep his orders or not. Deu 8:3 And he made low your pride and let you be without food and gave you manna for your food, a thing new to you, which your fathers never saw; so that he might make it clear to you that bread is not man's only need, but his life is in every word which comes out of the mouth of the Lord. Deu 8:4 Through all these forty years your clothing did not get old or your feet become tired. Deu 8:5 Keep in mind this thought, that as a son is trained by his father, so you have been trained by the Lord your God. Deu 8:6 Then keep the orders of the Lord your God, fearing him and walking in his ways. Deu 8:7 For the Lord your God is guiding you into a good land, a land of water-springs, of fountains, and deep streams flowing out from the valleys and the hills; Deu 8:8 A land of grain and vines and fig-trees and fair fruits; a land of oil-giving olive-trees and honey; Deu 8:9 Where there will be bread for you in full measure and you will be in need of nothing; a land where the very stones are iron and from whose hills you may get copper. Deu 8:10 And you will have food enough and be full, praising the Lord your God for the good land he has given you. Deu 8:11 Then take care that you are not turned away from the Lord your God and from keeping his orders and decisions and laws which I give you this day: Deu 8:12 And when you have taken food and are full, and have made fair houses for yourselves and are living in them; Deu 8:13 And when your herds and your flocks are increased, and your stores of silver and gold, and you have wealth of every sort; Deu 8:14 Take care that your hearts are not lifted up in pride, giving no thought to the Lord your God who took you out of the land of Egypt, out of the prison-house; Deu 8:15 Who was your guide through that great and cruel waste, where there were poison-snakes and scorpions and a dry land without water; who made water come out of the hard rock for you; Deu 8:16 Who gave you manna for your food in the waste land, a food which your fathers had never seen; so that your pride might be broken and your hearts tested for your good in the end; Deu 8:17 Say not then, in your hearts, My power and the strength of my hands have got me this wealth. Deu 8:18 But keep in mind the Lord your God: for it is he who gives you the power to get wealth, so that he may give effect to the agreement which he made by his oath with your fathers, as at this day. Deu 8:19 And it is certain that if at any time you are turned away from the Lord your God, and go after other gods, to be their servants and to give them worship, destruction will overtake you. Deu 8:20 Like the nations which the Lord is cutting off before you, so you will be cut off; because you would not give ear to the voice of the Lord your God. Deu 9:1 Give ear, O Israel: today you are to go over Jordan, to take the heritage of nations greater and stronger than yourselves, and towns of great size with walls as high as heaven; Deu 9:2 A people great and tall, the sons of the Anakim, of whom you have knowledge and of whom it has been said, All are forced to give way before the sons of Anak. Deu 9:3 Be certain then today that it is the Lord your God who goes over before you like an all-burning fire; he will send destruction on them, crushing them before you; and you will send them in flight, putting an end to them quickly, as the Lord has said. Deu 9:4 And after the Lord has sent them in flight from before you, say not in your heart, Because of my righteousness the Lord has given me this land; when it is because of their evil-doing that the Lord is driving these nations out before you. Deu 9:5 Not for your righteousness or because your hearts are upright are you going in to take their land; but because of the evil-doing of these nations the Lord your God is driving them out from before you, and to give effect to his oath to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Deu 9:6 Be certain then that the Lord your God is not giving you this good land as a reward for your righteousness; for you are a stiff-necked people. Deu 9:7 Keep well in mind how you made the Lord your God angry in the waste land; from the day when you went out of Egypt till you came to this place, you have gone against the orders of the Lord. Deu 9:8 Again in Horeb you made the Lord angry, and in his wrath he would have put an end to you. Deu 9:9 When I had gone up into the mountain to be given the stones on which was recorded the agreement which the Lord made with you, I was on the mountain for forty days and forty nights without taking food or drinking water. Deu 9:10 And the Lord gave me the two stones with writing on them done by the finger of God: on them were recorded all the words which the Lord said to you on the mountain out of the heart of the fire, on the day of the great meeting. Deu 9:11 Then at the end of forty days and forty nights the Lord gave me those stones, the stones of the agreement. Deu 9:12 And the Lord said to me, Get up now, and go down quickly from this place; for the people you have taken out of Egypt have given themselves over to evil; they have quickly been turned from the way in which I gave them orders to go; they have made themselves a metal image. Deu 9:13 And then the Lord said to me, I have seen that this people is stiff-necked: Deu 9:14 Let me send destruction on them till their very name is cut off; and I will make of you a nation greater and stronger than they. Deu 9:15 So turning round I came down from the mountain, and the mountain was burning with fire; and the two stones of the agreement were in my hands. Deu 9:16 And I saw that you had done evil against the Lord, and had made for yourselves a metal image of a young ox: you had quickly been turned from the way in which the Lord had given you orders to go. Deu 9:17 And I let the stones go from my hands, and they were broken before your eyes. Deu 9:18 And I went down on my face before the Lord, as at the first, for forty days and forty nights, without taking food or drinking water, because of all your sin, in doing evil in the eyes of the Lord and moving him to wrath. Deu 9:19 For I was full of fear because of the wrath of the Lord which was burning against you, with your destruction in view. But again the Lord's ear was open to my prayer. Deu 9:20 And the Lord, in his wrath, would have put Aaron to death: and I made prayer for Aaron at the same time. Deu 9:21 And I took your sin, the image which you had made, and put it in the fire and had it hammered and crushed very small till it was only dust: and the dust I put in the stream flowing down from the mountain. Deu 9:22 Again at Taberah and at Massah and at Kibroth-hattaavah you made the Lord angry. Deu 9:23 And when the Lord sent you from Kadesh-barnea, saying, Go up and take the land which I have given you; you went against the orders of the Lord your God, and had no faith in him, and would not give ear to his voice. Deu 9:24 From the day when I first had knowledge of you, you have gone against the word of the Lord. Deu 9:25 So I went down on my face in prayer before the Lord for forty days and forty nights as I did at first; because the Lord had said that he would put an end to you. Deu 9:26 And I made prayer to the Lord and said, O Lord God, do not send destruction on your people and your heritage, to whom, by your great power, you have given salvation, whom you have taken out of Egypt by the strength of your hand. Deu 9:27 Keep in mind your servants, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, not looking at the hard heart of this people, or their evil-doing and their sin: Deu 9:28 Or it may be said in the land from which you have taken them, Because the Lord was not able to take them into the land which he said he would give them, and because of his hate for them, he has taken them out to put them to death in the waste land. Deu 9:29 But still they are your people and your heritage, whom you took out by your great power and by your stretched-out arm. Deu 10:1 At that time the Lord said to me, Make two other stones, cut like the first two, and come up to me on the mountain, and make an ark of wood. Deu 10:2 And I will put on the stones the words which were on the first stones which were broken by you, and you are to put them into the ark. Deu 10:3 So I made an ark of hard wood, and had two stones cut like the others, and went up the mountain with the stones in my hands. Deu 10:4 And he put on the stones, as in the first writing, the ten rules which the Lord gave you on the mountain out of the fire on the day of the great meeting: and the Lord gave the stones to me. Deu 10:5 And turning round I came down from the mountain and put the stones in the ark which I had made; and there they are as the Lord gave me orders. Deu 10:6 (And the children of Israel went on from Beeroth Bene-jaakan to Moserah: there death came to Aaron and he was put to rest in the earth; and Eleazar, his son, took his place as priest. Deu 10:7 From there they went on to Gudgodah, and from Gudgodah to Jotbathah, a land of streams of water. Deu 10:8 At that time the Lord had the tribe of Levi marked out to take up the ark of the Lord's agreement, to be before the Lord and to do his work and to give blessings in his name, to this day. Deu 10:9 For this reason Levi has no part or heritage for himself among his brothers: the Lord is his heritage, as the Lord your God said to him.) Deu 10:10 And I was in the mountain, as at the first time, for forty days and forty nights; and again the ears of the Lord were open to my prayer, and he did not send destruction on you. Deu 10:11 Then the Lord said to me, Get up and go on your journey before the people, so that they may go in and take the land which I said in my oath to their fathers that I would give them. Deu 10:12 And now, Israel, what would the Lord your God have you do, but to go in the fear of the Lord your God, walking in all his ways and loving him and doing his pleasure with all