CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT AND CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS DEBRIEFING INFORMATION: ANNOTATED LINKS
INTERNATIONAL CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS FOUNDATION
The International Critical Incident Stress Foundation, Inc. (ICISF) is a non-profit, open membership foundation dedicated to the prevention and mitigation of disabling stress through the provision of: Education, training and support services for all Emergency Services professions; Continuing education and training in Emergency Mental Health Services for Psychologists, Psychiatrists, Social Workers and Licensed Professional Counselors; and Consultation in the establishment of Crisis and Disaster Response Programs for varied organizations and communities worldwide.
ICISF: NEW ERA
A PRIMER ON CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT (CISM): As crises and disasters become epidemic, the need for effective crisis response capabilities becomes obvious. Crisis intervention programs are recommended and even mandated in a wide variety of community and occupational settings.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS EMERGENCY
It is important that your Emergency Services Department has an effective critical incident stress management plan(CISM). If not, whoever is in authority should get one instituted or know at the very least how to contact the nearest CISM Team. You OWE it to yourself, your family and your co-workers to see that it is done.
SNOWY RANGE A.S.I.S.T. CISM TEAM
Emergency services personnel have become increasingly aware of the toll that the unique stressors they encounter in their occupations may take on the quality of their lives. The very nature of their jobs may expose these individuals routinely or periodically to stressful events which they may or may not be able to work through satisfactorily on their own. The mission of the Snowy Range Team is "to minimize the potentially harmful stress-related symptoms associated with critical incidents affecting emergency service personnel and their families through timely confidential crisis intervention that is empathic and respectful toward all involved".
SOUTHERN NEVADA CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT NETWORK (CISM)
Depending on which study you read, police suicides occur 2 to 7 times more often than in the general public. This is unacceptable. Officers are killing themselves at an incredible rate. We need to stop this. But it doesn't stop there. All of our emergency services personnel are potential victims. Police, Fire-Fighters, EMS, are all exposed to this threat. The purpose of this site is to give you some formal, and informal resources to combat this problem. They provide national level training in Critical Incident Stress Management.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT
Annotated links to Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) and Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) resources nationally and internationally.
NEBRASKA HHS SYSTEM: EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES: CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT
The Nebraska Critical Incident Stress Management Program trains volunteers to provide crisis support to reduce the harmful effects of critical incident stress for; law enforcement officers; firefighters; emergency medical services, corrections, hospitals, and emergency management personnel; and dispatchers.
NEBRASKA HHS SYSTEM: CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT ACT
Nebraska Health and Human Services System: Critical Incident Stress Management Act - Chapter 71. Public Health and Welfare.
COMMUNITY CONNECTION: STATEN ISLAND CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT TEAM
Staten Island Critical Incident Stress Management Team (SICISMT)provides comprehensive multidimensional support to emergency services workers and others during and following a critical incident. In addition, it provides pre-incident stress management education and training for emergency service workers, their families, and others who face similar stressors.
OFAAABC CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT
For over 65 years the Occupational First Aid (OFA) Attendant has enjoyed a special role in industries and businesses in British Columbia. The skills and duties over these years have evolved and changed to meet the needs and challenges that have been put upon them. Presently, the training of the Level 1, 2 and 3 Attendants has enabled these individuals to provide a degree of emergency pre-hospital care in the workplace (and outside of) unlike any ever seen in other parts of North America. In fact, the level of training for Level 3 OFAs has allowed them to be classified as health care professionals, the only First Aid Attendants in North America to be classified as such.
POLICY 6.1 - CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
This policy covers the program for prevention, reduction, and control of stress symptoms following a critical incident. Critical incidents are events which may cause personnel to experience unusually strong emotional reactions that have the potential to interfere with their ability to function at the time of the incident or later. Critical incidents include death of a fellow employee, serious injury to co-workers or acquaintances, or severe threatening situations faced by personnel.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT - International Crisis Specialists (ICS)
ICS is an international consulting firm that provides training, trauma recovery and crisis management to a variety of emergency (fire, police, hospital & safety) as well as non-emergency workplace environments. International Crisis Specialists (ICS) is committed to providing training programs of unmatched quality and educational excellence. ICS provides customized, personalized and cross-culturally sensitive programs aimed toward your organizations unique workplace needs and demographics. In addition to training and educational programs, ICS is also committed to providing swift, effective, and focused "comprehensive" critical incident stress management (CISM) for incidents involving workplace accidents, trauma, and violence. ICS's comprehensive CISM approach includes a strong emphasis on pre-incident planning, preparation and prevention; 'state of the art' crisis intervention / postvention techniques; and finally, positive, proactive programs for self-care, mitigation and management of vicarious traumatization (compassion fatigue) as well as general stress/organizational management and team building.
