UNIX Administration Essentials
SUN Solaris 2.6 -- 2.7
This course is intended for individuals who want to become an entry-level Solaris administrator. We will start with an introduction to the UNIX operating system and then focus specifically on the installation, configuration, tuning and trouble-shooting of SUN Solaris version 2.6 and 2.7.
This course syllabus should be used to determine whether the course is appropriate for the student, based on current skills and technical training needs. Course content, prices, and availability are subject to change without notice.
At Course Completion
At the end of the course, students will be able to describe the system strategy for Solaris operating environment, install and configure the operating software; create and managing user accounts; install and remove application software and system patches; design and implement backup procedures; understand and implement network file systems (NFS) and Auto-File Systems (automount); install and managing local and network printing; create and managing IDE and SCSI hard disk drives; understand and implement basic information name service (DNS, NIS+); and recognize problems related to and design solutions for system securities.
Course Materials and Software
Students will be provided with handouts outlining the discussion topics and lab exercises for each week. The handouts will sometimes also detail the skills that a student is expected to learn and projects to be implemented after class.
Textbooks are not provided. Students are responsible for the purchase of their own copies of the books. The following books are recommended:
Students will also be provided with the following software for use in the classroom:
Module 1: UNIX operating system and Solaris operating environment
History of UNIX and distributed computing
Solaris operating environment: SunOS, OpenWindows, DeskSet and CDE
UNIX operating system design: hardware core, kernel, shell, application.
Roles of servers and clients
Host configuration: standalone and diskless clients
Users: superuser (root) and user
System Access: user account and password, special systems accounts
Boot up UNIX systems
Loggin in as root
Desktop environment: OpenWindows environment and CDE
Commonly used desktop tools
Module 2: Basic System Concepts and Administration Tools
UNIX file systems – file tree, file-based operating system
Commands (case sensitive): pwd, cd, ls, more, grep, mv, cp, ln, rm, rmdir mkdir, touch, and cat
Graphics Interface (File manager)
Text Editors: vi, and window-based text editor
Use various commands
Use vi to create and edit a file
Module 3: System Management
System boot and shutdown procedures
Change run-levels: shutdown, halt, init, reboot, stop-A commands
Managing user accounts
admintool: an overview
Commands (group add, groupmod, groupdel; useradd, usermod, userdel, and passwd)
home directory, default shells and initialization files for users and superusers
Managing System Security
Owner, group, and permissions
chown and chgrp commands
Setting permission using symbolic names
Using Octal numbers
Setting the default file mode (umask)
Set UID and GID
Tracking security using aset
Reboot, power-off systems
Create user accounts using both admintool and commands
Set and change permissions of files and directories
Module 4: Managing Devices
Solaris Device Names
eeprom device mappings (electronically erasable programmable read only memory)
(printenv, setenv commands)
OpenBoot Monitor physical Names: name@address:arguments
Logical device names (alphabet Soup Device Names)
Displaying system configurations: prtconf, sysdef
Reconfiguring device information (boot –r)
Adding a SCSI disk
Using the format utility
Viewing the VTOC (volume table of contents) with the prtvtoc utility
Types of file systems (ufs, hsfs, pcfs, nfs, tmpfs, cachefs, lofs, procfs, and swapfs)
Creating new file system (newfs /dev/rdsk/c#t#d#s#)
Identifying file systems mounted (df, mount, /etc/mnttab)
Mounting file systems (mount –o option, option, … disk_device mount_point
Starting and stopping volume manager: /etc/inet.d/volmgt start or /etc/inet.d/volmgt stop
Use device management commands: prtconf, sysdef, boot –r, prtvtoc, newfs, df, mount, volmgt start or stop
Module 5: Managing Software
Software concepts: groups (configurations: core, end user, developer, and entire), clusters (OpenWindows Version 3), and packages (SUNWman)
Software maintainance Utilities: pkginfo, pkgadd, pkgrm, pkgchk
Graphic interface tools: admintool
Add a JetDirect package using "pkgadd –d /cdrom/hp_jetadmin/unix solaris.pkg"
Module 6: Managing Terminals, Modems, and printers
Service Access Facility (SAF)
Service Access Controller: SAC
Port monitors: TTY port monitor (ttymon) and Network listen monitor (listen)
Setting up terminals, and moderms using admintool.
printing terminology: printing daemon—lpsched, print client and print server. spool directory, output filters (ascii to ps)
Printer setup: setup a local printer, and setup a remoter printer.
Access control: lpadmin –p basement –u deny:john
Starting and stopping the printing service: lpshut and /usr/lib/lp/lpsched, to check use lpstat –r.
Configuring and using HP JetDirect for network printing
Use sacadm, pmadm, and ttyadm
Install local and remote printers using admintoolModule 7: System Backups
What files need backups?
Types of backups
Backup commands: /usr/lib/fs/ufs/ufsdump, ufsrestore, tar, cpio, and dd
Automatic backup using scripts and crontab.
Use ufsdump, ufsrestore, and tar to backup and restore file systems.
Module 8: Bourne Shell Scripting
Basic shell features
Environment and local variables
Setting variables from .login
Using metacharacters, redirection characters, and quotation marks in scripts
Statements: which statement, loop control statements (for, while,); conditional statements (if conditional and case conditional)
Change environmental variables
Write simple scripts to automate backup
Module 9: Network configuration and Management
TCP/IP protocol suite
Network address and host address
Name services: /etc files, DNS and NIS+ -- an introduction
Netmasks, subnets, and routers
Local configuration files: /etc/hosts, /etc/netmask, /etc/nodename, /etc/hostname.xyz, /etc/services
Trouble-shooting tools: ping, spray, snoop, traceroute
Configure local network files.
Module 10: Solaris Installation
Three types of installation: Web start, Custom Jumpstart, and Interactive; their strengths and weaknesses.
Web start: minimum system requirements
Custom Jumpstart: sysidcfg file, rules file, and profile files
Interactive: related issues and pitfalls
Module 11: Network File Systems
Function and terminology: share and mount, servers and clients, Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
Setting up an NFS server: temporary and permanent ways.
share –F nfs –o ro=engineering, rw=sales –d "local programs" /export/home
Setting up NFS clients: temporary and permanent ways.
mount –o rw=engineering server:/export/home /home
Start the daemons: /etc/init.d/nfs.server start and /etc/init.d/nfs.client start
NFS file system mount options: rw/ro, hard/soft, suid/nosuid, bg/fg, intr/nointr, retry=n, timeo=n
Automounting NFS with automount
Automount services: /etc/init.d/autofs start or /etc/init.d/autofs stop
Automount maps: master map: /etc/auto_master; direct map: /etc/auto_direct; indirect map: /etc/auto_home
Set up NFS servers and NFS clients
Set up automounter
Module 12: Network Name Services
NIS+: root server, master server, replica server, and client, NIS+ tables,
NIS+ user commands
NIS+ administrator commands
NIS+ domains and objects
Configuring a NIS+ domain: /usr/lib/nis/nisserver, nispopulate, and nisclient
Domain Name Service (DNS): Domain tree, DNS servers, and clients,
Configuring primary name servers, secondary name servers, and caching name servers.
DNS resource records: SOA, NS, A, PTR, MX, CNAME, TXT, RP
Setting up a DNS server and a DNS client
Using NIS+ with DNS: /etc/nsswitch.conf
Set up a NIS+ root master server, master server, replica server
Set up a NIS+ client
Set up a DNS client
Module 13: Where to go from here?
Other topics: Solstice AdminSuite, Custom WebStart installation, scripting, NIS+
Practice, practice, and practice!!!