your heart and all your soul, Deu 10:13 Doing the orders of the Lord and keeping his laws which I give you this day for your good? Deu 10:14 The Lord your God is ruler of heaven, of the heaven of heavens, and of the earth with everything in it. Deu 10:15 But the Lord had delight in your fathers and love for them, marking out for himself their seed after them, even you, from all peoples, as at this day. Deu 10:16 Let your circumcision be of the heart, and put away your pride. Deu 10:17 For the Lord your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great God, strong in power and greatly to be feared, who has no respect for any man's position and takes no rewards: Deu 10:18 Judging uprightly in the cause of the widow and of the child who has no father, and giving food and clothing in his mercy to the man from a strange country. Deu 10:19 So be kind to the man from a strange country who is living among you, for you yourselves were living in a strange country in the land of Egypt. Deu 10:20 Let the fear of the Lord your God be before you, give him worship and be true to him at all times, taking your oaths in his name. Deu 10:21 He is your God, the God of your praise, your God who has done for you all these works of power which your eyes have seen. Deu 10:22 Your fathers went down into Egypt with seventy persons; and now the Lord your God has made you like the stars of heaven in number. Deu 11:1 So have love for the Lord your God, and give him worship, and keep his laws and his decisions and his orders at all times. Deu 11:2 And be certain in your minds this day; for these words are not said to your children, who have had no experience of the training of the Lord your God, and who have not seen his great power or his strong hand and his stretched-out arm, Deu 11:3 Or his signs and wonders which he did in Egypt, to Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and all his land; Deu 11:4 And what he did to the army of Egypt, to their horses and their war-carriages; how he made the waters of the Red Sea come up over them when they went after you, and how the Lord put an end to them even to this day; Deu 11:5 And what he did for you in the waste land, till you came to this place; Deu 11:6 And what he did to Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab, the son of Reuben; when they went down into the open mouth of the earth, with their families and their tents and every living thing which was theirs, before the eyes of all Israel: Deu 11:7 But your eyes have seen all the great works of the Lord which he has done. Deu 11:8 So keep all the orders which I give you today, so that you may be strong, and go in and take the land which is to be your heritage; Deu 11:9 And that your days may be long in the land which the Lord gave by an oath to your fathers and to their seed after them, a land flowing with milk and honey. Deu 11:10 For the land where you are going is not like the land of Egypt from which you have come, where you put in your seeds, watering them with your foot, like a planted garden: Deu 11:11 But the land where you are going is a land of hills and valleys, drinking in the rain of heaven: Deu 11:12 A land cared for by the Lord your God: the eyes of the Lord your God are on it at all times from one end of the year to the other. Deu 11:13 And it will be that if you truly give ear to the orders which I put before you this day, loving the Lord your God and worshipping him with all your heart and all your soul, Deu 11:14 Then I will send rain on your land at the right time, the early rains and the late rains, so that you may get in your grain and your wine and your oil. Deu 11:15 And I will give grass in your fields for your cattle, so that you may have food in full measure. Deu 11:16 But take care that your hearts are not turned to false ways so that you become servants and worshippers of other gods; Deu 11:17 For if you do so, the wrath of the Lord will be burning against you, and the heaven will be shut up so that there is no rain and the land will give no fruit; and in a very little time you will be cut off from the good land which the Lord is giving you. Deu 11:18 So keep these words deep in your heart and in your soul, and have them fixed on your hand for a sign and marked on your brow; Deu 11:19 Teaching them to your children, and talking of them when you are at rest in your house or walking by the way, when you go to sleep and when you get up: Deu 11:20 Writing them on the pillars of your houses and over the doors of your towns: Deu 11:21 So that your days, and the days of your children, may be long in the land which the Lord by his oath to your fathers said he would give them, like the days of the eternal heavens. Deu 11:22 For if you take care to keep all the orders which I give you, and to do them; loving the Lord your God and walking in all his ways and being true to him: Deu 11:23 Then the Lord will send these nations in flight before you, and you will take the lands of nations greater and stronger than yourselves. Deu 11:24 Every place where you put your foot will be yours: from the waste land and Lebanon, from the river, the river Euphrates as far as the Great Sea, will be the limits of your land. Deu 11:25 All people will give way before you: for the Lord your God will put the fear of you on all the land through which you go, as he has said. Deu 11:26 Today I put before you a blessing and a curse: Deu 11:27 The blessing if you give ear to the orders of the Lord your God, which I give you this day: Deu 11:28 And the curse if you do not give ear to the orders of the Lord your God, but let yourselves be turned from the way which I have put before you this day, and go after other gods which are not yours. Deu 11:29 And when the Lord your God has taken you into the land of your heritage, you are to put the blessing on Mount Gerizim and the curse on Mount Ebal. Deu 11:30 Are they not on the other side of Jordan, looking west, in the land of the Canaanites living in the Arabah, opposite Gilgal, by the holy tree of Moreh? Deu 11:31 For you are about to go over Jordan to take the heritage which the Lord your God is giving you, and it will be your resting-place. Deu 11:32 And you are to take care to keep all the laws and the decisions which I put before you today. Deu 12:1 These are the laws and the decisions which you are to keep with care in the land which the Lord, the God of your fathers, has given you to be your heritage all the days of your life on earth. Deu 12:2 You are to give up to the curse all those places where the nations, whom you are driving out, gave worship to their gods, on the high mountains and the hills and under every green tree: Deu 12:3 Their altars and their pillars are to be broken down, and their holy trees burned with fire, and the images of their gods cut down; you are to take away their names out of that place. Deu 12:4 Do not so to the Lord your God. Deu 12:5 But let your hearts be turned to the place which will be marked out by the Lord your God, among your tribes, to put his name there; Deu 12:6 And there you are to take your burned offerings and other offerings, and the tenth part of your goods, and the offerings to be lifted up to the Lord, and the offerings of your oaths, and those which you give freely from the impulse of your hearts, and the first births among your herds and your flocks; Deu 12:7 There you and all your families are to make a feast before the Lord your God, with joy in everything to which you put your hand, because the Lord has given you his blessing. Deu 12:8 You are not to do things then in the way in which we now do them here, every man as it seems right to him: Deu 12:9 For you have not come to the rest and the heritage which the Lord your God is giving you. Deu 12:10 But when you have gone over Jordan and are living in the land which the Lord your God is giving you as your heritage, and when he has given you rest from all those on every side who are fighting against you, and you are living there safely; Deu 12:11 Then there will be a place marked out by the Lord your God as the resting-place for his name, and there you will take all the things which I give you orders to take: your burned offerings and other offerings, and the tenth part of your goods, and the offerings to be lifted up, and the offerings of your oaths which you make to the Lord; Deu 12:12 And you will be glad before the Lord your God, you and your sons and your daughters, and your men-servants and your women-servants, and the Levite who is with you in your house, because he has no part or heritage among you. Deu 12:13 Take care that you do not make your burned offerings in any place you see: Deu 12:14 But in the place marked out by the Lord in one of your tribes, there let your burned offerings be offered, and there do what I have given you orders to do. Deu 12:15 Only you may put to death animals, such as the gazelle or the roe, for your food in any of your towns, at the desire of your soul, in keeping with the blessing of the Lord your God which he has given you: the unclean and the clean may take of it. Deu 12:16 But you may not take the blood for food, it is to be drained out on the earth like water. Deu 12:17 In your towns you are not to take as food the tenth part of your grain, or of your wine or your oil, or the first births of your herds or of your flocks, or anything offered under an oath, or freely offered to the Lord, or given as a lifted offering; Deu 12:18 But they will be your food before the Lord your God in the place of his selection, where you may make a feast of them, with your son and your daughter, and your man-servant and your woman-servant, and the Levite who is living with you: and you will have joy before the Lord your God in everything to which you put your hand. Deu 12:19 See that you do not give up caring for the Levite as long as you are living in your land. Deu 12:20 When the Lord your God makes wide the limit of your land, as he has