LLUMC - CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT
CISM (Critical Incident Stress Management) What is the Critical Incident Stress Management Program? Healthcare personnel having an organized approach to cope with stress in the workplace. Peers helping peers with day-to-day stressors and high stress environments. Peers knowing when and how to intervene in crisis situations. The program provides an organized approach to cope with both general work stressors and crisis situations. Developed by nurses in response to requests from staff, it is designed to be available to all Loma Linda University Medical Center, Children's Hospital, and Community Medical Center employees. The components of the program include: one-to-one peer counseling, routine peer support/team building meetings, crisis intervention group meetings (defusings), and critical incident stress debriefings.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT
A critical incident is a traumatic event, in an institution or in the community, that is outside the range of usual human experience and that may cause unusual psychological distress and has sufficient emotional power to affect a person's ability to cope with the consequences of the event. The objectives of the program are as follows: a. to lessen the impact of distressing critical incidents on those affected by them; b. to help the recovery from harmful stress reactions which may damage the health and performance of personnel and their families or offenders and their families; and c. to educate staff on prevention and on the effects of post traumatic stress disorders.
BULKLEY VALLEY CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT SOCIETY HOMEPAGE
Provides support to individuals in their region who are suffering or may suffer psychological or emotional distress following a critical incident.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT
Links to sites with information about critical incident stress management, disasters, and post traumatic stress.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT - CIVIL AIR PATROL
This page has been developed to benefit the members of Civil Air Patrol in GLR and nationally. It is intended to supplement the ICISF Model Critical Incident Stress Management Training, not to replace it.
FNESS (First Nations Emergency Services Society) - CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT
Dedicated to helping First Nations communities in British Columbia develop their own capability to respond to Emergency Situations. We're First Nations based. Board Members and Zone Representatives live and work in First Nations communities. The majority of staff are of First Nations traditions. They are available to help First Nations communities in British Columbia make their communities safer.
NATCA CISM PAGE
National Air Traffic Controllers Association - AFL-CIO Critical Incident Stress Management Program.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT AT BOSTON COLLEGE
Boston College is a community with 14,000 students and over 3,000 employees. The Boston College community operates in many ways like a small town. As such, they encounter community crises and traumatic events. The Critical Incident Response Team (CIRT) has been formed to facilitate interventions in the aftermath of a "critical incident" or campus crisis. For their purposes, crisis is defined quite broadly. It is any event that produces a temporary state of psychological disequilibrium and a subsequent state of emotional turmoil. A critical incident is a sudden, powerful event which is outside of the range of ordinary human experience. A critical incident has the potential to overwhelm the usual effective coping skills of either the individual or the group.
THE COUNSELING TEAM
The Counseling Team has provided psychological services to governmental agencies, law enforcement, fire and emergency services, private industries and organizations in the State of California since 1983.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT - STREMS (Southern Tier Regional Emergency Medical Services) - Schuyler, Steuben and Chemung Counties, New York
Tri-County Critical Incident Stress Management. Caring for the community and each other. This site contains great information about CISD responses, symptoms, a newsletter online, and other valuable information for CISD Teams.
HOCKING VALLEY, OHIO CISM TEAM
The Hocking Valley Regional Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) Team has been established to help emergency service providers with critical incident stress management. The Hocking Valley Regional CISM Team follows the "Mitchell Model" and will strive to become registered with the International Critical Incident Stress Foundation's CISD/CISM Team Registry. All team members must complete a minimum of the basic "Mitchell Model" CISD course. Interested peers and mental health professionals who have not yet met that requirement will be considered associate team members and are welcome to participate in the organizational process, but will not permitted to provide CISD service until they have been trained in CISD processes.
GRANITE STATE CISD TEAM
The Granite State CISD Team was established in the spring of 1989 to provide a form of crisis intervention specifically designed to help Emergency Workers cope with the Psychological stresses inherent in their profession. The Granite State Team provides debriefing for particularly stressful events such as multiple casualty incidents. the death of a child, the death of a co-worker, traumatic incidents involving critical media coverage, failure of rescue efforts, Officer involved shootings and other events that are unusually emotionally stressful.
ATHENS, OHIO CISM TEAM
This SEORF information area is dedicated to providing a wide range of news, information, and discussion relating to Emergency Preparedness for the Citizens of Athens County, and for the many First Responders from all Emergency Services who safeguard our lives and property.