said, and you say, I will take flesh for my food, because you have a desire for it; then you may take whatever flesh you have a desire for. Deu 12:21 If the place marked out by the Lord your God as the resting-place for his name is far away from you, then take from your herds and from your flocks which the Lord has given you, as I have said, and have a meal of it in the towns where you may be living. Deu 12:22 It will be your food, like the gazelle and the roe; the unclean and the clean may take of it. Deu 12:23 But see that you do not take the blood for food; for the blood is the life; and you may not make use of the life as food with the flesh. Deu 12:24 Do not take it for food but let it be drained out on the earth like water. Deu 12:25 Do not take it for food; so that it may be well for you and for your children after you, while you do what is right in the eyes of the Lord. Deu 12:26 But the holy things which you have, and the offerings of your oaths, you are to take to the place which will be marked out by the Lord: Deu 12:27 Offering the flesh and the blood of your burned offerings on the altar of the Lord your God; and the blood of your offerings is to be drained out on the altar of the Lord your God, and the flesh will be your food. Deu 12:28 Take note of all these orders I am giving you and give attention to them, so that it may be well for you and for your children after you for ever, while you do what is good and right in the eyes of the Lord your God. Deu 12:29 When the people of the land where you are going have been cut off before you by the Lord your God, and you have taken their land and are living in it; Deu 12:30 After their destruction take care that you do not go in their ways, and that you do not give thought to their gods, saying, How did these nations give worship to their gods? I will do as they did. Deu 12:31 Do not so to the Lord your God: for everything which is disgusting to the Lord and hated by him they have done in honour of their gods: even burning their sons and daughters in the fire to their gods. Deu 12:32 You are to keep with care all the words I give you, making no addition to them and taking nothing from them. Deu 13:1 If ever you have among you a prophet or a dreamer of dreams and he gives you a sign or a wonder, Deu 13:2 And the sign or the wonder takes place, and he says to you, Let us go after other gods, which are strange to you, and give them worship; Deu 13:3 Then give no attention to the words of that prophet or that dreamer of dreams: for the Lord your God is testing you, to see if all the love of your heart and soul is given to him. Deu 13:4 But keep on in the ways of the Lord your God, fearing him and keeping his orders and hearing his voice, worshipping him and being true to him. Deu 13:5 And that prophet or that dreamer of dreams is to be put to death; for his words were said with the purpose of turning you away from the Lord your God, who took you out of the land of Egypt and made you free from the prison-house; and of forcing you out of the way in which the Lord your God has given you orders to go. So you are to put away the evil from among you. Deu 13:6 If your brother, the son of your mother, or your son or your daughter or the wife of your heart, or the friend who is as dear to you as your life, working on you secretly says to you, Let us go and give worship to other gods, strange to you and to your fathers; Deu 13:7 Gods of the peoples round about you, near or far, from one end of the earth to the other; Deu 13:8 Do not be guided by him or give attention to him; have no pity on him or mercy, and give him no cover; Deu 13:9 But put him to death without question; let your hand be the first stretched out against him to put him to death, and then the hands of all the people. Deu 13:10 Let him be stoned with stones till he is dead; because it was his purpose to make you false to the Lord your God, who took you out of the land of Egypt, out of the prison-house. Deu 13:11 And all Israel, hearing of it, will be full of fear, and no one will again do such evil as this among you. Deu 13:12 And if word comes to you, in one of the towns which the Lord your God is giving you for your resting-place, Deu 13:13 That good-for-nothing persons have gone out from among you, turning the people of their town from the right way and saying, Let us go and give worship to other gods, of whom you have no knowledge; Deu 13:14 Then let a full search be made, and let questions be put with care; and if it is true and certain that such a disgusting thing has been done among you; Deu 13:15 Then take up arms against the people of that town and give it up to the curse, with all its cattle and everything in it. Deu 13:16 And take all the goods into the middle of its open space, burning the town and all its property with fire as an offering to the Lord your God; it is to be a waste for ever; there is to be no more building there. Deu 13:17 Keep not a thing of what is cursed for yourselves: so the Lord may be turned away from the heat of his wrath, and have mercy on you, and give you increase as he said in his oath to your fathers: Deu 13:18 So long as you give ear to the voice of the Lord your God, and keep all his orders which I give you today, and do what is right in the eyes of the Lord your God. Deu 14:1 You are the children of the Lord your God: you are not to make cuts on your bodies or take off the hair on your brows in honour of the dead; Deu 14:2 For you are a holy people to the Lord your God, and the Lord has taken you to be his special people out of all the nations on the face of the earth. Deu 14:3 No disgusting thing may be your food. Deu 14:4 These are the beasts which you may have for food: the ox, the sheep, and the goat; Deu 14:5 The hart, the gazelle, and the roe, the mountain goat and the pygarg and the antelope and the mountain sheep. Deu 14:6 Any beast which has a division in the horn of its foot and whose food comes back into its mouth to be crushed again, may be used for food. Deu 14:7 But even among these, there are some which may not be used for food: such as the camel, the hare, and the coney, which are unclean to you, because, though their food comes back, the horn of their feet is not parted in two. Deu 14:8 And the pig is unclean to you, because though it has a division in the horn of its foot, its food does not come back; their flesh may not be used for food or their dead bodies touched by you. Deu 14:9 And of the things living in the waters, you may take all those who have wings for swimming with and skins formed of thin plates. Deu 14:10 But any which have no skin-plates or wings for swimming, you may not take; they are unclean for you. Deu 14:11 All clean birds may be used for food. Deu 14:12 But these birds you may not take: the eagle and the gier-eagle and the ospray; Deu 14:13 The falcon and the kite, and birds of that sort; Deu 14:14 Every raven, and all birds of that sort; Deu 14:15 And the ostrich and the night-hawk and the sea-hawk and birds of that sort; Deu 14:16 The little owl and the great owl and the water-hen; Deu 14:17 And the pelican and the vulture and the cormorant; Deu 14:18 The stork and the heron and birds of that sort, and the hoopoe and the bat. Deu 14:19 Every winged thing which goes flat on the earth is unclean to you and may not be used as food. Deu 14:20 But all clean birds you may take. Deu 14:21 You may not have as food anything which has come to a natural death; the man from another country who is living with you may take it for food, or you may get a price for it from one of another nation; for you are a holy people to the Lord your God. The young goat is not to be cooked in its mother's milk. Deu 14:22 Put on one side a tenth of all the increase of your seed, produced year by year. Deu 14:23 And make a feast before the Lord your God, in the place which is to be marked out, where his name will be for ever, of the tenth part of your grain and your wine and your oil, and the first births of your herds and your flocks; so that you may have the fear of the Lord your God in your hearts at all times. Deu 14:24 And if the way is so long that you are not able to take these things to the place marked out by the Lord your God for his name, when he has given you his blessing, because it is far away from you; Deu 14:25 Then let these things be exchanged for money, and, taking the money in your hand, go to the place marked out by the Lord your God for himself; Deu 14:26 And with the money get whatever you have a desire for, oxen or sheep or wine or strong drink, whatever your soul's desire may be: and make a feast there before the Lord your God, and be glad, you and all your house; Deu 14:27 And give a thought to the Levite who is living among you, for he has no part or heritage in the land. Deu 14:28 At the end of every three years take a tenth part of all your increase for that year, and put it in store inside your walls: Deu 14:29 And the Levite, because he has no part or heritage in the land, and the man from a strange country, and the child who has no father, and the widow, who are living among you, will come and take food and have enough; and so the blessing of the Lord your God will be on you in everything you do. Deu 15:1 At the end of every seven years there is to be a general forgiveness of debt. Deu 15:2 This is how it is to be done: every creditor is to give up his right to whatever he has let his neighbour have; he is not to make his neighbour, his countryman, give it back; because a general forgiveness has been ordered by the Lord. Deu 15:3 A man of another nation may be forced to make payment of his debt, but if your brother has anything of yours, let it go; Deu 15:4 But there will be no poor among you; for the Lord will certainly give you his blessing in the land which the Lord your God is giving you for your heritage; Deu 15:5 If only you give ear to the voice of the Lord your God, and take care to keep all these orders which I give you today. Deu 15:6 For the Lord your God will give you his blessing as he has said: you will let other nations have the use of your money, but you will not make use of theirs; you will be rulers over a number of nations, but they will not be your rulers. Deu 15:7 If in any of your towns in the land which the Lord your God is giving you, there is a poor man, one of your countrymen, do not let your heart be hard or your hand shut to him; Deu 15:8 But let your hand be open to give him the use of whatever he is in need of. Deu 15:9 And see that there is no evil thought in your heart, moving you to say to yourself, The seventh year, the year of forgiveness is near; and so looking coldly on your poor countryman you give him nothing; and he will make an outcry to the Lord against you, and it will be judged as sin in you. Deu 15:10 But it is right for you to give to him, without grief of heart: for because of this, the blessing of the Lord your God will be on all your work and on everything to which you put your hand. Deu 15:11 For there will never be a time when there are no poor in the land; and so I give orders to you, Let your hand be open to your countrymen, to those who are poor and in need in your land. Deu 15:12 If one of your countrymen, a Hebrew man or woman, becomes your servant for a price and does work for you six years, in the seventh year let him go free. Deu 15:13 And when you make him free, do not let him go away with nothing in his hands: Deu 15:14 But give him freely from your flock and from your grain and your wine: in the measure of the wealth which the Lord your God has given you, you are to give to him. Deu 15:15 And keep in mind that you yourself were a servant in the land of Egypt, and the Lord your God made you free: so I give you this order today. Deu 15:16 But if he says to you, I have no desire to go away from you; because you and your family are dear to him and he is happy with you; Deu 15:17 Then take a sharp-pointed instrument, driving it through his ear into the door, and he will be your servant for ever. And you may do the same for your servant-girl. Deu 15:18 Let it not seem hard to you that you have to send him away free; for he has been working for you for six years, which is twice the regular time for a servant: and the blessing of the Lord your God will be on you in everything you do. Deu 15:19 All the first males to come to birth in your herd and your flock are to be holy to the Lord your God: the first birth of your ox is not to be used for work, the wool of your first lamb is not to be cut. Deu 15:20 But year by year you and all your house are to take a meal of it before the Lord, in the place of his selection. Deu 15:21 But if it has any mark on it, if it is blind or has damaged legs, or if there is anything wrong with it, it may not be offered to the Lord your God. Deu 15:22 It may be used for food in your houses: the unclean and the clean may take of it, as of the gazelle and the roe. Deu 15:23 Only do not take its blood for food, but let it be drained out on the earth like water. Deu 16:1 Take note of the month of Abib and keep the Passover to the Lord your God: for in the month of Abib the Lord your God took you out of Egypt by night. Deu 16:2 The Passover offering, from your flock or your herd, is to be given to the Lord your God in the place marked out by him as the resting-place of his name. Deu 16:3 Take no leavened bread with it; for seven days let your food be unleavened bread, that is, the bread of sorrow; for you came out of the land of Egypt quickly: so the memory of that day, when you came out of the land of Egypt, will be with you all your life. Deu 16:4 For seven days let no leaven be used through all your land; and nothing of the flesh which is put to death in the evening of the first day is to be kept through the night till morning. Deu 16:5 The Passover offering is not to be put to death in any of the towns which the Lord your God gives you: Deu 16:6 But in the place marked out by the Lord your God as the resting-place of his name, there you are to put the Passover to death in the evening, at sundown, at that time of the year when you came out of Egypt. Deu 16:7 It is to be cooked and taken as food in the place marked out by the Lord: and in the morning you are to go back to your tents. Deu 16:8 For six days let your food be unleavened bread; and on the seventh day there is to be a holy meeting to the Lord your God; no work is to be done. Deu 16:9 Let seven weeks be numbered from the first day when the grain is cut. Deu 16:10 Then keep the feast of weeks to the Lord your God, with an offering freely given to him from the wealth he has given you: Deu 16:11 Then you are to be glad before the Lord your God, you and your son and your daughter, your man-servant and your woman-servant, and the Levite who is with you, and the man from a strange country, and the child without a father, and the widow, who are living among you, in the place marked out by the Lord your God as a resting-place for his name. Deu 16:12 And you will keep in mind that you were a servant in the land of Egypt: and you will take care to keep all these laws. Deu 16:13 You are to keep the feast of tents for seven days after you have got in all your grain and made your wine: Deu 16:14 You are to keep the feast with joy, you and your son and your daughter, your man-servant and your woman-servant, and the Levite, and the man from a strange country, and the child without a father, and the widow, who are living among you. Deu 16:15 Keep the feast to the Lord your God for seven days, in the place marked out by the Lord: because the blessing of the Lord your God will be on all the produce of your land and all the work of your hands, and you will have nothing but joy. Deu 16:16 Three times in the year let all your males come before the Lord your God in the place named by him; at the feast of unleavened bread, the feast of weeks, and the feast of tents: and they are not to come before the Lord with nothing in their hands; Deu 16:17 Every man is to give as he is able, in the measure of the blessing which the Lord your God has given you. Deu 16:18 You are to make judges and overseers in all your towns which the Lord your God gives you, for every tribe: and they are to be upright men, judging the people in righteousness. Deu 16:19 You are not to be moved in your judging by a man's position, you are not to take rewards; for rewards make the eyes of the wise man blind, and the decisions of the upright false. Deu 16:20 Let righteousness be your guide, so that you may have life, and take for your heritage the land which the Lord your God is giving you. Deu 16:21 Let no holy tree of any sort be planted by the altar of the Lord your God which you will make. Deu 16:22 You are not to put up stone pillars, for they are hated by the Lord your God. Deu 17:1 No ox or sheep which has a mark on it or is damaged in any way may be offered to the Lord your God: for that is disgusting to the Lord your God. Deu 17:2 If there is any man or woman among you, in any of the towns which the Lord your God gives you, who does evil in the eyes of the Lord your God, sinning against his agreement, Deu 17:3 By becoming a servant of other gods and worshipping them or the sun or the moon or all the stars of heaven, against my orders; Deu 17:4 If word of this comes to your ears, then let this thing be looked into with care, and if there is no doubt that it is true, and such evil has been done in Israel; Deu 17:5 Then you are to take the man or woman who has done the evil to the public place of your town, and they are to be stoned with stones till they are dead. Deu 17:6 On the word of two or three witnesses, a man may be given the punishment of death; but he is not to be put to death on the word of one witness. Deu 17:7 The hands of the witnesses will be the first to put him to death, and after them the hands of all the people. So you are to put away the evil from among you. Deu 17:8 If you are not able to give a decision as to who is responsible for a death, or who is right in a cause, or who gave the first blow in a fight, and there is a division of opinion about it in your town: then go to the place marked out by the Lord your God; Deu 17:9 And come before the priests, the Levites, or before him who is judge at the time: and they will go into the question and give you a decision: Deu 17:10 And you are to be guided by the decision they give in the place named by the Lord, and do whatever they say: Deu 17:11 Acting in agreement with their teaching and the decision they give: not turning to one side or the other from the word they have given you. Deu 17:12 And any man who, in his pride, will not give ear to the priest whose place is there before the Lord your God, or to the judge, is to be put to death: you are to put away the evil from Israel. Deu 17:13 And all the people, hearing of it, will be full of fear and put away their pride. Deu 17:14 When you have come into the land which the Lord your God is giving you, and have taken it for a heritage and are living in it, if it is your desire to have a king over you, like the other nations round about you; Deu 17:15 Then see that you take as your king the man named by the Lord your God: let your king be one of your countrymen, not a man of another nation who is not one of yourselves. Deu 17:16 And he is not to get together a great army of horses for himself, or make the people go back to Egypt to get horses for him: because the Lord has said, You will never again go back that way. Deu 17:17 And he is not to have a great number of wives, for fear that his heart may be turned away; or great wealth of silver and gold. Deu 17:18 And when he has taken his place on the seat of his kingdom, he is to make in a book a copy of this law, from that which the priests, the Levites, have in their care: Deu 17:19 And it is to be with him for his reading all the days of his life, so that he may be