FMBA - FIREMAN'S MUTUAL BENEVOLENT ASSOCIATION CISM NETWORK
SARBC - SEARCH AND RESCUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (has CISM specific areas)
Search And Rescue Discussion Areas/Forums: Each one of these Discussion Area Forums is Usenet-like, with support for threaded discussions, keyword searches, reply quoting, icons, etc.
START - SURFACE TO AIR RESPONSE TEAM (AIR-MEDICAL) CISM TEAM
Surface to Air Response Team (START). The START team is a nationwide response team dedicated to providing Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) interventions to those associated with specialized transport teams and airborne law enforcement. The team is made up of trained peers and mental health professionals. The peers are comprised of flight nurses, flight paramedics, pilots, airborne law enforcement officers, communication specialists and mechanics. In addition to our peer team members, all our mental health professionals have participated in air medical training and experiences.
KENAWHA, OHIO CISM TEAM
The Greater Kanawha Valley Critical Incident Stress Management Team has been established to provide help to all emergency service workers in learning to deal with stress unique to our work, whether law enforcement, ER doctors or nurses, firefighters paramedics, EMT's, or 1st responders in an industrial setting.
MICHIGAN CRISIS RESPONSE ASSOCIATION
NORTH DAKOTA CISM SYSTEM
North Dakota's Critical Incident Stress system can be activated by telephone at (701) 328-2388 seven days a week, 24 hours a day. Requests for assistance must be made by an official of a North Dakota Ambulance Service, Law Enforcement Agency, Fire Department or Hospital. A Critical Incident Stress Debriefing team will be sent to assist at a mutually agreed upon time and place. Proactive training sessions are also available to the ND EMS community which teach healthy stress coping practices and give an overview of the Critical Incident Stress Debriefing process. There is no charge for these services.
SAN LUIS VALLEY, COLORADO CRITICAL INCIDENT TEAM
The Center provides critical incident stress management services to emergency service agencies via the SLV Critical Incident Team, including, but not limited to, education, on-scene responses, man-made and natural disasters, defusing, demobilization and debriefing.
TEXAS CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS NETWORK
The Texas CISM Network was established in 1992 to assist emergency service personnel, including dispatchers, who have experienced a critical incident such as line of duty death, death of a child, multiple casualty/fatality scenes, etc. The Texas CISM Network teams consist of volunteers representing the mental health community, emergency service workers and selected members of the clergy. These are dedicated individuals who are freely giving of their time and talents to provide a vital service to the Emergency Medical Services System.
VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA EMERGENCY SERVICES CISM TEAM
CM - CISM - CENTRAL MISSISSIPPI CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT
CM-CISM is a multidisciplinary group of professionals committed to mitigating the impact of critical incidents on those involved in providing emergency services. Their mission is to increase awareness of the effects of these traumatic events and to provide intervention and support for emergency service personnel. Members are volunteers from all over the Central Mississippi area. They are on-call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT (CISM) AT SEA: PREVENTING TRAUMATIC STRESS
Major Naval Hospitals in the U.S. have set up "SPRINT Teams" - crisis response teams which include mental health professionals, medical and nursing personnel, chaplains, and enlisted Hospital Corpsmen. These teams respond on short notice to major incidents anywhere in the world. While not following the classic Mitchell Model (their personnel are all hospital staff, rather than "peers"), their debriefings are highly regarded.
CRITIAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT - CHESTER COUNTY, PA
The mission of the Chester County Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) Team is to provide a corps of the trained volunteers and professionals to help emergency service providers handle stress. Team members are mental health professionals, emergency services peers, and clergy. Each team member is trained and experienced in his/her own field and has undergone a specifically prescribed course of instruction in Emergency Service Stress Intervention.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT - FAQ - CHESTER COUNTY, PA
Frequently asked questions about Critical Incident Stress Management.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT - HOWARD COUNTY, MD
Among dispatchers, the causes of stress are all around us. The work-a-day dispatching job is stressful, and incidents involving deaths, injuries or other emotional events can create even more stress. Co-workers--not just supervisors and managers--must realize what might trigger a stress-related reaction, anticipate their effect and intervene to help. This will insure that every dispatcher receives the attention and treatment they need.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT - SEHSC.ORG
Personal Public safety providers in Central Pennsylvania face stressful events every day. The work they choose to perform can be emotionally difficult, physically draining and a threat to their personal safety. Yet this same work is seen as extremely rewarding, sometimes exciting and a method for fulfilling some personal needs. The work still presents the public safety provider with a constant low to moderate level of stress and an occasional dose of high level stress.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT TEAM - SUFFOLK COUNTY, NY
The Suffolk County Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) Team was established in 1984 to provide critical incident debriefing and related services for Suffolk County's emergency response personnel. A critical incident is defined as "an event which negatively impacts the responders in such a way that it interferes with their performance at the scene as well as their overall well-being". Critical incident stress debriefings have been shown to mitigate the effects of a critical incident and to assist emergency response personnel with the healing process. The Team operates a 24-hour-a-day hotline for debriefings and related services.