trained in the fear of the Lord his God to keep and do all the words of this teaching and these laws: Deu 17:20 So that his heart may not be lifted up over his countrymen, and he may not be turned away from the orders, to one side or the other: but that his life and the lives of his children may be long in his kingdom in Israel. Deu 18:1 The priests, the Levites, that is, all the tribe of Levi, will have no part or heritage with Israel: their food and their heritage will be the offerings of the Lord made by fire. Deu 18:2 And they will have no heritage among their countrymen: the Lord is their heritage, as he has said to them. Deu 18:3 And this is to be the priests' right: those who make an offering of a sheep or an ox are to give to the priest the top part of the leg and the two sides of the head and the stomach. Deu 18:4 And in addition you are to give him the first of your grain and wine and oil, and the first wool cut from your sheep. Deu 18:5 For he, and his sons after him for ever, have been marked out by the Lord your God from all your tribes, to do the work of priests in the name of the Lord. Deu 18:6 And if a Levite, moved by a strong desire, comes from any town in all Israel where he is living to the place marked out by the Lord; Deu 18:7 Then he will do the work of a priest in the name of the Lord his God, with all his brothers the Levites who are there before the Lord. Deu 18:8 His food will be the same as theirs, in addition to what has come to him as the price of his property. Deu 18:9 When you have come into the land which the Lord your God is giving you, do not take as your example the disgusting ways of those nations. Deu 18:10 Let there not be seen among you anyone who makes his son or his daughter go through the fire, or anyone using secret arts, or a maker of strange sounds, or a reader of signs, or any wonder-worker, Deu 18:11 Or anyone using secret force on people, or putting questions to a spirit, or having secret knowledge, or going to the dead for directions. Deu 18:12 For all who do such things are disgusting to the Lord; and because of these disgusting things the Lord your God is driving them out before you. Deu 18:13 You are to be upright in heart before the Lord your God. Deu 18:14 For these nations, whose land you are taking, give attention to readers of signs and to those using secret arts: but the Lord your God will not let you do so. Deu 18:15 The Lord your God will give you a prophet from among your people, like me; you will give ear to him; Deu 18:16 In answer to the request you made to the Lord your God in Horeb on the day of the great meeting, when you said, Let not the voice of the Lord my God come to my ears again, and let me not see this great fire any more, or death will overtake me. Deu 18:17 Then the Lord said to me, What they have said is well said. Deu 18:18 I will give them a prophet from among themselves, like you, and I will put my words in his mouth, and he will say to them whatever I give him orders to say. Deu 18:19 And whoever does not give ear to my words which he will say in my name, will be responsible to me. Deu 18:20 But the prophet who takes it on himself to say words in my name which I have not given him orders to say, or who says anything in the name of other gods, will come to his death. Deu 18:21 And if you say in your hearts, How are we to be certain that the word does not come from the Lord? Deu 18:22 When a prophet makes a statement in the name of the Lord, if what he says does not take place and his words do not come true, then his word is not the word of the Lord: the words of the prophet were said in the pride of his heart, and you are to have no fear of him. Deu 19:1 When the nations, whose land the Lord your God is giving you, have been cut off by him, and you have taken their place and are living in their towns and in their houses; Deu 19:2 You are to have three towns marked out in the land which the Lord your God is giving you for your heritage. Deu 19:3 You are to make ready a way, and see that the land which the Lord your God is giving you for your heritage, is marked out into three parts, to which any taker of life may go in flight. Deu 19:4 This is to be the rule for anyone who goes in flight there, after causing the death of his neighbour in error and not through hate; Deu 19:5 For example, if a man goes into the woods with his neighbour for the purpose of cutting down trees, and when he takes his axe to give a blow to the tree, the head of the axe comes off, and falling on to his neighbour gives him a wound causing his death; then the man may go in flight to one of these towns and be safe: Deu 19:6 For if not, he who has the right of punishment may go running after the taker of life in the heat of his wrath, and overtake him because the way is long, and give him a death-blow; though it is not right for him to be put to death because he was not moved by hate. Deu 19:7 And so I am ordering you to see that three towns are marked out for this purpose. Deu 19:8 And if the Lord your God makes wide the limits of your land, as he said in his oath to your fathers, and gives you all the land which he undertook to give to your fathers; Deu 19:9 If you keep and do all these orders which I give you today, loving the Lord your God and walking ever in his ways; then let three more towns, in addition to these three, be marked out for you: Deu 19:10 So that in all your land, which the Lord your God is giving you for your heritage, no man may be wrongly put to death, for which you will be responsible. Deu 19:11 But if any man has hate for his neighbour, and waiting for him secretly makes an attack on him and gives him a blow causing his death, and then goes in flight to one of these towns; Deu 19:12 The responsible men of his town are to send and take him, and give him up to the one who has the right of punishment to be put to death. Deu 19:13 Have no pity on him, so that Israel may be clear from the crime of putting a man to death without cause, and it will be well for you. Deu 19:14 Your neighbour's landmark, which was put in its place by the men of old times, is not to be moved or taken away in the land of your heritage which the Lord your God is giving you. Deu 19:15 One witness may not make a statement against a man in relation to any sin or wrongdoing which he has done: on the word of two or three witnesses a question is to be judged. Deu 19:16 If a false witness makes a statement against a man, saying that he has done wrong, Deu 19:17 Then the two men, between whom the argument has taken place, are to come before the Lord, before the priests and judges who are then in power; Deu 19:18 And the judges will have the question looked into with care: and if the witness is seen to be false and to have made a false statement against his brother, Deu 19:19 Then do to him what it was his purpose to do to his brother: and so put away the evil from among you. Deu 19:20 And the rest of the people, hearing of it, will be full of fear, and never again do such evil among you. Deu 19:21 Have no pity; let life be given for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot. Deu 20:1 When you go out to war against other nations, and come face to face with horses and war-carriages and armies greater in number than yourselves, have no fear of them: for the Lord your God is with you, who took you up out of the land of Egypt. Deu 20:2 And when you are on the point of attacking, let the priest come forward and say to the people, Deu 20:3 Give ear, O Israel: today you are going forward to the fight; let your heart be strong; do not let uncontrolled fear overcome you because of those who are against you; Deu 20:4 For the Lord your God goes with you, fighting for you to give you salvation from those who are against you. Deu 20:5 And let the overseers say to the people, If there is any man who has made for himself a new house and has not gone into it, let him go back to his house, so that in the event of his death in the fight, another may not take his house for himself. Deu 20:6 Or if any man has made a vine-garden without taking the first-fruits of it, let him go back to his house, so that in the event of his death in the fight, another may not be the first to make use of the fruit. Deu 20:7 Or if any man is newly married and has had no sex relations with his wife, let him go back to his house, so that in the event of his death in the fight, another man may not take her. Deu 20:8 And let the overseers go on to say to the people, If there is any man whose heart is feeble with fear, let him go back to his house before he makes the hearts of his countrymen feeble. Deu 20:9 Then, after saying these words to the people, let the overseers put captains over the army. Deu 20:10 When you come to a town, before attacking it, make an offer of peace. Deu 20:11 And if it gives you back an answer of peace, opening its doors to you, then all the people in it may be put to forced work as your servants. Deu 20:12 If however it will not make peace with you, but war, then let it be shut in on all sides: Deu 20:13 And when the Lord your God has given it into your hands, let every male in it be put to death without mercy. Deu 20:14 But the women and the children and the cattle and everything in the town and all its wealth, you may take for yourselves: the wealth of your haters, which the Lord your God has given you, will be your food. Deu 20:15 So you are to do to all the towns far away, which are not the towns of these nations. Deu 20:16 But in the towns of these peoples whose land the Lord your God is giving you for your heritage, let no living thing be kept from death: Deu 20:17 Give them up to the curse; the Hittite, the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, as the Lord your God has given you orders: Deu 20:18 So that you may not take them as your example and do all the disgusting things which they do in the worship of their gods, so sinning against the Lord your God. Deu 