POLICE AND CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT
Critical Incident Stress Management, and the law enforcement community were made for each other! Like all emergency services, the police suffer from five general kinds of stress, Internal (Department), External (Community), Cumulative (Career), Family, and critical incident stress.
INTERVENTIONS USED IN CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT
CISM is an integrated and comprehensive multicomponent crisis response program, and as such it represents a new era in crisis intervention.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT (CISM) - CALGARY HEALTH REGION
The CRHA in partnership with Wilson Banwell will provide Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) to assist employees and work areas in dealing with critical incidents which occur in the workplace.
SOUTHERN NEVADA CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT NETWORK
Their network was formed to provide critical incident stress intervention to both emergency service workers and the general public before, during, and after a critical incident. The network has been forming for about two years, with members from several agencies in the Southern Nevada area.
CISM TEAM.DE - CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT DEUTSCHLAND
EMS CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS PROGRAM
Seattle and King County Public Health Emergency Medical Services - CISM.
SARBC - CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS
Search and Rescue Society of British Columbia: This Critical Incident Stress section comprises: A new usenet-like Discussion area; Critical Incident Stress Discussion Forum Usenet-like, with support for threaded discussions, keyword searches, reply quoting, icons, etc. Don't miss the links to many other CIS / PTSD / Trauma resources.
THE DAYTONA BEACH FIRE DEPARTMENT - CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT TEAM
The Daytona Beach Fire Department has been involved in Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) since the late 1980’s and has been very active at the city, county, and state levels since its inception. The team interacts with Dr. Gary Tyson, a mental healthcare professional for training and guidance. The focus of this team is to assist coworkers in coping with the emotional demands often associated with the Fire Service profession. This is typically facilitated through peer counseling and/or more extensive counseling provided by a mental health professional. The goal is to maintain all of our employees’ mental health which has proven to be every bit as essential as our physical health.
BLUEBONNET CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT TEAM
Bluebonnet CISM, a non-profit organization, is made up of dedicated volunteers from all fields of emergency services and the mental health community. The debriefing team members have all been trained through the International Critical Incident Stress Foundation. The team is associated with both the International CISF and the State of Texas CISM network. The highest priorities of the team are to maintain confidentiality and respect of the individuals involved. The service is provided at no charge to the requesting agency. The agency may be asked to cover the debriefing team's expenses such as travel, meals and lodging. Operational costs of Bluebonnet are covered through contributions by area fire, police and emergency medical service agencies.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT TEAM (CISM)
The Wake County Critical Incident Stress Management Team (CISM) is providing support for emergency services personnel by developing a program for monitoring the psychological well-being of emergency services workers during and following critical incidents. Emergency services personnel, which includes police, firefighters, EMS personnel, telecommunicators and emergency room personnel, are trained to react quickly in order to save lives. Yet nothing has prepared them to deal with the profound emotional impact that can result from hands-on involvement in crisis.
NOVA SCOTIA FIRE OFFICERS ASSOCIATION CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT TEAM
They are a Critical Incident Stress Management team which is made up from members and close associates of the Nova Scotia Fire Service. This team is a sub-committee of the Nova Scotia Fire Officers Association and all their work is volunteer. They provide Crisis Intervention Support primarily to the Fire Service in this province. Their team is registered with the International Critical Stress Foundation and follows ICISF standards and policies.
BULKLEY VALLEY CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT SOCIETY SELF HELP PAGE
Their mission is to provide support to individuals in their region who are suffering or may suffer psychological or emotional distress following a critical incident. There are 44 people in their area trained following the guidelines of the International Critical Incident Stress Foundation Inc. Dispersed throughout B.C, they live in a variety of places including Smithers, Hazelton, Burns Lake, Telkwa, the Queen Charlotte Islands, New Hazelton, Stewart, Kitwanga, Kispiox, and Prince Rupert. They also come from ranging backgrounds and possess job skills that are useful in the field. Teachers, medical professionals, social workers, computer technicians, policemen, people involved in industry, counselors, and emergency professionals are just a few of the occupations of the trained. They are a very diverse group with a lot to offer.