20:19 If in war a town is shut in by your armies for a long time, do not let its trees be cut down and made waste; for their fruit will be your food; are the trees of the countryside men for you to take up arms against them? Deu 20:20 Only those trees which you are certain are not used for food may be cut down and put to destruction: and you are to make walls of attack against the town till it is taken. Deu 21:1 If, in the land which the Lord your God is giving you, you come across the dead body of a man in the open country, and you have no idea who has put him to death: Deu 21:2 Then your responsible men and your judges are to come out, and give orders for the distance from the dead body to the towns round about it to be measured; Deu 21:3 And whichever town is nearest to the body, the responsible men of that town are to take from the herd a young cow which has never been used for work or put under the yoke; Deu 21:4 And they are to take the cow into a valley where there is flowing water, and which is not ploughed or planted, and there the neck of the cow is to be broken: Deu 21:5 Then the priests, the sons of Levi, are to come near; for they have been marked out by the Lord your God to be his servants and to give blessings in the name of the Lord; and by their decision every argument and every blow is to be judged: Deu 21:6 And all the responsible men of that town which is nearest to the dead man, washing their hands over the cow whose neck was broken in the valley, Deu 21:7 Will say, This death is not the work of our hands and our eyes have not seen it. Deu 21:8 Have mercy, O Lord, on your people Israel whom you have made free, and take away from your people the crime of a death without cause. Then they will no longer be responsible for the man's death. Deu 21:9 So you will take away the crime of a death without cause from among you, when you do what is right in the eyes of the Lord. Deu 21:10 When you go out to war against other nations, and the Lord your God gives them up into your hands and you take them as prisoners; Deu 21:11 If among the prisoners you see a beautiful woman and it is your desire to make her your wife; Deu 21:12 Then take her back to your house; and let her hair and her nails be cut; Deu 21:13 And let her take off the dress in which she was made prisoner and go on living in your house and weeping for her father and mother for a full month: and after that you may go in to her and be her husband and she will be your wife. Deu 21:14 But if you have no delight in her, you are to let her go wherever she will; you may not take a price for her as if she was your property, for you have made use of her for your pleasure. Deu 21:15 If a man has two wives, one greatly loved and the other hated, and the two of them have had children by him; and if the first son is the child of the hated wife: Deu 21:16 Then when he gives his property to his sons for their heritage, he is not to put the son of his loved one in the place of the first son, the son of the hated wife: Deu 21:17 But he is to give his first son his birthright, and twice as great a part of his property: for he is the first-fruits of his strength and the right of the first son is his. Deu 21:18 If a man has a son who is hard-hearted and uncontrolled, who gives no attention to the voice of his father and mother, and will not be ruled by them, though they give him punishment: Deu 21:19 Then let his father and mother take him to the responsible men of the town, to the public place; Deu 21:20 And say to them, This son of ours is hard-hearted and uncontrolled, he will not give attention to us; he gives himself up to pleasure and strong drink. Deu 21:21 Then he is to be stoned to death by all the men of the town: so you are to put away the evil from among you; and all Israel, hearing of it, will be full of fear. Deu 21:22 If a man does a crime for which the punishment is death, and he is put to death by hanging him on a tree; Deu 21:23 Do not let his body be on the tree all night, but put it to rest in the earth the same day; for the man who undergoes hanging is cursed by God; so do not make unclean the land which the Lord your God is giving you for your heritage. Deu 22:1 If you see your brother's ox or his sheep wandering, do not go by without helping, but take them back to your brother. Deu 22:2 If their owner is not near, or if you are not certain who he is, then take the beast to your house and keep it till its owner comes in search of it, and then you are to give it back to him. Deu 22:3 Do the same with his ass or his robe or anything which has gone from your brother's keeping and which you have come across: do not keep it to yourself. Deu 22:4 If you see your brother's ox or his ass falling down on the road, do not go by without giving him help in lifting it up again. Deu 22:5 It is not right for a woman to be dressed in man's clothing, or for a man to put on a woman's robe: whoever does such things is disgusting to the Lord your God. Deu 22:6 If by chance you see a place which a bird has made for itself in a tree or on the earth, with young ones or eggs, and the mother bird seated on the young ones or on the eggs, do not take the mother bird with the young: Deu 22:7 See that you let the mother bird go, but the young ones you may take; so it will be well for you and your life will be long. Deu 22:8 If you are building a house, make a railing for the roof, so that the blood of any man falling from it will not come on your house. Deu 22:9 Do not have your vine-garden planted with two sorts of seed: or all of it may become a loss, the seed you have put in as well as the increase. Deu 22:10 Do not do your ploughing with an ox and an ass yoked together. Deu 22:11 Do not have clothing made of two sorts of thread, wool and linen together. Deu 22:12 On the four edges of your robe, with which your body is covered, put ornaments of twisted threads. Deu 22:13 If any man takes a wife, and having had connection with her, has no delight in her, Deu 22:14 And says evil things about her and gives her a bad name, saying, I took this woman, and when I had connection with her it was clear to me that she was not a virgin: Deu 22:15 Then let the girl's father and mother put before the responsible men of the town, in the public place, signs that the girl was a virgin: Deu 22:16 And let the girl's father say to the responsible men, I gave my daughter to this man for his wife, but he has no love for her; Deu 22:17 And now he has put shame on her, saying that she is not a virgin; but here is the sign that she is a virgin. Then they are to put her clothing before the responsible men of the town. Deu 22:18 Then the responsible men of the town are to give the man his punishment; Deu 22:19 They will take from him a hundred shekels of silver, which are to be given to the father of the girl, because he has given an evil name to a virgin of Israel: she will go on being his wife, he may never put her away all his life. Deu 22:20 But if what he has said is true, and she is seen to be not a virgin, Deu 22:21 Then they are to make the girl come to the door of her father's house and she will be stoned to death by the men of the town, because she has done evil and put shame on Israel, by acting as a loose woman in her father's house: so you are to put away evil from among you. Deu 22:22 If a man is taken in the act of going in to a married woman, the two of them, the man as well as the woman, are to be put to death: so you are to put away the evil from Israel. Deu 22:23 If a young virgin has given her word to be married to a man, and another man meeting her in the town, has connection with her; Deu 22:24 Then you are to take the two of them to the doorway of the town, and have them stoned to death; the young virgin, because she gave no cry for help, though it was in the town, and the man, because he has put shame on his neighbour's wife: so you are to put away evil from among you. Deu 22:25 But if the man, meeting such a virgin in the open country, takes her by force, then only the man is to be put to death; Deu 22:26 Nothing is to be done to the virgin, because there is no cause of death in her: it is the same as if a man made an attack on his neighbour and put him to death: Deu 22:27 For he came across her in the open country, and there was no one to come to the help of the virgin in answer to her cry. Deu 22:28 If a man sees a young virgin, who has not given her word to be married to anyone, and he takes her by force and has connection with her, and discovery is made of it; Deu 22:29 Then the man will have to give the virgin's father fifty shekels of silver and make her his wife, because he has put shame on her; he may never put her away all his life. Deu 22:30 A man may not take his father's wife or have sex relations with a woman who is his father's. Deu 23:1 No man whose private parts have been wounded or cut off may come into the meeting of the Lord's people. Deu 23:2 One whose father and mother are not married may not come into the meeting of the Lord's people, or any of his family to the tenth generation. Deu 23:3 No Ammonite or Moabite or any of their people to the tenth generation may come into the meeting of the Lord's people: Deu 23:4 Because they gave you no bread or water on your way, when you came out of Egypt: and they got Balaam, the son of Peor, from Pethor in Aram-naharaim to put curses on you. Deu 23:5 But the Lord your God would not give ear to Balaam, but let the curse be changed into a blessing to you, because of his love for you. Deu 23:6 Do nothing for their peace or well-being for ever. Deu 23:7 But have no hate for an Edomite, because he is your brother, or for an Egyptian, for you were living in his land. Deu 23:8 Their children in the third generation may come into the meeting of the Lord's people. Deu 23:9 When you go out to war and put your tents in position, keep from every evil thing. Deu 23:10 If any man among you becomes unclean through