TC TEAM PEER REPORT - PEER SUPPORT PROGRAM
Peer Support is the concept of providing an avenue for employees to "talk out" their personal problems privately with co-workers who understand and want to help. Many talk to peers who have "been there," whose help they can solicit as equals. They are your co-workers, friends, and supervisors who have volunteered to share their life experiences. They have also received the training necessary to become peer supporters, while continuing to work at their regular job assignments.
BATTLE BORN CISM TRAINING A NON PROFIT EDUCATIONAL GROUP
RWJUH CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS TEAM
It is their mission to assist fellow healthcare workers following an incident. They do this freely to assist in the recovery phase following a critical incident. They maintain all information as strictly confidential. It is their belief that their services can assist in the process of maintaining health while coping with a stressful incident.
FNESS - CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT (Page 2)
If you work as an Emergency First Responder in a First Nations community the work will involve you in tragedies like fires, car accidents, rescues and suicides. The pain of these experiences can cause stress and strong emotional and spiritual responses in everyone they touch. Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) has been developed to help people working as Emergency First Responders to regain their balance. The FNESS service is designed to help Emergency Services workers and other community members to heal from the effects of trauma.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS DEBRIEFING PROGRAMME
Instep offers organisations a critical incident stress debriefing or critical incident stress management response either as a separate programme or as part of comprehensive employee assistance cover. This can either be direct or complementary (about 48 hours after) to a victim support response which may be Police initiated.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS DEBRIEFING - INTERLOCK EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) services are an integral part of an Interlock Employee Assistance Program. Debriefing services are provided, upon request to employees and family members who have been subjected to a major trauma at work or in their private lives. Interlock strongly recommends that attendance at the Critical Incident Stress Debriefing by employees who were directly involved in the incident or witnessed it be made compulsory by the management of the client organisation. "Duty of Care" responsibilities of Management under Workplace Health and Safety legislation make it good management practice to incorporate compulsory attendance in organizational policies and procedures.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS DEBRIEFING - CITY OF SHREVEPORT, LOUISIANA - FIRE DEPARTMENT HOME PAGE
The Shreveport Fire Department has been involved with Critical Incident Stress Management since 1988. In that time, our team has been called upon hundreds of times to provide debriefings, defusing, and crisis interventions both locally and nationally. Among these are line-of-duty deaths, death/injury to children, mass casualty incidents, and various traumatic incidents. Large scale events have included the Oklahoma bombing, Hurricane Andrew, and several local tornado disasters.
RESOURCE GUIDE FOR CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS AND DEBRIEFING IN HUMAN SERVICE AGENCIES
The resource guide has been developed by the Department of Human Services as a learning tool for non-government organisations. The guide describes critical incidents and the critical incident stress approach that is currently used throughout the Department, discusses strategies to mitigate critical incident stress, and offers management models to assist human services agencies in the support of staff involved in stressful and traumatic incidents in the workplace.
FIRST STATE C.I.S.M. - DELAWARE
The goal of the First State CISM team is to provide comprehensive pre-incident education, on scene support, and post incident stress reduction for Emergency Services workers, and others in Delaware.
CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS DEBRIEFING (CISD) - CITY OF WAUKESHA, WI
At the request of any fire department or law enforcement agency in Waukesha County, they will have trained stress management personnel available for a debriefing of your personnel. Their service is professional, confidential, and it does not generate any cost for your agency.
HOT LIST FOR THE NATCA CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
This page contains links to web sites and pages having to do with NATCA/Critical Incident Stress. The information is divided into the following categories: Critical Incident Stress Management; NATCA Sites
CRITICAL INCIDENT MANAGEMENT TEAM - JOHNSON COUNTY, KANSAS
A joint venture of Johnson County Medical Action, Johnson County Mental Health, and Johnson County Emergency Service Providers.
To search for books on disasters and disaster mental
health topics, critical incident stress management,
critical incident stress debriefing, post traumatic
concerns, crisis intervention, crises, and related topics
and purchase them online, click on the following:
Contact your local Mental Health Center or
check the yellow pages for counselors, psychologists,
therapists, and other Mental health Professionals in
your area for information on emotional impact and
assistance available in your area.
Rocky Mountain Region
Disaster Mental Health Institute
Laramie, WY 82073-0786
CISM/CISD Teams ||| Peer Groups ||| Family Groups and Organizations ||| Protocols ||| Training, Workshops and Conferences ||| Organizations and Associations ||| Trauma Sites ||| PTSD Sites ||| Articles Online ||| Canadian Sites ||| Australian Sites ||| European Sites ||| Other International Sites ||| Additional Links |||
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