anything which has taken place in the night, he is to go out from the tent-circle and keep outside it: Deu 23:11 But when evening comes near, let him take a bath: and after sundown he may come back to the tents. Deu 23:12 Let there be a place outside the tent-circle to which you may go; Deu 23:13 And have among your arms a spade; and when you have been to that place, let that which comes from you be covered up with earth: Deu 23:14 For the Lord your God is walking among your tents, to keep you safe and to give up into your hands those who are fighting against you; then let your tents be holy, so that he may see no unclean thing among you, and be turned away from you. Deu 23:15 Do not give back to his master a servant who has gone in flight from his master and come to you: Deu 23:16 Let him go on living among you in whatever place is most pleasing to him: do not be hard on him. Deu 23:17 No daughter of Israel is to let herself be used as a loose woman for a strange god, and no son of Israel is to give himself to a man. Deu 23:18 Do not take into the house of the Lord your God, as an offering for an oath, the price of a loose woman or the money given to one used for sex purposes in the worship of the gods: for these two things are disgusting to the Lord your God. Deu 23:19 Do not take interest from an Israelite on anything, money or food or any other goods, which you let him have: Deu 23:20 From men of other nations you may take interest, but not from an Israelite: so that the blessing of the Lord your God may be on everything to which you put your hand, in the land which you are about to take as your heritage. Deu 23:21 When you take an oath to the Lord, do not be slow to give effect to it: for without doubt the Lord your God will make you responsible, and will put it to your account as sin. Deu 23:22 But if you take no oath, there will be no sin. Deu 23:23 Whatever your lips have said, see that you do it; for you gave your word freely to the Lord your God. Deu 23:24 When you go into your neighbour's vine-garden, you may take of his grapes at your pleasure, but you may not take them away in your vessel. Deu 23:25 When you go into your neighbour's field, you may take the heads of grain with your hand; but you may not put your blade to his grain. Deu 24:1 If a man takes a wife, and after they are married she is unpleasing to him because of some bad quality in her, let him give her a statement in writing and send her away from his house. Deu 24:2 And when she has gone away from him, she may become another man's wife. Deu 24:3 And if the second husband has no love for her and, giving her a statement in writing, sends her away; or if death comes to the second husband to whom she was married; Deu 24:4 Her first husband, who had sent her away, may not take her back after she has been wife to another; for that is disgusting to the Lord: and you are not to be a cause of sin in the land which the Lord your God is giving you for your heritage. Deu 24:5 A newly married man will not have to go out with the army or undertake any business, but may be free for one year, living in his house for the comfort of his wife. Deu 24:6 No one is to take, on account of a debt, the stones with which grain is crushed: for in doing so he takes a man's living. Deu 24:7 If a man takes by force one of his countrymen, the children of Israel, using him as his property or getting a price for him, that thief is to be put to death: so you are to put away evil from among you. Deu 24:8 In connection with the leper's disease, take care to keep and do every detail of the teaching of the priests, the Levites: as I gave them orders, so you are to do. Deu 24:9 Keep in mind what the Lord your God did to Miriam on the way, when you came out of Egypt. Deu 24:10 If you let your brother have the use of anything which is yours, do not go into his house and take anything of his as a sign of his debt; Deu 24:11 But keep outside till he comes out and gives it to you. Deu 24:12 If he is a poor man, do not keep his property all night; Deu 24:13 But be certain to give it back to him when the sun goes down, so that he may have his clothing for sleeping in, and will give you his blessing: and this will be put to your account as righteousness before the Lord your God. Deu 24:14 Do not be hard on a servant who is poor and in need, if he is one of your countrymen or a man from another nation living with you in your land. Deu 24:15 Give him his payment day by day, not keeping it back over night; for he is poor and his living is dependent on it; and if his cry against you comes to the ears of the Lord, it will be judged as sin in you. Deu 24:16 Fathers are not to be put to death for their children or children for their fathers: every man is to be put to death for the sin which he himself has done. Deu 24:17 Be upright in judging the cause of the man from a strange country and of him who has no father; do not take a widow's clothing on account of a debt: Deu 24:18 But keep in mind that you were a servant in the land of Egypt, and the Lord your God made you free: for this is why I give you orders to do this. Deu 24:19 When you get in the grain from your field, if some of the grain has been dropped by chance in the field, do not go back and get it, but let it be for the man from a strange land, the child without a father, and the widow: so that the blessing of the Lord your God may be on all the work of your hands. Deu 24:20 When you are shaking the fruit from your olive-trees, do not go over the branches a second time: let some be for the man from a strange land, the child without a father, and the widow. Deu 24:21 When you are pulling the grapes from your vines, do not take up those which have been dropped; let them be for the man from a strange land, the child without a father, and the widow. Deu 24:22 Keep in mind that you were a servant in the land of Egypt: for this is why I give you orders to do this. Deu 25:1 If there is an argument between men and they go to law with one another, let the judges give their decision for the upright, and against the wrongdoer. Deu 25:2 And if the wrongdoer is to undergo punishment by whipping, the judge will give orders for him to go down on his face and be whipped before him, the number of the blows being in relation to his crime. Deu 25:3 He may be given forty blows, not more; for if more are given, your brother may be shamed before you. Deu 25:4 Do not keep the ox from taking the grain when he is crushing it. Deu 25:5 If brothers are living together and one of them, at his death, has no son, the wife of the dead man is not to be married outside the family to another man: let her husband's brother go in to her and make her his wife, doing as it is right for a brother-in-law to do. Deu 25:6 Then the first male child she has will take the rights of the brother who is dead, so that his name may not come to an end in Israel. Deu 25:7 But if the man says he will not take his brother's wife, then let the wife go to the responsible men of the town, and say, My husband's brother will not keep his brother's name living in Israel; he will not do what it is right for a husband's brother to do. Deu 25:8 Then the responsible men of the town will send for the man, and have talk with him: and if he still says, I will not take her; Deu 25:9 Then his brother's wife is to come to him, before the responsible men of the town, and take his shoe off his foot, and put shame on him, and say, So let it be done to the man who will not take care of his brother's name. Deu 25:10 And his family will be named in Israel, The house of him whose shoe has been taken off. Deu 25:11 If two men are fighting, and the wife of one of them, coming to the help of her husband, takes the other by the private parts; Deu 25:12 Her hand is to be cut off; have no pity on her. Deu 25:13 Do not have in your bag different weights, a great and a small; Deu 25:14 Or in your house different measures, a great and a small. Deu 25:15 But have a true weight and a true measure: so that your life may be long in the land which the Lord your God is giving you. Deu 25:16 For all who do such things, and all whose ways are not upright, are disgusting to the Lord your God. Deu 25:17 Keep in mind what Amalek did to you on your way from Egypt; Deu 25:18 How, meeting you on the way, he made an attack on you when you were tired and without strength, cutting off all the feeble ones at the end of your line; and the fear of God was not in him. Deu 25:19 So when the Lord your God has given you rest from all who are against you on every side, in the land which the Lord your God is giving you for your heritage, see to it that the memory of Amalek is cut off from the earth; keep this in mind. Deu 26:1 Now when you have come into the land which the Lord is giving you for your heritage, and you have made it yours and are living in it; Deu 26:2 You are to take a part of the first-fruits of the earth, which you get from the land which the Lord your God is giving you, and put it in a basket, and go to the place marked out by the Lord your God, as the resting-place of his name. Deu 26:3 And you are to come to him who is priest at that time, and say to him, I give witness today before the Lord your God, that I have come into the land which the Lord made an oath to our fathers to give us. Deu 26:4 Then the priest will take the basket from your hand and put it down in front of the altar of the Lord your God. Deu 26:5 And these are the words which you will say before the Lord your God: My father was a wandering Aramaean, and he went down with a small number of people into Egypt; there he became a great and strong nation: Deu 26:6 And the Egyptians were cruel to us, crushing us under a hard yoke: Deu 26:7 And our cry went up to the Lord, the God of our fathers, and the Lord's ear was open to the voice of our cry, and his eyes took note of our grief and the crushing weight of our work: Deu 26:8 And the Lord took us out of Egypt with a strong hand and a stretched-out arm, with works of power and signs and wonders: Deu 26:9 And he has been our guide to this place, and has given us this land, a land flowing with milk and honey. Deu 26:10 So now, I have come here with the first of the fruits of the earth which you, O Lord, have given me. Then you will put it down before the Lord your God and give him worship: Deu 26:11 And you will have joy in every good thing which the Lord your God has given to you and to your family; and the Levite, and the man from a strange land who is with you, will take part in your joy. Deu 26:12 When you have taken out a tenth from the tenth of all your produce in the third year, which is the year when this has to be done, give it to the Levite, and the man from a strange land, and the child without a father, and the widow, so that they may have food in your towns and be full; Deu 26:13 And say before the Lord your God, I have taken all the holy things out of my house and have given them to the Levite, and the man from a strange land, and him who has no father, and the widow, as you have given me orders: I have kept in mind all your orders, in nothing have I gone against them: Deu 26:14 No part of these things has been used for food in a time of weeping, or put away when I was unclean, or given for the dead: I have given ear to the voice of the Lord my God, and have done all you have given me orders to do. Deu 26:15 So, looking down from your holy place in heaven, send your blessing on your people Israel and on the land which you have given us, as you said in your oath to our fathers, a land flowing with milk and honey. Deu 26:16 Today the Lord your God gives you orders to keep all these laws and decisions: so then keep and do them with all your heart and all your soul. Deu 26:17 Today you have given witness that the Lord is your God, and that you will go in his ways and keep his laws and his orders and his decisions and give ear to his voice: Deu 26:18 And the Lord has made it clear this day that you are a special people to him, as he gave you his word; and that you are to keep all his orders; Deu 26:19 And that he will make you high over all the nations he has made, in praise, in name, and in honour, and that you are to be a holy people to the Lord your God as he has said. Deu 27:1 Then Moses and the responsible men of Israel gave the people these orders: Keep all the orders which I have given you this day; Deu 27:2 And on the day when you go over Jordan into the land which the Lord your God is giving you, put up great stones, coating them with building-paste, Deu 27:3 And writing on them all the words of this law, after you have gone over; so that you may take the heritage which the Lord your God is giving you, a land flowing with milk and honey, as the Lord, the God of your fathers, has said. Deu 27:4 And when you have gone over Jordan, you are to put up these stones, as I have said to you today, in Mount Ebal, and have them coated with building-paste. Deu 27:5 There you are to make an altar to the Lord your God, of stones on which no iron instrument has been used. Deu 27:6 You are to make the altar of the Lord your God of uncut stones; offering on it burned offerings to the Lord your God: Deu 27:7 And you are to make your peace-offerings, feasting there with joy before the Lord your God. Deu 27:8 And put on the stones all the words of this law, writing them very clearly. Deu 27:9 Then Moses and the priests, the Levites, said to all Israel, Be quiet and give ear, O Israel; today you have become the people of the Lord your God. Deu 27:10 For this cause you are to give ear to the voice of the Lord your God, and do his orders and his laws which I give you this day. Deu 27:11 That same day Moses said to the people, Deu 27:12 These are to take their places on Mount Gerizim for blessing the people when you have gone over Jordan: Simeon and Levi and Judah and Issachar and Joseph and Benjamin; Deu 27:13 And these are to be on Mount Ebal for the curse: Reuben, Gad, and Asher, and Zebulun, Dan, and Naphtali. Deu 27:14 Then the Levites are to say in a loud voice to all the men of Israel, Deu 27:15 Cursed is the man who makes any image of wood or stone or metal, disgusting to the Lord, the work of man's hands, and puts it up in secret. And let all the people say, So be it. Deu 27:16 Cursed is he who does not give honour to his father or mother. And let all the people say, So be it. Deu 27:17 Cursed is he who takes his neighbour's landmark from its place. And let all the people say, So be it. Deu 27:18 Cursed is he by whom the blind are turned out of the way. And let all the people say, So be it. Deu 27:19 Cursed is he who gives a wrong decision in the cause of a man from a strange land, or of one without a father, or of a widow. And let all the people say, So be it. Deu 27:20 Cursed is he who has sex relations with his father's wife, for he has put shame on his father. And let all the people say, So be it. Deu 27:21 Cursed is he who has sex relations with any sort of beast. And let all the people say, So be it. Deu 27:22 Cursed is he who has sex relations with his sister, the daughter of his father or of his mother. And let all the people say, So be it. Deu 27:23 Cursed is he who has sex relations with his mother-in-law. And let all the people say, So be it. Deu 27:24 Cursed is he who takes his neighbour's life secretly. And let all the people say, So be it. Deu 27:25 Cursed is he who for a reward puts to death one who has done no wrong. And let all the people say, So be it. Deu 27:26 Cursed is he who does not take this law to heart to do it. And let all the people say, So be it. Deu 28:1 Now if you give ear to the voice of the Lord your God, and keep with care all these orders which I have given you today, then the Lord your God will put you high over all the nations of the earth: Deu 28:2 And all these blessings will come on you and overtake you, if your ears are open to the voice of the Lord your God. Deu 28:3 A blessing will be on you in the town, and a blessing in the field. Deu 28:4 A blessing will be on the fruit of your body, and on the fruit of your land, on the fruit of your cattle, the increase of your herd, and the young of your flock. Deu 28:5 A blessing will be on your basket and on your bread-basin. Deu 28:6 A blessing will be on your coming in and on your going out. Deu 28:7 By the power of the Lord, those who take arms against you will be overcome before you: they will come out against you one way, and will go in flight from you seven ways. Deu 28:8 The Lord will send his blessing on your store-houses and on everything to which you put your hand: his blessing will be on you in the land which the Lord your God is giving you. Deu 28:9 The Lord will keep you as a people holy to himself, as he has said to you in his oath, if you keep the orders of the Lord your God and go on walking in his ways. Deu 28:10 And all the peoples of the earth will see that the name of the Lord is on you, and they will go in fear of you. Deu 28:11 And the Lord will make you fertile in every good thing, in the fruit of your body, and the fruit of your cattle, and the fruit of your fields, in the land which the Lord, by his oath to your fathers, said he would give you. Deu 28:12 Opening his store-house in heaven, the Lord will send rain on your land at the right time, blessing all the work of your hands: other nations will make use of your wealth, and you will have no need of theirs. Deu 28:13 The Lord will make you the head and not the tail; and you will ever have the highest place, if you give ear to the orders of the Lord your God which I give you today, to keep and to do them; Deu 28:14 Not turning away from any of the orders which I give you today, to the right hand or to the left, or going after any other gods to give them worship. Deu 28:15 But if you do not give ear to the voice of the Lord your God, and take care to do all his orders and his laws which I give you today, then all these curses will come on you and overtake you: Deu 28:16 You will be cursed in the town and cursed in the field. Deu 28:17 A curse will be on your basket and on your bread-basin. Deu 28:18 A curse will be on the fruit of your body, and on the fruit of your land, on the increase of your cattle, and the young of your flock. Deu 28:19 You will be cursed when you come in and cursed when you go out. Deu 28:20 The Lord will send on you cursing and trouble and punishment in everything to which you put your hand, till sudden destruction overtakes you; because of your evil ways in which you have been false to me. Deu 28:21 The Lord will send disease after disease on you, till you have been cut off by death from the land to which you are going. Deu 28:22 The Lord will send wasting disease, and burning pain, and flaming heat against you, keeping back the rain till your land is waste and dead; so will it be till your destruction is complete. Deu 28:23 And the heaven over your heads will be brass, and the earth under you hard as iron. Deu 28:24 The Lord will make the rain of your land powder and dust, sending it down on you from heaven till your destruction is complete. Deu 28:25 The Lord will let you be overcome by your haters: you will go out against them one way, and you will go in flight before them seven ways: you will be the cause of fear among all the kingdoms of the earth. Deu 28:26 Your bodies will be meat for all the birds of the air and the beasts of the earth; there will be no one to send them away. Deu 28:27 The Lord will send on you the disease of Egypt, and other sorts of skin diseases which nothing will make well. Deu 28:28 He will make your minds diseased, and your eyes blind, and your hearts wasted with fear: Deu 28:29 You will go feeling your way when the sun is high, like a blind man for whom all is dark, and nothing will go well for you: you will be crushed and made poor for ever, and you will have no saviour. Deu 28:30 You will